Christian Biblical Reflections.19

CBR.19: Psalms: III. Poetic Books: Job-Songs. mjmselim. July29, 2018
((Here are pages 375-486 of CBR, Chapter III, (in three submissions pages 375-402, CBR.18 (Job), 402-450 CBR.19 (Psalms), 450-486 CBR.20 (Proverbs-Song of Songs) of the Poetic Books from Job to Song of Songs, comprising Psalms with Job & Proverbs & Ecclesiastes, & Solomon’s Song of Songs. This Chapter III & Part III will be added to the PDF of CBR from Genesis to Esther, along with the final pages of the Chapter in a few days. CBR. Christian Biblical Reflections. mjmselim. 2018))

PSALMS: (Selections from various authors, writers, commentaries, &c.)

1: Tehellim: Tehilloth (Hallels (Praises), Tephilahs, Tefillahs, (Prayers), Sherim (Songs))
Psalter has from ancient times been divided into five books: Book I (Genesis): Psalms 1-42; Book II (Exodus): Psalms 43-72; Book III (Leviticus): Psalms 73-89; Book IV (Numbers): Psalms 90-106; Book V (Deuteronomy): Psalms 107-150.
Titles Descriptive of Character of Poem: Psalm. ‘Mizmor’, rendered ‘Psalm’, is a technical term found only in the titles of the Psalter. It is prefixed to 57 Psalms, and with few exceptions is preceded or followed by the name of the author, generally that of David.

2: A Guide to the Psalms by W. Graham Scroogie Published in 1995 by Kregel Publications; Originally published by F.H. Revell, 1978.(1948-1978, parts) Great collection of facts, details, charts, and tables of the Book of Psalms gathered from dozens of Books. (Along with his “Unfolding Drama of Redemption”, the Guide to the Psalms is very useful & helpful. The same recommendation is here given to Spurgeon’s Treasury of David which Scroogie utilized & enhanced.)

3: From: Introduction to the Psalter: “What the heart is in man, that the Psalter is in the Bible.” Joh. Abnd. (Biblical Commentary on the Psalms. v1. Franz Delitzsch, DD. Translated from German, latest edition & revised by the author, in 3 vols. by Rev., David Eaton. FBL, Ed, W R Nicoll.(1887))

I. Position of the Psalter among the Hagiographa, and more especially among the Poetical Books.
“The Psalter everywhere forms an integral portion of the so-called ‘Kethubim’ or ‘Hagiographa’. Its position among these, however, is somewhat variable. It seems to follow from Luke 24:44, that in pre-Talmudic times it opened that division of the Canon (see also 2nd Macc. 2:13; and Philo ‘Vita Contempl.). In the Hebrew MSS. of the German class the prevalent sequence of the books is really as follows: Psalms, Proverbs, Job, then the five Megilloth (Scrolls, Rolls); and this order has been followed in our common printed editions. The Masora, however, and the MSS. of the Spanish class begin the Kethubim with Chronicles, which they unskilfully separate from Ezra-Nehemiah, and then make the Psalms, Job, Proverbs, and the five Megilloth follow. And according to the Talmud (‘Bathra’,14b) the right sequence is as follows: Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs; the Book of Ruth precedes the Psalter as being its prologue, [but the Book of Job is a far better prologue and introduction to the Psalms & the Poetic Books;] for Ruth is the ancestress of him to whom the sacred lyric owes the era of its richest efflorescence.
That the Psalter should open the division of the ‘Kethubim’ is undoubtedly the most natural arrangement, if for no other reason than this, that in its nucleus it represents the time of David, just as Proverbs and Job represent the Chokma-literature of the time of Solomon [but if Job is pre-Mosaic, or Patriarchal with Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob, then its proper place precedes the Psalter]. It is self evident, however, that it is only among the ‘Kethubim’ that it could find its proper place. The first place in the Canon is taken by the codex of the giving of the law. This codex is the foundation of the Old Covenant and of Israel’s nationality as well as of all its subsequent literature; it is the (Thorah, Torah), in contradistinction to which all the other sacred writings are reckoned (qabalah, kabbalah) (tradition resting on it). This fundamental five-fold book is followed by two series of historical writings, to which there is given the collective title (Nebiim, Nevi’im). The first of these two series consists of writings of a prophetical character that relate to the past, and bring down the history of Israel from the occupation of Canaan to the first dawning of light in the penal condition of the Babylonian exile (‘Prophetae priores’ (Early or Prior Prophets). The second series relates to the future; it consists of predictive writings composed by prophetical authors, which reach down to the time of Darius Nothus, and indeed to Nehemiah’s second stay in Jerusalem during the reign of that Persian monarch (‘Prophetae posteriores’ (Later or Posterior Prophets)). Regarded chronologically, the first series would correspond better with the second, if the historical books of the Persian period (Chronicles-Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther) had been joined to it; but for a good reason this was not done. The literature of Israel has struck out two sharply distinguished methods of writing history, viz. the annalistic and the prophetic, as types of which we may regard the Elohistic and Jehovistic methods in the Pentateuch and in Joshua. Now those historical books of the Persian period are annalistic, and not prophetic, in their character (although the Books of Chronicles have taken up and embodied many remnants of the prophetic method of writing history, just as, conversely, the Books of Kings have done with many remnants that are annalistic); they could not therefore be placed among the ‘Prophetae priores’. Only with Ruth the case is different. This short book bears such a close resemblance to the end of the Book of Judges (chaps, 17-21) that it might very well stand between it and Samuel. Its original position was behind the Book of Judges, just as the Lamentations of Jeremiah stood after the book of his prophecies; and it is only for liturgical reasons that both these books have been placed among the so-called Megilloth (Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes,and Esther, —the order in which they follow one another in our ordinary printed editions, according to the calendar of the festivals). It is self-evident that all the remaining books could be embraced only in the third division of the Canon, which (as could hardly have been otherwise in addition to (Thorah) and (Nebi’im)) received the general title of (Ketuvim, Kethubim); a title which, as the grandson of Ben-Sira renders it in his prologue (B.C. 132), signifies (ta alla patria biblia). This name is given to writings, and that too sacred writings (grapheia or hagiographa, to use an expression current, in the time of Epiphanius), upon which one can take one’s stand, and to which one can appeal with (k’k’tub) or (d’k’tib) (gegratai gar).1 Accordingly, although this title has not the same meaning, it has the same value as (k’t’bi qodesh); but it would be a mistake to regard it as equivalent to (ketubim baruch haqodesh); for the doctrine of three degrees of inspiration, according to which (baruch haqodesh) is the third degree, that, viz. which is associated with the greatest independent mental activity of the writer, cannot be traced further back than Maimonides (d.1204).
II. Names of the Psalter.
At the close of Psalm 72 we find (v. 20) the subscription: “‘the prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended.'” Here the whole of the preceding Psalms are comprehended under the name (Tephilloth, Tefillot). This is surprising, for, with the exception of Ps.17 (and further on 86, 90, 102, 142), they are all otherwise entitled, and many, ‘e.g’. Pss. 1 and 2, contain no invocation of God, and therefore do not have the form of prayers. Nevertheless the collective name (Tephillah) is suitable to all the Psalms. The essential element in prayer is the direct and undiverted turning of the soul to God, the absorption of the spirit in thoughts of Him. All the Psalms participate in this, the essential element in prayer even those that are didactic, and such hymns as Hannah’s song of praise, which is introduced in 1st Sam. 2:1 with (watithpalel).
The external title borne by the Psalter is (Tehillim) (Sepher, Sefer), for which (Tillim) (apocopated Tilli) is also commonly used, as Hippolytus (‘ed. de Lagarde’, p. 188) testifies : (‘Hebraioi periegrapsan ton biblon Sephra Theleim’ (in Eusebius: Thallim, Tallim). This name also may surprise us; for the greater number of the Psalms are hardly hymns in the proper sense; most of them are elegiac or didactic, and only one (Ps.145) is directly entitled (Tehillah). But this collective name of the Psalms is also admissible; for they all participate in the essential nature of the hymn, viz. in that which is its real object, the glorifying of God. Those that are narrative praise the ‘magnalia Dei’; those that are plaintive praise Him likewise, inasmuch as they turn to Him as the sole helper, and close with the grateful assurance that they will be heard; and the verb includes both: the ‘magnificat’ and the ‘de profundis’. Instead of the dissimilate plural, (Tehillim) (if we may coin such a technical term), the language of the Masora prefers the most natural plural form of the noun, and throughout calls the Psalter (Sepher Tehilloth) (‘e.g’. on 2 Sam. 22:5). (In the Masora the Psalter is not called (Hallela ); only the so-called ‘Hallel’ [Hallels] (Ps.113-118) bears this name…)
In Syriac the Psalter is called ‘Kethobo demazmure’, in the Koran [Quran] ‘zabur’ (not ‘zubur’, as Golius and Freytag vocalize it), a word which in Arabic signifies nothing more than “writing” (synon. ‘kitab’ ; ‘vid’. on 3:1), but which is perhaps a corruption of ‘mizmor’, from which a plural, ‘mezamir’, which is found in Jewish-Oriental MSS., is formed by a change of vowels. A plural of ‘mizmor’ does not occur in the Old Testament. Even in the post-biblical ‘usus loquendi’ it is but seldom that either ‘mizmorim’ or ‘mizmoroth’ occurs as a name of the Psalms. In Hellenistic Greek the corresponding (Psalmoi) (> psallaein = zimmer) is so much the more common; the collection of the Psalms is called (Biblos Psalmön (Luke 20:42; Acts1:20) or (Psaltërion), the name of the stringed instrument (‘psanterin’ in the Book of Daniel) being metaphorically transferred to the hymns sung to its accompaniment. Psalms are songs for the lyre, and therefore lyric poems in the strictest sense.

X. Preliminary Theological Considerations.
The expositor of the Psalms may place himself either upon the standpoint of the poet, or upon that of the Old Testament community, or upon that of the Church. It is a fundamental condition of progress in exegesis that these three standpoints be kept separate, and that a distinction be accordingly drawn between the two Testaments [Delitzsch is very right!], and, in general, between the several stages [ages, dispensations, covenants, etc.] through which the revelation and the knowledge of redemption have passed. For not only redemption itself but also the revelation and the knowledge of it have had a progressive history, which reaches on from Paradise down through time into eternity. Redemption realises itself in a system of facts, in which God’s loving purpose to redeem sinful humanity is unfolded; and the revelation of redemption anticipates this gradual realization, in order at once to guarantee its Divine authorship, and to render its comprehension possible. In the Psalms there is presented to us more than half a millennium of this progressive realization, disclosure, and apprehension of redemption. And when we take into account the fact that one Psalm is dated from the time of Moses, and that the retrospective glances of the historical Psalms go back even to the age of the patriarchs, we may say that there is scarcely an occurrence that constituted an epoch in connection with the history of redemption, from the election of Abraham down to the new position assigned in the world to the post-exilic nation, which does not somehow or other find its expression in the Psalter. Nor is it merely facts external to it that re-echo in its lyrics; but seeing that David, next to Abraham [and Moses] undoubtedly the most significant religious character of the Old Testament, is its chief author, it is itself a direct, integral portion of the history of redemption. And it is also a source of information for the history of the revelation of redemption, inasmuch as it flowed not merely from the spirit of faith, but also at the same time largely from the spirit of prophecy; above all, however, it is our most important memorial of the progressive apprehension of the knowledge of redemption, seeing it shows how, between the giving of the law from Sinai, and the proclamation of the gospel from Sion, the final and essential redemption broke a path for itself in the consciousness and the spiritual life of the Jewish Church.
1. We shall consider, in the first place, ‘the relation of the Psalms to the prophecy of the coming Christ’. When the human beings, whom God had created, had ruined themselves by falling into sin, He did not abandon them to the doom of wrath which they had chosen for themselves, but visited them on the evening of that most unhappy day, in order to make that doom a disciplinary medium of His love. This visitation of Jahve-Elohim was the first step taken by Him in connection with the history of redemption towards the goal of the Incarnation; and the so-called ‘protevangelium’ was the laying of the first foundation of the verbal revelation of Himself by means of the law and the gospel a revelation which prepared the way, in accordance with the plan of redemption, towards this goal of the Incarnation and the restoration of humanity. The way of this redemption, which breaks a path for itself in history,” and at the same time also announces itself to the human consciousness, runs through the whole of Israel’s career; and the Psalms show us with what vital energy this seed-corn of words and deeds of divine love has unfolded itself in the hearts of believing Israelites. They bear the impress of the time, during which the preparation of the way of redemption was concentrated upon Isirael, and the hope of redemption had become a national hope; for after humanity [the Gentiles] had broken up into separate nationalities, redemption retired within the limits of a chosen people, in order that it might there come to maturity, and then, bursting these limits, become the possession of the whole human race. At that time the promise of the coming Mediator was in its third stage [after Adam-Noah & Abraham-Moses]. The prospect of victory over the power of temptation in the human race had been connected with the seed of the woman, the prospect of a blessing for all peoples, with that of the patriarch; in these days, however, when David became the creator of psalm-poetry to be used in divine worship, the promise had become Messianic [Dispensation of David-Messiah]; it pointed the hope of the faithful to the king of Israel, and in fact to David and his seed; redemption and glory, for Israel in the first place, and indirectly also for the Gentiles, were looked for through the mediatorial office of Jahve’s Anointed. The fact that among all the Davidic Psalms there is found but one (viz. Ps.110), in which, as in his last words (2 Sam. 23:1-7), he looks out into the future of his seed and has the Messiah objectively before him, is accounted for only by the circumstance, that up to this time he himself was the object of Messianic hope, and that it was only gradually, and more especially in consequence of his deep fall, that this hope was dissevered from him personally, and transferred to the future. Then when Solomon ascended the throne, the Messianic longings and hopes centred, as Ps. 72 shows, upon him; they applied to the one final Christ of God, but for a long time they clung enquiringly, and, on the ground of 2 Sam. 7, with perfect right, to the direct son of David. Even in Ps. 45, it is a descendant of David, contemporary with the Korahite singer, to whom the Messianic promise is applied as a marriage blessing, in the hope that it may be realised in him. But it soon became manifest that neither in this king, any more than in Solomon, had He jet appeared, who is the full realisation of the Messianic idea; and when, in the time of the later kings, the kingdom of David became more and more glaringly inconsistent with its sacred vocation, Messianic hope broke entirely with the present, which became merely the dark back-ground, from which the image of the Messiah, as being purely future, stood forth in relief. The (Ben-Dawid), around whom the prophecy of the period of the later kings revolves, and whom even Ps. 2 sets forth before the kings of the earth, in order that they may pay him homage, is (even supposing that the ( echrith) was expected to dawn immediately after the present) an eschatological person. In the mouth of the Old Testament Church even Pss. 45 and 132, seeing that their contents pointed to the future, have become Messianic in a prophetical or eschatological sense. It is surprising, however, that the number of such Psalms as are not merely typically Messianic is so small, and that the Church of the post-exilic period (We refer to the period immediately after the Exile; for towards the end of the Maccabaean period, Messianic hope broke ont afresh, as the Salomonic Psalter shows: its revival and declension are determined by the law of contrast.) has not enriched the Psalter with a single Psalm that is Messianic in the stricter sense. In the later portion of the Psalter, theocratic Psalms, as distinguished from those that are strictly Messianic, are more numerously represented. By theocratic Psalms we mean such as have to do, not with the kingdom of Jahve’s Anointed, which overcomes and blesses the world, not with the Christocracy, in which the theocracy attains the summit of its representation, but with the theocracy as such, completed both outwardly and inwardly in its self-manifestation, not with the Parousia of a human king [Man], but with the Parousia of Jahve Himself, with the kingdom of God revealed in all its glory. For the proclamation of redemption contained in the Old Testament runs on in two parallel lines: the one has as its termination the Anointed of Jahve, who rules over all nations from out of Zion, the other, the Lord Himself, sitting above the Cherubim, to whom the whole earth pays homage. These two lines do not meet in the Old Testament; it is the history of the fulfilment of prophecy that first makes it clear that the Parousia of the Anointed One and the Parousia of Jahve are one and the same. And of these two lines the divine is the one that predominates in the Psalms; the hope of the psalmists, more especially after the kingdom had ceased in Israel, is generally directed beyond the human mediation directly towards Jahve, the author of redemption. The fundamental article of Old Testament faith runs (Yeshu athah l’Yhwh) (3:9; Jon. 2:10). The Messiah is not yet recognised as a God-man. Accordingly the Psalms know neither of prayer to Him, nor of prayer in His name. But prayer to Jahve and for Jahve’s sake is essentially the same thing. For Jahve implies Jesus. Jahve is the Saviour. The Saviour, when He shall appear, is nothing else save the (Yeshu ah) of this God in a visible manifestation (Isa. 49:6).
As regards the divine-human goal of Old Testament history, we distinguish five classes of Psalms, which point to it. Since 2 Sam. 7 the promise of the Messiah is no longer connected with the tribe of Judah in general, but with David [House of David]; and it points not merely to the endless duration of his kingdom, but also to one scion of his house, in whom the divinely appointed destiny of his seed to be a blessing, first to Israel, and thence to all the nations of the world, is to be fully realised, and without whom, therefore, the Davidic kingdom would be a headless trunk. Psalms in which the poet, looking beyond his own age, comforts himself with the vision of this king, in whom the promise is finally fulfilled, we call ‘Messianic in an eschatological’ and indeed ‘directly eschatological’ sense. Such Psalms do not merely base themselves upon the word of prophecy that was already in existence, but even carry it still further; it is only by means of their lyrical form that they are distinguished from prophecy in the strictest sense; for prophecy is a proclamation, and the Psalms are spiritual songs.
The Messianic purport of the Psalms, however, is not limited to the element of strict prediction, to which the future becomes objective. Just as natural life presents a series of stages [ages, periods, decades, generations, etc.], in which the lower stage of existence points preformatively to that which is next in order above it, and indirectly to that which is highest, so that, ‘e. g’, in the globular form of a drop there is announced the striving after organism, as it were, in the simplest fugitive outline, so the progress of history, and more especially of the history of redemption, is also typical; and the life of David, not only as a whole, but also most surprisingly even in individual traits, is a ‘raticinium [ratiocinium] reale’ [real reason] of the life of Him, whom prophecy regards as David [the Beloved] raised up again as it were in a glorified form, and whom it therefore directly names (Obedi Dawid = My Servant David) (Ezek. 34:23 f.; 37:24 f.) and (Dawid Malkam = David their King) (Hos. 3:5; Jer. 30:9). Such Psalms, in which David himself (or even a poet putting himself into David’s position and mood [prophetic identification & association]) gives lyrical utterance to typical critical events in his life, we call ‘typico-Messianic’ Psalms. To this class, however, there belong not only such as have David, directly or indirectly, for their subject; for the path of suffering which was trodden by all the Old Testament saints in general, and more especially by the prophets in the fulfilment of their calling (‘vid’. on 34:20 f.; and Ps. 69), has become in a certain sense a (tupos tou mellontos). All these Psalms, not less than those of the first class, may be cited in the New Testament with (hina plëröthë ); only with this difference, that in the former it is the prophetic word, in the latter the prophetic history, that is fulfilled. The older theologians, especially the Lutheran, oppose the assumption that there are such typological citations of the Old Testament in the New; (The 5th Ecumenical Council also denied it, when it condemned Theodore of Mopsuestia’s typical interpretation of Pss. 16, 22, & 69.) they had not yet attained to the organic view of history [the dispensational view] granted to our age, and were therefore also without the true counterpoise to their rigid theory of inspiration.
There is, however, also a class of Psalms, which we call Messianic in a ‘typico-prophetical’ sense. These are Psalms in which David, when describing experiences of his [the] inner and outer life which were already typical in themselves, is raised above the limits of his own individuality and time, and uses regarding himself hyperbolical expressions, which were not to become full historical truth until they became so in Christ. [Add to this is the experiences of others, such as Joseph & Job, who give grounds for reflection and analogy to the poet and to reader or future generations.] Such Psalms are typical, inasmuch as their contents are rooted in the individual, but typical history of David; at the same time, however, they are prophetical, in asmuch as they give expression to that which is present and individual in complaints, hopes and descriptions that point far beyond the present, and are first fulfilled in Christ. The psychological possibility of such Psalms has been called in question; with the same injustice, however, as it was objected to Kant, on account of his distinction between an intelligible and a sensible Ego, that he posited two subjects in one personality. The mystery of these Psalms is at bottom the mystery of all poetry. The genuine lyric poet does not give a mere copy of the impressions of his empirical Ego; an ideal Ego, as Vinet says somewhere [in his Outlines of Theology, and other writings, 2nd Section, Chap. 1.II ‘Different Elements of Christianity’], overhears, as it were, this empirical Ego; it is this second soul that makes the poet. Now, just as the poet does not form a mere cast of his impressions, but idealises them, i.e. seizes them by the root of their idea, and stripping off and abstracting all that is adventitious and unimportant lifts them up into the region of the ideal, so David also in these Psalms idealises his [and others] experiences and anticipations. The natural result of this is, that these are reduced to that in them which is essentially typical; he does this, however, not in a condition of poetical self-stimulation, but as moved by the Spirit of God; and this has the further consequence, that the lifting up of his experiences into the region of the ideal is at the same time a lifting of them up into the region of the antitype; in other words, the statement of his [the] typical fortunes and the corresponding moods has assumed the form of a predictive statement of the fortunes and moods of his antitype. (To en autö pneuma Christou (1st Pet. 1:11) —this is the soul of his ideal Ego; this is his “second soul.”
Besides these three classes of Messianic Psalms, we may regard such Psalms as the forty-fifth and the seventy-second as forming a fourth class of ‘indirectly eschatologico-Messianic’ Psalms. These are Psalms in which, in keeping with the circumstances of the time at which they were composed, Messianic hopes were centred upon a contemporary king, without, however, having been fulfilled in him; so that in the mouth of the Church, which was still waiting for their final fulfilment, they have become eschatological hymns, and we are perfectly justified in interpreting them ‘as such’, as well as in their bearing upon their own time.
A fifth class is formed by the ‘eschatologico-Jehocistic’ Psalms. These concern themselves with the Parousia of Jahve, and with the consummation of His kingdom that is being gradually brought about by means of judgment (‘vid’. Ps. 93). The number of these Psalms preponderates in the Psalter. They contain the other premise for the divine-human end of the history of redemption. Lightning-like illuminations of this end are to be found in the prophets. But it is reserved to history itself to draw the final conclusions of the ‘unio personalis’ from these human and divine premises. The Redeemer, to whom the faith of the Old Testament betook itself, is Jahve. Its hope was centred, not in the human, but in the Divine King. That the Redeemer, when He should appear, would be God and man in one person, was an idea foreign to the consciousness of the Old Testament Church. And it is only in individual rays that the knowledge, that He would be sacrifice and priest in one person, breaks in upon the Old Testament darkness, the pole star of which is (YHWH) and only (YHWH).
2. When we turn now, in the second place, to consider the ‘relation of the Psalms to the legal sacrifices’, we find that this also is different from what we, looking at the matter from the standpoint of fulfilment, would naturally expect. It is true there are not wanting passages, in which the offering of the outward, legal sacrifice is recognised as a taking part in religious worship on the part of the individual and the Church (66:15; 51:21); but those passages are more numerous, in which the external sacrifice is compared so disparagingly with the (logikë latreia), that, no regard being had to its divine appointment, it appears as something not really desired by God at all, as a shell that should be cast away, as a form that should be broken in pieces (40:I f.; 50; 51:18 f.). It is not this, however, that surprises us. This is the very point, wherein the Psalms contribute their share towards the progress of the history of redemption; it as the process of writing the law upon the heart, commenced already in Deuteronomy [and before that in Genesis], that is continued here upon the ground of the memorable word of Samuel (1 Sam.15:22 f.); it is the gradually waxing spirit of the New Testament, that in this and in other respects in the Psalter is breaking down the legal barriers, and stripping off the (stoicheia tou kosmou), as a butterfly casts off its chrysalis. But what is put in the place of the sacrifices that are criticised so disparagingly? Contrition of heart, prayer, thankfulness, self-surrender to God in the doing of His will; just as in Prov. 21:3, doing justly; in Hos. 6:6, kindness; in Mic. 6:6-8, doing justly, love, humility; and in Jer. 7:21-23, obedience. This is what is surprising. The sacrifice that is depreciated is looked upon merely as a symbol, not as a type; it is regarded only ethically, not in its connection with the history of redemption; it is only so far as it is a gift to God (qorban), not so far as the gift is appointed to be an expiation (kapparah), that its character is brought out; —in one word, the mystery of the blood remains undisclosed. In a case, where the New Testament consciousness must think of sprinkling with the blood of Jesus Christ, mention is made (51:9) of the sprinkling that formed part of the legal ritual for the cleansing and putting away of sin; but although the language is plainly figurative, there is no explanation of the figure. Whence comes this? —Because, speaking generally, the sacrifice of blood, as such, remains a question in the Old Testament, to which almost only Isa. 53 (in addition to Zech.12:10 and 13:7) gives a plain answer that is in keeping with the historical fulfilment. It is in such late prophetic words as these, that the delineation of the Passion and the self-sacrifice of Christ first becomes the subject of direct prediction; and it is the history of the fulfilment given in the Gospels that first shows, how closely in keeping with the Anti-type was the form that the Spirit, which spoke through David in his passion Psalms, gave to the utterances of the type regarding himself. In regard to reconciliation as well as redemption in general, the believing confidence of the Old Testament, as it expresses itself in the Psalms, rested upon Jahve. He is not only the Saviour, but also the Reconciler (mekapper), from whom propitiation is entreated and hoped for (79:9; 65:4; 78:38; 85:3, etc.). At the end of the way which He took through history to redemption Jahve is indeed God in Christ, and the blood that was given by Him as a typical means of propitiation (Lev. 17:11) is, in the Anti-type, that of the God-man, and so far His own (Acts 20:28).
3. Advancing from this point, we shall now, in the third place, look at the ‘relation in which the Psalms stand to the New Testament righteousness of faith, and to the New Testament morality that flows from the fundamental law of all-embracing love’. With respect both to the idea of reconciliation and of redemption, the Psalms undergo a metamorphosis in the consciousness of the praying New Testament Church, a metamorphosis rendered possible by the unfolding and specialising of redemption that have taken place since they were written, and with which they fit in without constraint. Only in two points does it seem difficult to make the precatory contents of the Psalms amalgamate with the Christian consciousness. The one of these is the ethical self-consciousness, bordering upon self-righteousness, that frequently as serts itself before God in the Psalms [as it did in Job]; the other is the jealous wrath against enemies and persecutors that discharges itself in fearful imprecations. The self-righteousness, it is true, is only in appearance; for the righteousness to which the psalmists appeal is not the merit of works, not a sum of good deeds, that are recounted to God with a claim for reward, but a bending of the will and a shaping of the life, that is in accordance with the mind of God, that has its roots in the emptying of self and in the surrendering of one’s self to Him, and that looks upon itself as the result of His justifying, sanctifying, preserving and guiding grace (73:25 f.; 25:5-7; 19:14; etc.). Nor is there wanting an acknowledgment that the basis of our nature is inherently sinful (51:7), that apart from God’s grace man is justly liable to be condemned before Him (143:2), that the sins even of the converted are many and to a great extent unknown to himself (19:3), that forgiveness of sins is the indispensable condition of blessedness (32:1 f.), that a new and divinely created heart is an absolute necessity (51:12) -there is an acknowledgment, in short, that the way of salvation consists in penitence, forgiveness and renewal. On the other hand, however, it is no less true that, in the light of the vicarious satisfaction of Christ and of the Spirit of regeneration, there is rendered possible an ethical self-criticism which cuts far more deeply and distinguishes far more precisely; that the tribulation, which befalls the New Testament believer, while it does not indeed excite in him the same keen sense of the wrath of God which is so frequently expressed in the Psalms, nevertheless, in view of the cross upon Golgotha and the heaven opened to him, sinks deeper into his inmost heart, seeing it now appears to him as an appointment of chastening, proving and preparing love; and that, now the righteousness of God, which makes over our unrighteousness, and which is accounted a gift of grace even by the Old Testament consciousness, is presented for our believing appropriation as a righteousness that has been worked out historically through the active and passive obedience of Jesus, the dissimilarity as well as the reciprocal conditionality of the righteousness of faith and the righteousness of life has become a fact of the inner life that is far more clearly recognised and is fraught with more important consequences. (Cf. Kurz [Kurtz], Zur Theologie der Psalmen, iii.: Die Selbst-gerechtigkeit der Psalm-sanger in the Dorpater Zeitschrift, 1865, 352-358. (Compare: History of the Old Covenant from the German of J.H. Kurtz translated & edited by Alfred Edersheim & James Martin (1859), and Edersheim’s Bible History Old Testament (1876-87.1890).) “The righteousness of faith set forth in the Old Testament, and represented by the evangelium visibile of the ritual of sacrifice, has not yet attained the fundamental and primary position assigned to it in the New Testament, and more especially by Paul. Its position is rather secondary and auxiliary; justification does not present itself to the consciousness as a condition of the sanctification that is to be striven after, but only as a complement of the defects that adhere to the sanctification that has been inadequately attained.”) Nevertheless it is not impossible to translate even such self-testimonies as 17:1-5 into the language of the New Testament consciousness [experience & reality]; for they do not hinder the latter when using them from thinking especially of the righteousness of faith, of the divine deeds that are sacramentally applied, and of the life of regeneration that asserts itself victoriously in the midst of the old every-day life. By means of them the Christian must also feel himself earnestly exhorted to self-examination, to see whether his faith is actually manifesting itself as the productive power of a new life; and here too the difference between the two Testaments loses its harshness in view of the great truths  condemnatory of all moral shallowness that the Church of Christ is a Church of saints, that the blood of Jesus Christ cleanses us from all sin, and that he who is born of God does not sin.
As regards the so-called imprecatory Psalms, however, it is certainly true that, in the attitude of the Christian and the Church to the enemies of Christ, the longing for their removal is outweighed by the longing for their conversion. On the assumption, however, that they will not be converted, and will not anticipate the penal judgment by repenting, the passing over of the jealousy of love into that of anger is justified also in the New Testament (‘e. g’. Gal. 5:12); and on the assumption that their devilish obduracy has become absolute, even the Christian need not shrink from praying for their ultimate overthrow. For the kingdom of God does not come only by the way of grace, but also by the way of judgment; the coming of God’s kingdom is what is longed for by the suppliant of the Old Testament as well as of the New ‘vid’. 9:21, 59:14, etc.); and in the Psalms also every imprecation of judgment upon those, who set themselves to oppose the coming of this kingdom, is made upon the assumption of their persistent impenitence (‘vid’. 7:13 f.; 109:17). Where, however, as in Pss. 69 and 109, the imprecations enter into the most minute details, and extend to the descendants of the unhappy mortal and even to eternity, there is no other justification of them than that they have proceeded from a prophetic spirit; and they cannot be appropriated by the Christian in any other sense, than that, as he uses them in prayer, he ascribes glory to the righteousness of God, and commends himself the more earnestly to His grace.
4. ‘The relation of the Psalms’, in the fourth place, ‘to the last things’ is also such that, in order to their becoming an expression in prayer of the faith of the New Testament, they need to be deepened and adjusted. For what Julius Africanus says regarding the Old Testament: (oudepö dedoto elpis anastaseös saphës) is true at least of the time previous to Isaiah. In one of his latest cycles of apocalyptic prophecies (c. 24-27) Isaiah first foretells the first resurrection, i.e. the resuscitation of the company of martyrs that have fallen a prey to death (26:19), as well as, with enlarged field of vision, the cessation altogether of death (25:8); the Book of Daniel, that Apocalypse of the Old Testament sealed until the time of fulfilment, first predicts the general resurrection, i.e. the awakening of some to life and of others to judgment (12:2); between these two prophecies stands Ezekiel’s vision of the bringing of Israel out of the Exile under the figure of a creative reanimating of a large field of dead bodies (c. 37) —a figure, which at least presupposes that, to the wonder-working power of God’s faithfulness to His promise, that which it represents is not impossible. But even in the latest Psalms the knowledge of redemption nowhere shows itself as yet so far advanced that these prophetic words regarding the resurrection could have been transformed into a dogmatic, integral portion of the Church’s faith; the hope that the scattered bones will spring up again ventures to suggest itself at first only in a bold figure (141:7); the hopeless darkness of Sheol is not rolled away (6:6; 30:10; 88:11-13); where mention is made of deliverance from death and Hades, what is meant is the preservation, already experienced (e.g.86:13) or hoped for (e.g.118:17), of the living from their attack; and there are other passages alongside of these, which declare the impossibility of escaping from this universal human fate (89:49). On the other hand, there are also passages in the Psalms, in which the hope, not to fall a prey to death, is expressed in so absolute a manner, that the thought of this unavoidable destiny is swallowed up entirely by the assurance of life in the strength of God the living One (66:14, and especially 16:9-11); others in which the gracious fellowship with Jahve is set over against this temporal life and its possessions (17:14 f.; 63:4) in such a manner, that there naturally results the antithesis of a life that transcends time and extends beyond this transitory state of existence; others in which the destiny of the godless is contrasted with that of the righteous as dying with living, defeat with triumph (49:15), so that the conclusion is inevitably suggested that the former die, although they seem to live for ever, while the latter live for ever, although they die; and others in which the psalmist seems to anticipate that, instead of having to fall a prey to death and Hades, he will be translated to God’s presence somewhat after the manner of Enoch and Elijah (49:16; 73:24). But nowhere do we find in the Psalms an article of faith that was generally received; we merely see how faith in a future life has striven to penetrate the gloom, at first only as an individual conclusion drawn from premises that were experimentally certain to the believing consciousness; and far from the grave and Hades being deprived of their power by an explicit knowledge of a better future, they have rather only vanished momentarily, as it were, before the ecstatic feeling of a life derived from God, a feeling which disregards them, and have not therefore as yet been actually and permanently overcome. For the very same reason there is not to be found in the Psalms any more than in the Book of Job a perfectly satisfactory theodicy in respect of such a distribution of lots on this side the grave as seems incompatible with God’s righteousness. Pss. 7; 49; and 73. no doubt approximate to the right solution; but even the solution given in them is still but an anticipation and a suggestion.
Nevertheless there is nothing clearly revealed in the New Testament which was not already stirring in the Psalms. For in the view of the psalmists death and life are such radical notions (notions, that is to say, apprehended by them as rooted in the principles of divine wrath and divine love), that it is easy for New Testament faith, to which they have been fully disclosed even to their background in hell and heaven, to adjust and deepen all the utterances in the Psalms that refer to them. It is by no means contrary to the mind of the psalmist, if in such passages as 6:6 the New Testament suppliant substitutes Gehenna for Hades; for the psalmists dread Hades only as being the realm of wrath or of separation from God’s love, which is the true life of men. Nor is it contrary to the mind of the poets to think in 17:15 of the future beholding of the face of God in all His glory, and in 49:15 of the resurrection morning; for the hopes that are expressed there in a spiritually exalted condition of soul are really, so far as regards their truly satisfying fulfilment, hopes that belong to the future life. As Oetinger says, there is no essential New Testament truth that is not contained in the Psalms, if not (noi) (in its unfolded sense), at least (pneumati). The Old Testament harrier already encompasses the gradually developing life of the New Testament, which is one day to break through it. The eschatology of the Old Testament leaves a dark background, which is laid out, as it were, to be divided by the New Testament revelation into light and darkness, and to be lit up into a wide perspective that extends into the eternity that lies beyond time. Wherever it begins to dawn in the eschatological darkness of the Old Testament, it is already the first morning rays of the sunrise of the New, that is thus announcing itself. In this respect also the Christian cannot refrain from disregarding the barrier of the psalmists, and understanding the Psalms according to the mind of the Spirit, who, even during the development of redemption and of the knowledge of it, kept the goal and the consummation steadily in view. Thus understood the Psalms are hymns of the Israel of the New Testament no less than of that of the Old.
The Church, when it uses the language of the Psalms as supplications, celebrates the unity of the two Testaments, and science, when expounding them, does honour to the distinction between the Old and the New. They are both in the right: the former in regarding the Psalms in the light of the one essential salvation, the latter in keeping apart the sacred eras, and the various stages through which the knowledge of salvation has passed.

     His comment on Psalm 1:1: “The collection of the Psalms and that of the prophecies of Isaiah resemble one another in this, that the latter begins with a discourse, the former with a Psalm, neither of which has a title, but which open the two collections after the manner of prologues. From Acts 13:33, where the words, “Thou art my Son …” are quoted as being found (en tö prötö psalmö), we perceive that in very early times Ps. 1 was regarded as a prologue to the collection. The reading, (en tö prötö psalmö tö deuterö), which was already rejected by Griesbach, is an old correction. But that way of counting rests upon tradition. A scholium from Origen and Eusebius says regarding Pss. 1 and 2 : (en tö Hebraikö sunnëmenoi). So also Apollinaris: “(Epigraphs ho psalmos heurethë dicha, Hënömenos de tois par’ Hebraiois stichois). For it is an old Jewish view, as Albertus Magnus remarks: ‘Psalmus primus incipit a beatitudine et terminatur in beatitudinem, i.e. it begins with (’asheri) (1:1) and ends with (’asheri) (2:12), so that, as is said in ‘Berachoth’, 9.b (cf.j. ‘Taanith’, 2:2), Pss. 1 and 2 consequently form one whole (chda parshh). This was certainly not the original state of the case. No doubt Pss. 1 and 2 coincide in several respects (there (yhnh), here (yhnu); there (wdwd…t’bd), here (wthabdu); there (’ashri) at the beginning, here at the end); but these phraseological coincidences do not warrant us to conclude (with Hitzig) that both were composed by the same author, and still less that they were originally members of but one whole. The two anonymous hymns belong together only so far as the one is fitted to form the proem of the Psalter from its ethical, the other from its prophetical side. It is questionable, however, if even this was present to the mind of the compiler. It is possible that it was simply because of these coincidences that Ps. 2 was attached to Ps.1; the latter is the real prologue of the Psalter, which is arranged in the form of a Pentateuch after the pattern of the Thora. For the Psalter is Yea and Amen in hymns to the divine word of the Thora. For this reason it begins with a Psalm which contrasts the destiny of the lover of the Thora with that of the godless, —an echo of the exhortation (Josh.1:8) in which, after the death of Moses, Jahve commends the book of the Thora to his successor, Joshua. Just as the New Testament Sermon on the Mount, seeing it is a proclamation of the engrafted law, begins with (makarioi), so the Old Testament Psalter, which aims from first to last at this engrafting, begins with (’ashri). The first book of Psalms begins with two ‘aschres’ (1:1; 2:12) and ends with two ‘aschres’ (40:5; 41:2). A whole series of Psalms begins with (’ashri)) (Pss. 32; 41; 112; 119; 128) ; although we must not on that account assume that there was a special kind of ‘Aschre’ Psalms; for Ps. 32 ‘e. g’. is a (miskil), Ps. 112 a ‘Hallelujah’, Ps. 128 a (Shut haM‘aluth).”

4: Acrostic & Peculiar Psalms:
Acrostic AlphaBet Psalms: Aleph-Tau, 22 Hebrew Letters.
Psalms: 9,10,37: 2 verses for each of the 22 Hebrew Letters
Psalms: 25,34: 1 verse each letter
Psalms: 111,112: ½ verse each letter
Psalm 119: 8 verses each letter (8×22=176)
Psalm 145: 1 verse each letter (#14, Nun, is missing)
Additional acrostics chapters can be found in Lamentations & Proverbs. In Esther the TetraGrammaton (YHWH) haShem (The Name) or Shem haMeforash (The Special Name) occurs 4 times as hidden acrostics.
Psalms are verbally or literally repeated whole or in part, and may words & phrases are found in other portions of the Old Testament: Psalms: 15 & 53; 18 & 2nd Sam. 22; 36 & 57; 40 & 70; 57 & 108; 60 & 108; and various verses in Psalms 135 &144. Compare variations of Psalms 71, 86, 135, & 144, with other Psalms 5-6, 9, 17, 22, 25-28, 31, 35, 40, 54-57, 72, 77, 116, & 130.

5: From: Biblical Companion, Introduction to Reading & Study of Holy Scriptures, &c by William Carpenter (1836)

1. Chapter III of the Poetical Books.
3. Another thing demanding attention in reading the poetical parts of the sacred writings, is the change of persons, which often occurs without the least intimation being given by the writer. This is occasioned in many cases by the form of composition —dialogue, or a kind of dramatic ode— in which there are different characters introduced, sustaining their respective parts. This observation applies more particularly to the book of Psalms, to the remarks on which the reader is referred.

Section II . Book of Psalms:
3. In these Compositions we are presented with every variety of Hebrew poetry. Some of them were prepared for particular solemnities in the Jewish worship; others appear to have been designed generally to celebrate the glorious perfections of God; and a few to have been drawn forth by the peculiar circumstances or experience of the inspired writers [and of others]. They abound in the most impressive and consoling predictions. One greater than David is continually presenting Himself, even Christ the Redeemer. Divine inspiration so guided the Psalmist, that in many instances his words, at the same time that they referred with sufficient precision to the circumstances of his own life, prefigured, in terms the most accurate and sublime, the humiliation, the sufferings, the triumphant resurrection, and the universal and eternal kingdom of the Messiah. Dr. Horsley has considered the greater part of the Psalms as a kind of dramatic ode, consisting of dialogues between certain persons, sustaining certain characters, as the priests, Levites, singers, &c. “The other persons introduced are Jehovah, sometimes as one, sometimes as another, of the Three Persons: Christ, in His incarnate state, is personated sometimes as a Priest, some times as a King, sometimes as a Conqueror.”: And in these reciprocations and divisions of parts, we discern, according to Dr. Lowth, the immediate cause of the disposition of the verse into equal strophes or stanzas [or lines], and why these consisted for the most part of distichs, in a sort of parallelism to each other, the last line responding to the first, and seconding, educing, and enforcing the sense. A recent writer has very materially extended this doctrine of parallelism, and, by an arrangement of several of the Psalms, has succeeded in showing that each one is a complete parallelism, either of the alternate or the introverted kind. In some cases, the parallelism will be found to depend on a correspondence of the topic; sometimes on an agreement of the person: but whatever form the Composition may assume, it will be found susceptible of great elucidation by the arrangement of the parallelism.” (See Boys’s Key to the Book of Psalms.)

5: Psalms in Order of Chronology: The following arrangement from the Scripture Magazine,(Vol. iii. pp. 296,297.) is chiefly compiled from Mr. Townsend’s Historical and Chronological Arrangement of the Old Testament.

Psalms: Numbers. Authors. (Probable Occasions.) Passage Connexions. (Date B. C.)
88….Heman. (Affliction of Israel in Egypt.) Exod. 2:25. (1531)
90….Moses. (Shortening of man’s life.) Numb. 14:45. (1489)
9……David. (Victory over Goliath.) 1st Sam. 18:4. (1063)
11….David. (Advised to flee to mountains. 1st Sam. 19:3. (1062)
59….David. (Saul’s soldiers surrounding town.)1st Sam.19:17. (1062)
56….David. (With Philistines at Gath.) 1st Sam. 21:15. (1062)
34….David. (Leaving city of Gath.) 1st Sam. 21:15. (1062)
142..David. (In cave of Adullam.) 1st Sam. 22:1. (1062)
17….David. (Priests murdered by Doeg.) 1st Sam. 22:19. (1062)
52….David} 109; 35; 140. (Persecution by Doeg) 1st Sam. 22:19. (1062)
64….David} 31. (Persecution by Saul.) 1st Sam. 23:12. (1061)
54….David. (Treachery of Ziphites.) 1st Sam. 23:23. (1061)
57….David} 58. (Refusal to kill Saul.) 1st Sam. 24:22. (1061)
63….David. (Wilderness of Engedi.) 1st Sam. 24:22. (1061)
141..David. (Driven out of Judea.) 1st Sam. 27:1. (1058)
139..David. (King of all Israel.) 1st Chron. 12:4. (1048)
68….David. (First removal of Ark.) 2nd Sam. 6:11. (1042)
132..David. (Second removal of Ark.) 1st Chron. 15:4. (1042)
105..David} 106; 96. (Ark taken from Obed-Edom’s.) 1st Chron. 16:43. (1042)
2……David} 45; 22; 16; 118; 110. (Nathan’s prophetic address.) 1 Chron.17:27. (1042)
60….David} 108. (Conquest of Edom by Joab.) 1st Kings xi. 20. 1040
20….David} 21. (War with Ammonites & Syrians.) 2nd Sam. 10:19. (1036)
51….David.. (Confession of adultery & murder.) 2nd Sam. 12:15. (1034)
32….David} 33; 103. (Pardon & thanksgiving.) 2nd Sam. 12:15. (1034)
3……David. (His flight from Absalom.) 2nd Sam. 15:29. (1023)
7……David. (Reproaches of Shimei.) 2nd Sam. 16:14. (1023)
42….David} 43; 55; 4; 5; 62; 143; 144; 70; 71. (By Jordan, from Absalom.) 2nd Sam.17:29. (1023)
18….David. (Conclusion of his wars.) 2nd Sam. 22:51. (1019)
30….David. (Dedication of Araunah’s threshing-floor.)1st Chron. 21:30. (1017)
91….David. (After his advice to Solomon.) 1st Chron. 28:10. (1015)
145..David. (Review of his past life.) 1st Chron. 28:10. (1015)
40….David} 41.61. 65. 69.78. (Dates & occasions unknown.) 1st Chron. 17:21. (1015)
6……David} 8; 19; 12; 23; 24; 28; 29; 38; 39; 86; 95; (After accession.) 1st Chron. 28:21. (1015)
101..David} 104; 120; 121; 122; 124; 131; 133. (After accession.) 1st Chron. 28:21. (1015)
72….David. (Coronation of Solomon.) 1st Chron. 29:19. (1015)
47….Solomon} 97-100. (Ark removed into Temple.) 2nd Chron. 7:10. (1004)
135..Solomon} 136. (Dedication of Solomon’s Temple.) 2nd Chron. 7:10. (1004)
82….Asaph & others} 115; 46. (Reign of Jehoshaphat.) 2nd Chron. 20:26. (896)
44….Hezekiah. (Blasphemous message of Rabshakeh.) 2nd Kings 19:7. (710)
73….Asaph} 75; 76. (Destruction of Sennacherib’s army.) 2nd Kings 19:19. (710)
79….Asaph} 74.83. 94. (Burning of Temple at Jerusalem.) Jer. 39:10. (588)
137..Asaph & Ethan & others} 130; 80; 77; 37; 67; (Babylonian Captivity.) Dan. 7:28. (541-538)
53….Asaph & Ethan & others} 49; 50; 10; 13-15; 25. (Babylonian Captivity.) Dan. 7:28. (541-538)
26….Asaph & Ethan & others} 27; 36; 89; 92-93; 123. (Babylonian Captivity.) Dan. 7:28. (541-538)
102..Daniel. (Near close of Captivity.) Dan. 9:27. (538)
126..Sons of Korah} 85. (Cyrus’s decree for restoring the Jews.) Ezra 1:4. (536)
107..Various} 87; 111-113. (Israel’s return from Captivity.) Ezra 3:7 (536)
114..Various} 116; 117; 125; 127. (Israel’s return from Captivity.) Ezra 3:7. (536)
128..Various} 134. (Israel’s return from Captivity.) Ezra 3:7 (536)
84….Sons of Korah} 66. (Foundation of second Temple.) Ezra 3:13. (535)
129..Ezra or Nehem. (Opposition of the Samaritans.) Ezra 4:24. (534)
138..Haggai or Zech.(Rebuilding of Temple.) Ezra 6:13. (519)
48….Various} 81; 146-150. (Dedication of second Temple.) Zech. 8:23. (519)
1……Ezra} 119. (Manual of devotion.) Neh.13:3. (444)

6: From: Book of Psalms, Introduction & Notes. Bk1,Psalms1-41. A F Kirkpatrick,DD. Cambridge Bible Commentary for Schools and Colleges 1901:

1. Psalter has from ancient times been divided into 5 Books: Book I (Genesis): Psalms 1-42; Book II (Exodus): Psalms 43-72; Book III (Leviticus): Psalms 73-89; Book IV (Numbers): Psalms 90-106; Book V (Deuteronomy): Psalms 107-150.

2. Titles Descriptive of Character of Poem:
Psalm: ‘Mizmor’, rendered ‘Psalm’, technical term found only in Titles of Psalter. It is prefixed to 57 Psalms, & with few exceptions is preceded or followed by the name of the author, generally that of David. Verb from which ‘mizmor’ is derived occurs frequently in Psalter but rarely elsewhere. It appears originally to have meant ‘to make melody’, like the Lat. ‘canere’, but came to be applied specially to instrumental music, as distinguished from vocal music. ‘Mizmor’ then means ‘a piece of music’, a song with instrumental accompaniment.
Song: ‘Shir’, rendered ‘song’, is the general term for a song or canticle. It occurs 30 times in Titles, generally preceded or followed by ‘mizmor’, & not unfrequently in Text of Psalms, & in other Books. It is applied to secular as well as sacred songs.
Maschil: is found as Title of 13 Psalms, 11 of which are in Books II & III. Meaning is obscure.
Michtam: occurs in the Title of 6 Psalms, preceded or followed by ‘of David’. It is probably, like ‘Maschil’, Musical Term, meaning of which cannot now be determined.
Shiggaion: occurs in Title of Psalm 7, & Prayer of Habakkuk is said to be ‘set to Shigionoth’. Word is derived from verb which means ‘to wander’.
Prayer: stands as the title of five Psalms. In Subscription to Psalm 72 preceding collection of Davidic Psalms is designated as ‘Prayers of David’. Hab. 3 is called Prayer of Habakkuk.
Praise: is Title of one Psalm only (145), though ‘Praises’ came eventually to be the title of the whole book.

3. ‘Titles connected with Musical Setting or Performance’:
To Chief Musician: R.V. For Chief Musician: perhaps rather Of Precentor: is prefixed to 55 Psalms, of which only 2 are anonymous, and most bear the name of David. 52 of these are in Books I-III, & 3 in Book V. It is found also in the Subscription to Habakkuk’s Prayer. Verb, of which the word is a participle, is used in Chronicles & Ezra in sense of ‘superintending’, and in 1st Chr.15:21 in the specific sense of ‘leading’ (R.V.) music. There can be little doubt that the word ‘m’naeach’ means ‘precentor’, or ‘conductor’ of Temple Choir, who trained Choir & led Music, & refers to use of Psalm in Temple Services. It seems to have been Term belonging to older Collection, which went out of use in later times. At any rate Translators of LXX did not understand its meaning.
Selah: This Term, though not belonging to the Titles, may conveniently be discussed here. Word is found 71 times in Psalter in 39 Psalms, 3 times in Habakkuk 3, & nowhere else in the O.T. In 16 Psalms it occurs once; in 15 twice; in 7 (and in Hab. 3) 3 times: in 1, 4 times. Of these Psalms 9 are in Book I: 17 in Book II: 11 in Book III; none in Book IV: 2 only in Book V. It is to be further noted that all these Psalms, with exception of anonymous 66 & 67, bear name of David or of Levitical singers (the sons of Korah, Asaph, Heman, Ethan); & all bear indications of being intended to be set to music. Majority of them (28 of the 39: cp. Hab. 3:19) have, ‘For Chief Musician’ in Title, frequently with further specification of the instruments or melody. Of the remaining 11, 8 are designated ‘mizmor’, ‘psalm,’ 2 ‘maschil’, & 1 ‘shiggaion’. It may fairly be inferred from these facts that Selah is a technical term of great antiquity, having reference to musical accompaniment. Its precise meaning, however, is quite uncertain. Explanation given in Oxford Hebrew Lexicon, p. 699, also deserves consideration.
Higgaion: occurs in 9. 16 along with Selah as Musical Direction, & in Text of 92:3, ‘with ‘higgaion’ upon harp.’ It denotes apparently Instrumental Interlude of some kind. Word has the sense of ‘meditation’ in 19:14, & according to usage of cognate verb, which denotes growling of lion, moaning of dove, or of a mourner, it should mean ‘murmuring’, ‘meditative music’, rather than ‘resounding music’.
Two Terms refer to ‘musical instruments’:
On Neginoth: rather, with music of stringed instruments: occurs 6 times in Psalter: and in Hab. 3:19 we find ‘on my stringed instruments’. Upon Neginah: rather, with music of stringed instrument: may be variation of expression, or may indicate melody to which Psalm was to be sung. Word is derived from verb meaning ‘to play on stringed instruments’. It occurs elsewhere in the sense of ‘music’ or ‘song’. The title no doubt indicates that the Psalm was to be accompanied by stringed instruments, perhaps by these only.
Upon Nehiloth: R.V. with Nehiloth, or (marg.) wind instruments: in Ps. 5 only. Possibly flutes of some kind are meant. For use of these in sacred music see Is. 30:29 (a pipe); & on their use in services of the Second Temple see Edersheim, ‘Temple and its Services’, p. 55. It is not however the usual word for ‘flute’.
Two terms probably indicate Character or Pitch of Music.
Upon Alamoth: R.V. set to A.: is found in Title of Ps. 46, & may possibly once have stood in Title of Ps. 9, & either as Subscription to Ps. 48, or in Title of Ps. 49. Term appears to mean ‘in manner
of maidens’, or, ‘for maidens’ voices: ‘soprano’.
Upon Sheminith2: R.V. set to S., i.e. as marg., ‘eighth’: probably denotes that setting was to be an octave lower, or, on lower octave: ‘tenor’ or ‘bass’. Both terms occur together in 1 Chr.15:19-21. Heman, Asaph, & Jeduthun were appointed “with cymbals of brass to sound aloud”: 8 other Levites, “with psalteries set to Alamoth ” ; & 6 “with harps set to Sheminith, to lead.”
Upon Gittith: R.V. set to Gittith: occurs in Titles of Pss. 8, 81, 84. In form ‘Gittith’ is fem. adj. derived from ‘Gath’. Rendering of LXX, Symm., & Jer. ‘For’ or ‘over the winepresses’ may however preserve true reading, indicating that these Psalms were sung at Feast of Tabernacles or Ingathering at the end of the vintage. Ps. 84 appears to have been specially intended for that festival; & Ps. 84 is virtually ‘Psalm of going up,’ for the use of pilgrims to three Great Feasts.
To Jeduthun: R.V. after the manner of J. (62, 72): probably means that the Psalm was set to some ‘melody’ composed by or called after David’s chief musician (1st Chr. 16:41). In the title of Ps. 39 Jeduthun appears to be named as the chief musician intended.
Series of obscure titles probably indicate ‘melody’ to which the Psalm was to be sung by a reference to the opening words of some well-known song. Such are the titles of Ps. 9: set to Muth-labben (R.V.), meaning possibly ‘Die [Death] for Son’. Ps. 22: set to Ayyeleth hash-shachar, i.e. ‘hind of morning. Pss. 45, 69: set to Shoshannim (R.V.), i.e. Lilies. Ps. 60: set to Shushan Eduth (R.V.), i.e. The lily of testimony. Ps. 80: set to Shoshannim Eduth (R.V.), i.e. Lilies, testimony. All these titles probably denote the melody to which Psalm was to be sung, not subject of the Psalm or a lily-shaped instrument. Ps. 56: set to Yonath elem rechokim, i.e. ‘Silent Dove of them that are afar off’: or, as read with different vowels, ‘Dove of the distant Terebinths’. Four Psalms (57-59, 75) have Title, [set to] Al-tashcheth, i.e. ‘Destroy not’, possibly the vintage song to which there is allusion in Is. 65:8. Titles of Ps. 53: set to Mahalath: & 88: set to Mahalath Leannoth: are extremely obscure, but probably belong to this class…..
……few titles refer to the liturgical use of the Psalm. In the time of the Second Temple, each day of the week had its special Psalm, which was sung at the offering of the morning sacrifice…..”A Psalm, Song for Sabbath Day.”….to Bring to Remembrance, or, as R.V. marg., to Make Memorial, may indicate that they were sung at Offering of Incense: & that of Ps. 100, Psalm of Thanksgiving (R.V.), marg. for Thank-offering, may mark that it was sung when Thank-offerings (56:12) were offered…. Song at Dedication of House,….To teach is part of Title prefixed to Ps. 60…. Song of Degrees, rather, Song of Ascents (R.V.), or, for Goings up, is Title prefixed to 15 Psalms (120-134), which appear to have formed separate Collection, bearing Title ‘Songs of the Goings up’ (or, ‘of Going up’), which was afterwards transferred to each separate Psalm……Psalms bears names of: Moses, David, Solomon, Asaph, Korah’s sons, Heman…..
What then is their value? It seems probable that, in many cases at least, they indicate the source from which the Psalms were derived rather than the opinion of the collector as to their authorship….
While then the titles of the Psalms cannot be supposed to give certain information as to their authors, and many of the Psalms bearing the name of David cannot have been written by him, we are not justified in rejecting the titles as mere arbitrary conjectures. They supply information concerning the earlier stages of the growth of the Psalter ; and it is not unreasonable to inquire whether a Psalm taken from a collection which bore David’s name may not have been actually composed by him. In criticising the title of a Psalm and endeavouring to fix its date by the light of its contents much caution is necessary….

(Chapter 8: Messianic Hope):
“Poetry was the handmaid of Prophecy in preparing the way for the coming of Christ. Prophetic ideas are taken up, developed, pressed to their full consequences, with the boldness and enthusiasm of inspired imagination. The constant use of the Psalms for devotion and worship familiarised the people with them. Expectation was aroused and kept alive. Hope became part of the national life. Even Psalms, which were not felt beforehand to speak of Him Who was to come, contributed to mould the temper of mind which was prepared to receive Him when He came in form and fashion far other than that which popular hopes had anticipated ; and they were recognised in the event as pointing forward to Him. Cp. Lk. 1, 2.
This work of preparation went forward along several distinct lines, some of which are seen to converge or meet even in the O.T., while others were only harmonised by the fulfilment. Thus (1) some Psalms pointed forward to the Messiah as Son of God and King and Priest : others (2) prepared the way for the suffering Redeemer: others (3) only find their full meaning in the perfect Son of Man: others (4) foretell the Advent of Jehovah Himself to judge and redeem.
All these different lines of thought combined to prepare the way for Christ; but it must be remembered that the preparation was in great measure silent and unconscious. It is difficult for us who read the O.T. in the light of its fulfilment to realise how dim and vague and incomplete the Messianic Hope must have been until the Coming of Christ revealed the divine purpose, and enabled men to recognise how through long ages God had been preparing for its consummation.
(1) Royal Messiah….(2) Suffering Messiah…..(3) Son of Man….(4) Coming of God….(5) Nations….

(Chapter 10: Psalter in Christian Church):
If a history of the use of the Psalter could be written, it would be a history of the spiritual life of the Church. From the earliest times the Psalter has been the Church’s manual of Prayer and Praise in its public worship, the treasury of devotion for its individual members in their private communing with God. “No single Book of Scripture, not even of the New Testament, has, perhaps, ever taken such hold on the heart of Christendom. None, if we may dare judge, unless it be the Gospels, has had so large an influence in moulding the affections, sustaining the hopes, purifying the faith of believers.
With its words, rather than with their own, they have come before God. In these they have uttered their desires, their fears, their confessions, their aspirations, their sorrows, their joys, their thanksgivings. By these their devotion has been kindled and their hearts comforted. The Psalter has been, in the truest sense, the Prayer Book both of Jews and Christians.”
“What is the history of the Church,” writes Dean Stanley, “but a long commentary on the sacred records of its first beginnings?… The actual effect, the manifold applications, in history, of the words of Scripture, give them a new instruction, and afford a new proof of their endless vigour and vitality….
The Psalter alone, by its manifold applications and uses in after times, is a vast palimpsest, written over and over again, illuminated, illustrated, by every conceivable incident and emotion of men and nations ; battles, wanderings, dangers, escapes, deathbeds, obsequies, of many ages and countries, rise, or may rise, to our view as we read it.”
It would be impossible in a few pages to trace the history of the use of the Psalter even in the barest outline. All that can be attempted here is to give some few indications of the vast influence which the Psalter has exercised, and of its paramount importance in the history of Christian worship and devotion.
There is no evidence that the entire Psalter was used in the public worship of the Jewish Church, though many Psalms were sung or chanted in the services of the Temple and the Synagogue. But the number of the quotations from the Psalter in the New Testament, and the multitude of indirect allusions to its thoughts and language, prove how familiarly it was known in the apostolic age.
It was upon the Psalms that our Lord’s spiritual life was nourished. The sting of the Tempter’s quotation of Ps. 91 lay in the fact that its words were a precious reality to Him. He sang the ‘Hallel’ (Pss. 113-118) with His disciples at the Last Supper (Matt. 26:30). A Psalm was the subject of His meditation as He hung upon the Cross, and with the words of a Psalm He gave up His life. In the Psalms He and His disciples found the foreshadowing of His own experience (John 13:18; 2:17), and He taught His disciples to understand how they prepared the way for His coming (Luke 24:44). The first Christian hymns —the Magnificat, Benedictus, and Nunc Dimittis —are composed after the model of Psalms and contain numerous echoes of them. Doubtless the hymns which Paul and Silas sang in the prison at Philippi (Acts 16:25) were Psalms. St James commends the singing of Psalms as the most fitting expression of joyfulness (5:13); St Paul enjoins it as the natural outlet for spiritual enthusiasm and a means of mutual edification (Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16). It was a common practice at the meetings of the Corinthian Church (1 Cor. 14:26).
As we pass on into later ages we find that the singing of Psalms was not only a constant element of common worship, but a favourite occupation of Christians in their homes and at their work. It was a tradition in the Church of Antioch that the antiphonal singing of Psalms was introduced by Ignatius, the first bishop (c. A.D. 100), who saw a vision of angels praising the Trinity in antiphonal hymns, and delivered the method of singing which he had seen in his vision to the Church at Antioch, whence it spread to all the Churches. The hymns from Holy Scripture which Tertullian in the second century tells us were sung at the agapae or love-feasts were doubtless Psalms. St Jerome, writing from Bethlehem to Marcella, and describing the charms of the Holy Land, tells her that the singing of Psalms was universal. “Wherever you turn the labourer at the plough sings Alleluia: the toiling reaper beguiles his work with Psalms: the vine-dresser as he prunes the vine with his curved pruning-hook sings something of David’s. These are the songs of this province: these, to use the common phrase, are its love ditties: these the shepherd whistles; these are the labourer’s implements.”
St Chrysostom (347-407) thus describes the universality of the use of the Psalms in his day. “If we keep vigil in the Church, David comes first, last, and midst. If early in the morning we seek for the melody of hymns, first, last, and midst is David again. If we are occupied with the funeral solemnities of the departed, if virgins sit at home and spin, David is first, last, and midst. O marvellous wonder! Many who have made but little progress in literature, many who have scarcely mastered its first principles, have the Psalter by heart. Nor is it in cities and churches alone that at all times, through every age, David is illustrious; in the midst of the forum, in the wilderness, and uninhabitable land, he excites the praises of God. In monasteries, amongst those holy choirs of angelic armies, David is first, midst, and last. In the convents of virgins, where are the bands of them that imitate Mary; in the deserts, where are men crucified to this world, and having their conversation with God, first, midst, and last is he. All other men are at night overpowered by natural sleep: David alone is active; and congregating the servants of God into seraphic bands, turns earth into heaven, and converts men into angels.”
When men and women, forsaking their ordinary callings, dedicated their lives to devotion and prayer in monasteries and communities, the singing of Psalms formed a large part of their religious exercises. In course of time the recitation of the Psalter became a clerical obligation as well. Various schemes or uses were drawn up. Fixed Psalms were generally assigned to certain of the canonical hours, while at the other services the remainder of the Psalms were recited ‘in course.’ Thus according to the Roman or Gregorian scheme fixed Psalms were assigned for daily use at Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, and Compline; while at Mattins Pss. 1-109, and at Vespers Pss. 110-150 were taken once a week ‘in course,’ exclusive of the Psalms assigned to the other services. The Benedictine or Monastic scheme was similar, also providing for the recitation once a week of those Psalms which were not recited daily. The Ambrosian scheme, deriving its origin from St Ambrose, and still in use in the province of Milan, only provides for the recitation of the Psalter once a fortnight. In the Eastern Church the Psalter is divided into twenty ‘cathismata’, each of which is subdivided into three ‘staseis’. The whole Psalter is recited once a week ordinarily, and twice a week in Lent, but the details of the arrangement vary according to the time of year.
In this way a portion of the Psalms nearly equal in amount to twice the whole Psalter was recited every week. But many instances are quoted of holy men who recited it much more frequently. It is said that St Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, in the fifth century, repeated it daily; St Maurus, the disciple of
St Benedict, and Alcuin, the famous instructor of Charles the Great, did the same. St Kentigern, bishop of Glasgow, in the sixth century, went through it every night. Bede relates how Ecgbert, a young student of noble birth at an Irish monastery, when attacked by the plague, vowed that if he recovered he would recite the whole Psalter daily in addition to the ordinary canonical hours, as a memorial of praise to God.
A knowledge of the Psalter by heart was required of candidates for ordination. St Gennadius, Patriarch of Constantinople (A.D. 458—471), refused to ordain as priest anyone who had not been diligent in reciting the Psalter. St Gregory the Great inquired if Rusticus, who had been elected Bishop of Ancona, knew the Psalter by heart, and refused to allow John the Presbyter to be consecrated as metropolitan of Ravenna on account of his ignorance of the Psalter. The second Canon of the second Council of Nicaea (A.D. 587) laid it down that no one was to be consecrated bishop unless he knew the Psalter thoroughly, and the eighth Council of Toledo (A.D. 653) ordered that “no one henceforth shall be promoted to any ecclesiastical dignity who does not perfectly know the whole Psalter” (Can. 8).
Various methods of singing the Psalms were in use in ancient times. (1) Sometimes the Psalm was sung throughout by the choir or congregation. This was called ‘cantus directaneus’, and was the simplest form of singing with little more than monotone. (2) Sometimes the Psalm was sung by a single voice, usually in a very elaborate fashion. This was called ‘cantus tractus’. (3) Sometimes the Psalm was sung in ‘cantus responsorius’, the precentor and the choir or the congregation taking their parts alternately. (4) Sometimes the Psalm was sung in ‘cantus antiphonalis’, the two sides of the choir taking it up alternately. The following passage of St Chrysostom (‘Hom’. 5) is of interest as shewing the congregational character of the singing in his day, and emphasising its significance. “When the Psalm began, it mingled all the different voices together, and one harmonious song was raised. Young and old, rich and poor, women and men, slaves and freemen, all raised the same melody….But it not only united us who were present; it joined the dead with the living. For the blessed Prophet was singing with us…. The Prophet speaks and we all answer, we all respond. You can see no distinction of slave or free, rich or poor, ruler or subject. The inequalities of life are banished; all are united in one choir, all have equal right of speech, and earth imitates Heaven. So great is the nobility of the Church.”
The voices of holy men in every age unite in bearing a concordant testimony to the power and preciousness of the Psalms. A few examples only can be given here.
St Athanasius, in his Epistle to Marcellinus on the Interpretation of the Psalms, the whole of which well deserves study, writes thus:
“They seem to me to be a kind of mirror for everyone who sings them, in which he may observe the motions of the soul, and as he observes them give utterance to them in words. He who hears them read, takes them as if they were spoken specially for him. Stricken in his conscience he repents, or hearing of hope in God, and of the grace which is given to those who believe, he rejoices as if this grace were promised to him in particular, and begins to thank God.. ..He who genuinely studies all that is written in this book of Divine inspiration may gather, as out of a paradise, that which is serviceable for his own need. Methinks that in the words of this book you may find an accurate survey and delineation of the whole life of man, the dispositions of the soul, and the movements of the mind. If a man has need of penitence and confession, if affliction or temptation has overtaken him, if he has been persecuted or has been delivered from the plots of his enemies, if he is in sorrow or trouble, or if he wishes to praise and give thanks and bless the Lord, he finds instruction in the Psalms…. If thou meditate on these things and study the Psalms, thou shalt be able, under the guidance of the Spirit, to grasp their meaning; and thou shalt emulate the life of the divinely inspired men who uttered these words.”
From Alexandria let us pass to Cappadocia, and listen to the eloquent words of St Basil, in the introduction to his Homily on the First Psalm:
“All Scripture given by inspiration of God is profitable, for it was written by the Spirit to the end that as it were in a general hospital for souls, we human beings might each select the medicine for his own disease…. The prophets provide one kind of instruction, the historians another, the law yet another, and the exhortations of the Proverbs yet another. But the Book of Psalms contains that which is profitable in all of them. It prophesies of the future; it recalls history; it legislates for life; it suggests rules of action; in a word, it is a common storehouse of good doctrines, providing exactly what is expedient for everyone….A Psalm is the calm of souls, the arbiter of peace: it stills the stormy waves of thought. It softens the angry spirit, and sobers the intemperate. A Psalm cements friendship: it unites those who are at variance; it reconciles those who are at enmity. For who can regard as an enemy the man with whom he has joined in lifting up one voice to God? Psalmody therefore provides the greatest of all good things, even love, for it has invented concerted singing as a bond of unity, and fits the people together in the concord of one choir. A Psalm puts demons to flight: it summons the angels to our aid; it is a weapon in the midst of alarms by night, a rest from the toils of day; it is a safeguard for babes, a decoration for adults, a comfort for the aged, a most befitting ornament for women. It makes deserts populous and market places sane. It is an initiation to novices, growth to those who are advancing, confirmation to those who are being perfected. It is the voice of the Church; it gladdens festivals, it creates godly sorrow. For a Psalm calls forth tears even from a stony heart. A Psalm is the employment of angels, heavenly converse, spiritual incense….What mayest thou not learn thence? The heroism of courage; the integrity of justice; the gravity of temperance; the perfection of prudence; the manner of repentance; the measure of patience; in a word every good thing thou canst mention. Therein is a complete theology; the prediction of the advent of Christ in the flesh, the threatening of judgement, the hope of resurrection, the fear of chastisement, promises of glory, revelations of mysteries: all, as in some great public storehouse, are treasured up in the Book of Psalms.”
(Compare this with Richard Hooker’s well known words on the Psalms: “The choice and flower of all things profitable in other looks the Psalms do both more briefly contain, and more movingly also express, by reason of that poetical form wherewith they are written . . . What is there necessary for man to know which the Psalms are not able to teach? They are to beginners an easy and familiar introduction, a mighty augmentation of all virtue and knowledge in such as are entered before, a strong confirmation to the most perfect among others. Heroical magnanimity, exquisite justice, grave moderation, exact wisdom, repentance unfeigned, unwearied patience, the mysteries of God, the sufferings of Christ, the terrors of wrath, the comforts of grace, the works of Providence over this world, and the promised joys of that world which is to come, all good necessarily to be either known or done or had, this one celestial fountain yieldeth. Let there be any grief or disease incident into the soul of man, any wound or sickness named, for which there is not in this treasure-house a present comfortable remedy at all times ready to be found.)
In a well-known passage of his ‘Confessions’ (9. 4), St Augustine describes the comfort which he derived from the Psalms in the interval before his baptism.
“In what accents I addressed Thee, my God, when I read the Psalms of David, those faithful songs, the language of devotion which banishes the spirit of pride, while I was still a novice in true love of Thee, and as a catechumen rested in that country house along with Alypius, who was also a catechumen, with my mother at our side, in the dress of a woman but with the faith of a man, with the calmness of age, the affection of a mother, the piety of a Christian. How I addressed Thee in those Psalms! how my love for Thee was kindled by them! how I burned to recite them, were it possible, throughout the world, as an antidote to the pride of humanity. Yet they are sung throughout the world, and there is none that hideth himself from Thy heat. How grieved and indignant was I with the Manichaeans! and yet again I pitied them for their ignorance of those sacraments, those medicines, and their mad rejection of the antidote which might have cured them of their madness. Would that they could have been somewhere near me without my knowledge and watched my face and heard my voice when I read the Fourth Psalm in that time of leisure, and have known the effect of that Psalm upon me. Would that they could have heard what I uttered between the words of the Psalm, without my knowing that they heard… how I spoke with myself and to myself before Thee out of the inmost feelings of my soul. I trembled for fear, and then I became fervent with hope and rejoicing in Thy mercy, O Father. And all these feelings issued forth by my eyes and voice…”
The interpretation of the Psalm and the application of it to his own circumstances which follow are fanciful and far-fetched, but they shew how his heart glowed with fervour as he read, and how he found the Psalms “sweetened with heavenly honey, and luminous with the light of God.”
Luther and Calvin represent the revival of the study of the Bible in the age of the Reformation.
Luther speaks thus of the Psalter, which he found inexpressibly precious in the trials and conflicts of his stormy life:
“You may rightly call the Psalter a Bible in miniature, in which all things which are set forth more at length in the rest of the Scriptures are collected into a beautiful manual of wonderful and attractive brevity. From the Psalms you may learn not the works of the saints only, but the words, the utterances, the groans, the colloquies, which they used in the presence of God, in temptation and in consolation; so that though they are dead, in the Psalms they live and speak. The Psalms exhibit the mind of the saints; they express the hidden treasure of their hearts, the working of their thoughts, and their most secret feelings.”
“This book,” says Calvin, in the Epistle to his Readers prefixed to his commentary, ” I am wont to call an anatomy of all the parts of the soul; for no one will find in himself a single feeling of which the image is not reflected in this mirror. Here the Holy Spirit has represented to the life all the griefs, sorrows, fears, doubts, hopes, cares, anxieties, in short, all the stormy emotions, by which human minds are wont to be agitated. The rest of Scripture contains the commands which God gave His servants to be delivered to us. Here the prophets themselves, in their converse with God, because they lay bare all their inmost feelings, invite or compel every one of us to examine himself, that none of all the infirmities to which we are subject may remain hidden. It is a rare and singular advantage when every secret recess is laid open, and the heart purged from the foul plague of hypocrisy and brought out to light.”
One quotation from a modern writer must suffice. With profound insight and unrivalled delicacy of touch the late Dean Church thus describes the Psalms and their work:
“In the Psalms we see the soul in the secret of its workings, in the variety and play of its many-sided and subtly compounded nature —loving, hoping, fearing, despairing, exulting, repenting, aspiring —the soul, conscious of the greatness and sweetness of its relations to Almighty God, and penetrated by them to the very quick; longing, thirsting, gasping, after the glimpses that visit it, of His goodness and beauty —awestruck before the unsearchableness of His judgement, silent before the certainty of His righteousness —opening, like a flower to the sun, in the presence of His light, of the immensity of His lovingkindness”……It has been the work of the Book of Psalms to teach devotion, worship, self-knowledge. “They bring before us in all its fulness and richness the devotional element of the religious character. They are the first great teachers and patterns of prayer, and they shew this side of the religious character….in varied and finished detail, in all its compass and living and spontaneous force….The tongue is loosed to give utterance out of the abundance of the heart, to every mood, every contrasted feeling of the changeful human mind. From all the hidden depths, from all the strange and secret consciousnesses of the awakened and enlightened soul, spring up unexpected and vivid words, in which generation after generation has found the counterpart of its own convictions and hopes and joys, its own fears and distresses and perplexities and doubts, its own confidence and its own sorrow, its own brightest and darkest hours. This immense variety of mood and subject and occasion, with which the reverence and hope of worship are always combined, is a further point in the work of the Book of Psalms. It is a vast step in the revealing of man to man. We know how much we owe of the knowledge of ourselves to the great dramatists, to the great lyrical poets, to the great novelists. Such, in the unfolding to man of all that is really and most deeply involved in the religious character, is the place of the Book of Psalms.”
Luther, as we have seen, calls the Psalms “a Bible in miniature”; and the words which Coleridge uses of the whole Bible may most truly be applied to the Psalms. In them we find copious sources of truth, and power, and purifying impulses; words for our inmost thoughts, songs for our joy, utterances for our hidden griefs, pleadings for our shame and our feebleness. And whatever ‘finds’ us bears witness for itself that it has proceeded from a Holy Spirit, even from the same Spirit, ‘which in all ages entering into holy souls maketh them friends of God and prophets’.

Kirkpatrick’s on Psalms 119:
This great “Psalm of the Law” is based upon the prophetic (Ezra 9:11) presentation of the Law in the Book of Deuteronomy, with the spirit and language of which its author’s mind was saturated. It represents the religious ideas of Deuteronomy developed in the communion of a devout soul with God. It is the fruit of that diligent study of the Law which is enjoined in Deut. 6:1-9, a beginning of the fulfilment of the promise of an inward and spiritual knowledge of it which is proclaimed by Jeremiah (31:33 ff.). The Psalmist is one whose earnest desire and stedfast purpose it is to make God’s law the governing principle of his conduct, to surrender all self-willed thoughts and aims, to subordinate his whole life to the supremely perfect Will of God, with unquestioning faith in His all-embracing Providence and unfailing love.
The ‘Law of God,’ which the Psalmist describes in its manifold aspects as His law, word, promise, commandments, statutes, judgements, precepts, testimonies, ways, is not the law in the narrower sense of the Mosaic legislation or the Pentateuch. The Hebrew word ‘torah’ has a wider range of meaning, and here, as in Pss. 1 and 19, it must be understood to mean all Divine revelation as the guide of life. This it is which kindles the Psalmist’s enthusiasm and demands his allegiance. It is no rigid code of commands and prohibitions, but a body of teaching, the full meaning of which can only be realised gradually and by the help of Divine instruction. It has been said that the Psalmist’s devotion to the Law contains the germ of Pharisaic legalism, but it may be questioned whether the observation is just. Nowhere does the Psalmist allow law to interfere between him and God; never is a formal observance of external rules substituted for the inward devotion of the heart. If sometimes his professions of obedience seem to savour of self-righteousness, his prayers for grace fully recognise that strength to obey must come from God. The Psalm is an acknowledgement of the blessing of a revelation, of the strength which the law gives to Israel in the midst of surrounding heathenism, and to the faithful Israelite in the presence of a prevailing laxity of faith and morals. In an age when the voice of prophecy was rarely heard, or perhaps was altogether silent, it begins to draw strength from meditation on the revelation made to past generations. It points no doubt towards the age of the Scribes, but it represents the best spirit of that age (Cp. Oehler’s O. T. Theology, §§ 84, 201). It is remarkable that a Psalm, emanating from the period in which the ritual law was codified and the Temple became the centre of Israel’s religion, should contain no reference whatever to ceremonial or sacrifice. Doubtless the Psalmist would have included the ceremonial law as a part of God’s commandments, but evidently he does not regard it as the principal part of them. The whole Psalm is animated by a profound inwardness and spirituality, as far removed as possible from the superstitious literalism of a later age. It shews no tendency to substitute mechanical observance of rules for the living application of principles. Such obedience, if it falls short of the full liberty of the Gospel, is at least a step towards it.
The close personal relation of the Psalmist to God is one of the most striking features of the Psalms in general, and in few Psalms is it more marked than in this. In every verse but one (115) or at most two (but on 128 see note) after the first three introductory verses God is addressed; in all but some fourteen verses the Psalmist addresses God in the first person [in prayer], or, which is the same thing, as His servant.
The Psalmist has arranged his meditations in an elaborate alphabetical form, adopted partly perhaps as an aid to memory. The Psalm consists of 22 stanzas, according to the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet. Each of the 8 verses in a stanza begins with the same letter, and the letters are taken in their regular order. The arrangement of Lamentations 3 presents the nearest parallel, but there the stanzas consist of three verses only. This artificiality of structure seems to have hindered many commentators from appreciating the variety of the contents of the Psalm, and many have denied that any real connexion or progress of thought is to be found in it. In a sense this may be true: the verses are not so much linked together by logical connexion as united by their direction to a common centre, but each stanza has, as a rule, some leading thought, which gives it a distinctive character. Those who by long devotional use have become intimately familiar with the Psalm have found a significant variety in the apparent monotony of its language. For them it is ‘the Psalm of the Saints’; ‘the Alphabet of Divine Love’; ‘the Christian’s golden ABC of the praise, love, power and use of the Word of God.’ St Augustine deferred the exposition of it until he had finished the rest of the Psalter, and finally approached it with reluctance & diffidence: “non tarn propter eius notissitnam longitudinem quam propter eius profunditatem paucis cognoscibilem  …quanto enim videtur apertior,    tanto mini profundior videri solet”   (Prooemium in Ps. 118 [119]) [Preface: I have expounded all the rest of the Psalms, which we know the Book of the Psalms containeth, which by the custom of the Church is styled the Psalter, partly by preaching among the people, partly by dictations, as well as I, by the Lord’s help, was able: but I put off the 118th [119th] Psalm, as well on account of its well-known length, as on account of its depth being fathomable by few. And when my brethren deeply regretted that the exposition of this Psalm alone, as far as pertaineth to the Psalms of the same volume, was wanting to my works, and strongly pressed me to pay this debt, I yielded not to them, though they long entreated and solicited me; because as often as I began to reflect upon it, it always exceeded the utmost stretch of my powers. For in proportion as it seemeth more open, so much the more deep doth it appear to me; so that I cannot shew how deep it is. For in others, which are understood with difficulty, although the sense lie hid in obscurity, yet the obscurity itself appeareth; but in this, not even this is the case; since it is superficially such, that it seemeth not to need an expositor, but only a reader and listener. And now that at length I approach its interpretation, I am utterly ignorant what I can achieve in it: nevertheless, I hope that God will aid me with His Presence, that I may effect something. For thus He hath done in all those which, though at first they seemed to me difficult, and almost impracticable, I have succeeded in adequately expounding. But I decided to do this by means of sermons, which might be delivered among the people, such as the Greeks term (homilias, homily). For this is, I think, more equitable, that the assemblies of the Church be not defrauded of the comprehension of this Psalm, by the singing of which, as much as by that of others, they are wont to be charmed. But let the preface end here: we must now speak of the Psalm itself, to which we have thought it right to make this Preface.]. The 119th Psalm, writes Dr Liddon, represents in the highest degree ” the paradox of seeming simplicity overlying fathomless depth. It conveys at first an impression of tautology… it seems to reiterate with little attempt at variety the same aspirations, assurances, prayers, resolutions”; but a close and sympathetic study shews it to be “infinitely varied in its expressions, yet incessantly one in its direction; its variations are so delicate as to be almost imperceptible, its unity so emphatic as to be inexorably stamped upon its every line” (‘The Priest in his Inner Life’, p. 46).
“The 119th Psalm,” says Mr Ruskin, quoted by Archbp. Alexander, Witness of the Psalms, p. 302, “has become of all the most precious to me in its overflowing and glorious passion of love for the law of God.”
Who the author of the Psalm was it is idle to speculate, but we may gather from it some idea of the circumstances among which he lived. He was sorely tried, but in his trials he recognised God’s loving discipline for his good (‘vv’. 50, 67, 71, 75, 107, 153). He had to suffer contempt (22, 39, 42) and even ill-treatment (121, 134) for his adherence to the law. The authorities of the community despised and persecuted him (23, 161); men of position and power, whom he designates as ‘the proud’ or ‘the wicked,’ mocked him, calumniated him, endeavoured to oppress and injure him (51, 61, 69, 78, 84, 85, 86, 95, 122, 150, 157). He was even in danger of his life (87, 109). His persecutors were not heathen, but faithless Israelites, for he describes them as forsaking God’s law (53), wandering from His commandments (21), forgetting His words (139). They were selfish, self-satisfied men of the world, incapable of appreciating true religion (70). Their indifference to the law sometimes aroused his burning indignation (53); sometimes excited his profound sorrow (136). He was confronted by laxity if not actual apostasy (113, 158, 126): evil example might have tempted him to disown his faith and cast in his lot with evil-doers (29, 37, 115), but he has successfully resisted the temptation, for he knows God’s estimate of their character (118, 119), and their certain destiny (155). Under these circumstances, however, it is no easy task for him to maintain his constancy. Repeatedly and earnestly he prays for fuller knowledge of the law and for strength to keep it, for relief from persecution, for protection and preservation.
We can thus form a tolerable idea of the circumstances of the Psalmist, or of the class which he represents, for it is probable that he speaks on behalf of others as well as himself, and interweaves their experiences with his own. This representative character of the Psalm explains some phrases which seem to go beyond individual experience, though it is clear on the whole that an individual and not the community is the speaker. At what time he lived it is impossible to say precisely. That it was in the post-exilic period is certain from the tone and language of the Psalm, but in what part of it is doubtful. The beginning at any rate of the conditions described above is to be found in the evils which Ezra and Nehemiah endeavoured to remedy, and against which Malachi protested. (See e.g. Neh. 5, 6, 13; Mal. 3:13-15.) There are not a few points of contact in thought and language between their writings and the Psalm. It may have been written about the middle of the fifth century B.C., possibly not till considerably later, but certainly not so late as the Maccabean age. There are no traces of the struggles of the time when the possession of a copy of the law and the observance of the characteristic rites of Judaism were punishable with death.
Delitzsch infers from ‘vv’. pff., 99, 100, 141, that the Psalmist was a young man; Ewald from ‘vv’. 84-87 that he was advanced in years. Neither inference seems to be justified. More probably he was a man of mature years, who had learned much by experience, but felt that he had still much more to learn.
Hitzig conjectures that he was a prisoner who beguiled the tedium of his imprisonment by the composition of the Psalm, and Delitzsch is inclined to adopt the suggestion. But there is no sufficient ground for such a hypothesis.
It is not likely that the Psalm was deliberately composed “as a ‘vade mecum’ for Israelite young men.” Doubtless it was well adapted for a compendium of instruction, but it attests itself to be the utterance of heartfelt devotion. Nor again is it a ‘national’ Psalm, in the sense that the Psalmist merges his own personality in that of the community and speaks in its name. Doubtless he speaks for others as well as himself; it is of the essence of inspired poetry to be representative and to possess a catholicity of thought; and often he appropriates the national experience, for to the Israelite membership in the covenant nation was a profound reality; but the Psalm breathes throughout the spirit of the most intense personal conviction, of the most intimate but deeply reverent communion with God.
It will be most convenient to consider once for all the various words for ‘the Law’ which recur so frequently in this Psalm (According to the Massoretic note on ‘v’. 122 one of the ‘ten’ expressions, —pointing to the ‘ten words’ of the Decalogue, —’saying,’ ‘word,’ ‘testimony,’ ‘way,’ ‘judgement,’ ‘precept,’ ‘commandment,’ ‘law,’ ‘statute,’ ‘faithfulness’ (according to another reading ‘righteousness’) occurs in every verse except ‘v’. 122 (to which ‘v’. 132 should be added). ‘Faithfulness’ however is an attribute of the law, not a synonym for it: and the word judgements’ does not always mean ‘ordinances’), and to note some of its most characteristic phrases.
1. ‘Torah’, ‘law,’ LXX (nomos) occurs 25 times. Cp. Deut. 4:8 &c. It has however a much wider range of meaning than ‘law.’ It denotes (a) ‘direction’ or ‘instruction’, whether human (Prov. 1:8) or Divine: (b) ‘a body of teaching’: (c) more definitely, ‘a law’, or (d) ‘a code of laws’, whether the Deuteronomic code or the Levitical legislation, ‘the law of Moses’: and so finally (e) the Pentateuch. Here, as in Pss. 1 and 19, it must be taken in its widest sense, as synonymous with the ‘word’ of Jehovah (Is. 1:10; 2:3), to include all Divine revelation as the guide of life, prophetic exhortation as well as priestly direction, the sum of an Israelite’s duty. (Cp. the use of ‘the law’ to denote the whole O.T. in John 10:34.)
2. ‘Dabar’, ‘word,’ LXX (logos) (20 times), in plur. ‘words’ (3 times), is the most general term for God’s communication of His Will to man, especially through prophets. It will be remembered that the “Ten Commandments” are literally the “Ten Words” (Deut. 4:13). Cp. Deut. 4:2,10; &c.
3. ‘’Imrdh’, ‘saying,’ or collectively ‘sayings,’ LXX (logion) (i9 times), is a poetical synonym for ‘dabar’, rare in prose, but found in Is. 5:24 in parallelism with ‘torah’. Cp. Deut. 23:9.
4. ‘Mitsvah’, ‘commandment,’ LXX (entolë) (21 times in plural, once in singular collectively), denotes a definite command imposed by authority. It is often coupled with the two following words in Deut. (e.g. 6:1).
5. ‘Chuqqim’, 21 times, once chuqqoth, ‘statutes,’ LXX (dikaiömata), lit. something engraved or inscribed, so what is prescribed or enacted. Frequently in Deut. (4:I &c.).
6. ‘Mishpatim’, ‘judgements,’ or ‘ordinances,’ LXX (krimata) (19 times in plur., 4 times in sing.), has some variety of meaning. The idea in the word is “that of a. judicial decision, made authoritatively
once, and constituting a rule, a precedent, applicable to other similar cases in the future” (Driver on Deut. 4:1); but in several passages of the Psalm it means the judicial acts of Jehovah, executing judgement on the wicked, and revealing or vindicating His law. Common in Deut. (4:1 &c.).
7. ‘Piqqudim’, (dikaiömata) (21 times), ‘precepts,’ ‘injunctions,’ LXX (entolai), a poetical word found only in the Psalter (19:8; 103:18; 111:7).
8. ‘‘Edah’ or ‘‘eduth’ (sing. once, plur. 22 times), ‘testimony,’ [witness] LXX (marturia). The idea of the word is “that of an ‘attestation’, or formal affirmation; hence, as referred to God, a solemn declaration of His Will on points (especially) of moral or religious duty, or a protest against human propensity to deviate from it….” The word came to be used” as a general designation of moral and religious ordinances, conceived as a Divinely instituted standard of conduct.” The term ‘testimony’ in the singular is applied to the Decalogue “as a concise and forcible statement of God’s will and human duty” (Driver on Deut. 4:45). Cf. Deut. 4:45; 6:17, 20: in the sing. ‘eduth’ is frequent in Ex., Lev., Num.
9. ‘Derek’, ‘way,’ LXX (hodos), denotes the course of conduct marked out by God’s law. Cp. Deut. 5:33; 9:12, &c.
10. ‘’Orach’, ‘path, a poetical synonym for ‘derek’; not in Deut., but common in Prov.
The ‘attributes’ applied to the Law should also be studied. Like its Author (‘v’. 137, cp. Deut. 32:4) it is perfectly righteous. The note of righteousness is constantly repeated; in all its aspects the Law answers to that perfect standard which God is to Himself for all His works and words. Its faithfulness and truth correspond to the faithfulness and truth of His nature; it is sharply contrasted with all that is false in belief and conduct.
Other constantly recurring expressions should also be noted. The Psalmist’s repeated protestations that he has ‘observed’ or ‘kept’ the law, his resolutions to do so, and his prayers for strength to fulfil them, answer to the repeated injunctions of Deut. (4:2 &c.). ‘With a (my) whole heart,’ with entire devotion of thought and will, is a phrase characteristic alike of this Psalm and of the Book of Deut. (4:29; 6:5 &c.) where it is often coupled with ‘the whole soul,’ the organ of feeling and emotion. In Deut. the Israelites are repeatedly exhorted to learn the statutes and judgements (5:1) and to teach them to their children (4:10); and repeatedly the Psalmist prays that he may be taught. The Psalmist’s reiterated prayers for ‘understanding’ recall the language of Deut. 4:6. ‘Life’ is held out in Deut. (4:I &c.) as the reward of obedience; and for ‘life’ the Psalmist continually pleads — ‘quicken thou me’ — ‘let me live’ (25, 37, 40, 88, 107, 149, 154,156, 159, 116, 144). The source of ‘life’ he finds in the law and promises of God (50, 93): and by ‘life’ he means not simply preservation from death, but liberation from all, whether within or without, that crushes and paralyses life, and hinders its proper use and enjoyment; for ‘life’ includes the ideas of light and joy and prosperity. It finds its fullest realisation in communion with God. The original promise of life to the nation is coupled with the promise of the possession of the land, but the latter now drops out of sight, and the conception of ‘life’ is approximating towards the higher meaning of the word in the N.T. Cp. Deut. 8:3. Very noteworthy is the Psalmist’s enthusiastic love for the Law. The love which the Israelite was bidden to cherish for Jehovah (Deut. 6:5 &c.) is kindled by the manifold revelation of His Will in the Law. “O how I love thy law: it is my meditation all the day” (97). It is no irksome restraint of his liberty, but his delight, his joy, his treasure, his comfort, the subject of his meditations by day by night, the source of trust and hope amid all the perplexities and troubles of life. “Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path.”

7: From: Book of Psalms, Notes Critical Explanatory & Practical Albert Barnes 1868: (Barnes last work of His Bible Commentary was the Book of Psalms, considered for 40 years, and prepared over his last 12 years, in partial blindness. See his Preface & Introduction.)
§ 5. General Character of Book of Psalms: “Psalms are mostly lyrical poetry, that is, poetry adapted to the harp or lyre; to be used in connexion with instrumental music; to be ‘sung’, not ‘read’. Such poetry was common among the ancients, as it is among the moderns. Anacreon, Alcseus, Stesichorus, Sappho, and Horace were eminent among the ancients as ‘lyric’ poets; and the numerous writers of ‘songs’, sacred and secular, among the moderns, are to be ranked in the same class. The phrase ‘lyric poetry’ now, however, is frequently applied to that species of poetry which “directly expresses the individual emotions of the poet” (Webster, Die).”….[Barnes concludes Section 5 with a lengthy passage from De Wette’s Commentary translated by Torrey in the Biblical Repository.]
§ 6. Imprecations in Psalms: [Barnes tries quiet well to honestly explain the harsh and unforgiving expressions & passages found in many Psalms. He closes with: “In some of these ways it is probable that all the difficulties in regard to the “imprecations” in the Psalms may be met. They who deny the inspiration of the Psalms should be able to show that these are not proper explanations of the difficulty; or that they are not consistent with any just notions of inspiration.”]
§ 7. Practical value of Book of Psalms: ….”Hence, in sickness, in bereavement, in persecution, in old age, on the bed of death, the Book of Psalms becomes so invariable and so valuable a companion; and hence, not as a matter of convenience, but as supplying a ‘want’ in the minds of men, and as significant of their value, the Psalms and the New Testament are so often bound together in a single volume. Hence, also, for the aged, for the sick, for those whose powers of vision fail by disease or by years, the Psalms and the New Testament are printed in large type, and bound in convenient forms, that the truths contained in these volumes may be still accessible to the saint ripening for heaven, as the light fails, and as life ebbs away. To the end of the world the Psalms in religious experience will occupy the same place which they now occupy; to the end of the world they will impart comfort to the troubled, and peace to the dying, as they have done in the ages that are past.”
§ 8. Qualifications for preparing a Commentary on Psalms: …..” (6) It may be added that the Book of Psalms, in the main, is so plain, so easy to be understood by the great mass of readers; so expressive of the internal feelings and emotions, as to increase the difficulty in the preparation of a Commentary. The Psalms are so rich; so full of meaning; so adapted to the wants of believers; —they so meet the varied experiences of the people of God, and are so replete with the illustrations of piety; they so touch the deepest fountains of emotion in the soul, that, so far as most of these points are concerned, a Commentary, considered as an additional source of light, does not differ materially from a candle considered as affording additional splendour to the sun. What a man finds in the ordinary perusal of the Psalms as a book of devotion, on the subject of deep experimental piety, is so much in advance of what he will usually find in the Commentary, that he turns from the attempt to explain them with a feeling of deep disappointment, and comes back to the Book itself as better expressing his emotions, meeting his necessities, and imparting consolation in trial, than anything which the commentator can add. He welcomes the Book of Psalms itself as a comforter and a guide; and in the little volume sold now at so cheap a rate, or appended to his pocket Testament, the common reader of the Bible finds more that is suited to his need than he would in the voluminous commentary of Venema; in all the collections in the Critici Sacri; in the Synopsis of Poole; in the Annotations of Grotius; or in the learned expositions of De Wette —elegant as the work of De Wette is,—or of Tholuck, or Hengstenberg.
When these difficulties in composing a Commentary on the Psalms are considered; —when a man who sits down to write one reflects on the qualifications necessary for the task; —and when under the influence of these thoughts, constantly increasing in magnitude, and pressing upon him more and more as he labours for a dozen years, though at intervals, as I have done, in preparing a Commentary on this portion of Scripture, —whatever ardour of desire or confidence of success he may have had at the commencement of his enterprise, he will cease to wonder, as he progresses in his work, that the efforts of others to prepare a Commentary heretofore have been a failure, and he will not be surprised, should his life be lengthened out to see the result of his own labours, if he finds that the world regards that at which he has toiled so long, and which he hoped might be, in some measure, worthy of the Volume he has undertaken to explain, as but adding another to the long list of unsuccessful attempts to prepare a proper exposition of the Book of Psalms.”
(Barnes summary of Psalms 145:) “This is also a Psalm of David, and the last of the series in this part of the collection. It is entitled simply, “Of Praise,” or, in the Hebrew, “Praise by David,” or ” Praise of David ;” —that is, one of David’s songs of praise. It is an alphabetical psalm; that is, each verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The arrangement in this respect is complete, except that the letter (n), ‘Nun’ -n- is omitted, for which no reason can be assigned, unless it was from a desire that the psalm might consist of three equal parts of seven verses each. In the Septuagint, Syriac, Arabic, Latin Vulgate, and AEthiopic Versions, this omission is attempted to be supplied by inserting between vers. 13 and 14 a verse which in Hebrew would begin with a (n), ‘Nun’, —(n’mn), etc.: — “Faithful is the Lord in all his words, and holy in all his works.” This is taken from ver. 17 of the psalm by the change of a word in the beginning —’faithful’ for ‘righteous’, —(n’mn) for (tzdyk). There is no authority for this, however, in the MSS., and it is evidently an attempt to supply what seemed to be an omission or defect in the composition of the psalm. The verse is not in the Chaldee Paraphrase, or in the version of Aquila and Theodotion; and it is certain that as early as the time of Origen and Jerome it was not in the Hebrew text. The Masorites and the Jewish commentators reject it. The sense is in no way affected by the insertion or omission of this, since the verses of the psalm have no necessary connexion in meaning —the composition, as in most of the alphabetical psalms, being made up of independent sentiments suggested in part at least by the necessity of commencing each verse with a particular letter. The psalm does not admit of any particular analysis, and it is impossible now to ascertain the occasion on which it was written.”

8: From: Commentary on Psalms, Primitive & Medieval Writers. John M. Neale. 2nd Ed. (1869)
Introduction: Dissertation I: Psalms Employed in Offices of Church:
1. “If we keep vigil” says St John Chrysostom, ” in the Church, David comes first, last, and midst. If early in the morning we seek for the melody of hymns, first, last, and midst is David again. If we are occupied with the funeral solemnities of the departed, if virgins sit at home and spin, David is first, last, and midst.*(stanza of Theognis). O marvellous wonder! Many who have made but little progress in literature, nay, who have scarcely mastered its first principles, have the Psalter by heart. Nor is it in cities and churches alone that at all times, through every age, David is illustrious; in the midst of the forum, in the wilderness, and uninhabitable land, he excites the praises of ‘God’. In monasteries, amongst those holy choirs of angelic armies, David is first, midst, and last. In the convents of virgins, where are the bands of them that imitate Mary; in the deserts, where are men crucified to this world, and having their conversation with ‘God’, first, midst, and last is he. All other men are at night overpowered by natural sleep: David alone is active; and, congregating the servants of GOD into seraphic bands, turns earth into heaven, and converts men into angels.” Nothing can more admirably shadow out the feelings of the Church to her everlasting heritage, than these words of the great Doctor of the East. The love, the veneration, the delight which she has ever expressed for the Psalter, have almost turned it into a part of her own being. It is not only that, from the beginning till now, the whole book of Psalms has been weekly recited by so many thousand priests, but that the spirit of the Psalter permeates and kindles every other part of the service; that its principal features have received a new and conventional character, have been transfigured from the worship of the synagogue to that of the Church; that, to use the mediaeval metaphor, the trumpets of the tabernacle have given place to the Psaltery and the New Song of the Christian ritual.
2. The Church of the primitive and of the Middle Ages, then, adapted the Psalter to her own needs; she employed all the luxuriance of her imagination to elicit, to develope, —if you will, to play with,— its meaning. There is, to use the word in a good sense, a perfect treasure of mythology locked up in mediaeval commentaries and breviaries, —a mythology, the beauty of which grows upon the student, till that which at first sight appears strange, unreal, making anything out of anything, perfectly fascinates. The richness and loveliness of this system of allegory have never yet been done justice to in our language. Commentaries indeed we have, many of them valuable in their way, but neither calculated nor indeed professing to do more than to explain difficulties, to develope the historical and literal meaning sense and in some of the very plainest passages to point out a possible reference by David to the Son of David…..(4. …the Psalms or Psalter was the most recited Book of the Scriptures , in part and whole, for a thousand years; was required to be memorized for ordination; ignorance of it disqualified consecration of Bishops; and The Eighth Council of Toledo2 (653) orders that ” none henceforth shall be promoted to any ecclesiastical dignity who do not perfectly know the whole Psalter, and in addition to that the usual Canticles and Hymns, and the Formula of Baptism.” In like manner the Council of Oviedo (1050) decrees that “the Archdeacon shall present such clerks for Ordination at the Ember seasons as know perfectly the whole Psalter, the Canticles, the Hymns, the Gospels, and the Collects.”)…..(6. ….Psalter was Divided for Recitation in Divine Service (the Work of God) in the Churches and Monasteries at various Hours of the Day s & Nights (Matins, Nocturns, Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sexts, Nones, Vespers, Complies, &c.; for Weekdays, Sabbaths, Sundays, Feast Days, Holy Days, &c.)….(9. …Spiritual Explanation of Arrangement:)
10. To begin with the Sunday Nocturns. The ritualists remind us of the three night watches of a besieged city, and thence deduce the triple prayer of a city which, like the Church, is never free from the assaults of her spiritual enemies. More fancifully they make each Nocturn to represent respectively the patriarchal, the legal, and the Christian dispensations. The first Nocturn, divided by its antiphons into three portions, or, as they are technically called, “distinctions,” sets forth the threefold division of the Patriarchal period ; that before the flood; that between the flood and Abraham; and that between Abraham and Moses. In each of these divisions they discover four principal Saints, to each of whom in consequence they attribute one of the Psalms. In the first period, Abel, Enos, Enoch, and Lamech. “Blessed is the man,” says Abel, ” that hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly :” thus setting forth the distinction between himself and Cain. ”Why do the heathen so furiously rage together?” exclaims Enos, in whose time the grand division between polytheists and the worshippers of the One true ‘God’ took place. “Thou art my worship, and the Lifter up of my head,” exclaims Enoch, —lifted up, indeed, when translated, that he should not see death. “O ‘Lord’, rebuke me not in Thine indignation,” is the Psalm of Lamech, who was blessed by ‘God’ with a son, the preserver of the human race from the indignation that destroyed the world. I need not explain how, in the same way, they make the four Psalms of the next distinction to signify Noah, Shem, Heber, and Terah, nor the third to set forth Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph. The second Nocturn, as we have seen, has three Psalms: and these are referred to the three epochs of the legal dispensation: the Priests, the Judges, and the Kings. They are respectively set forth in the 16th Psalm: when the Priest says, “The ‘Lord’ Himself is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup:” in the 17th, where the Judge prays, “Let my sentence —that is, the sentence I shall pronounce—” come forth from Thy Presence;” and the 18th, where the Monarch declares, “Great prosperity giveth He unto His King.” In the same way, the dispensation of grace may be divided into three epochs, —that of Apostolic preaching, that of persecution, and that of peace. Apostolic preaching is set forth by the 19th Psalm, which, as we shall see in its proper place, has always been applied to the Apostles. The epoch of persecution, and therefore of the martyrs, is expressed by the 20th Psalm, ” The LORD hear thee in the day of trouble.” The time of peace is represented by the 21st, “Thou hast given him his heart’s desire, and hast not denied him the request of his lips.” The appearance of Antichrist is prophesied towards the end of that Psalm; “Thou shalt make them like a fiery oven in the time of Thy wrath:” and then the promise of final felicity; “Be Thou exalted, ‘Lord’, in Thine own strength, so will we sing and praise Thy power.”
With such holy ingenuity did mediaeval writers explain their “Daily Service.”….

16…..(List of Psalms from St Athanasius Epistle to Marcellinus:)
Prayer. Psalm 17, 68, 90, 102, 132, 142.
In prayer, with supplication for deliverance. Psalm 5,6,7, 12,13, 16, 25, 27, 31, 35, 38, 43, 54,55,56, 57, 59, 61, 64, 83, 86, 88,140,141, 143.
In supplication for deliverance alone. Psalm 3, 26, 69, 70,71, 74, 79,80, 123, 130, 131.
In confession of sins. Psalm 51.
If thou desirest to render thanks to ‘God’ for His many marvels, or on the accomplishment of some good work. Psalm 8, 81.
If thou desirest to know how others praise ‘God’. Psalm 113, 117, 125, 146, 147,148, 150.
If thou desirest to stir up thyself to bless GOD. Psalm 103,104.
If thou desirest to praise ‘God’. Psalm 92, 105,106, 107,108, 112, 136, 138.
If thou desirest to sing to ‘God’. Psalm 93, 98.
If thou desirest to remember the mercy and justice of ‘God’. Psalm 101.
If thou desirest to exhort to faith and obedience. Psalm 41.
If thou desirest to show to others of what kind is the man who is a citizen of heaven. Psalm 15, 24.
If thou desirest to ridicule heretics or Gentiles.2 Psalm 76.
If them beholdest heretics gathering together against the House of God. Psalm 83.
If thou desirest to convince heretics. Psalm 87.
If thou desirest to remember benefits of the redemption of man. Psalm 8, 87, 116 (v. 10 to end.)
If thou desirest to admire sermons, and the grace of the preacher. Psalm 19.
If thou wouldest remember the Incarnation of our Lord. Psalm 45, 110.
If thou wouldest remember the Lonn’s Cross. Psalm 22, 69.
If thou wouldest sing of the Resurrection. Psalm 16, 66.
If thou wouldest remember the Ascension. Psalm 24, 47.
If thou wouldest call to remembrance the future judgment. Psalm 50, 72.
If thou wouldest commemorate martyrs. Psalm 79.
If thou wouldest praise GOD on Festivals. Psalm 81, 95.
If thou wouldest sing on Good Friday. Psalm 93.
If thou wouldest sing on Saturday. Psalm 92.
If thou wouldest return thanks on Sunday. Psalm 34, 119.

32. We now turn to the arrangement of the Psalter which has been adopted by the Church at Constantinople. It is divided into 20 sections or cathismata as follows: Psalms:
I: 1-8; II: 9-17; III: 18-24; IV: 25-32; V: 33-37; VI: 38-46; VII: 47-66; VIII: 66-64; IX: 66-70; X: 71-77; XI: 78-86; XII: 86-91; XIII. 92-101; XIV: 102-105; XV: 106-109; XVI: 110-118; XVII: 119; XVIII: 120-132; XIX: 133-143; XX: 144-150
Each of these cathismata is divided into three “staseis;” and at the end of the latter only —not of each Psalm, as in the Western Church—the Gloria is said. The word “cathismata,” in this sense, must not be confounded with the “troparia” so-called.

33. The general arrangement for the lection of the Psalter for Psalms is as follows: In the weeks of the….so that the Psalter is said through once a week. In the six weeks of the Great Fast the quantity is doubled, the Psalter being repeated twice in each week. In Holy Week it is said once, but finishes on the Wednesday. From Maundy Thursday till the Eve of the Anti-Pascha (Low Sunday,) it is not said at all. At the first Vespers of Low Sunday it begins again, and, till the 20th of September, two cathismata are said at Matins and one at Vespers. From the 20th of September till the Vigil of the Nativity, three cathismata in Matins: one, namely the 18th, at Vespers, together with the 133rd and 136th Psalms. Thence, to the Octave of the Epiphany, two at Matins, one at Vespers. Thence, till the Saturday before the Apocreos, one at Matins, one at Lauds, and two at Vespers……
34. (Psalms Repetition at different Seasons, Feasts, Festivals, required different emphases:… “the same sun-ray from the ‘Holy Ghost’ rested, indeed, at all times on the same words, but the prism of the Church separated that colourless light into its component rays: into the violet of penitence, the crimson of martyrdom, the gold of the highest seasons of Christian gladness. Hence arose the wonderful system of Antiphons, which, out of twenty different significations, definitely for the time being fixed one: which struck the right key-note, and enabled the worshipper to sing with the spirit and to sing with the understanding also. Ancient as is the alternate chanting of Psalms in the Church, it may be doubted whether that of antiphons is not of even more venerable antiquity;…An Antiphon, then, in the original sense of the word, was the intercalation of some fragment or verse between the verses of the Psalm which was then being sung : one choir taking the Psalm, the other, the intercalated portion….42. I need scarcely point out to the reader the extraordinary beauty of this intercalation. But this kind of intercalation approximates as nearly to a “Farce” as it does to an Antiphon. A Farce, as is well known, is the insertion in a Gospel, Epistle, or Canticle, such as the ‘Gloria in Excelsis’, of intercalated sentences, intended to have the same effect as an Antiphon, and to fix a determinate sense for the time being, on the composition so farced. But the clauses thus inserted became in process of time thoroughly jejune and miserable; sometimes, in fact, utterly absurd. Hence, from the ludicrous character of the intercalation, the word came to be applied to anything ludicrous: whence its present use….
(Conclusion of Disertation): 81. I have thus endeavoured to sketch out, as briefly as the subject permits, an account of the manner in which the Psalter, while it has been employed in, has itself modified, the Services of the Church. Those who study it as Churchmen, can hardly enter into it as they should do, until they have been taught to consider it in the light in which it has been the aim of this essay to set it before them. I heartily wish that it were more perfect, and less unworthy of the subject; but I have been all along fearful of entering too deeply into minutiae, —interesting, indeed, to Ecclesiastical students, but not necessary in and by themselves to the study of the Psalms. I shall hereafter have occasion to direct the reader’s attention to a subject which will, perhaps, be more widely interesting —the general question of mystical interpretation: which I leave for the Third Dissertation in this work. I can only hope that the blessing of ‘God’ may have been bestowed on what has already been said, and may still accompany that which we yet have to observe.

(Dissertation II: Primitive & Mediaeval Commentators on Psalms:……….)

(Dissertation III: Mystical & Literal Interpretation of Psalms:)
1. Having now, through ‘God’s’ goodness, accomplished the fifth part of our task, it seems time to dwell at greater length than hitherto we have done on the system itself on which this commentary is based. Utterly different as it is from the modern style of interpretation, —liable to the charges of fancifulness, unreality, and of making anything out of anything,— I wish now to show that, whatever be the faults of its execution, its principle, at least, is the same as that on which the great commentators of primitive and mediaeval ages wrote, and which they would have recognised as their own. What that principle is, the reader has now had sufficient opportunity of judging; and while none can be more sensible than myself of the innumerable faults in detail for which the foregoing pages may be blamed, for the theory on which they have been composed I need —and I hope to show that I need— no excuse.
2. The mystical interpretation of Scripture, as every one will allow, is the distinguishing mark of difference between ancient and modern commentators. To the former, it was the very life, marrow, the principle essence of ‘God’s’ Word, —the kernel, of which the of early, literal exposition was the shell,— the jewel, to which the outside and verbal signification formed the shrine: by the latter it has almost universally been held in equal contempt and abhorrence; it has been affirmed to be the art of involving everything in uncertainty; to take away all fixedness of meaning; to turn Scripture into a repository of human fancies; to be subversive of all exactitude, and fatal to all truth….
3….The rule laid down by the strictest interpreters of this sort appears to be this: that in those histories of the Old Testament which are applied to our Blessed ‘Lord’ in the New, we may see a type of Him, but in those only. Thus, of the brazen serpent, the Paschal Lamb, Jonah in the whale’s belly, He was undoubtedly the antitype; but Joseph, taken from prison and from judgment, —but Elijah, fasting forty days and forty nights, and translated into heaven, —but David, in his victory over Goliath, —but Samson, destroying the Philistines by his own death,— these are historical characters only, and cannot, without presumption, be invested with a typical signification.
4. Now it is clear that, to those who entertain similar sentiments, the present work will present nothing but an aggregation of the wildest conceits, and the most worthless fancies. If Scripture has not an under-current of meaning, double, triple, quadruple, or even yet more manifold, I confess, not only that my work is a mere waste of labour, time, and paper, which would comparatively matter little, but it also follows that all primitive and mediaeval commentators, from the first century till the Reformation, have more or less been deceiving the Church of ‘God’, —have been substituting their changing fancies for His immutable verities, —have adopted a system which is alike the offspring and the parent of error,— that their folios have been a hindrance to the cause of truth, and the labours of their lives an insult to the to those who principles of genuine interpretation. If any one can believe this, it will matter little what he thinks of the preceding and following pages. I only wish to prove that the mystical principles on which this commentary on the Psalms is written are the principles of the great commentators from the beginning; and if I can show that, I have shown enough.
5. It is well known that, from very early times, a meaning fourfold meaning was attached to the plain text of Scripture. It is expressed in the lines: Litera scripta docet : quid credos, ‘Allegoria’: Quid speres, ‘Anagoge’: quid agas, ‘Tropologia’. And on this principle St Gregory the Great composed his Morals on Job, keeping his skeins of meaning separate, and with marvellous skill pursuing each to the end. Durandus explains the various terms with great neatness: “In like manner, ‘Jerusalem’ is understood, historically, of that earthly city whither pilgrims journey; allegorically, of the Church Militant; tropologically, of every faithful soul; anagogically, of the Celestial Jerusalem, which is our Country.”
6. Let us, in the first place, inquire from Scripture Arguments itself, what probability there is that the Holy Ghost intended such a system of interpretation to be applied to His own Word: then let us see how the early Church felt on the subject: and then what are the advantages, and what are asserted to be the dangers, of the mystical sense.
7. Now it cannot be denied, that to those who eschew the mystical or spiritual interpretation, —and whom we will in this dissertation call ‘literalists’,— a very large portion of Scripture can have nothing but an historical interest. The journeyings of the Israelites to their various encampments, — the genealogies of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, —the numbers of the tribes in the Pentateuch,— the prophecies against the nations whom it pleased ‘God’ to destroy before Nebuchadnezzar, and many such like passages, are to them all but a dead letter. Nay, the same Scott whom I lately quoted ventures, without any apology, to call one such collection of passages by a term which, when we remember Whose is the lightest word of Holy Scripture, can scarcely be called less than profane. He names the genealogies of the first book of Chronicles by the appellation of ‘Thorns’! He is but consistent with himself; but what kind of theory must that be which leads to such a conclusion?
40. In conclusion, do we ordinarily attach sufficient importance to such expressions as that with reference to our ‘Lord’ in the last days of His earthly life? “Then opened He their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures.” Does not this infer a regular tuition in some system of interpretation of which hitherto they knew nothing? He expounded unto them ‘all’ the things concerning Himself. Some of those things, we have already seen, involved what would now be called the deepest mysticism, and forthwith we see its fruits. History is no longer a bare relation of facts —it is a parable. Agar is no longer the concubine of Abraham, but “Mount Sinai in Arabia.” The Mosaic law is a Christian Parable; “saith He it not altogether for our sakes?” Christ is everywhere, in Prophet, Psalm, History: every Old Testament Saint is the type of the Saint of Saints; every persecutor is the forerunner of the Destroyer of souls. And what follows? Observe the depth of study, the profound search, the intensity of investigation of the mystics, contrasted with the jejunity [dullness], the commonplace superficiality of the literalists! To the latter, Scripture is no mine: its treasures are at the surface; a first reading may exhibit as much of the meaning as a twentieth; and hence the stupid dictum of a marvellous genius (Lord Bacon), likening the first interpretation of the Bible to the first crush of the grape, which first crush is not wine, but a sickly and unwholesome must.
Conclusion. 41. In unison with the system which it has been the object of this Essay to unfold, the present Commentary is written. I know that it will be called, by many, fanciful, unreal, destructive of Scripture, will be said to put imagination in the place of reason, and to substitute the words of men for the word of ‘God’. But let this only be borne in mind. Our system is the system, as all must allow, of every saintly Commentator from St Barnabas to St Francis de Sales —the system, as I have endeavoured to show, not only of Isapostolic [?] but of Apostolic writers. The interpretations are none of them my own; their authors are given; they come with greater or less authority; but those that have least will be found to possess some considerable weight. I claim nothing but the poor thread on which the pearls are strung. To collect them has been the happy work of many years —work which has consoled me in trial, added happiness to prosperity, afforded a theme of profitable conversation with dear friends, furnished the subject-matter for numerous sermons. I pray ‘God’ to accept it as an offering to the Treasury of His Church; and to give that system, if it be His will, favour in the eyes of Scriptural students, which I know to be the only method whereby His own, be it declaration or command, can be fully acted out, (ereunate tas graphas….kai Ekeinai Eisin Hai Marturousai Peri Emou).

9: From: Critical & Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms by Charles A. Briggs, D.Lit., Emile Grace Briggs. International Crititical Commentary Old Testament. (1906)

     Preface: “This Commentary is the fruit of forty years of labour. In1867, when making special studies in Berlin with Dr. Emil Rodiger, I began a critical Commentary on the Psalms, the Ms. of which is still in my possession….In the plan of the International Critical Commentary I undertook the volumes on the Psalms, and have been at work upon them ever since. In addition to my work on the theological terms of the new edition of Robinson’s Gesenius’ Hebrew Lexicon, BDB., I have made a complete lexicon to the Psalter, based on a revised Hebrew text, which I hope ere long to publish. I have spared no pains upon the text of the Psalter, not only in the study of the Versions, but also in the detection and elimination of the glosses in the search for the original texts as they came from their authors. The Theology of the Psalter has been carefully investigated ; only the limits of space prevent me from giving it in this volume….A public Version, in my opinion, should be less pedantic and literal than the Revised Version, and not so slavish in its adherence to the Massoretic text. In this respect the older Versions, especially the Version of the Book of Common Prayer, is to be preferred; for while it is less accurate than the later Versions, it preserves many readings of the Greek and Vulgate Versions which later English Versions unwisely rejected, and it is concerned to give the sense of the original in rhythmical devotional language well suited to the character of a book of prayer and praise….The Psalms are among the most wonderful products of human genius. No other writings but the Gospels can compare with them in grandeur and importance. The Gospels are greater because they set forth the life and character of our Lord and Saviour. The Psalter expresses the religious experience of a devout people through centuries of communion with God. I cannot explain either Gospels or Psalms except as Books of God, as products of human religious experience, inspired and guided by the Divine Spirit.”
Introduction: § 1. “The Psalter belongs to the third division of the Hebrew Canon, entitled Hymns or Prayers, from its chief contents. The Greek Version named it Psalms from the most frequent sub-title, and in this has been followed by other Versions”…..”In the Hebrew Canon the Psalter bears the title Praises, of Book of Praises, because of the conception that it was essentially a collection of songs of praise, or hymn book, to be used in the worship of God; or else Prayers, because it was a collection of prayers, a prayer book. In LXX it is entitled Psalms, doubtless because the word “psalm” was in the titles of such a large proportion of the poems. In early Greek writers it received the name Psalter, which seems a more appropriate name for a collection of Pss. for use in public worship.”….(Hebrew title: Tehillim, Sepher Tehillim; Aramaic Tehilyon; Hallels (Praises); Greek LXX Psalmoi (Psalms, Book of Psalms), (psalmos) is the translation of (mizmyr < zmr, zamir), used in the titles of 57 Pss., ‘song’ or ‘poem’, ‘play, musical instruments, more technical form & indicates a poem with measured lines & strophes, selected for public worship; the Psalter (Psaltërion) of David.
A. Text of Psalter:
§ 2. “The original text of the Psalter was written in the Hebrew language, and in letters which were subsequently abandonedfor the Aramaic script. This latter text has been preserved in Mss., none of which are older than the tenth century ; but they rest upon two important revisions of that century, those of Ben Asher and Ben Naftali, which differ chiefly in Massoretic material.”….
§ 3. “The Massora also gives evidences of variations of text, going back to primitive times, in marginal notes and signs, where the text remains unchanged. Citations in the Talmud and other early Jewish writings give little evidence of other variations of text.”….”These Massorites were so called as masters of Massora, or tradition. Their work was based upon the methods of the Syrian schools with reference to Syriac Literature. The differences between the so-called Babylonian and
Palestinian systems of vocalisation and accentuation show various stages in their work, which continued for several centuries. The earliest stages have left no record, but they may be inferred from the simpler forms of Syriac and Arabic Literature. It is important to notice that all these vowel points and accents are comparatively late in origin, and, although they rest on tradition going back to primitive times, they were still matters of opinion, and by no means have the venerable authority of the consonantal text. The view that they were equally inspired with the consonantal text, held commonly in the 16th century, has been universally abandoned. There are several Massoretic notes and signs which are of great importance, for they indicate variations of text in ancient tradition which the Massorites felt obliged to record, although they did not venture to change the traditional text. These are: (1) The variation between the (qeri) that which should be read, and the (kethibh, ketib, ketiv), that which is written. There are 70 of these in (Psalter).”….
§ 4. “The earliest printed edition of the Hebrew Psalter was published at Bologna in 1477. Independent texts based on Mss. were published at Soncino, in the Complutensian Polyglot, and the second Rabbinical Bible. All subsequent editions were mixed texts, until those of Baer and Ginsburg, which give accurate forms of the Massoretic text of Ben Asher.”….
§ 5. “The earliest Version of the Psalter was that of the Greek Septuagint (LXX), translated from the Hebrew in the second century B.C. at Alexandria, and preserved in many ancient codices, the earliest of the fourth century A.D., giving evidence as to an original Hebrew text, many centuries prior to any Hebrew authorities. The ancient Latin, Coptic, Gothic, Armenian, and Ethiopic Versions are based upon the Greek Version.”….
§ 6. “Several other Greek Versions were made in the 2nd, 3rd, & 4th centuries A.D., that of Aquila from the official Hebrew text of the school of Jamnia, that of Theodotion to improve (LXX) in the direction of that text; and that of Symmachus to give a better Greek style. Other minor Versions, indicated as Quinta (5th) and Sexta (6th), were also composed. None of these have been preserved, except in fragments.”….”(LXX) was used in a large proportion of the citations in the NT & Christian writings of the 2nd & 3rd centuries. The Jews of the school of Rabbi Akiba, owing to a literalistic tendency, threw discredit upon (LXX) among the Jews, and so gradually undermined the confidence even of Christians in its accuracy. Accordingly, many attempts were made to make a better Version. The first of these came from Aquila, a pupil of Akiba, who made a new translation from the official text established by the school of Jamnia. This is exceedingly literal and pedantic, and frequently transliterates rather than translates. This Version, indicated by Aq., is chiefly valuable for its evidence as to the official text which it translates. Theodotion (T.LXX) undertook a revision of (LXX) to make it more conformable to the Hebrew text of Jamnia. Its variations from (LXX) also help to the official Hebrew text of the second century rather than to an earlier text. Symmachus (S.LXX) had a later and a different purpose; namely, to improve the style and character of (LXX). It is therefore of value in helping to a text of &. It is difficult to determine the purpose of Quinta and Sexta, but so far as appears they do not give evidence of any knowledge of early Hebrew codd. These efforts did not succeed in producing a text suitable for universal adoption; they in fact increased the confusion and corruption among the Greek codd. by mixed texts. This evil was the chief reason for the masterly work of Origen in his Hexapla. Origen’s Hexapla was the most important Biblical work in ancient times. It gave in six parallel columns the original Hebrew text, the same transliterated, a purified text of (LXX), the Versions of Aq., (S.LXX), (T.LXX), and also, as a sort of appendix, Quinta, Sexta.”….
§ 7. “The Syriac Peshitto (Peshitta, Peshta, Pesht.,Syriac Vulgate) Version was made from a comparison of the Hebrew text with (LXX), and shows the influence of an early Aramaic Targum. It has maintained its integrity since the 4th century.”….”At an early date, probably in the second or third century, a translation of the Psalter was made for the use of Syrian Christians ( SyrcPesht). It was based upon a Hebrew text, but kept (LXX) constantly in view. It also shows traces of the influence of an oral Aramaic Targum earlier than the existing Targum. The author was a good Hebrew scholar, but his purpose was to give a Vrs. for practical use, rather than an exact verbal rendering. He therefore takes liberties with the original from a dogmatic as well as a practical point of view. (SyrcPesht) passed through a number of revisions, but has kept its integrity since the fourth century, as Aphraates in his Homilies uses it essentially in the same form that we now have.”….
§ 8. “Jerome in the early fifth century issued his Latin translation, made from the Hebrew text of his times, but with all the other ancient Versions and Origen’s Hexapla in view.”….”Jerome, after the completion of the two revisions of the old Latin Psalter already mentioned, undertook c. 389 a translation of the entire OT from the original Hebrew, which he completed in 390-405 at Bethlehem. This Vrs. took the place of the old Latin Vrss. in all the books except the Psalter, and is known as the Vulgate (V, Vlg, Vulg, LatVulg, JermVulg). This new Vrs. of the Psalter could not overcome the use of the Gallican Psalter in the usage of the Church. Accordingly, (V) of the Psalter is the Gallican Version, and the Version of Jerome is distinguished from it in reference by the abbreviation (J, Jerm). This Vrs. is exceedingly valuable, especially in the study of the Psalter; for Jerome was not only an able Hebrew scholar, using the best Hebrew texts accessible to him in Palestine, at the time when the Rabbinical School at Tiberius was in its bloom ; but he was also familiar with Origen’s Hcxapla, and the full text of all the ancient Vrss. in earlier Mss. than those now existing. (J) in the main gives evidence as to the Hebrew text of the fourth Christian century. Where it differs from (V) and (LXX) its evidence is especially valuable as giving the opinion of the best Biblical scholar of ancient times as to the original text, based on the use of a wealth of critical material vastly greater than that in the possession of any other critic, earlier or later.”….
§ 9. “The Aramaic Targum of the Psalter in its present form dates from the 9th century, but it rests upon an oral Targum used in the synagogue from the most ancient times.”….”The Targum on the Psalter (T, Targ, Targm, AramTarg) represents a traditional oral translation, used in the services of the synagogue from the first century A.D. The original Hebrew text was constantly kept in view, for it was the custom to read the original before the Targum was read. Therefore the Targum gives evidence as to the traditional Hebrew text, with all the development that that tradition had from the 1st till the 9th century, ever restrained, however, by the original text. The Targum, however, was not simply a translation, but at the same time an explanation of the original, enlarging upon it to give the sense by way of paraphrase. It avoids anthropomorphism, and entirely disregards the poetic form & style.”….
§ 10. “The critical use of Hebrew texts and versions leads back in several stages from the official text of Ben Asher of the 10th century, through the text used by Jerome of the 4th century, the official text of the School of Jamnia of the 2nd century, to the unofficial codices of the 2nd century B.C., which gave the Canonical Psalter in its final edition. But it had already passed through centuries of transmission by the hands of copyists and editors. We have to distinguish, therefore, between the original text of the Psalter of the Canon and the original text of the psalms themselves as they came from their authors.”….
§ 11. “There are several Psalms which appear in different texts in the Psalter itself, or in the Psalter and other Books of the Old Testament. These give evidence of originals differing in some respects from the varying texts that have been preserved.”….”(A) Hebrew poetry is dominated by the principle of parallelism of members. The simplest form is seen in the couplet; but it is extended to a considerable number of lines. There are three primary forms of parallelism: (1) the synonymous, (2) the synthetic, and (3) the antithetic; the synonymous having a more ornate variety which may be called (4) emblematic; the synthetic a more vigorous variety which is (5) stairlike in character. An important variation appears in what is called (6) introverted parallelism. But within these six varieties there are still a great number of combinations in accordance with the nature of the parallelism, whether it extends to entire lines or to the more emphatic words in them. Bishop Lowth (‘De Sacra Poesi Heb’. 1753; cf. Preliminary Dissertation to ‘Isaiah’, 1778) was the first to establish the principle of parallelism in Hebrew poetry, although he based his conclusions on older writers, Rabbi Asarias and especially Schottgen (‘Horae Heb’. Diss. VI. ‘De Exergasia Sacra’). Lowth’s views were at once accepted and have maintained themselves. Lowth distinguished three kinds of parallelism, — the synonymous, the antithetical, and the synthetic. Bishop Jebb (‘Sacred Literature’, § IV. 1820) called attention to a fourth kind, which he properly named “introverted.” Lowth had already recognised it (Prelim. Diss. ‘Isaiah’ 14), but did not name it or emphasize it. Other scholars have noted the stairlike and the emblematic.”….”The Pss., as Philo, Josephus, Origen, Eusebius, and Jerome tell us, were composed in several kinds of meter. The measures, however, were not of feet, as in classic Latin and Greek, or of syllables as in Syriac poetry; but of words or word accents, as in Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian, and the most ancient poetry of other nations. The simplest measure is: (1) the trimeter, measured by three tonic beats; (2) the tetrameter, which has four tones, usually with a caesura in the middle; (3) the pentameter, which has five tones, the caesura usually coming after the 3rd tone, but sometimes for variety of effect after the 2nd; (4) the hexameter, which has six tones, with the caesura usually in the middle, but sometimes for variety after the 2nd or the 4th tones, and occasionally with two caesuras dividing the line into three parts. In the estimation of tones we have to consider that on the one side monosyllabic words are usually not counted, but are attached to the following word and not accented; and on the other side that words of four or more syllables have a secondary accent which is counted in the measures. This is true occasionally of words of three syllables.”….”…To Ley, more than to any other scholar, is due the credit of leading to a correct conception of the measures of Hebrew poetry. I accepted the principle of measurement of Hebrew poetry by accents soon after I began to teach as Professor of Hebrew and cognate languages in Union Theological Seminary, in 1874; and from that time I have given much attention to the subject. My views were published in 1881 (‘Homiletic Quarterly’; ‘Biblical Study’, first edition, 1883).
§ 12. “The Psalms were composed in the parallelisms, measures, and strophical organisations of lyric poetry. When these have been determined with reference to any particular Psalm it is not difficult to see the changes that have been made in the original text.”….
§ 13. “Several Pss. give evidence that they were parts of longer Pss.”….
§ 14. “Many Pss. are composite of two or more original Pss. or parts of Pss. combined for liturgical purposes. Usually the original Pss. were of different poetic structure, and they are combined in various ways by editorial seams.”….(Examples: Psalms: 19; 24; 40; 60; 89; &c.)….
§ 16. “The text of the Psalter shows a large number of errors, just such as one would expect from its transmission through the hands of many different editors and copyists. There are essentially the same kinds of errors and subject to the same rules and principles of classification as those that are found in all Literature.”….”The most of the Pss. were composed in the ancient Hebrew script, resembling the Samaritan letters. They were transliterated into the Egyptian Aramaic script, and finally into the later square Aramaic letters. In each of these scripts errors arose from mistakes as to similar letters both in form and in sound; the transposition of letters in a word or of words in a sentence; the wrong attachment of letters to words, or of words to sentences; the transposition of clauses; and conjectures in the case of defective or illegible Mss.”….
§ 17. “A very large proportion of the changes in the text of the Psalms was due to corrections of the scribes and glossators, who for various reasons endeavoured to improve the text to make it more intelligible and useful.”….”The scribes corrected the text to make it more intelligible. The older writers were concise, and left many things to be inferred by the attentive reader. In the unpointed consonant text the words were not distinctly separated, and forms were written as briefly as possible, so that various interpretations were possible. There were also many abbreviations which might easily have been misunderstood.”….
§ 22. “With the rise of the Higher Criticism, the traditional opinion as to the Davidic authorship of the Psalter was questioned, and soon abandoned by all critics. At first editorship by Ezra and the Davidic authorship of only those Psalms which have David in their titles was proposed; but subsequently internal evidence showed this to be impossible, so that critical opinion gradually came to the result that the final editorship of the Psalter could not have been earlier than the Maccabean period, and that David wrote few, if any, of the Psalms, the most of them being postexilic.”….
§ 23. “The Higher Criticism of the Psalter depends chiefly upon the internal evidence of the Psalms themselves. The titles are valuable for traces of the history of their use ; but their contents, their interrelation, and their relation to other writings of the OT., give the only reliable evidence as to their origin and transmission.”….
§ 24. “The earliest term to appear in the titles was doubtless “Song” (shirah, shr, shiri, shirim) which, in some cases at least, was attached to the originals. It indicated a lyric poem used for singing, especially on joyous occasions; in later times especially in religious worship of praise, and by the Levitical choirs.”….(Examples: Psalms: 18:1 = 2nd Sam 22:; 45; 69; 46; 30;; 92; 108; &c.)….
§ 41. “Selah indicates the abbreviation of a psalm in liturgical use, and marks the place where the closing benediction might be sung. The word itself means: Lift up (the voice in praise). This
interpretation explains the tradition of & that it called for an “interlude,” and the Palestinian tradition, which represents it by the last word of the doxology, “forever.” The term was first attached to psalms in the Psalter of the Mizmorim. ft was used in the Director’s Psalter, and in the Collection of the Elohist, and it continued in use at least until the time of the Psalter of Solomon and the earliest portions of the Jewish Liturgy.”….
§ 43. “The Psalter represents many centuries of growth in the historical origin both of its Psalms, extending from the time of David to the Maccabean period, and of the various minor and major Psalters through which they passed, from the early Persian to the late Greek period, before the present Psalter was finally edited and arranged, in the middle of the second century B.C.”…. (Evolution of Psalter:) “We may assign 7 Pss. in their original form to the early Hebrew monarchy, before Jehoshaphat : 7, 13, 18, 23,24, 60, 110; 7 to the middle monarchy: 3, 20,21, 27, 45, 58, 61; and 13 to the late monarchy: 2, 19, 28, 36, 46, 52, 54,55,56, 60, 62, 72, 87; thus 27 to the period of the Hebrew monarchy. During the Exile 13 were composed: 42-43, 63, 74, 77, 79, 81,82, 84, 88,89, 90, 137, 142. In the early Persian period there was a great outburst of psalmody. As many as 33 Pss. were composed: 4, 6, 9-10, 11,12, 14 (=53), 16,17, 22, 25, 31,32. 34,35, 37,38,39, 41, 57, 59, 64, 69, 70 (= 40) 75,76, 78, 80, 83, 101, 109, 140, 143,144. This was due to several influences. The conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, which aroused the enthusiasm of the exilic Isaiah, called forth lyric songs. The rebuilding of the altar and temple, with the restoration of the worship in Jerusalem, as it was accompanied by prophetic voices, so also by those of lyric poets. The struggles of the pious with the unfaithful in the community, and with the neighbouring little nations, whose jealousy and hatred constantly interfered with the growth and prosperity of the people in Jerusalem, also naturally expressed itself in song. Toward the close of this period the collection of ‘Miktamim’, or golden poems, was made after the example of the older collection of the Book of Yashar. To the middle Persian period, the times of Nehemiah, we may assign 16 Pss.: 5, 8, 15, 26, 29,30, 40, 47, 51, 57, 65,66, 69, 138,139, 141; to the late Persian period, in which internal and external trouble was renewed, 11 Pss.: 27, 36, 44, 48,49,50, 68, 81, 85, 89, 102. In this last period the collection of ‘Maskilim’, or religious meditations, was made; also (DavidPss) was edited as a prayer-book for use in the synagogues, and soon after (KorahPss), more ornate in character. The conquest of Alexander introduced the Greek period, which in its early part was advantageous to the Jews. At the beginning of this period the great royal advent Ps. was composed, 93, 96-100, and soon after 8 other Pss.: 66,67, 73, 86, 91, 95, 108, 145. The Psalter of (AsaphPss) was prepared in Babylonia; and later in Palestine the Psalter of the ‘Mizmorim’, the first of the major Psalters, as a hymn-book for use in the synagogues. Toward the close of this period (DavidKorahPss) was made, using all the earlier Psalters, as a prayerbook for the synagogues, and directions were given for musical rendering. The later Greek period was troublous in Palestine, owing to the constant strife between the kings of Egypt and Syria, and to internal dissensions resulting therefrom. But in the East the Jews were less troubled. There in the early part of this period (ElhmPss) was prepared for synagogue use. To this period we may ascribe 11 Pss.: 1, 19, 24, 71, 77, 89, 92, 94, 103, 139, 144, and the elaborate praise of the Law, 119. In addition 14 Pilgrim Pss., 120-128, 130-134, were composed, and the Pilgrim Psalter collected in this period. Also 16 of the Hallels, 104-107, 111-117, 135-136, 146, 148, 150, were composed and edited in a collection. The Maccabean period began with the persecution of Antiochus and the rise of the Maccabees at the head of the patriotic party. They gradually triumphed, and organised the Maccabean dynasty & kingdom. To this period we may ascribe Pss. 33, 102,109,118, 139; also 129 of the Pilgrim Psalter, & 147, 149 of the Hallels. After the rededication of the temple the present Psalter was prepared, combining Pss. appropriate for use in the synagogue and in the temple, and using all the previous Psalters, especially (David’s, David Director’s,Elham’s Psalters) the Hallels, and the Pilgrim Pss. The collection was divided into three books. Toward the close of the second century the final editor divided it into five books and 150 Pss., in accordance with the same divisions of the Law, allowing for variations in usage.”….
(C. Canonicity of Psalter):
§ 44. “The Psalter was the first of the Writings to win canonical recognition, and it has maintained this recognition in the unanimous consent of Jew and Christian until the present day. The testimony of representative Jews and Christians in all ages is that the Psalter is a holy Book, divinely authoritative, the norm and guide of worship and religious experience.”….

(Briggs Commentary is very scholarly, & lexically thorough, perhaps more than any others, the 1st Psalm (“orphan” Psalm) is explored in 9 pages of small print; however Psalm 145:1-21 is only given 5 pages; but Psalms 119 is covered in 35 pages. His Translation is excellent.)

10: From: Treasury David, Original Expositions, Book of Psalms, etc. 7 Volumes by Charles H. Spurgeon. (1882)

     Preface (vol.1): “The delightful study of the Psalms has yielded me boundless profit and ever-growing pleasure; common gratitude constrains me to communicate to others a portion of the benefit, with the prayer that it may induce them to search further for themselves. That I have nothing better of my own to offer upon this peerless Book is to me matter of deepest regret; that I have anything whatever to present is subject for devout gratitude to the Lord of grace. I have done my best, but, conscious of many defects, I heartily wish I could have done far better. The Exposition here given is my own. I consulted a few authors before penning it, to aid me in interpretation and arouse my thoughts; but, still I can claim originality for my comments, at least so I honestly think. Whether they are better or worse for that, I know not; at least I know I have sought heavenly guidance while writing them, and therefore I look for a blessing on the printing of them. The collection of quotations· was an after-thought. In fact, matter grew upon me which I thought too good to throw away. It seemed to me that it might prove serviceable to others, if I reserved portions of my reading upon the various Psalms; those reserves soon acquired considerable bulk, so much so that even in this volume only specimens are given and not the bulk. One thing the reader will please clearly to understand, and I beg him to bear it in mind; “I am far from endorsing all I have quoted’. I am neither responsible for the scholarship or orthodoxy of the writers. The names are given that each author may bear his own burden; and a variety of writers have been quoted that the thoughts of many minds might be before the reader. Still I trust nothing evil has been admitted; if it be so it is an oversight……..It may be added, that although the comments were the work of my health, the rest of the volume is the product of my sickness. When protracted illness and weakness laid me aside from daily preaching, I resorted to my pen as an avail­ able means of doing good. I would have preached had I been able, but as my Master denied me the privilege of thus serving him, I gladly availed myself of the other method of bearing testimony for his name. O that He may give me fruit in this field also, and His shall be all the praise.”

Expositions of Psalms:
Psalm 1:
Title: This Psalm may be regarded as The Preface Psalm, having in it a notification of the contents of the entire Book. It is the psalmist’s desire to teach us the way to blessedness, and to warn us of the sure destruction of sinners. This, then, is the matter of the first Psalm, which may be looked upon, in some respects, as the text upon which the whole of the Psalms make up a divine sermon.
Division: This Psalm consists of two parts: in the first (from verse 1 to the end of the 3rd) David sets out wherein the felicity and blessedness of a godly man consisteth, what his exercises are, and what blessings he shall receive from the Lord. In the second part (from verse 4 to the end) he contrasts the state and character of the ungodly, reveals the future, and describes, in telling language, his ultimate doom.

Psalm 2:
Title: We shall not greatly err in our summary of this sublime Psalm if we call it The Psalm of Messiah The Prince: for it sets forth, as in a wondrous vision, the tumult of the people against the Lord’s Anointed, the determinate purpose of God to exalt His own Son, and the ultimate reign of that Son over all His enemies. Let us read it with the eye of faith, beholding, as in a glass, the final triumph of our Lord Jesus Christ over all His enemies. Lowth has the following remarks upon this Psalm: “The establishment of David upon his throne, notwithstanding the opposition made to it by his enemies, is the subject of the Psalm. David sustains in it a twofold character, literal and allegorical. If we read over the Psalm, first with an eye to the literal David, the meaning is obvious, and put beyond all dispute by the sacred history. There is indeed an uncommon glow in the expression and sublimity in the figures, and the diction is now and then exaggerated, as it were on purpose to intimate, and lead us to the contemplation of higher and more important matters concealed within. In compliance with this admonition, if we take another survey of the Psalm as relative to the person and concerns of the spiritual David, a noble series of events immediately rises to view, and the meaning becomes more evident, as well as more exalted. The colouring which may perhaps seem too bold and glaring for the King of Israel, will no longer appear so when laid upon his great Antitype. After we have thus attentively considered the subjects apart, let us look at them together, and we shall behold the full beauty and majesty of this most charming poem. We shall perceive the two senses very distinct from each other, yet conspiring in perfect harmony, and bearing a wonderful resemblance in every feature and lineament, while the analogy between them is so exactly preserved, that either may pass for the original from whence the other was copied. New light is continually cast upon the phraseology, fresh weight and dignity are added to the sentiments, till, gradually ascending from things below to things above, from human affairs to those that are Divine, they bear the great important theme upwards with them, and at length place it in the height and brightness of heaven.”
Division: This Psalm will be best understood if it be viewed as a fourfold picture. (In verses 1,2,3) the Nations are raging; (4 to 6) the Lord in heaven derides them; (7 to 9) the Son proclaims the decree; and (from 10 to end) advice is given to the kings to yield obedience to the Lord’s Anointed. This division is not only suggested by the sense, but is warranted by the poetic form of the Psalm, which naturally falls into four stanzas of three verses each.
….”The first Psalm was a contrast between the righteous man and the sinner; the second Psalm is a
contrast between the tumultuous disobedience of the ungodly world and the sure exaltation of the righteous Son of God. In the first Psalm, we saw the wicked driven away like chaff; in the second Psalm, we see them broken in pieces like a potter’s vessel. In the first Psalm, we beheld the righteous like a tree planted by the rivers of water ; and here, we contemplate Christ the Covenant Head of the righteous, made better than a tree planted by the rivers of water, for ‘He’
is made King of all the islands, and all the heathen bow before Him and kiss the dust; while He Himself gives a blessing to all those ­who put their trust in Him. The two Psalms are worthy of the very deepest attention; they are, in fact, the preface to the entire Book of Psalms, and were by some of the ancients, joined into one. They are, however, two Psalms; for Paul speaks of this as the second Psalms (Acts 13:33). The first shows us the character und lot of the righteous; and the
next teaches us that the Psalms are Messianic, and speak of Christ the Messiah —the Prince who shall reign from the river even unto the ends of the earth. That they have both a far-reaching prophetic outlook we are well assured, but we do not feel competent to open up that matter, and must leave it to abler hands”……

11: From: Family Prayer Book, Book Common Prayer, Psalms, etc. Protestant Episcopal Church, by Thomas C. Brownell, LLD. (1868)

     Order for Daily Morning & Evening Prayer: Minister shall begin Morning & Evening Prayer, by reading one or more of the following Sentences of Scripture: (Hab. 2:20; Mal. 1:11; Ps. 19:14; Ezek. 18:27; Ps. 51:3; Ps. 51:9; Ps. 51:17; Joel 2:13; Dan. 9:9,10; Jer. 10:24. Ps. 6:1; St Matt. 3:2; St Luke 15:18,19; Ps. 143:2; 1st John 1:8,9.)
(1.) Under the Law, daily morning & evening devotions were enjoined by God, on all the Israelites. —”Thou shalt offer upon the altar two lambs of the first year day by day continually; the one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning, & the other lamb thou shalt offer at even.” This ordinance was constantly observed by the Jews, during the continuance of their city & polity. It was probably on this account that the primitive Christians set apart these periods as times for solemn worship. And like all the divine ordinances their institution is most consonant to reason, & the fitness of things. Every morning when we awake, we receive, as it were anew, our life from God. —When We arise from our beds, to go forth amidst the cares & temptations of the world, & the dangers & business of the day, nothing can be more reasonable than that we should offer to our merciful Preserver our thanksgivings for his care over us during the unguarded moments of sleep, & for all the blessings He is constantly conferring on us; & that we should supplicate his guidance & protection through the day, as well as his favour & blessing on the work of our hands. —In the evening, too, the same reasons call us to a renewal of the same duties of devotion. Retiring from the labours & vanities of the day, & when our exhausted spirits dispose us to sink down upon our beds, in the attitude & image of death, reason requires of us, that as dying men, we should supplicate the pardon of “God for our omissions of duty, as well as for our follies and positive transgressions; & that we should again commend ourselves to His protection who never slumbers nor sleeps.
But besides the public devotions of the morning & evening, many of the devout Jews were in the habit of retiring to their closets, in the middle of the day for the purpose of private worship. And we have reason to believe that this custom was adopted by the early Christians. We learn that St Peter, “went upon the housetop to pray, about the sixth hour,” which corresponds with our noon. And we find that this was a common period of Christian worship, in the time of St Cyprian, & Clement of Alexandria. It was not long after, that the Monks, who professed to be more devout than other Christians, added other hours of stated prayer. These stated periods of daily devotion had increased to seven, in the time of Pope Pelagius the 2nd, who established them by a decree, & provided offices of devotion for the several “Canonical hours.” —At the period of the Reformation, our parent Church of England brought back the periods of public worship to the primitive usage, and enjoined only “daily morning & evening prayer.”
But though the Church has appointed these two periods of public worship, she does not thereby excuse any of her children from the essential duty of private devotion. Stated periods for retirement to the closet are salutary for all men. We may worship God, indeed, at any period of the day, & in the midst of our business, by short mental ejaculations, but the use of stated times for private devotion cannot be too highly estimated. Such is the constitution of our nature, that a duty, which we think can be performed at any time, we are apt to defer altogether, unless we regulate our conduct by fixed rules.
In the Cathedral Churches, in England, the regular morning service is constantly performed. But the circumstances of country parishes will not admit of this daily public worship; nor is it practicable in the Parish Churches of this country. But though the dispersed residences, and the secular avocations of Christians, will nor permit them to assemble daily for public worship, none ran be excused for the neglect of Family Devotions. And the American branch of the Church, has set forth “Forms of Prayer to be used in Families,” well suited to their circumstances and their wants. —Those heads of Families, therefore, who live in the habitual neglect of these daily morning & evening devotions, frustrate the benevolent intentions of the Church, & lose one of the most interesting bands of the domestic state: while they are deficient in a duty enjoined not less by the dictates of reason than the authority of Scripture. (T.C.B)
(2.) Prayer is the elevation of the soul to a communion with God; & is commanded by Him as a duty, through the pious & faithful performance of which we obtain all the especial blessings we enjoy. It is a high honour to us that we are permitted & assisted to hold this intercourse, and it is also a source of inestimable benefits to us. But it is a duty of difficult performance. Our attention should be wholly engrossed in the solemn act we are engaged in. The worldly objects which commonly occupy our thoughts must be excluded. Our souls must be suitably humbled under a sense of our unworthiness, & brought to a proper state of serenity by a contemplation of the paternal goodness of God, and the atonement and mediation of the Saviour. [page 62] Hence it results that some preparation of the mind is necessary before we enter upon the sacred duties of devotion.—It is the custom of the Jews, when they enter their synagogues for worship, to stand silent for some time, to meditate on the presence and perfections of God. And in the early ages of Christianity, it was the custom of the Priest to prepare the people’s hearts for worship, by the use of a suitable preface. In imitation of this primitive usage, the Church has prescribed the sentences of Scripture, the reading of which are enjoined by the foregoing Rubrick…….

(18.) The Book of Psalms, is that collection of sacred hymns, which were composed by devout members of the Jewish Church, for the purpose of praising God, both on public and private occasions. They are usually called the Psalms of David, from his composing the greater part of them. The other authors, whose names are mentioned, are Asaph, Ethan, Heman, Moses, and Solomon, but to each of the four last is ascribed only a single psalm; except we suppose that Solomon wrote the 72nd as well as the 127th. Of the 150, about 70 are expressly attributed to David; and there is internal evidence that others, which do not bear his name, are of his composition. From the number and excellence of David’s psalms, he is, in the records of his own times, styled “the Sweet Psalmist of Israel.”
Being not merely works of human ingenuity, but dictated by the Spirit of God, they are adapted to ail states and conditions of the Church. They are found to be as useful to Christians of the present day, as they were formerly to the Jews, or even to the persons themselves by whom they were originally written. From this comprehensive character, and from the intrinsic merits of subject and composition, the psalms have always deservedly been held in the highest estimation. Whatever difference of opinion may have existed among the ancient Christians, either with regard to speculative points of theology, or external forms of worship, all agreed in the use of these hymns, as the most effectual instrument of devotion.
“The ancients, when they speak of the psalms,” says Hooker, “use to fall into large discourses, shewing how this part, above the rest, doth of purpose set forth and celebrate all the considerations & operations, which belong to God: it magnifieth the holy meditations and actions of divine men: it is of things heavenly & universal declaration, working in them whose hearts God inspireth with a due consideration thereof, an habit or disposition of mind, whereby they are made fit vessels both for receipt, and for delivery of whatsoever spiritual perfection. What is there necessary for men to know, which the Psalms are not able to teach? They are to beginners an easy and familiar introduction, a mighty augmentation of all virtue & knowledge in such as are entered before, a strong confirmation to the most perfect. Heroical magnanimity, exquisite justice, grave moderation, exact wisdom, unwearied patience, the mysteries of God, the sufferings of Christ, the terrors of wrath, the comforts of grace, the works of Providence over this world, and the promised joys of that world which is to come, all good necessarily to be either known, done, or had, this one celestial fountain yieldeth. Let there be any grief, or disease incident to the soul of man, any wound, or sickness named, for which there is not in this treasure house a present comfortable remedy at all times ready to be found. This is the very cause, why we iterate the Psalms oftener than any other part of Scripture besides; the cause wherefore we inure the people together with their minister, and not the minister alone, to read them, as other parts of Scripture he doth.” (Shepherd)
It is certain the temple service consisted chiefly of forms taken out of this Book of Psalms, 1st Chron.16:1, 7-37; 1st Chron. 25:1,2; & the prayers of the modern Jews are also most chiefly gathered from thence. The Christians undoubtedly used them in their public service in the Apostles’ times. 1st Cor. 14:26; Col. 3:16; and in the following ages it is plain, that they sang the Psalms in the Church by turns, each side answering the other, indeed it appears the Psalms were placed about the beginning of the Prayers, soon after the Confession; & that they were so often repeated at Church, that the poorest Christians could say them by heart, and used to sing them at their labours, in their houses, & in their fields. The author of them, holy David, first set them to vocal & instrumental music; & pious antiquity did use them in their assemblies with music also; & so we may very fitly do, where we have convenience, for this makes our Churches the very emblem of the heavenly choir, which is always represented as praising God in this manner: and experience shews, that music works very much on the affections of well tempered men; it calms their minds; composes their thoughts; excites their devotion; & fills their soul with a mighty pleasure, while they thus set forth his praise.
The Church having thus fitted the Psalms for daily use, it is our duty to say or sing them with great devotion; & if we have performed the foregoing parts of the Liturgy as we ought, nothing can fit us better to sing David’s Psalms with David’s spirit; for all that hath been done hitherto was to tune our hearts, that we may say, “O God, my heart is ready,” or fixed: “I will sing & give praise,” Ps. 108:1. And, as St. Basil notes, this frame of spirit is more necessary in the use of the Psalms, than of any other part of Scripture, the rest being only read to us, but every man is to repeat these as his own words. (Dean Comber.)
As it is so primitive and useful an order to have the Psalms thus read; & as this “Psalter” is an entire body of devotion, having different forms, to exercise several graces, by way of internal act & spiritual intentions, containing in it, confessions, thanksgivings, prayers, praises, and intercessions; let every one be sure to do it standing, sitting being only allowed whilst the Lessons or the Epistle is reading. (Collis.)

(19.) The Christian Church has uniformly appointed the Psalms to be repeated oftener than any other part of Scripture, excepting only that divine form of prayer, which was taught by our Lord Himself, & in our Church makes apart of every service. “Christians,” says Chrysostom, “exercise themselves in David’s Psalms oftener than in any part of the Old, or New Testament —Moses the great Law-giver, who saw God face to face, & wrote of the creation of the world, is scarcely read through once a year. The Holy Gospels, where Christ’s miracles are preached, where God converses with man, where devils are cast out, lepers are cleansed, & the blind restored to sight, where death is destroyed, where is the food for immortality, the holy sacraments, the words of life, holy precepts, precious promises; these we read over once or twice a week. What shall I say of blessed Paul, the preacher of Christ ? His Epistles we read twice in the week. We get them not by heart, but attend to them while they are reading. —But as to David’s Psalms, the grace of the Holy Spirit has so ordered it, that they are repeated night & day. In the vigils of the church, the first, the midst, the last, are David’s Psalms. In the morning, David’s Psalms are sought for, & the first, the midst, & the last, is David. At funeral solemnities, the first, the midst & the last, is David. In private houses the first, the midst, & the last, is David. —Many that know not a letter can say David’s Psalms by heart.”
Jerome tells us, that “in the morning, at the 3rd, 6th, & 9th hour, in the evening, & at midnight, David’s Psalms are sung over in order, & no man is suffered to be ignorant of David’s Psalms.”
From the times of the Apostles, the recitation of Psalms has every where formed one principal part of the service of the Church. Some of the early Christians, in particular those of the East, rehearsed sometimes 20, sometimes 60 psalms in a day. About the year 350, in the Churches of Egypt, 12 were repeated in the morning, and the same number in the evening. This practice made its way into the western Church; for from Jerome we learn, that the whole Book of Psalms was read over once in 7 days. If 24 were read every day, the whole would be read in somewhat less than a week.
With us the Psalms are recited much oftener than any other part of Scripture, & thus far our established practice corresponds with the usage of the ancient Church. At the same time, that all the Psalms may be read in course, and that our Morning & Evening Prayer may not tire or disgust by its prolixity, we assign, for this purpose, the term of thirty days. (Shepherd.)
Standing has usually been considered as the most proper attitude for praise & thanksgiving. Accordingly we find that, in the ancient Church, the Psalms were almost universally recited in this posture. (Shepherd.)
The alternate recitation of the Psalms is not, as far as I at present recollect, enjoined by any Rubrick, nor by any other injunction of our Church. But we uniformly adopt it, & in defence of our practice, we have to allege, that it is perfectly congenial to the usage of antiquity, is sanctioned by the recommendation of the wisest and best among the fathers, has been ratified by respectable councils, & the most approved ecclesiastical laws, & is obviously calculated to keep up the attention, & assist the devotion of the people. (Shepherd.)

(20.) In some parts of the eastern Church Gloria Patri was formerly repeated at the end of the last psalm, which was called Alleluja, because they always selected for the concluding psalm one of those which had the title Alleluja (Hallelujah, Hallelu-Yah) prefixed. The concluding psalm was likewise called Antiphona, or the Antiphonial Psalm, from its being recited in alternate portions, that is, nearly in the same manner in which we repeat all the Psalms.
The ancient practice, however, of all the western Churches, (that of Rome alone excepted) was to repeat Gloria Patri at the end of every psalm. There is a peculiar propriety in this. The Doxology serves for a general application to each psalm. And as a penitential psalm may be followed by a psalm of thanksgiving, & that succeeded by one of adoration or prophecy, if they were not separated by this Doxology,or something of the like nature, subjects very distant and distinct might be strangely & improperly united. (Shepherd.)

(22.) From the Exhortation, at the opening of the service, we learn that one principal end of our meeting together in the house of God, is, “to hear His most holy word.” After reciting a portion of the Psalms there is a peculiar propriety in reading other parts of Holy Scripture. Our minds being elevated, & our affections warmed, by celebrating the praises of God, we are prepared to listen with attention & reverence to the history of His providence, the dispensation of his grace, and the rules of our duty. Here therefore follow, with the intervention only of a hymn, two lessons, the first taken from the Old Testament, the second from the New. The course pursued by the Church points out the order & disposition of the two covenants, and shews the harmony and connexion that exists be tween them. (Shepherd.)
After the Psalms follow the Lessons. For having, according to the Exhortation, “set forth God’s most worthy praise,” we proceed to ” hear His most holy word.” And then a respite is given to the bent of the mind: for, whereas in the work of praising it was active, in hearing it is only attentive. Besides, a different faculty of the soul is now called into employment. In the Psalms the will and affections were employed; but now in the Lessons chiefly the understanding. And, as with the members of the body, so with the faculties of the mind, a change of employment prevents weariness, & affords relief. (Dr. Bisse, Dr. Bennet.) He, which prayeth in due sort, is thereby made the more attentive to hear; and he, which heareth, the more earnest to pray. (Hooker.)
That they, who are blessed with a revelation from God, should read & hear it with reverence, when they assemble to worship Him, is a plain dictate of reason and religion. Accordingly the Jews “read Moses & the Prophets in their synagogues of old time,” as the book of Acts informs us, Acts 13:27, 15:21; & so indeed do writers of their own, in the same age with it: who boast of the practice as a most useful & honourable distinction peculiar to their nation, that the laws of life were thus published to all the people. The primitive Christians, as one of the earliest apologists for them, Justin Martyr, tells us, read at their meeting, both the Jewish prophets, and the writings of the apostles, in proper portions. And when the Church of Rome had broken them into small fragments, interrupted with other things; & had continued to read even these in Latin, after it was no longer understood; our Church rectified both errors; & hath taken care that the Old Testament should be gone through once a year and the New thrice. Only we omit some parts of the former; which are repetitions of what is related in other parts, or bare lists of genealogies and families, or too mystical & abstruse to be edifying in publick; on which last account we omit also the book of Revelation, excepting two or three chapters; matters of such difficulty being wisely thought fitter for the private meditation and study of those, who are qualified to engage in them…….(Abp. Secker.)

Notes Introductory to Psalms:
“The Psalms are an epitome of the Bible, adapted to the purposes of devotion. They treat occasionally of the creation and formation of the world; the dispensations of Providence, and the economy of grace; the transactions of the patriarchs; the exodus of the children of Israel; their journey through the wilderness, and settlement in Canaan; their law, priesthood, and ritual; the exploits of their great men, wrought through faith; their sins and captivities; their repentances and restorations; the sufferings and victories of David; the peaceful and happy reign of Solomon; the advent of Messiah, with its effects and consequences; His Incarnation, Birth, Life, Passion, Death, Resurrection, Ascension, Kingdom, and Priesthood; the effusion of the Spirit; the conversion of the nations; the rejection of the Jews; the establishment, increase, and perpetuity of the Christian Church; the end of the world; the general judgment; the condemnation of the wicked, and the final triumph of the righteous with their Lord and King. These are the subjects here presented to our meditations. We are instructed how to conceive of them aright, and to express the different affections which, when so conceived of, they must excite in our minds. They are, for this purpose, adorned with the figures, & set off with all the graces, of poetry; & poetry itself is designed yet farther to be recommended by the charms of music, thus consecrated to the service of God; that so delight may prepare the way for improvement, & pleasure become the handmaid of wisdom, while every turbulent passion is calmed by sacred melody, & the evil spirit is still dispossessed by the harp of the son of Jesse. This little volume, like the paradise of Eden, affords us in perfection, though in miniature, everything that groweth elsewhere, “every tree that is pleasant to the sight, & good for food :” & above all, that was there lost, but is here restored, the tree of life in the midst of the garden. That which we read, as matter of speculation, in the other Scriptures, is reduced to practice, when we recite it in the Psalms; in those, repentance & faith are described, but in these, they are acted; by a perusal of the former, we learn how others served God, but, by using the latter, we serve Him ourselves. “What is there necessary for man to know,” says the pious and judicious Hooker, “which the Psalms are not able to teach? They are to beginners an easy & familiar introduction a mighty augmentation of all virtue & knowledge in such as are entered before, a strong confirmation to the most perfect among others. Heroical magnanimity, exquisite justice, grave moderation, exact wisdom, repentance unfeigned, unwearied patience, the mysteries of God, the sufferings of Christ, the terrors of wrath, the comforts of grace, the works of Providence over this world, and the promised joys of that world which is to come; all good necessary to be either known, or done, or had, this one celestial fountain yieldeth. Let there be any grief or disease incident unto the soul of man, any wound or sickness named, for which there is not, in this treasure-house, a present comfortable remedy at all times ready to be found.” In the language of this divine Book, therefore, the prayers & praises of the Church have been offered up to the throne of grace, from age to age. And it appears to have been the manual of the Son of God in the days of His flesh; who, at the conclusion of His last supper, is generally supposed, and that upon good grounds, to have sung a hymn taken from it who pronounced, on the cross, the beginning of the 22d Psalm; “My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?” and expired with a part of the 31st Psalm in His mouth; “Into Thy hands I commend My spirit.” Thus He, who had not the Spirit by measure, in Whom were hidden all the treasures of wisdom & knowledge, & who spake as never man spake, yet chose to conclude his life, to solace himself in his greatest agony, and at last to breathe out his soul, in the Psalmist’s form of words rather than his own. No tongue of man or angel, as Dr Hammond justly observes, can convey a higher idea of any book, & of their felicity who use it aright. (Bp. Horne.)
The Psalms very justly make a principal part of the joint praises, that we offer up to God. For though several of them were composed on particular occasions, yet they are plainly fitted for general use; & their insertion into the canon of Scripture proves them to be designed for it: the Jews anciently recited them in the temple, and do still in their synagogues: the New Testament hath recommended them to the Christians , & the whole Church hath sung them ever since. Indeed the subject matter of them is very different: but those of joy are much more numerous, than any other sort: & all of them afford ground of praise at least; the doctrinal, the exhortatory, the historical, as well as the rest. Even the plaintive & petitionary minister cause of thanksgiving to Him, who hath promised to hear, & support, & deliver; & make all “things work together for good to them, that love Him.” Rom. 8:28. Glory therefore to the blessed Three (in) One is a fit conclusion to every Psalm.
But in reading them it must be carefully observed, & may with moderate care be commonly distinguished, in whose person the several sentences are spoken. In some Psalms, or portions of Psalms, it is God, or Christ; in others it is wicked men, that speak. These we must repeat as their sayings: & none as our own, but what were intended for us. Even the words of the Psalmist, if we are to adopt them, may frequently seem so unapplicable to the outward condition, or inward frame, of many in every congregation, that, if they attend to them, they cannot say them with truth. ‘But most of them all good people may say, even of themselves singly, with much truth. For they have constantly enemies, temporal or spiritual, afflictions more or less heavy, valuable mercies, & at times warm feelings of pious dispositions: which, if not present, may be so recalled, & made their own again, as to be very sincerely expressed to God. And what they cannot say in their own name separately, they may truly say in the name of Christ’s Church, of which they are members: & they ought, & surely do, bear some share of the mercies & sufferings, the fears & desires, of every part of it, in every state. And as David, in some of his Psalms, takes on him the person of Christ; in others he seems to take that of his disciples; & to speak, not in any one particular character, but as representing the whole body of believers. Or if there be any passages, which neither of these methods will suit: still we may rehearse them as expressing the case of some eminent worthy of old times, and be affected by it accordingly: for we often are strongly affected by the circumstances, well described, not only of distant but of imaginary persons. We may consider, as we go on, the likeness, or the difference, between his situation, his temper, & our own: and raise from it many reflections of sympathy & caution, of humiliation, encouragement, & thankfulness. Thus, at least, we may bring every thing we say, home to ourselves: & by so doing furnish our minds with a most valuable store of devout thoughts and language, perhaps for many future occasions of our own or others. For the Book of Psalms is so in exhaustible a treasure of every branch of piety, that a more constant use of it, than of any other in the whole Bible hath, with very just reason, been appointed in public forms of prayer, and recommended in private ones.
It may be objected, that in several of them David utters most bitter imprecations against his enemies: in which, to say nothing harsher, we cannot follow him; for the rule of the New Testament is, “Bless & curse not.” Rom. 12:14. But indeed most, if not all, the places, which appear wishes ot evil, may, according to the confessed import of the original, be understood only as predictions of it. Or, supposing them wishes, David might be directed by infinite wisdom to pronounce them even against the opposer of his reigning over Israel; who opposed, at the same time, the known decree of Providence. Repeating them in this view, solely as his, must be innocent: & strongly suggest an important admonition, “not to fight against God.” Acts 23:9. But perhaps in some of these, as well as other passages, he speaks in the person of the whole Church of God, against all its irreconcilable adversaries, whoever they be. Such was Judas: to whom therefore the two most dreadful of these Psalms are applied, (Acts 1:20:) &, with the utmost tenderness to the whole of God’s creation, we may & must desire the overthrow of them, who obstinately hate Him & His laws. For, though we ought much more to desire the repentance, than the death of a sinner, as He Himself doth: yet if they will not repent, we ought to think & speak with approbation & satisfaction, yet mixed with an awful concern, of their punishments here, & sentence hereafter: which last St Paul represents good persons, as joining to pronounce: “Do ye not know, that the saints shall judge the world?” 1st Cor. 6:2. ( Abp. Secker.)
Very few of the Psalms, comparatively, appear to be simply prophetical, & to belong only to Messiah, without the intervention of any other person. Most of them, it is apprehended, have a double sense, which stands upon this ground and foundation, that the ancient patriarchs, prophets, priests, & kings, were typical characters, in their several offices, & in the more remarkable passages of their lives, their extraordinary depressions, & miraculous exaltations, foreshewing Him who was to arise, as the Head of the holy Family, the great Prophet, the true Priest, the everlasting King. The Israelitish polity, & the law of Moses, were purposely framed after the example & shadow of things spiritual & heavenly; & the events, which happened to the ancient people of God, were designed to shadow out parallel occurrences, which should afterwards take place, in the accomplishment of man’s redemption, & the rise & progress of the Christian Church. For this reason, the Psalms composed for the use of Israel, & Israel’s monarch, and by them accordingly used at the time, do admit of an application to us, who are now, “the Israel of God,” & our Redeemer who is the King of Israel. (Bp. Horne.)
It would be an arduous and adventurous undertaking to attempt to lay down the rules observed in the conduct of the Mystic Allegory; so diverse are the modes in which the Holy Spirit has thought proper to communicate His counsels to different persons upon different occasions; inspiring and directing the minds of the prophets according to His good pleasure; at one time vouchsafing more full & free discoveries of future events; while, at another, He is more obscure and sparing in His intimations. From hence ariseth of course a great variety in the Scripture usage of this kind of allegory, as to the manner in which the spiritual sense is couched under the other. Sometimes it can hardly break forth & shew itself at intervals through the literal, which meets the eye as the ruling sense, & seems to have taken entire possession of the words & phrases. On the contrary, it is much oftener the capital figure of the piece, & stands confessed at once by such splendour of language, that the letter, in its turn, is thrown into shades, & almost totally disappears. Sometimes it shines with a constant equable light; & sometimes it darts upon us an a sudden, like a flash of lightning from the clouds. But a composition is never more truly elegant & beautiful than when two senses, alike conspicuous, run parallel together through the whole poem, mutually corresponding with, and illustrating each other. I will produce an undoubted instance or two of this kind, which will shew my meaning, & confirm what has hitherto been advanced on the subject of the mystic allegory.
The establishment of David upon his throne, notwithstanding the opposition made to it by his enemies, is the subject of the second Psalm. David sustains in it a twofold character, literal & allegorical. If we read over the Psalm first with an eye to the literal David, the meaning is obvious & put out of all dispute by the sacred history. There is indeed an uncommon glow in the expression, & sublimity in the figures, & the diction is now & then exaggerated as it were on purpose to intimate, & lead us to the contemplation of higher & more important matters concealed within. In compliance with this admonition, if we take another survey of the Psalm, as related to the person and concerns of the spiritual David, a noble series of events instantly rises to view, and the meaning becomes more evident as well as exalted. The colouring which may perhaps seem too bold and glaring for the king of Israel, will no longer appear so, when laid upon his great Antitype. After we have thus attentively considered the subjects apart, let us look at them together, and we shall behold the full beauty and majesty of this most charming poem. We shall perceive the two senses, very distinct from each other, yet conspiring in perfect harmony, & bearing a wonderful resemblance in every feature & lineament, while the analogy between them is so exactly preserved, that either may pass for the original, from which the other was copied. New light is continually cast upon the phraseology, fresh weight & dignity are added to the sentiment, till gradually ascending from things below to things above, from human affairs to those which are divine, they bear the great important theme upwards with them, & at length place it in the height and brightness of heaven.
What hath been observed with regard to this Psalm, may also be applied to the 72nd; the subject of which is of the same kind, & treated in the same manner. Its title might be, ‘The Inauguration of Solomon’. The scheme of the allegory is like in both; but a diversity of matter occasions an alteration in the diction. For whereas one is employed in celebrating the magnificent triumphs of victory, it is the design of the other to draw a pleasing picture of peace, & of that felicity, which is her inseparable attendant. The style is therefore of a more even & temperate sort, and more richly ornamented. It aboundeth not with those sudden changes of the person speaking which dazzle & astonish; but the imagery is borrowed from the delightful scenes with which creation cheers the sight, & the pencil of the divine artist is dipped in the soft colours of nature. And here we may take notice how peculiarly adapted to the genius of this kind of allegory the parabolical style is, on account of the great variety of natural images to be found in it. For as these images are capable of being employed in the illustration of things divine & human, between which there is a certain analogy maintained, so they easily afford that ambiguity which is necessary in this species of composition, where the Ianguage is applicable to each sense, and obscure in neither; it comprehends both parts of the allegory and may be clearly & distinctly referred to one or the other. (Bp. Lowth.)
The offence taken at the supposed uncharitable & vindictive spirit of the imprecations which occur in some of the Psalms, ceases immediately if we change the imperative for the future, and read not “Let Them Be Confounded,” &c, but, “They Shall Be Confounded,” &c, of which the Hebrew is equally capable. Such passages will then have no more difficulty in them, than the other frequent predictions of divine vengeance in the writings of the prophets or denunciations of it in the gospel intended to warn, to alarm, and to lead sinners to repentance that they may fly from the wrath to come. This is Dr. Hammond’s observation; who very properly remarks, at the same time, that in many places of this sort, as particularly in Psalm 109 (and the same may be said of Psalm 69) it is reasonable to resolve that Christ Himself speaketh in the prophet; as being the person there principally concerned, and the completion most signal in many instances there mentioned: the succession especially of Matthias to the apostleship of Judas. It is true, that in the citation made by St Peter from Psalm 109 in Acts 1:20, as also in that made by St Paul from Psalm 109 in Romans 11:9, the imperative form is preserved; “Let his habitation be void,” &c.; ” Let their table be made a snare,” &c. But it may be considered that the apostles generally cited from the Greek of the LXX version; and took it as they found it, making no alterations, when the passage as it there stood, was sufficient to prove the main point which it was adduced to prove. If the imprecatory form be still contended for, all that can be meant by it, whether uttered by the prophet, by Messiah, or by ourselves, must be a solemn ratification of the just judgments of the Almighty against his impenitent enemies, like what we find ascribed to the blessed in heaven when such judgments were executed. Rev. 11:17,18; 16:5,6,7. See Merrick’s Annotations on Psalm 109 & Witsie’s Miscellan. Sacr. Lib. 1 Cap. 18 Sect. 24. But by the future rendering of the verbs, every possible objection is precluded at once. (Bp. Horne.)
Greatness confers no exemption from the cares & sorrows of life. Its share of them frequently bears a melancholy proportion to its exaltation. This the Israelitish monarch experienced. He sought in piety that peace which he could not find in empire, and alleviated the disquietudes of state with the exercises of devotion.
His invaluable Psalms convey those comforts to others, which they afforded to himself. Composed upon particular occasions, yet designed for general use; delivered out as services for Israelites under the Law, yet no less adapted to the circumstances of Christians under the Gospel; they present religion to us in the most engaging dress; communicating truths which philosophy could never investigate, in a style which poetry can never equal; while history is made the vehicle of prophecy, and creation lends its charms to paint the glories of redemption. Calculated alike to profit, & to please, they inform the understanding, elevate the affections, and entertain the imagination, Indited under the influence of Him to whom all hearts are known, and all events foreknown, they suit mankind in all situations, grateful as the manna which descended from above, and conformed itself to every palate. The fairest productions of human wit, after a few perusals, like gathered flowers, wither in our hands, and lose their fragrancy; but these unfading plants of paradise become, as we are accustomed to them, still more and more beautiful; their bloom appears to be daily more & more heightened; fresh odours are emitted, and new sweets extracted from them. He who hath once tasted their excellences, will desire to taste them again; and he who tastes them oftenest, will relish them best.
And now, could the author flatter himself that any one would take half the pleasure in reading the following exposition, which he hath taken in writing it, he would not fear the loss of his labour. The employment detached him from the bustle & hurry of life, the air of politics, & the noise of folly; vanity & vexation flew away for a season, care & disquietude came not near his dwelling. He arose, fresh as the morning, to his task; the silence of the night invited him to pursue it; and he can truly say that food & rest were not preferred before it.
Every psalm improved infinitely upon his acquaintance with it, and no one gave him uneasiness but the last; for then he grieved that his work was done. Happier hours than those which he spent upon these meditations on the Songs of Sion, he never expects to see in this world. Very pleasantly did they pass and moved smoothly & swiftly along; for, when thus engaged he counted no time. They have gone but have left a relish & fragrance upon the mind, and the remembrance of them is sweet. (Bp. Horne.)
That the reader may the more easily turn to such Psalms as will best suit the present state of his mind, according to the different circumstances, whether external or internal, into which, by the changes & chances of life, or the variations of temper & disposition, he may, at any time, be thrown, the common Table of Psalms, classed under their several subjects, is here subjoined.

I. Prayers for Pardon of sin. (Forgiveness) Psalm 6, 25, 38, 51,130. Psalms styled Penitential, 6, 32, 38, 51, 102,130,143.
II. Prayers composed when the Psalmist was Deprived of an opportunity for the public exercise of religion. Psalm 42,43, 63, 84.
III. Prayers wherein the Psalmist seems extremely Dejected, though not totally Deprived of consolation, under his Afflictions. Psalm 13, 22, 69, 77, 88, 143.
IV. Prayers wherein the Psalmist asketh Help of God in consideration of his own integrity, & the uprightness of his cause. Psalm 7, 17, 26, 35.
V. Prayers expressing the firmest Trust & Confidence in God under Afflictions. Psalm 3, 16, 27, 31, 54, 56,57, 61,62, 71, 86.
VI. Prayers composed when the people of God were under Affliction or Persecution. Psalm 44, 60, 74, 79,80, 83, 89, 94, 102, 123, 137.
VII. The following are likewise Prayers in time of Trouble & Affliction. Psalm 4,5, 11, 28, 41, 55, 59, 64, 70, 109, 120, 140,141,142.
VIII. Prayers of Intercession. Psalm 20, 67, 122, 132, 144.

Psalms of Thanksgiving:
I. Thanksgivings for Mercies vouchsafed to particular persons. Psalm 9, 18, 21, 30, 34, 40, 75, 103, 108, 116, 118, 138, 144.
II. Thanksgivings for Mercies vouchsafed to the Israelites in general. Psalm 46, 48, 65, 66, 68, 76, 81, 85, 98, 105, 124, 126, 129, 135, 136, 149.

Psalms of Praise & Adoration, displaying the Attributes of God,
I. General acknowledgments & praise of God’s Goodness & Mercy, & particularly His Care & Protection of good men. Psalm 23, 34, 36, 91, 100, 103, 107, 117, 121, 145,146.
II. Psalms displaying the power, majesty, glory, & other attributes of the Divine Being. Psalm 8, 19, 24, 29, 33, 47, 50, 65,66, 76,77, 93, 95,96,97, 99, 104, 111, 113,114,115, l34, 139, 147,148, 150.

Instructive Psalms:
I. The different characters of Good & Bad men: the Happiness of the one, & the Miseries of
the other, are represented in the following Psalms, 1, 5, 7, 9,10,11,12, 14,15, 17, 24,25, 32, 34, 36,37, 50, 52,53, 58, 73, 75, 84, 91,92, 94, 112, 119, 121, 125, 127,128, 133.
II. The excellence of God’s Law (& Word). Psalm 19, 119.
III. The Vanity of human life. Psalm 39, 49, 90.
IV. Advice to Magistrates. Psalm 82, 101.
V. The virtue of Humility. Psalm 131.

Psalms more eminently & directly Prophetical. Psalm 2, 16, 22, 40, 45, 68, 72, 87, 110, 118.

Historical Psalms: Psalm 78, 105, 106. (Bp. Horne.)

Short Vocabulary:
Giving the signification of some old English words used in this translation, but not commonly spoken or written in this age, at least not in that sense in which our Translators took them.
(Abridged from ” Holy David and his old English Translators clear’d,” 8vo. 1706.)

Beast: ‘Any living creature, except man’; not only our Translators, but Mr. Ainsworth, calls serpents and fish “beasts.” Gen. 3:1; Psal. 104:25. And indeed our last Translators do the same; which shews that the word was taken in this sense for above sixty years after this translation was made.

Blaspheme: ‘To speak reproachfully either of God or man’. If we respect the etymology only it is more properly applicable to man, than to God: for it properly signifies to ‘hurt the fame or credit of another’. Ps. 4:2.

Blasphemy: ‘Reproach, or slander’, either against God, or man. Ps. 73:8.
Commune: ‘To discourse familiarly, to confer notes’.
Counsel: ‘Design, device, decree’, or ‘resolution’ & not only advice, or direction, as it is now commonly taken. Ps. 33:10.
Eschew: ‘Avoid, shun, decline’.
Fain: ‘Glad, merry’. We now use it adverbially, namely, ” I would fain,” that is, ‘gladly’ but we do not commonly use it as an adjective as our ancestors did. See Ps. 71:21.
Flitting: A ‘hasty removal’, or ‘flight’. It is still used in this sense in some parts of England. Ps. 54:8.
Flood: A ‘river’ or ‘stream’. See Ps. 72:8; 89:26. It should seem this word retained this signification commonly in our language at the beginning of the seventeenth century; for our last Translators use it in this sense. Josh. 24:3; Ps. 98:8.
Health: ‘Safety, protection, power of saving, salvation’ both spiritual and temporal. It evidently comes from the old English hael, which had the very same signification. Ps. xxii. 22:1, &c and our last Translators used the word “health” in this sense. Ps. 42:11.
Hell: Not only ‘the place of torments’, but ‘the place or state of deceased souls’, or what we commonly call ‘the other world’. It seems to come from “Helan,” to ‘cover’, or ‘hide’, as the Greek “Hades” likewise signifies ‘an obscure or unknown place’. Our Translators did well to retain the word in this sense, as they do in Ps. 30:3, and often elsewhere: for this helps us to understand those words of our Christian faith “He descended into Hell;” whereas, by losing the ancient signification of words, the people are
in danger to lose the sense and meaning of their Creed. Further, sometimes “Hell” signifies ‘death’ only, as in Ps. 18:4; 96:3.
Host: ‘Army’, or ‘very great company’, very often.
Imagine: To ‘contrive, plot, design’; so it signifies in the statute of treason, which makes it a crime punishable with death, ” to ‘imagine’ the death of the King,” &c. Ps. 2:1, and very often.
Instantly: ‘Importunately, zealously’. Ps. 55:18. We still say that a thing was done “at the instance,” that is, ‘at the earnest request’, of another. The adjective ‘instant’ signifies ‘importunate’, in our last translation, (Luke 23:23,) and in other places.
Leasing: ‘Lying, cheating, dissembling’. Ps. 4:2.
Lust: Not only ‘filthy carnal desires’, but any ‘eagerness of appetite’, or ‘violent irregular inclination’. Ps. 10:2. So to “lust,” and to “list” signify the same thing in this translation. Ps. 73:7.
Malicious: ‘Very bad, evil’, &c. Ps. 59:5. We now commonly understand by this word, ‘spitefid, envious’; the ancients did not so.
Nethermost: ‘Lowest’ Ps. 86:13. “Nether” is used for lower, by our last Translators. Deut. 24:6, &c.
Plague: Any ‘blow’ or ‘stroke’ of God’s correcting or punishing hand, (Ps. 38:17;) not the pestilence only. “To plague,” in common discourse, signifies, to ‘use any severe proceedings’.
Port: ‘Gate’, from the Latin “Porta.” We still call him who keeps the gate porter. Ps. 9:14.
Preacher: Not only ‘he that discourses publicly of religion’, but ‘any one that publishes’ or declares any thing. Ps. 68:11; 59:12. So “to preach” signifies to publish or declare.
Prevent: To go, or be before. There are two designs which one may have in “going before” another; either to guide and help, or to hinder or stop: accordingly the word signifies two contrary things, namely, to help forward, and to oppose, hinder, &c. In the Scripture and Liturgy, it is for the most part taken in the good sense, to ‘guide, help forward, assist’, or ‘be beforehand in kindness’, as in Ps. 21:3; sometimes in the bad sense, to ‘hinder, stand in one’s way’, &c. (Ps. 18:18:) at other places barely
to ‘go’, or ‘be before’, as in Ps. 119:148; and 1st Thess. 4:15.
Quick: ‘Alive’; & so to “quicken,” signifies to ‘give’ or ‘restore life’, to ‘revive’ or ‘enliven’. Ps. 34:2; 22:30.
Rebuke: Not only ‘severe reprehension’, but any manner of ‘hard’ or ‘reproachful language’. Ps. 69:21.
Reproof: is used in much the same sense with the former word ‘rebuke’, & does not only import,
‘grave’ & ‘severe admonition’, but any manner of ‘reproachful language’, any speech whereby we shew our dislike of another’s words or actions. Ps. 69:20.
Simple: ‘Unmixt, plain, without any fraud or guile’, or ‘worldly policy’; like a child, that has no art or cunning to help himself in any difficulty, and therefore is often oppressed and overreached by crafty & sharp men. It is generally used in a good sense in the Psalms and New Testament; namely, for ‘plain, undesigning, though abused’ men; but then, because such are subject to be caught & drawn into evil, by political & artificial men, therefore sometimes it denotes those who by this means are ‘betrayed to sin’, & ‘a fault’ committed through this ‘easy unwary temper’, is called “simpleness.” Ps. 69:5.
Well: A ‘spring, fountain’, or ‘small stream’, not only a ‘deep dug pit’, as now it commonly signifies. Ps. 36:9; 84:6.
Wholesome: ‘Safe’. We still say “wholesome food, air, law, counsel.” Ps. 20:6.
Wiliness: ‘Cunning, guile’. We still use the word “wiles,” from whence this comes. Ps. 10:2.
World: ‘Age, time’, not only the ‘universe’ or ‘earth’: thus it signifies in the doxology “world,’ that is ‘age’, or ‘time’, “without end.” So in the Nicene Creed, “before all worlds;” that is, before all ages, or before time itself was. Ps. 45:18.
Worship: ‘Majesty, dignity, excellency, what deserves to be honoured’, or ‘is honoured’; that glory and power in God, to which we pay our devotion: for so it signified to our Saxon ancestors. Our Translators use the word in this sense, (Ps. 3:3; 96:6;) and elsewhere. We now by “worship,” most commonly mean that ‘honour which we pay to God’; and our Translators often take it in that sense also. Further;
“worship” does not only signify, the eminent dignity which is in God, but that which is in a low degree ‘in man’; & this sense of the word is not yet lost even in our own common language: for we still call that honour & authority which belongs to a magistrate, “his worship.” Our Translators retain the word also in this sense, when they say, that “God gives worship,” that is, honour and dignity, “to them who lead a godly life.” Ps. 84:12. Nay, our last Translators use the word in, the same sense, (Luke 14:10;) where it is said, that the humble guest ” shall have worship in the presence of those who sit at meat with him.” Who can then wonder, that in the matrimonial office the husband is taught to “worship” his wife? that is, ‘to pay her all due respect’? for no one ever understood more by that expression, except he were blinded by unpardonable ignorance, or prejudice. There is then an honour, glory, dignity, or worship in the divine nature; and so there is, or may be, in men too. We must pay honour, glory, worship, principally to God, but in an inferior sense to men. It has been said that most controversies, now depending, are chiefly a strife about words, And from what has been said briefly concerning this & other words in this short vocabulary, it will appear, that several particulars which have been objected against in our Psalter, our Liturgy, & our very Creed, are far enough from being faulty in themselves, & have been thought so by some men, merely because they do not understand their own tongue……

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Christian Biblical Reflections.18

CBR.18: Job: III. Poetic Books: Job-Songs. mjmselim. July29, 2018
((Here are pages 375-486 of CBR, Chapter III, (in three submissions pages 375-402, CBR.18 (Job), 402-450 CBR.19 (Psalms), 450-486 CBR.20 (Proverbs-Song of Songs) of the Poetic Books from Job to Song of Songs, comprising Psalms with Job & Proverbs & Ecclesiastes, & Solomon’s Song of Songs. This Chapter III & Part III will be added to the PDF of CBR from Genesis to Esther, along with the final pages of the Chapter in a few days. CBR. Christian Biblical Reflections. mjmselim. 2018))
((I am now a month behind my plan & desire to post a submission once a month of the Books & the Key Book of the section or division in the Bible. In May a change in the primary PC that I use to study, research, and write on had to be retired, and I upgraded from a 32bit to a 64bit as required by the new Windows 10 updates. Several weeks of conflicts with a few of the software that I use, and other issues of devices and programs, including loss of some notes & pages, further delayed me. Then some personal matters needed attention, in particular our youngest daughter, now an adult, with CP, was hit by a vehicle while she crossed the street, several weeks in the hospital, then several weeks in rehab, followed now by several weeks at home slowly recovering from a severe head injury, She is learning to walk again, memory and speech coming along, but will be months for full recovery. God was kind to grant her life & recovery strength & we pray trusting for wisdom with grace for the rest. The research & selections of the Poetic Books of Wisdom & Love has been greater than I anticipated. I have corrected many errors, whether human or machine, and many more will be corrected as met with from time to time. I have been constrained to adopt new uses of punctuations (like the & sign & omission of the articles &c) to adapt to the digital limitations of standard processes of software & programs, especially as to italics & poetry display. I must regret that as to the single quote-mark (Apostrophe sign) used in the transliterated words from Hebrew, Greek, etc., I also adopted it for ‘italics’ instead of ‘i t a l i c s’, due to my Draft and Notes are done in Notepad with ANSI restrictions & limitations in Fonts; and since I did not want to use ‘Unicode’ for other reasons (when, say, it is viewed in non-Unicode programs or systems), and because I am a simple cobbler, quite limited in my PC skills, despite ‘ever learning new things, I must convert those ‘italics’ as I have time & opportunity, that I delay not any further this submission to the readers. mjm.))

Part III: PSALMS: JOB – ISAIAH: Poetic Books: Job. David’s Psalms. Solomon’s Proverbs. Solomon’s Koheleth’s Ecclesiastes. Solomon’s Song of Songs.

     The Pentateuch-Chumash of Moses, the Foundational Books of the Law, followed by the Historical Books of the Early Prophets & closing with the Kings of Israel & Judah, with the Nation of Israel in Captivity & Exile, and their return as a remnant of Jews illustrated by the Book of Esther; leads us now to the Poetic Books with the Book of Psalms as the 3rd Great Finger of the Divine Hand of the Word. As Genesis controlled & governed the Old Testament Books, and Deuteronomy, the Second Law built on the 10 Words (Commandments) of Mount Sinai-Horeb, controlled the 3 Books of Moses of Exodus, Leviticus, & Numbers, and also governed the rest of the Old Testament Books of the Tanakh-Mikra, so now the Psalms of David will govern & rule the 5 Scrolls or Megillot from Job to Solomon to the Prophets and to the New Testament. The Hebrews call the Poetic Books the Writings, and they list the 5 Books from Job to Songs as Psalms to Ecclesiastes or Koheleth, but adding also Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, & the Chronicles in their arrangement & order. In our reflections we will consider the 5 Books as they are found in our English Bibles. We will gather all the selections from the various writers who have left us their labors in their works on these Books, using only a mere fraction of what is available and what has been examined, read, & edited. Then after all the Books together in Notes, Outlines, Comments, & the like have been submitted, then we must needs reflect and explore the meaning & sense to our reflections & study. I have tried to restrict the the selections to what was most essential & helpful, with hundred of pages deliberately refusing inclusion to not swell the book. The works & writings of the ancients of the Jews & Christians would alone comprise several volumes of examples & illustrations. My goal is to show in general & readily available biblical literature the path my own search has taken in understanding. In the Poetic Books we are here concerned with I have further departed from my earlier method of the detail digest of the Bible Books, which were examples of how I & we become familiar with Scripture in all its details and peculiarities. The progression of doctrines, the growth of the seeds to plants & seeds, the forms of life from conception to birth to maturity continued to appear in our reading & reflections from Genesis to Esther. The Poetic & Prophetic Books will continue this venue with even more development, unfolding, & modifications as God & man mutually respond to each other, as each adapt to the other, and each fulfills their part —God moving towards His eternal purposes within the world of His creation, both universally & particularly has He determines.

    We will first present the selections on the Poetic Books, then we will offer our reflections with some other contributions relative to the Book. I have edited the Selections to conform towards modern usage & practice; many or frequent Roman Numerals have been changed; the Articles (definite & indefinite) are often omitted in Outlines and Charts or Tables, as well substitution of the Conjunction ‘and’ for &; all Hebrew & Greek words have been transliterated, and I have not adhered to any rigid system, save only general consistency; also I have taken liberty at times to Capitilize or alter the emphasis were it made no sense in modern practice. In all cases my additions & opinions are bracketed or enclosed to indicate that it is not the author or writer of the quote& citation. We have been attentive to the Divine words spoken directly by God in various ways, printed & signified by Red ink, we now add Blue or Purple ink to designate or identify God speaking indirectly by a Personification distinct from Inspiration of the Vehicle or Instrument of communication, as the author, writer, or speaker. We have the words & thoughts of the author or writer of the Book, then in the Book we have God speaking by quotations or citations defined in the writing, then finally we read of God speaking by means of representations of various means & persons, real or virtual, that is, personifications as Wisdom, the Voice in a Dream, as Thoughts in our Minds or Spirits, etc. Here are the Passages in the 5 Poetic Books of this Section:

Red Letters in the Poetic Books:
Job: 1:7a, 8, 12; 2:2a, 3, 6; 33:24 (Elihu’s quote in thought), 37:6 (Elihu’s quote in thought), 38-41 (all Red except Job’s words in 40:3-6); 42:7b-8.
Psalms: 2:6-9; 32:8-9 (but these words we might put in Blue or Purple as if Wisdom Personified speaks as in Proverbs 8); 50:5, 7-23; 60:6-8; 68:22-23; 75:2-5, 10 (again these verses might be Blue or Purple); 81:6-16; 82:2-7 (Red or Blue or Purple); 87:4, 7b (Purple: Red or Blue); 89:3-4, 19b-37; 90:3b (Moses’ quote); 91:14-16; 95:8-11; 105:11, 15; 108:7-9; 110:1, 4; 132:11-18.
Proverbs: (No words are in Red, but Wisdom (Chokhmah-Sophia) Personified speaks in Blue or Purple as a Parent, both Father and Mother in chapters 1-9, but especially in chapter 8 as the Female or Woman (Lady Wisdom).)
Ecclesiastes: (No Red or Blue in Koheleth. The Preacher is the Divine Voice.)
Song of Songs of Solomon: (No Red or Blue in the Song, but the Lovers speak in clear words of Love for the Beloved.)

The number of Quotations or References & Allusions of the Psalms in the New Testament is compared to certain other Old Testament Books are as follows: (See: Toy’s New Testament Quotations (1884))
Job: 8 times; Psalms: 150 times; Proverbs: 28 times; Ecclesiastes: 4 times; Song of Songs: 1 time Deuteronomy: 80 times; Isaiah: 160 times

JOB: (Selections from various authors, writers, commentaries, &c.)

     1: ’IYob, ’Yob, Iob,Job, Yob, Hiob. Unique Book, oldest Book in the Bible, oldest Poetry in the World. Religious Philosophy. Many Questions about the Book with many opposing views. In Job’s trial and sufferings God is tested , tried, and vindicated. Variant Years Job lived: 70+70=140 + 70=210 + 30=240. The Book has an Introduction (Chapters 1-2) & a Conclusion (Chapter 42). The Book is divided into 2 Parts or Halves (Chapters 1-21 & Chapters 22-42); and Job at 19:3 tells us that there were already 10 Times of rounds, turns, or exchanges between him and his friends. The 2nd half of Book reveals another 10 Times, thus in all the Book of Job consists of 20 Exchanges. Its unfortunate that the scholars have universally adopted the notion that ’10 times’ is merely a metaphor or figure of speech for ‘many times’. Pope Gregory the Great in his original 7-volume commentary, reprinted as 3-volume, of Sermons on Job called the Morals of the Book of Job, in the 6th century, (an excellent commentary & influence on the following generations), clearly saw the significance of Job’s 10 Times:
St Pope Gregory the Great, in Morals of the Book of Job, 591 A.D.,1845:
(Job 19:3) (‘Lo, these ten times ye confound me’. 30. On enumerating the successive times of the speeches of Job’s friends, we learn that as yet they had spoken but five times. But for this reason, that he had five times heard rebukes from them, and five times himself replied to their rebukes, he says that he had been ten times confounded; because both herein, viz. that he had been causelessly reproached, he suffered deeply, and in this, that he uttered words of instruction to those that gave no ear, he underwent confusion”.)

2: From: Biblical Companion, Introduction to Reading & Study of Holy Scriptures, etc. William Carpenter (1836):

1. Chapter III of the Poetical Books. Section I. Book of Job:

6. Chief Doctrines of Patriarchal Religion, as collected from different parts of the Poem by Dr. Hales & Mr. Good, are as follow:
(1) Creation of World by one Supreme & Eternal Intelligence. (38-42)
(2) Regulation by Perpetual and superintending Providence. (1:9,21; 2:10; 5:8-27; 9:4-13)
(3) Intentions of Providence effected by Ministrations of Heavenly Hierarchy. (1:6-7; 3:18-19; 5:1; 33:22-23)
(4) Heavenly Hierarchy, composed of various Ranks and Orders, possessing different Names,
Dignities, and Offices. As ‘obelim’= servants; ‘malachim’= angels; ‘melizim’= intercessors; ‘memitim’= destinies or destroyers; ‘alep’= chiliad or thousand; ‘kedoshim’, Sancti, heavenly saints or hosts generally. (4:18; 33:22-23; 5:2; 15:15)
(5) Apostasy, or defection, in some rank or order of these Powers (4:18; 15:15), of which Satan seems to have been one, and perhaps chief, (1:6-12; 2:2-7).
(6) Good and evil Powers or Principles, equally formed by the Creator, and hence equally denominated “Sons of God;” both of them employed by in Administration of Providence; and both amenable to Him at stated Courts, held for purpose of receiving an account of their respective missions. (1:6-7; 2:1)
(7) Day of future Resurrection, Judgment, and Retribution to all mankind. (14:13-15; 19:25-29; 21:30; 31:14)
(8) Propitiation of the Creator, in the case of human transgressions, by Sacrifices (1:5; 42:8); and the Mediation and Intercession of righteous person. (42:8-9)
(9) Idolatrous Worship of Heavenly Bodies a judicial offence, to be punished by Judge.(31:26-28)
(10) Innate Corruption of Man; or what is generally termed “Original Sin.” (14:4; 15:14-16; 35:4)

7. Several of these Doctrines are more clearly developed than others, but the whole of them are fairly deduced from the obvious meaning of the words.

8. Mr. Good, to whom we have been indebted for the foregoing outline, has remarked, that nothing can be more unfortunate for this most excellent composition than its division into chapters, and specially such a division as that in common use; in which, not only the unity of the general subject, but in many instances, that of a single paragraph, or even of a single clause, is completely broken in upon & destroyed. Various other divisions have been adopted. Dr. Hales, who excludes the Exordium & Conclusion, divides it into five parts; but Mr. Good, who justly remarks that these are requisite to the unity of the composition, divides it into six. We follow his arrangement, only dividing his sixth part into two. We have then:
1. History of Job’s Character & Trials (ch. 1-3)
2. First Series of Conversations or Controversy: Eliphaz’s Address (ch. 4-5); Job’s Answer (ch. 6-7); Bildad’s Address (ch. 8); Job’s Answer (ch. 9-10); Zophar’s Address (ch. 11); Job’s Answer (ch. 12-14)
3. Second Series of Controversy: Eliphaz’s Address (ch. 15); Job’s Answer (ch. 16-17); Bildad’s Address (ch. 18); Job’s Answer (ch.19); Zophar’s Address (ch. 20); Job’s Answer (ch. 21:4)
4. Third Series of Controversy: Eliphaz’s Address (ch. 22); Job’s Answer (ch. 23-24); Bildad’s Address (ch. 25); Job’s Answer (ch. 26-31).
5. Elihu’s Four Speeches to Job (ch. 32-37)
6. Jehovah’s 1st & 2nd Address to Job (ch. 38-41).
7. Humiliation of Job & final Prosperity (ch. 42).

3: From: Book of the Patriarch Job Translated from Original Hebrew by Samuel Lee.(1845)

Introduction: Preliminary Remarks:
….”The book is confessedly the most difficult one in the Hebrew Bible. It certainly is one of the most ancient. It was written in a country and in times altogether unlike those in which we live. Its matter and its language are of the most exalted and splendid description; while the influence which it has exerted on the whole Hebrew Bible, and the connexion which its doctrines evidently have with those of the New Testament, cannot but strike the Christian theologian as most interesting and valuable considerations.”
Section 9: On the Scope & Object of the Book of Job:
“A little consideration will enable us to see, that the primary object of this book is, to shew that there is a power attendant on true religion, sufficient to enable its possessor eventually to overcome every temptation and every trial. This, I say, is its ‘primary’ object. For, in the first and second chapters, which were apparently given as a key to the whole, we are informed that Job was a just and perfect man, and one who feared God. This was manifestly his character. It is suggested, however, by the great adversary of mankind, that, whatever appearances might be, a little trial would prove the contrary. The sacred penman assures us, by means of a vision (as already shewn) that, in order to prove the falsehood of this, Job is allowed to be exposed for a season to trials of the severest kind: but still he retained his integrity; and in the end came off victorious, to the entire approval of Almighty God, who restored him, and gave him wealth double in value to that of his former state of prosperity. He is also accepted in making a sort of atonement for the errors of his friends. I think, therefore, no doubt can remain, that this was the ‘primary object’ of this book.
A ‘secondary’ object seems to have been, to shew how very imperfect the notions even of good men are on the moral economy of God. The friends of our patriarch meet, as we are told, for the purpose of condoling with him; and there appears no reason, as far as I can see, for questioning their sincerity. The sufferer proceeds, in the first place, to state his afflictions, and then to pour out those lamentations and complaints which are natural to such a state. His friends, men evidently acquainted with revealed religion, and apparently very much in earnest as to accurate views respecting it proceed to correct him: they professedly take the side of God and their main endeavour is to vindicate His wisdom, justice, and mercy. For this purpose they argue from revelation, from experience, and from very extensive and just views of God’s works; and, as they are too well informed to suppose that there can be any effect without an adequate cause, particularly where there is an all-powerful, wise, and good God overruling all things; their conclusion is, that Job’s sins must have led to his sufferings. The patriarch very justly and very successfully combats their conclusions, without at all calling in question their several general doctrines; —for these were no doubt true, and worthy of all acceptation: —and in this, God Himself eventually declares for him. Their great fault was, the misapplication of truth. They knew not the real cause which led to Job’s trials, and the consequence was, they supposed one which was false; and to this were their arguments universally directed. The pertinacity and warmth with which they pressed their opinions, could not but have added considerably to Job’s sufferings; who evidently had a greater insight into the general dealings of God with believers than they had. Still there is no reason, as far as I can discover, for calling in question either their fidelity, good intentions, or sorrow for their friend. They only did what thousands daily do —they misapprehended the question at issue; and, as they were more willing to believe themselves right, than to stop and consider in how many ways they might be wrong, and, in fact, how very little they could know on the subject; they pressed their sentiments to an extent which real religion, good sense, and the sympathy due to a friend, would hardly justify: and of this, Job’s mission to them from the Almighty (chap. 42.) must have more than convinced them; and have shewn them to demonstration that, although He was truly no less mighty, wise, and good, than they had represented Him, yet that ‘His wisdom was unsearchable, and His ways past finding out’, to men such as they were.
A ‘third’ object apparently was, to provide a book of doctrine, as already remarked, adequate to the wants of believers for ever; illustrating, as just now stated, both the economy of God with His people, and their ignorance as to His thoughts and ways: to keep alive the doctrine of salvation through a Redeemer, the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and the certainty of a judgment to come. It might seem superfluous, after what has already been said, to dwell on the other doctrines, promises, and experience, inculcated throughout this book, and so frequently appealed to in the subsequent books of the Old Testament, as well as in the New. I shall conclude, therefore, merely by remarking, that the most severe inquiry into its contents, the most careful comparison of it with the rest of Holy Scripture; the genuineness of its piety, the purity and beauty of its morality, the great extent of its range, the exquisite chasteness at once of its style and sentiments, and, above all, the solidity and depth of its devotion, cannot but conspire to recommend it as one of the most valuable productions of antiquity ; at the same time, as a book of undoubted inspiration, and of the most unquestionable canonical authority. And my sincere prayer is, that every reader of it may receive as much pleasure and edification in perusing its declarations, as I have in this endeavour to translate and elucidate them.”

Book of Job: Translation: Chapter Summary: Chapters 1-2: Introduction:
Job’s place of residence, character, wealth; children, religious care for them; cause of his trials. Loss of his wealth and children; his pious resignation to all this. The real cause of Job’s afflictions; his afflictions, and integrity under them; the visit and surprise of his friends.
Chapter 3:
Job reviles the day and circumstances of his birth; he denounces the night of his conception; laments his existence; describes the freedom and rest of the dead; laments that light and life are supplied to the miserable; slates his own deplorable but innocent case.
Chapters 4-5:
Eliphaz apologises for speaking; commends Job’s former conduct, but deplores his dejection on it’s occasion, reminds him of the power of faith; of God’s particular providence over good men, and severity against the wicked. Describes a vision afforded to him, gives its substance. Declares that God is the only sure refuge; that the foolish who seek safety elsewhere fail. Sin natural to man. The great power and goodness of God set forth, shewing that He confounds the wise, but saves the humble. The blessedness of him whom God chastises; his safety under all circumstances, the assurance of such an one, that he shall prosper, and his family after him.
Chapters 6-7:
Job insists on the severity of his afflictions; the insipidity of his friend’s reasoning; requests that God would consider his case; his determination to believe in Him at all events; confesses his weakness as a man, but insists on an inward source of help; the duty of a friend; the unfaithfulness of Job’s friends; favours deeply felt by the distressed; but if injuries are inflicted, they are easily reduced to silence, banished, and destroyed; Job’s friends wearied without any just cause; the arguments of a poor and afflicted man allowed to have no weight; an intreaty to reconsider Job’s case. The state of man a warfare: as the slave hopes for a season of rest, and the hireling looks for his wages, so Job’s days and nights were full of expectation, but were followed only by still greater pains, intimating his approaching death. No earthly return to be expected from the grave. Job, therefore, requests permission to give vent to his sufferings; recites the distresses of his couch, and desires to be let alone; mans worthlessness stated. Job requests a remission of his sufferings; and, as he cannot atone for his sins, deprecates the punishment, and prays for the pardon of them, believing that he soon must die.
Chapter 8:
Bildad rebukes Job on God’s behalf, declaring that God is just, and that if he duly seek Him, his miseries shall come to end; refers Job to the experience of past ages, and instances their sentiments by allusions to natural and historical events, to shew that the wicked are of short duration, and of rapid decay and succession; and concludes by declaring, that the faithful are never forsaken of God, nieither are the sinful encouraged; and that, if he were faithful, such should be his experience.
Chapters 9-10:
Job accedes to the reasoning of Bildad, as to God’s power and man’s inability to plead with Him, and recounts many of His wonderful works: stating, at the same time, his own ignorance and weakness. He further enlarges on his own weakness and unworthiness, introducing his afflictions, and affirming that were he even just —what his opponents charge him with assuming —that would only serve to humble him the more. He concludes the paragraph by maintaining the strict justice of God. He laments the rapid, unprofitable, and painful lapse of his time; his inability to shake off his sorrows; his consciousness of his own sin; and the inability of his afflictions to wash this away. He acknowledges the greatness of God; and concludes by praying that God would take away his afflictions. —Job continues his complaint, desiring to be informed on what principle it is that God chooses to afflict him. Declares that God had wonderfully constructed him, and had dealt favourably with him. Confesses his own sin, and maintains God’s good providence. Speaks, too, of His occasional severity and favour. Laments his own birth, but desires to be restored before his departure.
Chapter 11:
The first answer of Zophar the N’aamathite, in which he accuses Job of much and loud profession of his own purity: wishes that God would answer him, and shew him the transcendent value of wisdom, and the sin under which he so blindly laboured. Asserts the incomprehensibility of the Almighty, and man’s imperfections. Affirms that, if Job had duly regulated his own mind, and put away iniquity from him, he might have looked up in innocence; that, with his sin, his misery would have ceased; and that, although he might have felt occasional distress, yet, on the whole, he should be in safety and peace, while the wicked should entirely fail.
Chapters 12-14:
Job replies, justifying his right and fitness to do so; complains of neglect from his friends; allows the truth of their doctrines, and that it is obvious the hand of God is in this matter; dwells still more particularly on the marks of God’s overruling power, as discoverable from events. Affirms his own fitness, as before, to judge of these matters, and accuses his opponents of ignorance; reproves them for attempting to justify God’s doings on sinful principles; presumes that the awful situation in which he places himself ought to evince his sincerity; and, therefore, requests they would give him a patient hearing; calls earnestly on God to afford him an answer, requesting however a remission of his sufferings in the interval, in order that he may be able to give the deeper consideration to his own case; hopes that the various causes of his trials will be specified; and then briefly enumerates his sufferings. Details the frailty, imperfection, short-lived, and hopeless state of man as such; requests that Divine justice would relax its severity with such an one; being, as to futurity, less hopeful than the stump of a tree which may be buried in the earth; prays that even the grave may prove a hiding-place for him; justifies his hoping still in God, and trusts that his sins shall be forgiven; concludes by stating the miserable life and death of those who are altogether differently circumstanced.
Chapter 15:
Eliphaz rejoins, stating that the arguments of Job are worthless, but nevertheless such as to convict him of impiety; demands whence it is that he lays claim to so much knowledge; why God’s known mercies and declarations are so little regarded by him; and why he is so bold and ready to contend; contrasts the character of God with that of man; and then proceeds to argue from known revealed truths; which declare that the vicious man cannot but be miserable, hopeless, and always beset with fear; and this because of rebellion against God; that, whatever might be his state, it must end in destruction. He ends with an exhortation to live and to act differently.
Chapters 16-17:
Job again answers Eliphaz; reproaches him and his friends with want of sympathy and knowledge; affirms that similar arguing on his own part would be unprofitable; that God has really afflicted him, and that hence it is, his enemies have power to oppress and injure him; enlarges on his afflictions; describes his afflictions more particularly; dwells on his innocency; affirms that his best witness, mediator, judge, and friend, is above, where his cause shall be tried; and looks with hope to the period of his departure. Renews his complaint; calls on his friends for fidelity; complains of their ignorance and perfidy; restates the greatness of his affliction; the effect which his case shall have upon good men generally; the case different with his friends; entreats them, therefore, to change their minds; complains of the unprofitableness of his time, and the ignorance of his friends; looks to the end of his course as the only source of hope.
Chapter 18:
Bildad offers his second reply: complains of the length of the dispute, and that they had been treated too unceremoniously by Job; proceeds to recount the failures of the wicked, in a strain not unlike that resorted to in his former discourse. His arguments are, therefore, quite general, and by no means applicable to the case of the patriarch.
Chapter 19:
Job, in his reply to Bildad, complains of contemptuous treatment [for 10 times or turns], and perseveres in declaring that his affliction is from God; complains also that his cause is disregarded; that he is beset on every side, attacked, and injured; that hosts encompass him, that his friends are put far away from him; that his kinsfolk and friends have deserted him; that his servants, inmates, wife, had all taken part against him; that even the abjects spoke openly against him, and his familiar friends had turned from him; laments his emaciated state of body, and solicits pity; deplores the insensibility of his friends; and wishes that his sufferings were recorded; declares his faith in the Redeemer, who should appear in after-times on the earth; his assurance that he should in his flesh see God and be justified; and warns his friends of the judgment to come.
Chapter 20:
Zophar’s apology for his reply; dwells, as before, on the vanity of wickedness, and the excellency of true religion —particularly here on the former, insisting that ill-gotten wealth shall be rendered back, and ill-won honours soon descend to corruption; dwells on the bitter effects of sin, its natural progress to poverty and misery; on the principle of God’s overruling providence; insists that oppression in principle, shall be followed by its own fruits, distress in experience; and so quick shall this be, that it shall take effect in the very height of one’s enjoyments; shall fall from heaven above, and be generated in the earth beneath, in all the dreadful visitations derivable from these sources; and which shall follow him into another world, while his posterity falls in this; concludes by declaring, that such is the universal portion of the wicked, and that God is the Author of it.
Chapter 21:
Job requests attention to his reply as a right; and which, if granted, could not but administer to his friends satisfaction: asserts that, if he had considered man as his judge, the treatment he had met with would be reasonable enough; allows that the prosperity of the wicked, their growing strength, wealth, health, and family, had greatly perplexed him. Concludes, nevertheless, that he chose not their counsels. He next proceeds to shew that, still they were subject to calamities, afflictions, and other dreadful visitations from God; and that this they themselves saw and felt: and concludes that their experience is, after all, truly miserable. In the next place, he shews that a common fate seems, in these respects, to attend upon all which is the pure result of Divine Providence, the ways of which are inscrutable to man. In the last place, he shews that his opponents had applied this sort of inconclusive reasoning, as sufficient to determine his real character; deprecates the vanities of the rich ungodly man; and concludes that perverseness and error alone had directed the replies of his opponents.
Chapter 22:
Eliphaz here commences a third series of arguments; and, as before, is profuse in excellent remarks, not one of which is applicable to the case of Job. He first dilates on marl’s unprofitableness to God; then on the small importance of Job’s case; then on what he deems his positive sins; and then concludes, that, on this latter account, he was both inevitally blinded, and deservedly visited with affliction. He next accuses him with supposing that, as God is very highly exalted above the heavens. He could not, of necessity, judge a cause so far removed from Him. He next adopts some of Job’s expressions, in the preceding chapter, and retorts their import upon him. He next dwells on the views which the good must take of these occurrences, among whom he evidently includes himself; alludes apparently to the fall of Sodom, &c. by way of illustration; and exhorts Job accordingly: concludes by affirming, that if Job will return to God’s service, he shall be restored to wealth, religious assurance, and real happiness, that his prayers shall be heard, his influence extended, and that by this means he shall be relieved and supported.
Chapters 23-24:
Job complains of the weight of his affliction, and desires to bring his case before God; declares that under His mercy he shall be safe; and laments that he cannot find Him: insists that he shall eventually be delivered, because he has treasured up God’s commands, and has not swerved from them in his conduct; argues that God is independent, and will fulfil all His will; declares that hence he is confounded, knowing, as he does, that all his afflictions come from Him primarily, and from no other power. Renews this argument, and affirms, that believers are necessarily ignorant of many of God’s purposes. He then proceeds to recount some of the vicious practices in which men are allowed to indulge; he states and exemplifies their wicked principles, as centering in a hatred of the light, and as exerting themselves in the works of darkness; the active and rapacious character of such, and their certain fate; recounts their injurious but insinuating properties, their success, their consequent jealousies and anxieties, their short triumph, and final destruction; and concludes by challenging a refutation of his sentiments.
Chapter 25:
Bildad now offers his third and last reply (see chap. 8. & 18.), asserting the all-comprehensive power, majesty, wisdom, and goodness of God. He then compares with this, briefly but pointedly, the weakness, meanness, ignorance, and impurity of man; and asks, Can such a being be just with God? He then calls the attention of Job to the more splendid portions of the universe; all of which he pronounces dull and unclean, with reference to their Maker: and concludes by observing, that much more is man, who, with respect to these, sinks necessarily into the character of a worm!
Chapters 26-31:
Job objects to Biidad’s want of charity, and of wisdom: compares the efficacy of his reasoning with the heathenish notion that dead heroes are still possessed of power; and to this opposes the wisdom and power of God, as evinced in the world about him. Job calls God to witness, —affirming that he is in sound and sane mind, —that nothing but truth shall have utterance with him; and that, at all events, he will never give up his faith. He then refutes the position that his affliction must have arisen from his own wickedness; because the fact is, wicked men do grow rich; and although they may then pass themselves for just and good men, on this faulty hypothesis; still God’s judgments shall, first or last, fall on them and their children. Job now allows that men do possess much learning, and put forth much industry. He dwells on their range both of science and of art; and on the effects and benefits thence derived. He then proceeds to shew, that still true wisdom —such as is calculated duly to deal with this question —is as far beyond the reach of man, as it is more valuable than earthly wealth. He repeats his assertions, adding, that there is a report indeed of this, among the rulers of the darkness of this world, —heathenism itself containing some traditions respecting it; —but that it is known only from God’s revelation. The reason is this: His knowledge is infinite: it is the source of all the wisdom visible in His creation: and He has declared that, as far as man can realise it, the fear of God is the ground on which he must proceed. Job laments his fall from prosperity, during which he had so much power, and did so much good; when he was, consequently, so highly venerated, and had so much reason to expect that his days would end in the happiness usually granted to such a life. But now, he continues, every thing is reversed: now the very dregs of society laughed him to scorn: men who had formerly been banished for their wickedness to the inhospitable deserts. He recounts instances of their insolence, and of his own feelings; states his disappointment, that his usual care and prayers for others had not prevented his affliction; and that thus unaccountably —on vulgar views his happiness had ceased. Gives up all hope of a future family. Joins Bildad in declaring, that God’s judgments are eventually the portion of the wicked; and consequently would be his own, if he had followed their ways. Maintains, nevertheless, that God knew his course to have been different, and yet had laid these afflictions on him. Desires that God would undertake for him, and that all his cause should be carefully gone into. (Job’s words ends.)
Chapters 32-37:
Elihu, seeing that Job’s friends failed to give him a satisfactory answer, is emboldened to shew his views of the subject; apologises for doing so from the consideration of his youth. Declares his sincerity, and challenges Job to refute whatever he may now advance; adduces instances of Job’s rashness; charges him with error, on the ground that the counsels of God are too high for him; and adduces some things in proof; affirms that there is an Intercessor, who undertakes for man in such cases; by whom he obtains redemption, and returns to a state like that of youth, in which he is humble and dependent; claims attention to this. Elihu commences his argument as before, by adducing some of Job’s assertions; which he condemns; enters on the abstract character of God, and vindicates His proceedings; argues against the wickedness and folly of contending with Him; and recounts instances of His justice, omnipresence, goodness, and power; speaks of His dealings with men; reprobates the practice of approaching Him with confessions flattering to self, and hence prescribing in some degree to His wisdom and power; and concludes here, that Job had spoken in ignorance and impiety. Elihu denies that Job is just with God; calla in question some of his arguments advanced on this point; reprobates them on the ground of Job’s ignorance and weakness, alleging that such considerations can apply only between man and man; and concludes that the assumption is false. —Elihu resumes, craving attention from the consideration, that his words shall be sincere, and convincing. Asserts God’s power, mercy, and justice: speaks of His ways, as proving this. Declares the fate of the ungodly, as contrasted with the experience of the humble; affirms that Job’s punishments were intended to bring him to repentance, and prosperity; and warns him not to overlook this. Speaks of God’s power to relieve, and reprobates the disposition to dispute this. Exhorts Job to magnify His doings for the instruction of others. Appeals to the operations of the heavens in proof of His great power and goodness, and of His hatred of sin. The terrors conceived at the discharge of the lightning and noise of the thunder; the wonders of the falling snow and rain: the object of these is, that men may acknowledge Him. Dilates on the habits of the wild beasts; on the action of the elements heat and cold; the spreading out of the rain clouds: all for the fulfilment of the Divine will. Contrasts this with the ignorance and weakness of man; and concludes that, as He cannot be answered as to any of His counsels or ways, it is the duty of man to fear Him.
Chapters 38-42:
Jehovah Himself now proceeds to determine the question at issue. He answers, therefore from the whirlwind. By calling into question Job’s knowledge, on the grounds of his recent birth and excessive impotence; hence averring, that ignorance lay at the bottom of all his complaints. Enters particularly into these considerations, in order to convince Job of the folly of his reasonings. Interrogates him as to the secrets of the deep; as to the phenomena of the light; as to the treasuries of snow and hail; as to the distribution of the light, the winds, the rains, and the course of the thunderbolt; as to the production of the rain, the cold, the frost, the influences of the heavenly bodies on the earth; and whether Job can, by his command, direct their proceedings. He next presses him as to his knowledge and influence, with respect to things on the earth. Whether he can undertake to provide for the ravenous beasts and birds. Whether he knows the times, seasons, and practices of the fugitive mountain tribes; of the fiercer and swifter beasts of the deserts. Enquires whether he can command the more powerful animals to render him service, or can trust to them to secure his profits; whether he has made the horse such as he is, courageous, powerful, and swift; whether he regulates the properties of the more powerful birds. Jehovah continues His interrogatories; and Job confesses his vileness and ignorance. Jehovah resumes, calling upon Job to give evidence of his power; and declares that, when this is done, then will He justify and praise him. Calls upon him to view His power, as evinced in the formation of the more powerful quadrupeds: states their astonishing properties. Directs his attention to the monsters of the deep, and to their terrific characters. Digresses, in order to impress on Job the greater danger of contending with Him who formed these; and proceeds with an enumeration of their astonishing powers, fearful properties, and invincible tempers.
Chapter 42:
Job, humbled by the consideration of the greatness and wisdom of God, ascribes all power to Him, and to himself ignorance and shame; affirming that now indeed he saw God in His true and all- overwhelming character. Eliphaz is now addressed as to himself and friends; and on their part the judgment is, that their error was much greater than that of Job. Eliphaz, and his friends, therefore
now offer up their sin-offering by Job, who acts as priest; and the offering is accepted. After this, the relatives and friends of Job resort to him; and, in addition to his great wealth, which was now double of what it had been, each makes him a suitable present; a second family is given to the Patriarch; and he is blessed with an extraordinary long life [140+70 = 210 years] in the enjoyment of it. Upon the whole, Job’s natural feelings had led him to complain, where his faith ought to have produced acquiescence and thanksgiving. Ignorance of God’s great object in this, was undoubtedly the cause of alt the errors of the Patriarch. Job’s friends were still more to blame, because they had, by the scanty measure of their own understanding, attempted to determine what God would, or would not, do. While Job, therefore, peevishly lamented and complained of the ways of God, they determined, and impiously circumscribed, them.
(Lee’s Parallel & Reference verses in his Notes on Job number in the hundreds.)

4: From: Book of Job by Driver-Gray, (1921), & Introduction to the Old Testament (1921)

Driver-Gray: Prologue, Dialogue [& Monologue], and Epilogue. § 19. The use of the Divine Names in different parts of the Book is as follows: ’El = 55; ’Eloah = 41; Shaddai = 31; ’Elohim = 14; ha’Elohim = 3; Yhwh = 29
There are 63 similar or parallel verses in Job with other OT books (Driver-Gray & others) (Isaiah: 11 passages; Jer. & Lam.: 6+9; Prov.: 13; Psalms: 12; also some 12 times in Gen., Deut., Amos, Mal., Qoh. (Eccleas.) and Apcrph Siriach.

Driver-Gray Outline: (Driver’s last work at death was his commentary on Job.)
1. Introduction or Prologue,1-2.
2. Speeches of Job and Three Friends, 3-31.
3. Speeches of Elihu, 32-37.
4. Speeches of Yahweh with Job’s Responses, 38-42.
5. Conclusion or Epilogue, 42.

Driver-Gray Introduction to Old Testament Literature: v1, sect. 31:
1. Prologue, 1-2
2. Job’s soliloquy, 3
3. Dialogue between the Friends & Job:
First cycle of speeches: Eliphaz, 4-5; Job, 6-7; Bildad, 8; Job, 9-10; Sophar, 11; Job, 12-14
Second cycle of speeches: Eliphaz, 15; Job, 16-17; Bildad, 18; Job 19; Sophar, 20; Job, 21;
Third cycle of speeches: Eliphaz, 22; Job, 23-24; Bildad, 25 (+? 26); Job, 27; Sophar ?, 27;
[28, Poem on Wisdom]; [32-37, Elihu [Monologues]] Job’s closing soliloquy, 29-31
4. Yahweh, 38-40. Job, 40-42
5. Epilogue, 42

5: From: Book of Job by Albert Barnes (1854): General Analysis:

Part First:
Historical Introduction, in Prose, Chs.1-2. [Job, Family, House, Friends, the Lord, Satan, Job’s Afflictions & Sufferings]
Part Second:
Argument, or Controversy, in Verse, Chs. 3-42. [Dialogues, Monologues, Reflections, Questions, Answers, Debate, Observations, Doctrines, Views, Ideas, Concepts, Opinions, Accusations, Warnings, Advice, Excuses, Self-Defense, Theories, Interpretations, etc.; with Praises, Blessings, & Prayers]
I. 1st Series in Controversy, chs. 3-14.
(1.) Job opens discussion by cursing his birth-day, and by bitter complaint of his calamity, ch. 3.
(2.) Speech of Eliphaz, chs. 4-5.
(3.) Answer of Job, chs. 6-7. [to Friends & to God]
(4.) Speech of Bildad, ch. 8.
(5.) Answer of Job, chs. 9-10. [to Friends & to God]
(6.) Speech of Zophar, ch. 11.
(7.) Answer of Job, chs. 12-14. [to Friends & to God]
II. 2nd Series in Controversy, chs. 15-21.
(1.8) Speech of Eliphaz, ch. 15.
(2.9) Answer of Job, chs. 16-17. [to Friends & to God]
(3.10) Speech of Bildad, ch. 18.
(4.11) Answer of Job, ch. 19.
(5.12) Speech of Zophar, ch. 20.
(6.13) Answer of Job, ch. 21.
III. 3rd Series in Controversy, chs. 22-31.
(1.14) Speech of Eliphaz, ch. 22.
(2.15) Answer of Job, chs. 23-24.
(3.16) Speech of Bildad, ch. 25.
(4.17) Answer of Job, chs. 26-31. [to Friends & to God]
IV. Speech of Elihu, chs. 32-37. [to Job & Friends]
V. Close of the Discussion, chs. 38-42.
(1.) Speech of the Almighty, chs. 38-41.
(2.) Response and penitent confession of Job, ch. 42.
Part Third:
Conclusion, in Prose, Ch 42:7-17. [The Lord, Job, Job’s Friends, Restoration & Blessings.]

6: From: Book of Job. New Critical Revised Translation Essays Scansions Date, etc. G. H. B. Wright.(1883)

Wright lists hundreds of examples of verses as parallels & similarities between Job & the other OT Books: Gen., Ex., Deut., Josh., 2nd Sam., Kings, and Isaiah: in attempt to prove Job is an Israelite. He compares Job with passages in Amos, Hosea, Micah, Isaiah, Zephaniah, Obadiah, Habakkuk, Joel, & Jeremiah & Lamentations, & Psalms & Proverbs. The Book of Job displays mastery of Ancient Semitic Poetic forms of cantos, stanzas, and stichi (lines) used irregularly with or without parallelisms and repetitions; with adherence to scansion & paronomasia with other figures of speech or symbolic expressions. Aramaisms are frequent.

7: From: Book of Job Old Testament Commentary on Holy Scriptures, Critical, Doctrinal, & Homiletical, etc. Editor of German Edition: John Peter Lange, D.D. Translated, Enlarged, and Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D. A Rhythmical Version with Introduction & Annotations by Tayler Lewis, LL.D.; Commentary by Otto Zockler, D.D., Translated from German Edition by L.J. Evans, D.D. General Introduction to Poetical Books by P. Schaff (1874)

1. Schaff: General Introduction to Poetical Books of OT:
Literature, Origin, Religion, Bible, Hebrew Spirit, Merit, Different Kinds, Lyric, Didactic, Prophetic, Dramatic, Diction, and Versification & Parallelism of Members.

2. Lewis: New Rhythmical Version Book of Job:
A. Theism, Ideas of Future Life among Surrounding Nations, Pure Theism to be First Taught, Various Views, Theophany, Grounds of Job’s Commendation, Work of Art, Elihu’s Speech, Book Not a Solution of the Problem of Evil, and Truthfulness of the Narrative.
B. Special Introduction to the Rhythmical Version: Term, Rhythmical or Metrical, Hebrew Parallelism, Divisions, Elements, Lines, Poetry [Poem] or Prose, Language & Style, Text, and Notes Exegetical, Critical, Commentators, etc. With Addenda of Excursus (12 in all) on Chapters 19, 21-28, 21, 22, on Hebrew Word for Wisdom-Truth (tushiyah), 26, 27-30, 28, 29, 30, 33, 38,

3. Zockler-Evans: Preface & Introduction to Commentary:
120 comparisons or correspondences between Job and Isaiah.

Historical Introduction (In Prose): Chap. 1-2: Job’s character & course of life. Divine decree to try Job through suffering. Milder form of trial by taking away his possessions. Preparatory scene in heaven. Execution of decree of trial on possessions and family of Job. Job’s constancy and patience. Severer trial by the loss of health. Preparatory scene in heaven. Fulfillment of the decree in Job’s terrible disease. Job’s steadfastness in piety. Visit of the 3 friends, & their mute sympathy, as an immediate preparation for the action of the poem.

First Chief Division of the Poem: Entanglement, or the controversial discourses [ Dialogue-Monologue Debate] of Job & his 3 friends: Chaps. 3-28:
Outbreak of Job’s Despair, as theme and immediate occasion of the Colloquy: Chap. 3: Job curses his day. He wishes that he were in the realm of the dead rather than in this life. He asks why he, being weary of life, must still live.

First Series of Controversial Discourses [Dialogue Debate]: Entanglement in its beginning: Chaps. 4-14:
Eliphaz & Job: Chaps. 4-7: Accusation of Eliphaz: Man must not speak against God, as Job is doing. Introductory reproof of Job, on account of his unmanly complaint, by which he could
only incur God’s wrath. Account of a heavenly revelation, which declared to him the wrongfulness and foolishness of weak sinful man’s raving against God. Admonition to repentance, as the only means by which Job can recover God’s favor, and his former happy estate. Job’s Reply: Instead of comfort the friends bring him only increased sorrow. Justification of his complaint by pointing out the greatness and incomprehensibleness of his suffering. Complaint on account of the bitter disappointment which he had experienced at the hands of his friends. Recurrence to his former complaint on account of his lot, and an accusation of God.
Bildad & Job: Chaps. 8-10: Bildad’s rebuke: Man must not charge God with injustice, as Job has done, for God never does wrong. Censure of Job on account of his unjust accusation against God. Reference to the wise teachings of the ancients, in respect to the merited end of those who forget God. Softened application of these teachings to the case of Job. Job’s Reply: Assertion of his innocence, and a mournful description of the incomprehensibleness of his suffering as a dark horrible destiny. God is certainly the Almighty and ever-righteous One, who is to be feared; but His power is too terrible for mortal man. Oppressive effect of this omnipotence and arbitrariness of God impels him, as an innocent sufferer, to presumptuous speeches against God. Plaintive description of the merciless severity with which God rages against him, although, as an Omniscient Being, He knows that he is innocent.
Zophar & Job: Chaps. 11-14: Zophar’s violent arraignment of Job, as one who needs to submit in penitence to the all-seeing & all-righteous God: Chap. 11. Expression of the desire that the Omniscient One would appear to convince Job of his guilt: vers. Admonitory description of the impossibility of contending against God’s omniscience, which charges every man with sin. Truly penitent has in prospect restoration of his prosperity, for the wicked how ever there remains no hope. Job’s Reply: Attack upon his friends, whose wisdom and justice he earnestly questions. Ridicule of the assumed wisdom of the friends, who can give only a very unsatisfactory description of the exalted power and wisdom of the divine activity. Resolution to betake himself to God, righteous Judge, who, in contrast with harshness and injustice of the friends, will assuredly do him justice. Vindication of himself addressed to God, beginning with the haughty asseveration of his own innocence, but relapsing into a despondent cheerless description of brevity, helplessness, and hopelessness of man’s life.

Second Series of Controversial Discourses [Dialogue Debate]: Entanglement increasing: Chaps. 15-21:
Eliphaz & Job: Chaps. 15-17: Eliphaz: God’s punitive justice is revealed only against evil-doers.
Recital, with accompanying rebuke, of all in Job’s discourses and conduct that is perverted, and that bears witness against his innocence. Didactic admonition on the subject of the retributive justice of God in the destiny of the ungodly. Job: Although oppressed by his disconsolate condition, he nevertheless wishes and hopes that God will demonstrate his innocence against the unreasonable accusations of his friends. (A brief preliminary repudiation of the discourses of the friends as aimless and unprofitable). Lamentation on account of the disconsolateness of his condition, as forsaken and hated by God and men. Vivid expression of the hope of the future recognition of his innocence. Sharp censure of the admonitory speeches of the friends as unreasonable, and as having no power to comfort.
Bildad & Job: Chaps. 18-19: Bildad: Job’s passionate outbreaks are useless, for the divine ordinance, instituted from of old, is still in force, securing that the hardened sinner’s merited doom shall suddenly and surely overtake him. Sharp rebuke of Job, the foolish and blushing boaster.
Description of the dreadful doom of the hardened evil-doer. Job: His misery is well-deserving of sympathy; it will however all the more certainly end in his conspicuous vindication by God, although not perhaps till the life beyond. (Introduction: Reproachful censure of the friends for maliciously suspecting his innocence). Sorrowful complaint because of the suffering inflicted on him by God and men. Uplifting of himself to a blessed hope in God, his future Redeemer and Avenger. Earnest warning to the friends against the further continuance of their unfriendly attacks.
Zophar & Job: Chaps. 20-21: Zophar: For a time indeed the evil-doer can be prosperous, but so much the more terrible and irremediable will be his destruction. Introduction, violently censuring Job, and theme of the discourse. Expansion of the theme, showing from experience that the prosperity and riches of the ungodly must end in the deepest misery. Job: That which experience teaches concerning the prosperity of the wicked during their life on earth argues not against, but for his innocence. Calm, but bitter introductory appeal to the friends. Along with the fact of the prosperity of the wicked, taught by experience, stands the other fact of earthly calamities befalling the pious and righteous. Rebuke of the friends for setting forth only one side of that experience, and using that to his prejudice.

Third Series of Controversial Discourses [Dialogue & Monologue Debate]: Entanglement reaching its extreme point: Chap. 22-28:
Eliphaz & Job: Chap. 22-24: Eliphaz: Reiterated accusation of Job, from whose severe sufferings it must of necessity be inferred that he had sinned grievously, and needed to repent. Charge made openly that Job is a great sinner. Earnest warning not to incur yet severer punishments. Admonition to repent, accompanied by the announcement of the certain restoration of his prosperity to him, when penitent. Job: Inasmuch as God withdraws Himself from him, and that moreover His allotment of men’s destinies on earth is in many ways most unequal, the incomprehensibleness of His dealings may thus be inferred, as well as the short-sightedness and one-sidedness of the external theory of retribution held by the friends. Wish for a judicial decision by God in his favor is repeated, but is repressed by the agonizing thought that God intentionally withdraws from him, in order that He may not be obliged to vindicate him in this life. Darkness and unsearchableness of God’s ways to be recognized in many other instances of an unequal distribution of earthly prosperity among men, as well as in Job’s case.
Bildad & Job: Chap.25-26: Bildad: Again setting forth contrast between God’s exaltation and human impotence. Man cannot argue with God. Man is not pure before God. Job: Rebuke of his opponent, accompanied by a description, far surpassing his, of exaltation and greatness of God. Sharp Rebuke of Bildad. Description of the incomparable sovereignty and exaltation of God, given to eclipse far less spirited attempt of Bildad in this direction.
Job alone [Monologue]: His closing address to the vanquished friends: Chap. 27-28:
Renewed solemn asseveration of his innocence, accompanied by a reference to his joy in God, which had not forsaken him even in the midst of his deepest misery. Statement of his belief that prosperity of the ungodly cannot endure, but that they must infallibly come to a terrible end. Declaration that true Wisdom, which alone can secure real well-being, and correct solution of the dark enigmas of man’s destiny on earth, is to be found nowhere on earth, but only with God, and by means of pious submission to God.

Second Chief Division of Poem. Disentanglement of mystery through discourses [Monologues]
of Job, Elihu and Jehovah: Chap. 29-42:
First Stage of the Disentanglement: Chap. 29-31: Job’s Soliloquy [Monologue]: Setting forth truth that his suffering was not due to his moral conduct, that it must have therefore a deeper cause. [Negative side of solution of problem.] Yearning retrospect at the fair prosperity of his former life: Describing outward aspect of this former prosperity. Pointing out the inward cause of this prosperity his benevolence and righteousness. Describing that feature of his former prosperity which he now most painfully misses, namely, the universal honor shown him, and his far reaching influence. Sorrowful description of his present sad estate: Ignominy and contempt he receives from men; Unspeakable misery which everywhere oppresses him; Disappointment of all his hopes. Solemn asseveration of his innocence in respect to all open and secret sins: He has abandoned himself to no wicked lust; He has acted uprightly in all the relations of his domestic life; He has constantly practiced neighborly kindness and justice in civil life; He has moreover not violated his more secret obligations to God and his neighbor; He has been guilty furthermore of no hypocrisy, nor mere semblance of holiness, of no secret violence, or avaricious oppression of his neighbor.

Second Stage of the Disentanglement: Chap. 32-37:
Elihu s Discourses [Monologues]: Devoted to proving that there can be really no undeserved suffering, that on the contrary the sufferings decreed for those who are apparently righteous are dispensations of divine love, designed to purify and sanctify them through chastisement [First half of positive solution of problem]. Introduction: Elihu’s appearance, and the exordium of his discourse, giving the reasons for his speaking. Elihu’s appearance (related in prose). Explanation addressed to the previous speakers, showing why he takes part in this controversy. Setting forth that he was justified in taking part, because the friends had shown, and still showed themselves unable to refute Job. Special appeal to Job to listen calmly to him, as a mild judge of his guilt and weakness.
First Discourse [Monologue I]: Of man’s guilt before God: Preparatory: Reproof of Job’s confidence in his perfect innocence; Didactic discussion of true relation of sinful men to God, who seeks to warn and to save them by various dispensations, and communications from above: By the voice of conscience in dreams; By sickness and other sufferings; By sending a mediating angel to deliver in distress; Calling upon Job to give an attentive hearing to the discourses by which he would further instruct him.
Second Discourse [Monologue II] : Proof that man is not right in doubting God’s righteousness: Opening: Censure of the doubt of God’s righteousness expressed by Job; Proof that divine righteousness is necessary, and that it really exists; From God’s disinterested love of His creatures; From the idea of God as ruler of the world; Exhibition of Job’s inconsistency and folly in reproaching God with injustice, and at the same time appealing to his decision.
Third Discourse [Monologue III]: [Zockler-Evans misinterprets Elihu arguements & doctrine.] Refutation of the false position that piety is not productive of happiness to men: Folly of the erroneous notion that it is of small advantage to men whether they are pious or ungodly. Real reason why the deliverance of the sufferer is often delayed, viz-: Lack of true godly fear; Dogmatic and presumptuous speeches against God, which was the case especially with Job.
Fourth Discourse [Monologue IV]: Vivid exhibition of activity of God, which is seen to be benevolent, as well as mighty and just, both in destinies of men, and in natural world outside of man: (Introduction announcing that further important contributions are about to be made to vindication of God). Vindication of divine justice, manifesting itself in destinies of men as a power benevolently chastening and purifying them: In general; In Job’s change of fortune in particular. Vindication of Divine Justice, revealing itself in nature as supreme power and wisdom. Consideration of wonders of nature as revelations of divine wisdom and power: Rain, clouds and storms, lightning and thunder; Agencies of winter such as snow, rain, the north wind, frost, etc. Finally admonitory inferences from what precedes for Job.

Third Stage of the Disentanglement: Chap. 38-42:
Jehovah’s Discourses [Monologues]: Aim of which is to prove that the Almighty [Shaddai] and only wise God [El, Eloah, Elohim], with whom no mortal should dispute, might also ordain suffering simply to prove and test the righteous. [Second half of positive solution of problem.]
First Discourse [Monologue I] of Jehovah, together with Job’s answer: With God, the Almighty and only wise, no man may dispute: Introduction: Appearance of God; His demand that Job should answer him. God’s questions touching His power revealed in the wonders of creation: Questions respecting process of creation; Respecting inaccessible heights and depths above and below earth, and forces proceeding from them; Respecting phenomena of atmosphere, and wonders of starry heavens; Respecting preservation and propagation of wild animals, especially of lion, raven, wild goat, stag, wild ass, oryx, ostrich, war-horse, hawk and eagle. Conclusion of discourse, together with Job’s answer announcing his humble submission.
Second Discourse [Monologue II] of Jehovah, together with Job’s answer: To doubt God’s justice, which is most closely allied to His wonderful omnipotence, is a grievous wrong, which must be atoned for by sincere penitence: Sharp rebuke of God’s presumption which has been carried to the point of doubting God’s justice; Humiliating demonstration of the weakness of Job in contrast with certain creatures of earth, not to say with God: shown by description of Behemoth (hippopotamus); of Leviathan (crocodile), as king of all beasts. Job’s answer: Humble acknowledgment of the infinitude of the divine power, and penitent confession of his sin and folly.

Historical Conclusion (In Prose): Chap. 42: Glorious vindication of Job before his friends. Restoration of his former dignity and honor. Doubling of his former prosperity in respect to his earthly possessions and his offspring.

8: From: Book of Job Origin Growth Interpretation, New Translation, Revised Text. Morris Jastrow, Jr, LLD. (1920)
“A witty Frenchman once remarked of the Bible that as a collection it was ‘plus c’elebre que connu’ [“more famous than known”, that is, more known than read] . It is in the hope of making a contribution towards having the most celebrated of the books of the Bible better known and by that I mean a deeper penetration into its real meaning and significance that I offer a new translation which, based on an entirely revised Hebrew text, will be found to differ materially from the current translations. Preceding the translation and forming the first part of the work, I have given the results of a study of the origin, growth and interpretation of the Book of Job, which represents the outcome of many years of devotion to this remarkable production of antiquity, dealing with problems that are as vital and as puzzling to-day as they were two milleniums ago when the book, after an extended process of amplification, reached its final form…..No modern translator that I know of makes the attempt to distinguish between the original portion of the book and the amplification to which Job, as every literary production in the ancient Orient, was subject. Without such distinction it is entirely hopeless to obtain a correct view of the great masterpiece hopeless indeed to recognize it as a masterpiece. The starting point, therefore, in my study of the origin, growth and interpretation of Job, is a recognition of the separation of the story of Job from the poetical composition in which the two problems suggested by the story, the reason for innocent suffering in the world and for the frequent escape of the wicked from merited punishment, are discussed. The story of Job is like the text of a sermon, or like a parable on which a preacher enlarges. The story is the peg upon which is hung the discussion of two vital problems from which we cannot escape, if we look at things in this world as they are.…
It is to the elucidation of the various aspects of these three strata and their relationship to one another that the first part of this work is devoted; and I trust that after a consideration of what has been set forth, the reader will agree with me in the view that in the magnificent nature poems with which the book closes and which from the literary point of view are the finest in the composite production, there is suggested as a definite and final answer to the two main problems of Job that simple faith in a mysterious power, whose manifestations are to be seen in the world of inanimate & animate nature, constitutes a resting point for man in the ceaseless search to which he is irresistibly led by his own nature to penetrate the mystery surrounding his life. I am aware that to many, as I suggest at various points in my study, it will seem startling as well as painful, to be asked to lay aside views which have the force of time-honored tradition and to look at the great masterpiece from a new and unaccustomed angle. But I am also in hopes that after carefully considering the justification brought forward for the interpretation and for the new translation, my readers will reach the conclusion that the new Job is a greater masterpiece than the traditional one, because relieved of contradictions and freed from inherent difficulties that persist under the traditional view of the book. Let me not be understood as setting up the extravagant claim of having solved all the difficulties in the book. That were presumptuous indeed. An author unless carried away by vanity is always his severest critic. I feel, however, that without exceeding the bounds of proper modesty I may lay claim to having advanced the interpretation of the book to which I have given years of patient study and to which I have become ever more closely attached as I have penetrated deeper into its spirit. That at all events is my hope which, I trust, will not turn out to be a delusion.
In closing this foreword I wish to make special acknowledgment to a modern student of the Old Testament who in my judgment has been more successful than almost any other scholar of the present or past generation, in freeing the Old Testament of textual errors and in illuminating hundreds of passages in all of the books. Alas that the acknowledgment must take the form of a tribute to his memory. Arnold B. Ehrlich, whose name is little known beyond the small circle of special workers, passed away a few months ago after a lifetime devoted to research. He left behind him as his monument a comprehensive work in seven volumes which he modestly called “Marginal Notes (Randglossen) to the Hebrew Bible,” in which as he passes from book to book he makes his comments and textual suggestions in brief but always striking form, with an unfailing instinct as the fruit of profound learning. Though he spent most of his life in New York, he wrote this comprehensive commentary in German, because it was only in Germany that he could find a publisher for a work of this character appealing naturally to a restricted circle. To all students of the Old Testament, however, these Marginal Notes are an indispensable handbook which every one engaged in the study must have constantly at his side. If I were to have made full acknowledgment to Ehrlich in the notes to my translation, his name would have appeared on every page.”

Part I: Folktale of Job & Book of Job.
I: Job Skeptical Spirit in Original Book of Job
II: Origin of Literary Symposium
III: Date of Symposium
IV: Two Jobs
V: Friends in Folktale and in Symposium
VI: Two Conceptions of God
VII: Non-Hebraic Origin of Story of Job
VIII: Oral Transmission ‘Versus’ Literary Production
IX: Modifications in the Folktale. The Figure of Satan
X: “Sons of God”
XI: Four Epilogues to the Book of Job

Part II: Three Strata in Book of Job.
I: Collective and Anonymous Authorship
II: Original Book of Job and Supplements to it
III: Third Series of Speeches of Job and His Friends
IV: Two Appendices to Original Book of Job
V: Composite Character of the Speeches of Elihu
VI: Collection of Nature Poems as Third Stratum
VII: Message of the Nature Poems

Part III: Changes and Additions Within Original Book of Job
I: Jewish Orthodoxy Versus Skepticism
II: Varying Versions of Hebrew Text
III: Additions to Original Book of Job of Purely Explanatory Character
IV: Superfluous Lines

Part IV: How a Skeptical Book was Transformed into Bulwark of Orthodoxy
I: Changes in the Original Book of Job Made in the Interests of Jewish Orthodoxy
II: Additions by Pious Commentators
III: Transformation of Crucial Passages
IV: Orthodox Sentiments Placed in Mouth of Job
V: “Search for Wisdom”
VI: Virtues of Job
VII: Two Appendices as the Coping to Structure of Jewish Orthodoxy

Part V: Book of Job as Philosophy & Literature
I: Insoluble Problem
II: Religious Strain in Original Book of Job.
III: Individualism in Religion
IV: Defects in Job’s Philosophy
V: Attitude Towards Problem of Evil in Speeches of Elihu
VI: Solution of Problem in Nature Poems
VII: New Doctrine of Retribution in Future World
VIII: Literary Form of Job. Symposium not Drama
IX: Zoroastrianism and Book of Job
X: Job & Prometheus
XI: Message of Job to Present Age

New Translation to Fit Book of Job:
I: Story of Job (Chapters 1 & 2)
II: Symposium Between Job and His Friends (Chapters 3-21)
III: Third Series of Speeches (Chapters 22-27)
IV: Two Supplementary Speeches of Job. (Chapters 29-31)
V: Search for Wisdom (Chapter 28)
VI: First Appendix to Book of Job: Elihu’s 4 Speeches with 3 Inserted Poems(Chapters 32-37)
VII: Second Appendix to Book of Job: Collection of 8 Nature Poems (Chapters 38-41)
VIII: Four Epilogues to Book of Job: Chapters 40-42:
1. (Poetical Epilogue, added to 1st Speech put in the Mouth of Yahweh)
2. (Poetical Epilogue, combined with an Introduction, & added to the Description of the Hippopotamus & the Crocodile, as the Second Speech put in the Mouth of Yahweh)
3. (Prose Epilogue to the Symposium)
4. (Original Close of the Folktale)

Notes: (Jastrow’s Notes to his Translation are learned & copious, and covers many doctrines, problems, & authors on Job and the Poetical Books of the Old Testament. I give a sample of his Translation with Notes to 42:12-17):

And Yahweh blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning; and he had fourteen thousand (14,000) sheep and six thousand (6,000) camels and a thousand (1,000) yoke of cattle and a thousand (1,000) she-asses. And he had double the number of seven (14) sons (92) and three (3) daughters.(93)
And there were no women in all the land so fair as the daughters of Job. And their father gave them an inheritance with their brothers.(94) And Job lived after this a hundred and forty years (95) [and saw his children and his grandchildren, —four generations. And Job died, old and full of days.] (96)
(92) A strange form to express “double seven ” is used and as Ehrlich points out with intent to avoid a confusion with the expression “sevenfold.” The Targum confirms the interpretation by using the common term fourteen. It will be observed that only the number of the sons are doubled, but not that of the daughters. Sons from the Oriental point of view are an asset; daughters a liability.
(93) As an amplification of the folktale of Job, the names of the three daughters of Job are added (v. 14): “And the name of the one was Jemima and the name of the second Kezia and the name of the third Keren-happuch.” The names appear to be plant names and of foreign origin, perhaps transliterations from the Arabic. Kezia is the plant Cassia while Keren-happuch, literally “horn of eye paint,” might designate the “Stibium box,” used by women. In Arabic Jemima is the “dove,” but it is more likely that it here designates some plant. It is likely that in some version of the folktale the names of the sons were also mentioned, as well as the name of Job’s wife.
(94) Again a bit of folk-lore, that is, however, devoid of significance in the present form of the story. The post-exilic Priestly Code (Num. 27:1-11) permits such an inheritance only in case there are no sons.
(95) The Greek version has 170.
(96) Verse 16.b and the whole of verse 17 are omitted in the original Greek version. They are clearly later additions —suggested by Gen. 35:29 —just as the names of the three daughters are fanciful amplifications of the folktale. Such additions are common at the end of ancient books. The Greek version of Theodotion has four additional notes or statements pointing to the continued expansion of the folktale, in the style of the Jewish “Midrash.” They are:
(a) “It is written that Job will again arise with those whom the Lord will resurrect.”
(b) “According to the ‘Syriac’ book (i.e., probably an Aramaic version) he (i.e., Job) dwelt in the land of Uz on the borders of Idumea and Arabia and his name was formerly Jobab (cf. Gen. 36:33). He took to wife an Arabic woman and had a son whose name was Ennon. He himself was the son of Zare (i.e., Zerah, Gen. 36:33), one of the sons of Esau and Bozrah (a misreading of Gen. 36:33, which says ‘from Bozrah’ in connection with Zerah), so that he was the fifth from Abram.”
(c) A third addition, giving the list of the Edomite kings on the basis of Gen. 36:31-39, though only four are mentioned here, as against eight in Genesis:
“And these are the kings who ruled in Edom, over which he himself ruled:
First, Bela the son of Beor, whose city was Dinhabah (cf. Gen. 36:32).
After Bela, Jobab, who was called Job (cf. Gen. 36:33),
After this one, Husham of the land of the Temanites (Gen. 36:34).
After this one, Hadad, son of Barad (Bedad, Gen. 36:35), who slew Midian in the field of Moab and the name of his city was Gethaim” ( = Awith or Gawith, cf. Gen. 36:35).
(d) “The friends who came to him were: Eliphaz of the sons of Esau (cf. Gen. 36:10), king of the Temanites, Bildad the tyrant of the Shuhites, Zophar, the king of the Mineans.”

9: From: Book of Job. Moses Buttenwieser, PhD. (1922)

“Popular appreciation of the Book of Job was slow to come. It was not until modern times that the book became generally accepted as “one of the grandest things ever written with pen,” and that the hope expressed by its writer became realized that later ages might bring to his words the understanding to which the minds of his contemporaries were closed. Strange though it may seem, this is in reality not surprising, for up to the last decades of the eighteenth century the selfsame theology prevailed against which Job is depicted as in revolt. It was a theology which accepted as axiomatic the belief in individual material retribution, a theology which discredited human reason, and attributed divine authority to traditional lore or inherited beliefs, and because of the complete sway which this theology held over their minds, men through the ages were as unable to understand the spiritual issues described in the Book of Job as were the orthodox friends of Job in the writer’s own day. Another serious theological barrier to the understanding of Job through the centuries was the dualistic conception rooted in paganism, with its Nature-worship and deification of physical forces, which from about the time the Book of Job was written, exercised an ever-growing influence over the thought of the world. By setting up the other world against this one and exalting the supernatural above the natural, Dualism fostered modes of thought and a spiritual outlook which were fundamentally opposed to the religious spirit and ideals of Job. It is plain that as long as the goal of human endeavor was seen in the life to come, and as long as the pursuit of truth was looked upon as mere presumptuousness inspired by the Devil, men could not possibly have any real understanding of the soul struggle depicted in the drama of Job. They were perforce incapable of understanding how Job could yield, as be did momentarily, to doubt and despair, and yet maintain his faith in God, or how he should emphatically deny all hope in an hereafter, when obviously the solution of his enigma lay in immortality or resurrection. Above all, they were unable to grasp the positive reasoning that runs through the whole drama. And so they missed the two essential points, the hero’s staunch assurance of God’s presence in him, withal his realization of the overwhelming majesty of God, and his conviction that the moral law inherent in man is the supreme reality, the absolute guide for human life and conduct. Through the two thousand years during which Dualism held sway over the minds of men, the Book of Job was, of necessity, “a sealed book,” even as were the writings of the prophets; and not until men’s minds became liberated from the dualistic thrill, and a new era in the progress of human thought set in with the thought and tendencies which came to expression in the second half of the eighteenth century, was any adequate understanding of the book possible. The interpretation of Job which prevailed through the centuries previous to the middle of the eighteenth century shows this beyond peradventure of a doubt.
As early as the Greek translation of Job, we have, I believe, evidence that a fixed interpretation must have been current. Many of the astounding renderings of the Greek, many of the most perplexing deviations from the Hebrew, are due, not as is generally assumed, to any ignorance of Hebrew on the part of the translators, nor yet to the circumstance that their Hebrew copy differed materially from the Masoretic text, but to the fact that the Alexandrian translators were guided in their work by a traditional interpretation, which they accepted without question and followed as a matter of course. (It may be remarked in passing that the translators often show an admirable knowledge of subtle syntactical points, and also that those passages which are innocuous from the point of view of the dogmatic beliefs and religious sentiments of the age are, on the whole, well translated.) Proof of this may be seen in the fact that the strange renderings ref erred to are met with again in the Targumim and Mediaeval Jewish Commentaries, neither of which can have been dependent upon the Greek; their agreement with the latter can, to my mind, be satisfactorily explained only on the ground of a traditional interpretation as source for all three. The renderings in question are much after the manner of the Midrash ; they are arbitrary and fanciful, showing no regard for the grammatical structure or for the meaning of the words. An especially instructive example illustrating this is 12:5-6. If we had only the Greek Version of these verses to go by, we could not but conclude, as Biblical scholars have invariably done, that the Greek had a radically different reading from that of the Masoretic text. The fact, however, that the rendering of these verses in the Greek is substantially the same as in Targum I and II and also in line with Rashi’s interpretation, a thousand years later, and that in the case of these latter it is absolutely certain that it is the Masoretic text which is so arbitrarily interpreted, leaves no doubt as to the true character of the reading of 12:5-6 in the Greek. Another interesting instance of the influence of the traditional interpretation is presented by 14:12,14, in which the Greek, and later the Christian and Jewish exegetes, did away with Job’s denial of a hereafter a proceeding, it may be remarked, which has found emulation among modern scholars. In this latter connection, 19:25-27 may be cited, although not directly illustrating the point in question. Into these verses the belief in resurrection was carried by the Occidental Church, and here again the forced interpretation has been upheld by a number of modem scholars, among others even by some of those who correctly interpret 14:12,14. The fact that as early as the Greek translation a distinctly biased and arbitrary interpretation of Job was established is of the utmost importance from the point of view of sound text-criticism. It dare not be lost sight of for a moment. It is of interest to us also in quite another respect, for who knows, anomalous as this may seem, whether the book would ever have found a place in Sacred Literature, would ever have come down to us at all, were it not for this same biased interpretation which it received at a comparatively early age.”

10: From: Book of Job as a Greek Tragedy, Restored with an Introductory Essay, on the Original Form & Philosophic Meaning of Job. Horace Meyer Kallen. Introduction by Prof. George Foot Moore.(1918)

     Introduction: In 1587 Theodore Beza began a course of lectures on Job in Geneva by dividing the book into acts and scenes, and in the following period several similar at tempts were made. Lowth tells us in the 18th century that scholars all but universally regarded Job as a drama; they counted the acts, and discussed the structure of the play, the catastrophe, the introduction of the ‘deus ex machina’ (God from macine, Divine solution), just as if they were handling an Attic tragedy. In his volume on Hebrew Poetry (1753), which in so many ways makes an era in the subject, Lowth devotes an entire lecture to this question. Taking Aristotle’s Poetics as an incontestable criterion, he finds that, although Job has all the other marks of tragedy, it lacks precisely the essential element, the “actio.” This does not mean it may not be quite superfluous to remark that it is not suitable for acting; tragedies intended to be read, not played, were written before Aristotle’s time, and he himself observes that the proper power of tragedy is felt without scenery, costume, or actors. The “action” which Aristotle demands and Lowth misses is something doing in the drama itself, the doing in which the story, “the soul of the drama,” is unfolded, and by which the tragic event is determined and brought about. Lowth concludes that Job may be called a dramatic poem, but not properly a drama. This has become a critical common place; but the criterion has been forgotten, and modern scholars sometimes repeat Lowth’s argument, which proves at most that Job does not correspond to Aristotle’s philosophy of the drama not character nor sentiments, but only deeds are the cause of men’s weal or woe as a demonstration that Job can not in any sense properly be called a drama. From this orthodoxy there have been some eminent dissidents; Ewald, for example, held that Job is a true drama, constructed with conspicuous art on the necessary principles which are fundamental not merely to Greek tragedy but to all tragedy, and lacking only a formal adaptation to the stage. Dr. Kallen goes a long way beyond these predecessors, however, in his theory that Job is, so to say, a Greek tragedy in Hebrew, specifically modelled after Euripides. (From Preface: But contrariwise, it may be —romance. Should the reader come to think it romance, he will also, I trust, recall, that it is not without a goodly fellowship, compact of thousands of volumes of far, far solider learning, yet no less than this slight thing the winnings of merely adventuring speculation about historic and literary origins, relationships, and meanings. The scholar’s world, like the story-teller’s, is the world of ideas, indeed, and it is true that most of them are false ideas. Were most not false, there would be no generations of scholars to count. Horace M. Kallen.)

11: From: Book of Job. Keil-Delitzsch Old Testament Biblical Commentary. Translated by Francis Bolton. TT Clarke’s Foreign Theological Library (v.10). 2nd Edition Revised, (1869).

Translation & Exposition Book of Job:
1st Part: Opening (Chap. 1-3): Prologue. Job’s disconsolate Outburst of Grief.

2nd Part: Entanglement (Chap. 4-26):
1st Course of Controversy (Chap. 4-14): Eliphaz’ 1st Speech [1] & Job’s 1st Answer [2]. Bildad’s 1st Speech [3] & Job’s 2nd Answer [4]. Zophar’s 1st Speech [5] & Job’s 3rd Answer [6].
2nd Course of Controversy (Chap. 15-21): Eliphaz’ 2nd Speech [7] & Job’s 1st Answer [8].
Bildad’s 2nd Speech [9] & Job’s 2nd Answer [10]. Zophar’s 2nd Speech [11].
Job’s 3rd Answer [12].
3rd Course of Controversy (Chap. 22-26): Eliphaz’ 3rd Speech [13] & Job’s 1st Answer [14].
Bildad’s 3rd Speech [15] & Job’s 2nd Answer [16].

3rd Part: Transition to Unravelment (Chap. 27-31):
Job’s Final Speech to Friends [17] & Job’s Monologue [18]: Part: I, II, III.

4th Part: Unravelment (Chap. 32-42):
Speeches of Elihu [19] (Chap.32-37): Historical Introduction to Section. Elihu’s Speeches: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th.
Unravelment In Consciousness (Chap. 38-42):1st Speech of Jehovah [20] & Job’s Answer. 2nd Speech of Jehovah & [20 or 21] Job’s Second Penitent Answer.
Unravelment in Outward Reality (Chap 42).

Appendix: Monastery of Job in Hauran, etc. Addenda. Note on Arabic Words & Abbreviations. Index of Texts (over 200 comparative relevant reference verses from the Books of the Old & New Testaments).
Monastery of Job in Hauran & Tradition of Job, (with Map of District): by J. G. Wetzstein.
(“Auranitis (Hauran) (Arabic: ALA-LC: Hawran), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan”. Bing search.)
“The oral tradition of a people is in general only of very subordinate value from a scientific point of view when it has reference to an extremely remote past; but that of the Arabs especially, which is always combined with traditions and legends, renders the simplest facts perplexing, and wantonly clothes the images of prominent persons in the most wonderful garbs, and, in general, so rapidly disfigures every object, that after a few generations it is no longer recognizable. So far as it has reference to the personality of Job, whose historical existence is called in question or denied by some expositors, it may be considered as altogether worthless, but one can recognise when it speaks of Job’s native country. By the (’Eretz ‘Utz, erets Us, Uz [Land of Oz]) the writer of the book of Job meant a definite district, which was well known to the people for whom he wrote; but the name has perished, like many others, and all the efforts of archaeologists to assign to the land its place in the map of Palestine have been fruitless. Under these circumstances the matter is still open to discussion, and the tradition respecting Job has some things to authorize it. True, it cannot of itself make up for the want of an historical testimony, but it attains a certain value if it is old, i.e. if it can be traced back about to the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, when reliable information was still obtainable respecting that district, although its name was no longer in use.
In all the larger works of travel on Palestine and Syria, we find it recorded that ‘Hauran” is there called Job’s fatherland. In Hauran itself the traveler hears this constantly; if any one speaks of the fruitfulness of the whole district, or of the fields around a village, he is always answered: Is it not the land of Job (‘bilad Ejub’)? Does it not belong to the villages of Job (dia Ejub)? Thus to Seetzen ‘Bosra’ was pointed out as a city of Job; and to Eli Smith even the country lying to the east of the mountains was called the land of Job. In ‘Kanawat’, a very spacious building, belonging to the Roman or Byzantine period, situated in the upper town, was pointed out to me as the summer palace of Job (the inscription 8799 in ‘Corp. Inscr. Graec.’ is taken from it). The shepherds of ‘Da‘il’, with whom I passed a night on the ‘Wadi el-Lebwe’, called the place of their encampment Job’s pasture-ground. In like manner, the English traveler Buckingham, when he wandered through the ‘Nukra’, was shown in the distance the village of ‘Gherbi’ (‘i.e. Chirbet el-ghazale’, which from its size is called ‘el-chirbe kat’ exochën’) as the birthplace and residence of Job, and it seems altogether as though Hauran and the Land of Job are synonymous. But if one inquires particularly for that part of the country in which Job himself dwelt, he is directed to the central point of Hauran, the plain of Hauran (‘sahl Hauran’), and still more exactly to the district between the towns of ‘Nawa’ and ‘Edre‘at’, which is accounted the most fertile portion of the country, covered with the ruins of villages, monasteries, and single courts, and is even now comparatively well cultivated. Among the nomads as well as among the native agricultural population, this district is called from its formation ‘Nukra’ or ‘Nukrat esh-Sham’, a name by which this highly-favoured plain is known and celebrated by the poets in the whole Syrian desert, as far as ‘Irak and Higaz.
But even the national writers are acquainted with and frequently make mention of the Hauranitish tradition of Job; yet they do not call Job’s home Nukra, —for this word, which belongs only to the idiom of the steppe, is unknown to the literature of the language,—but ‘Bethenije’ (‘Batanaea’). It is so called in a detailed statement of the legends of Job: After the death of his father, Job journeyed into Egypt to marry ‘Rahme’ (Rachmah) the daughter of Ephraim, who had inherited from her grandfather Joseph the robe of beauty; and after he had brought her to his own country, he received from God a mission as prophet to his countrymen, viz. to the inhabitants of Hauran and Batanaea ([Arabic sentence omitted]). The historian of Jerusalem, Mugir ed-din el-Hambeli, in the chapter on the legends of the prophets, says: “Job came from el-‘Es, and the Damascene province of Batanaea was his property.” In like manner, in the ‘Geography’ of Jakut el-Hamawi, under the art. ‘Bethenije’, it is said: “and in this land lived Job (‘wakan Ejub minha’).”
Modern exegetes, as is known, do not take the plain of Hauran, but the mountain range of Hauran with its eastern slope, as the ‘Provincia Batanaea’. I have sought elsewhere to show the error of this view, and may the more readily confine myself to merely referring to it, as one will be convinced of the correctness of my position in the course of this article. One thing, however, is to be observed here, that the supposition that Basan is so called as being the land of basalt rocks, is an untenable support of this error. The word basalt may be derived from (Basantis), or a secondary formation, (Basaltis), because Basan is exclusively volcanic; but we have no more right to reverse the question, than to say that Damascus may have received its name from the manufacture of damask. (In the fair at ‘Muzerib’ we again saw the sheikh of the ‘Wesije’-Beduins, whose guest we had been a week before at the Springs of Joseph in western ‘Golan’, where he had pitched his tent on a wild spot of ground that had been traversed by lava-streams. In answer to our question whether he still sojourned in that district, he said: “No, indeed! ‘Nazilin el-jom bi-ard bethene shele’ (we are now encamped in a district that is completely ‘bethene’).” I had not heard this expression before, and inquired what it meant. The sheikh replied: ‘bethene’ [Arabic] is a stoneless plain covered with rich pasture. I often sought information respecting this word, since I was interested about it on account of the Hebrew word (Bashan), and always obtained the same definition. It is a diminutive form, without having exactly a diminutive signification, foreign the language of the nomads it is an acknowledged fact that such a form takes the place of the usual form. The usual form is either ‘bathne’ or ‘bathane’. The Kamus gives the former signification, “a level country”. That the explanation of the Kamus is too restricted, and that of the Sheikh of Wesije the more complete, may be shown from the Kamus itself. In one place it says, The word moreover signifies (a) the thick of the milk (cream); (b) a tender maiden; (c) repeated acts of benevolence. These three significations given are, however, manifestly only figurative applications, not indeed of the signification which the Kamus places ‘primo loco’, but of that which the Sheikh of the W s je gave; for the likening of a “voluptuously formed maiden,” or of repeated acts of benevolence, to a luxurious meadow, is just as natural to a nomad, as it was to the shepherd Amos (ch. 4:1) to liken the licentious women of Samaria to well-nourished cows of the fat pastures of Basan. Then the Kamus brings forward a collective form ‘buthun’ ([Arabic] perhaps from the sing. ‘bathan’ = (Bashan), like [Arabic] from ‘asad’) in the signification pastures [Arabic]; pastures, however, that are damp and low, with a rich vegetation. That the word is ancient, may be seen from the following expression of Chalid ibn el-Welid, the victor on the Jarmuk: “‘Omar made me governor of Damascus; and when I had made it into a ‘buthene’, ‘i.e’. a stoneless fertile plain (easy to govern and profitable), he removed me.”
Jakut also mentions this expression under ‘Bethenije’. Chalid also uses the diminutive as the nomads do (he was of the race of Machz m); probably the whole word belongs only to the steppe, for all the women who were called ‘buth ne’, ‘e.g’. the beloved of the poet Gem l, and others mentioned in the “Diwan of Love” (‘Diwan es-sababe’), were Bedouin women. After what has been said, we cannot assign to the Hebr. (Bashan) any other signification than that of a fertile stoneless plain or low country. This appellation, which was given, properly and originally, only to the heart of the country, and its most valuable portion, viz. the Nukra, would then ‘a potiori’ be transferred to the whole, and when the kingdom of Basan was again destroyed, naturally remained to that province, of which it was the proper designation.)
The home of Job is more definitely described in the following passages. Muhammed el-Makdeshi says, p. 81 of his geography: “And in Hauran and Batanaea lie the villages of Job and his home (‘dia Ejub wa-diaruh’). The chief place (of the district) is Nawa, rich in wheat and other cereals.” The town of Nawa is still more definitely connected with Job by Jakut el-Hamawi under the article ‘Nawa’: “Between Nawa and Damascus is two days’ journey; it belongs to the district of Hauran, and is, according to some, the chief town of the same. Nawa was the residence (‘menzil’) of Job;” and Ibn er-Rabi says, p. 62 of his essay on the excellences of Damascus : “To the prophets buried in the region of Damascus belongs also Job, and his tomb is near Nawa, in the district of Hauran.” Such passages prove at the same time the identity of the Nukra with Batanaea; for if the latter is said to be recognisable from the fact of Job’s home being found in it, and we find this sign in connection with the Nukra in which Nawa with its surrounding country is situated, both names must denote one and the same district. …
…..But that which might injure the authority of Josephus is the contradiction in which it seems to stand to a far older statement concerning ‘Ausitis’, viz. the recognized postscript of the LXX. to the book of Job, which makes Job to be the Edomitish king Jobab. This identification, it may be said, can however only have been possible because ‘Ausitis’ was in or near Edom. But the necessity of this inference must be disputed. It is indeed unmistakable that that postscript is nothing more than a combination of the Jews beyond Palestine (probably Egyptio-Hellenistic), formed, perhaps, long before the LXX., —such a vagary as many similar ones in the Talmud and Midrash. From the similarity in sound of (’Iöbab)) with (’Iöb), and the similarity in name of (Zara), the father of ‘Jobab’, with a son of Re‘uel and grandson of Esau (Gen. 36:13), Job’s descent from Esau has been inferred. That Esau’s first-born was called ‘Eliphaz’ and his son ‘Teman’, seemed to confirm this combination, since (in accordance with the custom of naming the grandson as a rule after his grandfather) ‘Eliphaz’ the Temanite might be regarded as grandson of that ‘Eliphaz’, therefore like Job as great-grandson of Esau and (pemptos apo Abraam). The apparent and certainly designed advantages of this combination were: that Job, who had no pedigree, and therefore was to be thought of as a non-Israelite, was brought into the nearest possible blood-relationship to the people of God, and that, by laying the scene in the time of the patriarchs, all questions which the want of a Mosaic colouring to the book of Job might excite would be met. Now, even if the abode of Job were transferred from the land of ‘Us to Edom, it would be only the consequence of his combination with ‘Jobab’, and, just as worthless as this latter itself, might lead no one astray. But it does not seem to have gone so far; it is even worthy of observation, that (mBotsra) (from ‘Bosra’, the Edomite city), being attached to the misunderstood (huios Zara ek Bosorhras), Gen. 36:33, is reproduced in the LXX. by (mëtros Bosorhras), as also that Job’s wife is not called an Edomitess, but a (gunë Arabissa). And it appears still far more important, that Ausitis lies (en tois horiois tës Idoumaias kai Arabias), so far as the central point of (Idoumaia) is removed by the addition (kai tës Arabias), and Job’s abode is certainly removed from the heart of Idumaea. The ‘Cod. Alex.’, exchanges that statement of the place, even in a special additional clause, for (epi tön horiön tou Euphratou), therefore transfers Ausitis to the vicinity of the Euphrates, and calls the father of Jobab (= Job) (Zareth ex anatolön hëliou) (mebeni qedem). Nevertheless we attach no importance to this variation of the text, but rather offer the suggestion that the postscript gives prominence to the observation: (houtos (viz. Iöb) hermëneuetai ek tës Suriakës biblou.)……
……And now, in concluding here, I have still to explain, that in writing these pages I was not actuated by an invincible desire of increasing the dull literature respecting the (’eretz ‘utz) by another tractate, but exclusively by the wish of my honoured friend that I should furnish him with a contribution on my visit to the ‘Makam Ejub’, and concerning the tradition that prevails there, for his commentary on the book of Job. As to the accompanying map, it is intended to represent the hitherto unknown position of the Makam, the Monastery, and the country immediately around them, by comparing it with two localities marked on most maps, ‘Nawa’ and the castle of ‘Muzerib’. The latter, the position of which we determined in 1860 as 32° 44′ north lat. and 35° 51′ 45″ east long. (from Greenwich), lies three hours’ journey on horse back south of the Monastery. The ‘Wadi Jarmuk’ and ‘Wadi Hit’ have the gorge formation in common with all other wadis that unite in the neighbourhood of ‘Zezun’ and form the Makran, which is remarkable from a geological point of view: a phenomenon which is connected with the extreme depression of the valley of the Jordan. For the majority of the geographical names mentioned in this essay I refer the reader to Carl Bitter’s ‘Geographie von Syrien und Palestina’; others will be explained in my ‘Itinerarien’, which will be published shortly.”

11: From: Book of Job. P1, Oldest Book in the World. P2, Rhythmical Translation, Structure; Brief Explanatory & Critical Notes. E. W. Bullinger, DD. 1903 (Compare Bullinger’s abridgment of the Book of Job in his Companion Bible.)
Few Books of the Bible have received more attention than the Book of Job; both as to translations and as to commentaries. The Apocalypse, perhaps, exceeds it; because of its relation to the future, in which we are naturally more interested. The Book of Job carries us back to the remote past, and contains the oldest lesson in the world. It is significant that this oldest book should be devoted to imparting that knowledge, in comparison with which all other knowledge sinks into insignificance.
It is the lesson which is essential to our having peace with God for Time, and to our enjoying the peace of God for Eternity….Thus the ‘Structure’ determines the Scope; and the ‘Scope’, in turn, furnishes the key to the interpretation of the words….The Divine Names & Titles have all been indicated either in the Translation (where the Rhythm allowed it), or in the Notes. Those used in this book may be thus defined & distinguished.
Elohim is God, as the Creator, carrying out His will; God, standing in the relation of Creator to His creatures.
El, is God, as the Omnipotent. The Creator showing forth His power in carrying out His work. “The Almighty” would have been, perhaps, the most appropriate rendering, had not this word been, in the A.V., appropriated as the rendering of “Shaddai.”
Eloah is the God Who is to be worshipped and reverenced, the living God, in contrast with all idols & false gods.
Adonai is God as the Ruler in the earth; and this in relation to the whole Earth, rather than as limited to His own People. It is thus distinguished from Jehovah.
Jehovah is the Eternal God, “Who is, and was, and is to come.” The self-existent God, Who stands in Covenant relation to His own People.
Shaddai is God as All-Bountiful. The Giver of every good gift; the Fountain of all Divine help; and the Supplier of all human need. Not merely Almighty as regards His power, but All-Bountiful as regards His resources.
These are the Divine titles used in the book of Job, and it will be observed that Eloah and Shaddai are the titles that specially mark the character of the book. In our judgment, all the Divine Names and Titles should have been preserved in their original forms in translating the Bible into any language. They should have been transferred (with explanations) instead of being translated. No one word in any language can ever explain all that is contained and implied in the Hebrew original. (To adopt the heathen names and titles, and use them to represent the God of revelation is a still greater mistake.) We have not ventured systematically on so bold a course; but we have adopted it where possible in certain cases, especially with the names Eloah and Shaddai. When we have not been able to do this, we have indicated the different titles in the notes. We have also uniformly distinguished them by the use of different types: for example:
Elohim, God the Creator, we have printed “God.”
El, God the Omnipotent or Almighty, we have printed “God.”
Eloah, God the object of Worship, we have printed (GOD).”
Adonai, God the Ruler in the Earth, we have printed “LORD” (as in A.V.).
Jehovah, God the Eternal One, we have printed Lord (as in A.V.).
Shaddai, God as the All-Bountiful, we have printed “GOD.”

     Thus, the distinguishing features of the following version are: 1. Rhythmical. 2. Based on the Structure of the book. 3. Notes the Figures of Speech. 4. Idiomatic. 5. Critical Readings of Dr. Ginsburg’s Hebrew Bible. 6. Distinguishes the various Divine Names and Titles.

     May we, together, come to the knowledge of Divine “Wisdom”; &, while we justify God & condemn ourselves, learn how mortal man can be just with God; & that, while God is just, He is the
Justifier of all who believe in the Lord Jesus. Christ is the “spirit.” In the book of Job we have the ” body.” But, “as the body without the spirit is dead,” so the “letter” of the word without Christ (the “spirit”) is dead also. May His words be spirit and life, i.e., true spiritual life, to ourselves.

Part I: Oldest Lesson in the World (“The End of the Lord” James 5:11): Book & Structure: Introduction. Adversary’s Assault. Job & his Three Friends. Ministry of Elihu. Ministry of Jehovah Himself. Conclusion.

Part II: Translation of Book of Job: Introduction: Historical. Adversary’s Assault. Three Friends: Their Arrival. Job & His Friends: Job’s Lamentation; Eliphaz 1st Address & Job’s Reply; Bildad’s 1st Address & Job’s Reply; Zophar’s 1st Address & Job’s Reply; Eliphaz 2nd Address & Job’s Reply; Bildad’s 2nd Address & Job’s Reply; Zophar’s 2nd Address & Job’s Reply; Eliphaz. 3rd Address & Job’s Reply; Bildad’s 3rd Address & Job’s Reply; Zophar’s 3rd Address; Job’s Justification. Ministry of Elihu. Jehovah and Job. Three Friends: Their Departure. Adversary’s Defeat. Conclusion: Historical.

Introduction: Oldest Lesson in the World: Lord’s End (Purpose, Object, Design):
We have all “heard of the patience of Job.” But, the great and important question is this, Have we “seen the end” which the Lord had in view in all His dealings with Job? The “end” which He brought about in His own perfect way? The object and purpose of the book are one. Whatever is said and done; whoever speaks or acts; all has reference to one person; and all is designed to bring about one “end.” It is a long book. It consists of forty-two chapters, relating to various events, and different agencies; all brought to bear upon one person, and all directed to one “end ” “the end of the Lord.”
We see Heaven, and Earth, and Hell; Jehovah, and Satan; the Chaldeans, and Sabeans; fire from heaven, and wind from the wilderness; Job’s friends, his wife, and children, all engaged and employed in order to secure one “end.” It is a wonderful book in itself, apart from either the patience of Job, or the end of the Lord.
We might study it with reference to the history involved in the book; its national character; its place in the Canon of Scripture: the time when it was written; the various references to arts and sciences, to natural history, to astronomy, to various objects of Nature, such as jewels, etc. We might study its eschatology; its knowledge of mineralogy, metallurgy and mining operations. We might notice its language; the words and expressions employed, especially those that are peculiar to the book. All these and many other matters might well form subjects of separate study: but we leave all these; because, however interesting each subject might be in itself, it is not the “end” for which the book is given to us. Ancient it is beyond all dispute. It probably belongs to the period covered by the book of Genesis; and, possibly, to the time of Abraham. Its lesson, therefore, is the oldest lesson we could have; and it takes us back to the first lesson taught in the Bible itself. In Gen.1 and 2 we have the creation of man. In Gen. 3 we have the fall of man, and the chapter ends with the statement that man was driven out from the Garden of Eden in judgment (v. 24). Then, in Gen. 4, what have we but ‘the way back again’ to God, in grace? God’s way, which Abel took; and man’s way, which Cain invented.
This, therefore, is the oldest lesson in the world. It is the first great lesson which stands on the fore- front of revelation; and the lesson of the book of Job follows this up and expands it by answering the solemn question, “How should man be just with God?” This is not only the oldest lesson, but it is the most important lesson that it is possible for us to learn. If we know not this lesson, it matters not what else we may know. Our knowledge may be vast, extensive, and deep on all other subjects; but it will not carry us beyond the grave. But the knowledge of this lesson will serve us for eternity; and secure our eternal blessing and happiness. If we know this lesson, it matters little what else we do ‘not’ know. No wonder then that this oldest lesson in the world is thus set at the very opening of God’s Word, following immediately upon the record of the Fall. No wonder that, thus, at the threshold of the Word of God, we have the foundation of Gospel truth securely laid.
The “end” which the Lord had in view in the book of Job was to enforce this lesson in the most powerful way; a way which should serve as an object lesson for all time; and by the manner in which it is set forth should impress its importance upon the hearts and minds of all. Its very structure is designed to attract our attention by exhibiting in a wonderful manner the perfect workmanship of the Spirit of God. The Structure itself speaks to us, if we have ears to hear. It says: If the outward form of the book be so perfect, how perfect must be its spiritual lesson; and how Divine must be its one great object; viz., “the end,” which Jehovah had in view from the beginning; “the end ” which was so blessedly accomplished ; and “the end” for which it is given to us.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.17

(Here are pages 342-375 of CBR.17 of Samuel-Esther, and the details of the Kings, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemia, and Esther. PDF of CBR from Genesis to Esther, 375 pages. mjm) PDF 375 pages: CBR.ChristianBiblicalReflections.mjmselim.05062018


   Some reflections on the Books of Kings preliminary to the final Books of the Old Testament History, namely Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Esther:
First, we will lists the Kings of the Kingdoms, the Northern and the Southern, of Israel and Judah, that is of Samaria and Jerusalem. There are 19 Kings in each, all judged or evaluated or measured by King David, and the last King (20th) to rule in each Kingdom was the Gentile King of their Captivity and Exile. The 3 Kings before the Division of the Monarchy: Saul, David, and Solomon, each ruled 40 years.

Kings of Judah: Southern Kingdom: Jerusalem:
1. Rehoboam: First King. (did evil) 17 yrs
2. Abijah (or Abijam or Abia): Son of Rehoboam. (did evil) 3 yrs
3. Asa: Probably son of Abijah. (did right) 41 yrs
4. Jehoshaphat: Son of Asa. (did right) 25 yrs
5. Jehoram (or Joram): Son of Jehoshaphat; husband of Athaliah. (did evil) 8 yrs
6.a. Ahaziah: Son of Jehoram and Athaliah. (did evil) 1 yr
6.b. Athaliah: Daughter of King Ahab of Israel and Jezebel; wife of Jehoram; only queen to occupy the throne of Judah. (did evil) 6 yrs
7. Joash (or Jehoash): Son of Ahaziah. (did right young, did evil older) 40 yrs
8. Amaziah: Son of Joash. (did right young, did evil older) 29 yrs
9. Uzziah (or Azariah): Son of Amaziah. (did right) 52 yrs
10. Jotham: Regent, later King; son of Uzziah. (did right) 16 yrs
11. Ahaz: Son of Jotham. (did evil) 16 yrs
12. Hezekiah: Son of Ahaz; husband of Hephzi-Bah. (did right) 29 yrs
13. Manasseh: Son of Hezekiah and Hephzi-Bah. (did evil) 55 yrs
14. Amon: Son of Manasseh. (did evil) 2 yrs
15. Josiah (or Josias): Son of Amon. (did right) 31 yrs
16. Jehoahaz (or Joahaz): Son of Josiah. (did evil) 3 mnths
17. Jehoiakim: Son of Josiah. (did evil) 11 yrs
18. Jehoiachin: Son of Jehoiakim. (did evil) 3 mnths
19. Zedekiah: ben-Josiah (at 21); kingdom overthrown by Nebuchadnezzar. (did evil) 11 yrs (d.32)
20. Nebuchadnezzar: King of Babylon destroyed Jerusalem in 11th yr of Zedekiah; & exiled Judah.

Kings of Israel: Northern Kingdom: Samaria:
1. Jeroboam I: Led secession of Israel. (evil) 22 yrs
2. Nadab: Son of Jeroboam I. (evil) 2 yrs
3. Baasha: Overthrew Nadab. (evil) 24 yrs
4. Elah: Son of Baasha. (evil) 2 yrs
5. Zimri: Overthrew Elah. (evil) 7 days
6. Omri: Overthrew Zimri. (evil) 12 yrs
7. Ahab: Son of Omri; husband of Jezebel. (evil) 21 yrs
8. Ahaziah: Son of Ahab. (evil) 1 yr
9. Jehoram (or Joram): Son of Ahab. (evil) 11 yrs
10. Jehu: Overthrew Jehoram. (good and evil) 28 yrs
11. Jehoahaz (or Joahaz): Son of Jehu. (evil) 16 yrs
12. Jehoash (or Joash): Son of Jehoahaz. (evil) 16 yrs
13. Jeroboam Il: Son of Jehoash. (evil) 40 yrs
14. Zechariah: Son of Jeroboam II. (evil) ½ yr
15. Shallum: Overthrew Zechariah. (evil) 1 mnth
16. Menahem: Overthrew Shallum. (evil) 10 yrs
17. Pekahiah: Son of Menahem. (evil) 2 yrs
18. Pekah: Overthrew Pekahiah. (evil) 20 yrs
19. Hoshea: Overthrew Pekah; kingdom overthrown by Assyrians under Sargon II. (evil) 9 yrs
20. Shalmaneser: King of Assyria in 9th yr of Hoshea deported and exiles Israel to Assyria.

   20 High-Priests & Priests from the Exodus to the Captivity: Aaron benAmram, Eleazar benAaron, Phinehas benEleazar, Abishua benPhinehas, Bukki benAbishua, Uzzi benBukki, Zerahiah benUzzi, Meraioth benZerahiah, Azariah benMeraioth, Amariah benAzariah, Ahitub benAmariah, Zadok benAhitub, Hilkiah benShallum, Azariah benHilkiah, Seraiah benAzariah, and Ezra benSeraiah. Joshua benJehozadak, Joiakim benJoshua, Eliashib benJoiakim, and Joiada benEliashib.

We have 600 years of history from Samuel to Malachi, from the establishment of the Monarchy to the close of the Old Testament in the return exiles from Babylon. The Temple had a 500-year history from Solomon to Zerubbabel. During the Monarchy the Prophetic Office developed into the primary instrumentation of Israel’s divine transformation and continuance. God continued to leave room for Israel’s repentance and recommitment to the Mosaic covenant, and by such obedience and renewal He would intervene on their behalf to keep and fulfill all His promises made to them and their forefathers. Messiah must still come, ass the Seed and as Shiloh, and in the Incarnation take up humanity from Adam to the New Testament and eternity. Israel in His dispensational dealing would secure the Gentiles’ participation in His divine and eternal plans for man. Though they were His chosen, favored, and special people, the Elect of God, yet His judgment and chastisement of the nation showed Him to be an impartial and equitable God. His providential allowance of His people’s disobedience displayed His greater and larger concerns with mankind. In His redemptive and convictive work and dealings the nations as excluded Gentiles without special covenant relations, except those of Adam and Noah, would often share the covenant blessings and curses with Israel. Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, and others would become His servants and messengers. Cyrus the Persian would become His son and anointed. Mankind was enlarging and maturing at an enormous rate, with new ways of living, working, surviving, understanding, and may such things. The Lord as God to Israel was ever involved in human affairs, both nationally and with individuals.
As we have seen the Book as the Word was gradually and increasingly displacing human and natural government and authority. And as the Dispensation of Israel began with Moses and the Law, so it ends with Ezra the Priest and Scribe of the Book, the Torah and the Tanakh, the Pentateuch and the Old Testament. It was not God’s proper will to institute the Monarchy as a substation of His Headship federally of the nation, but rather to continue to use Judges and Saviors and Heroes raised up as needed to rule and guide His people, as a Shepherd does His flock. The insanity of Saul compared to the zeal and devotion of David displays the Lord’s rejection of the one and the attraction to the other. As the King is the highest authority on earth, and as such, represents Divine Authority of heaven, God must deal with the nation as a Body through the King as its Head. As with Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jacob as Israel, Moses and Aaron, so too the Judges and the Kings. The King’s court with the nation’s elders constituted the government of the people. The Law and the Sacrifice, the Elders and the Priests, together constituted the Testimony and Example of the People. In the individual Kings of both Kingdoms, the evaluation and measurement is a comparison of the ideal, and changes with the degree that ideal is attained or failed. The love of God and fellow man, the Creator and His creatures, the Father and His children, would be examined in Israel’s leadership; and thus religious purity, social responsibility, and family provisions would determine the King’s good or evil, and so too with each and every man. We see the Law was not kept in full national or tribal obedience, in many of its details, and the Book itself was lost and neglected as an essential guidance or rule. In divine judgment, Israel suffering wrath and pain, the rediscovery and the renewal of the Book would again surface or emerge. Such was the picture of the Kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel and Samaria, from Jeroboam departure from the Law of Moses and the Worship of God, that Kingdom was doomed to failure, and so all its Kings were bad and evil and wicked, because they continued in the apostasy. Only in the negative could any of the Northern Kings be good as Jehu, who exterminated the House of Ahab and Jezebel, but continued apostate like Jeroboam. Not so with the Southern Kingdom of Judah and Jerusalem, where not only the negative was manifest, but also the positive good and right things were displayed in about half of the Kings. The 3 most exceptional were Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, and Josiah; yet none of these could surpass David; and all of them, David and Solomon included, could not approach the excellency of Messiah, the Christ. Even in Samuel the Seer the defect of human nature is seen in his sons whom he appointed as Judges of the people, but who were more wicked than most of the people, as it was also with Eli the High Priest and his sons.
The Temple is allowed to be built in response to David’s heart, patterned after the Lord’s own heart, but it too was not intended. The temporary and mobile Sanctuary was adequate for a people going through transformation, and strategically needed to adapt to their enemies’ movements against them. The City of David and the Temple of Solomon would establish the local and central government and worship in a way that it could be attacked and subverted in a much more decisive manner, often undetected. It’s true both David and Solomon, and a few other Kings, did enlarge and adorn the Temple as the Lord’s House in worship, praise, celebration, etc. The enemy saw in the Temple gold, silver, brass, and many special and precious objects that they wanted, and so attacked the City and stripped the House of those valuables, and in the end destroyed both City and Temple. The true Temple was not clearly seen, and all the glory of which it spoke and displayed would need await better times and another age to be written in the Scroll of a new covenant and testament.
We must also examine Chronicles in relations to Kings and Samuel. For this we will turn to a work that has given us the details in comparisons.

A Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles in the Text of the Version of 1884 by William Day Crockett. A.M. Professor of English Literature in the State Normal School, Mansfield, Pa. With an Introduction by Willis Judson Beecher, D.D. Professor of the Hebrew Language and Literature in the Auburn Theological Seminary New York Chicago Toronto Fleming H. Revell Company London and Edinburgh. (Andover-Harvard Theological Library 1890 Cambridge, Massachusetts) Copyright, 1897, William Day Crockett. (Analytical Outline & Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles.)

Many and many a time during the latter years of my College course, as I had taken up my Bible for the daily chapter, had I thought of the time in the near future of my Seminary days, when the Book of Books itself would be my constant study. But the ideal was never realized; for there were ever a hundred other volumes claiming one’s attention: Greek and Hebrew, and Theology and History, and Homiletics and Church Polity, and a score of allied subjects besides. And while the Bible was back of them all, while the Bible inspired them all, there was not in my own life the deep, earnest study of God’s Word for which I had longed for years. Without doubt, it was all my own fault; at any rate, the Bible study was not there.
It was at this juncture that the idea came for a Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. I had begun, for my own private Bible study, a Harmony of the Four Gospels. A long walk succeeded the first two hours’ work on the Gospel narratives; and with it came the thought: A thousand men have done this work before; why not accept some of the work that they have done—at least for a while—and try your skill in unplowed fields? The result of that thought was the conception of the present volume.
Until the completion of the first draft of the manuscript, I was not aware that such a work had ever been undertaken before. Since then I have learned that there are certain works, out of date and out of print, that have embodied the conception, more or less fully. But so far as it has been possible to learn, the present work is the only one of its kind. The volume as it stands to-day is the outgrowth of its first conception, in its general outline. The six books of the Old Testament that have been used as material, have been subjected to the most careful analysis; and the result is a “Harmony,” divided into five books, under the general name of “The Books of the Kings of Judah and Israel “—which, by the way, happens to be the title, with the exception of the addition of one letter, of one of the thirty and more Books of Old Testament times now lost to the world —which Books, in their turn, have been, more or less, the original material from which the six books under consideration have been compiled. The question of the compilation or the editing of the said books, however, does not fall within the province of this work.
The result of our study is something more than simply a Harmony of the Books of First and Second Samuel, First and Second Kings, and First and Second Chronicles; it embodies a careful analytical outline, the value of which, it is thought, will be as great as those sections displaying the Harmony idea—an outline, toward the perfection of which every verse of the six books in question has contributed its share —an outline, in which books, parts, divisions, sections, subsections, and even the subdivisions of the subsections, all have their own individual ‘raison d’itre’.
From the very nature of the case, the Harmony involves a study of the chronology. Such study, while it has been one of the most fascinating features of the whole work, has likewise been the most difficult. In the matter of Biblical chronology, the basal law seems to be, “Every man for himself, and the critic take the hindermost.” In conformity with the workings of this law, the author of the present work does not profess to agree with any one among the many different authorities on Bible chronology —that is, in detail; though it would be here proper to state that all the material available for chronological study has been used, and where traditional views and interpretations have been departed from, it has been only after the maturest consideration and the most careful weighing of evidence.
It would simply be an impossibility, in a volume of this size, to give all the reasons for adopting the particular order in the disputed cases; for those reasons are oftentimes purely internal. A full discussion of the reasons for the particular order of events in Elisha’s life, for example, would occupy many pages. The same may be said of the interpretation of the life and history of David; but where it has been
feasible, attention has been called to such reasons in the footnotes.
For the merits of the chronology, my especial thanks are due to Dr. Willis J. Beecher, of Auburn Theological Seminary, whose study and system of chronology have not only been of inestimable value, but whose personal suggestions have always been most helpful. For a few felicitous phrases in the Analytical Outline, I am indebted to the translators of Lange’s Commentaries.
The text is that of the Revised Version of 1884, which, for purposes of historical study, is confessedly the best English version to be had. The footnotes are, to a great extent, the marginal readings of the Revised Version; though from the natural requirements of the Harmony, several hundred of these have been omitted as needless, and a few others for other reasons. Many have been slightly changed, or added to, for the convenience of the student. The remaining notes are inserted for chronological or other explanatory reasons.
The Four Gospels, as the original material for the study of the life of Christ, must ever be the ground of absorbing and supremist interest to the Bible student. What those four books are to the New Testament, as the field for historical study, the six books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles are to the Old: they are the principal sources of Old Testament history and chronology, and are the books most under discussion to-day. A Harmony of the Gospels has already become the indispensable aid to every student of the life of Christ, or even of the literature of the New Testament. It is hoped that this work will meet a long-felt want for some such study of the principal historical books of the Older Revelation. A “Harmony,” the volume has been called, though, as already stated above, it is much more than a mere Harmony. On the other hand, it is to be remembered that much that is arranged in parallel columns in it is not harmonious—cannot be made harmonious. And yet, in this very connection, it is also to be remembered, that the parallel passages are valuable, not so much for their perfect correspondences as for their many differences; for God’s Word and we are the richer far for every such difference. It is hoped that the careful study of these pages will help to reconcile some of these divergencies. Many will probably never be solved until we come to stand before the Great White Throne. But if this volume will aid in any way to a clearer knowledge of some of the many knowable things, and by that knowledge, aid —though but indirectly —in the fulfilling of the loving Master’s greatest prayer, that the Kingdom may come, it will accomplish that whereunto it is sent.
William D. Crockett.

By Professor Willis J. Beecher, D.D.,
Of the Theological Seminary of Auburn in the State of New York.

I Gladly accept the invitation to write a few words of introduction to the volume which my friend Mr. Crockett has prepared. Not many words are needed. The plan of the book speaks for itself.
In Old Testament study, at present, the thing that most demands investigation is the Old Testament itself. This fact is so obvious as to be accepted by all and understood by only a very few. By studying the Old Testament itself, some mean the looking up of points therein for illustrating current religious doctrine and experience. Others mean the repeating of the interpretations of the history, as these have been handed down to us from the time of Josephus. Others mean the examination of the new knowledge concerning the Bible derived from travels and surveys and explorations. Yet others understand the mental unraveling of the literary work done by the men who wrote the books of the Old Testament, the analyzing of these into certain real or supposed original documents, with conjectures as to the authorship of the original documents, and the processes by which they were combined until they assumed the form in which we now have them.
All these ways of study have their value, but none of them is, properly speaking, the study of the Old Testament as it now exists. The first is the study of certain matters in the Old Testament, and not of the Old Testament itself. One might pursue it for a lifetime without acquiring anything like a connected idea as to either the books or their contents. The second, except indirectly, is not a study of the Old Testament at all. From babyhood we have been familiar with the current superficial understanding of the events recorded; it is time that we turn from this and ask what the Old Testament actually says concerning these events. The third is indissolubly connected with the second. If through our traditional mistakes we misinterpret the statements made in the Scriptures, this will lead us equally to misinterpret what the monuments have to say on the same subjects. And the fourth form of study above mentioned is not a study of the Old Testament, but of the real or supposed sources of the Old Testament. As far as it is based upon an inadequate understanding of the Old Testament as it stands, so far is it necessarily crude and misleading.
What we need is something different from these four forms of study, something that is presupposed by each of the four, something that is demanded as the basis of each of the four, namely, the study of the contents and the form of the books of the Old Testament as they stand. When we thoroughly understand the things which the existing Old Testament says, and the literary form in which it says them, we shall be better prepared to analyze our existing Scriptures into their primary component parts, and to understand those parts; and we shall be qualified to perceive the true bearing of the information gained by recent discoveries, to estimate traditional interpretations rightly, to appreciate more fully the religious teachings.
It is a thing especially commendable in the work of my friend Mr. Crockett that he has labored in this part of the field, here where labor is needed. He has set himself to understand, and to help others understand, a portion of the contents of the Old Testament itself.
In large sections of the volume he has done nothing more than print parallel accounts in parallel columns for ready reference. So far, the value is merely mechanical —a mere bit of convenient machinery. This by itself was worth the doing, but he has done far more than this. He has himself attained to a firm grasp upon the history as a whole, and has attempted, by a careful analysis, to show others how to take the same grasp. In traversing three fourths of the path this was relatively simple. It was the remaining fourth, lying in separate sections at half a dozen different points, that taxed his skill and industry and patience. The larger half of the value of his work is that which appears, in comparatively small bulk, in these difficult sections.
Of course, not all his results will at once be accepted as final. Every scholar will think him correct to the extent to which he agrees with him, and no further. It is for these best parts of Mr. Crockett’s work that fault is most likely to be found with him. The reader will occasionally miss the confusing but familiar landmarks of the Josephan interpretation of the history, and will be ready at once to exclaim that Mr. Crockett has lost his way. In such instances, however, he will do well to take the trouble to understand the offered interpretation before absolutely rejecting it.
I have enough confidence in the intelligence and industry of the present generation of students of the Bible to lead me to expect that this volume will have wide acceptance and usefulness.
Auburn, New York, June 1897.

Books of the Kings of Judah and Israel:
Book I: Until the Founding of the Monarchy. 1. Genealogical Tables, with Brief Historical Statements. 2. Close of the Theocracy.
Book II: Reign of Saul: 1. Establishment by Samuel of Saul as 1st King of Israel. 2. Saul’s Reign until his Rejection. 3. Decline of Saul and Rise of David.
Book III: Reign of David: 1. 7 1/2 Years in Hebron. 2. Period of David’s Wars. 3. Period of Rest. 4. Period of Internal Dissensions.
Book IV: Reign of Solomon: 1. Beginning of Solomon’s Reign. 2. Solomon’s Glory. 3. Solomon’s Fall and End.
Book V: Kingdoms of Judah and Israel: 1. From Year of Disruption to Rise of Jehu. 2. From Rise of Jehu to Fall of Kingdom of Israel. 3. Kingdom of Judah after Fall of Kingdom of Israel.

Genealogies of Patriarchs (1st Chron. 1): Genealogy: Adam to Noah. Descendants of Noah’s Sons. Shem to Abraham. Descendants of Abraham. Kings and Dukes of Edom. Twelve Sons of Israel
Genealogies of Tribes of Israel (1st Chron. 2 – 9):
Tribe of Judah (1st Chron. 2 – 4). General Genealogies of the Tribe. 3 Accounts of Descendants of Caleb. Family of David. Line of David through Solomon.
Tribe of Levi (1st Chron. 6). Line of Aaron. Descendants of Gershom, Kohath, and Merari. Ancestors of the Songmasters, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan. Cities of the Levites.
Tribe of Reuben (1st Chron. 5).
Tribe of Gad (1st Chron. 5).
Half-Tribe of Manasseh (east of Jordan) (1st Chron. 5).
Tribe of Simeon (1st Chron. 4).
Tribe of Issachar (1st Chron. 7).
Tribe of Naphtali (1st Chron. 7).
Half-Tribe of Manasseh (west of Jordan) (1st Chron. 7).
Tribe of Ephraim (1st Chron. 7).
Tribe of Asher (1st Chron. 7).
Tribe of Benjamin (1st Chron. 8 – 9; 1st Sam. 14). General Genealogies of the Tribe. House of Saul.
Appendix: Additional Historical Statements (1st Chron. 5 & 9). War of the 3 Transjordanic Tribes with Arab Nations. Inhabitants of Jerusalem.

Close of Theocracy: (1st Sam. 1 – 7)

Early Life of Samuel. (1st Sam. 1 – 3)
20. Samuel’s Birth and Infancy. Answer to Prayer. Consecration to the Lord. Hannah’s Song of Thanksgiving.
21. Samuel at Shiloh. Faithless Priests. Eli’s Expostulation with his Sons. Samuel’s Ministry before the Lord. Fall of Eli’s House foretold. Samuel’s Call. Samuel established as Prophet.

Period of National Disaster. (1st Sam. 4 – 7)
22. Israel’s Defeat and Loss of Ark.
23. Fall of House of Eli.
24. Ark of God. Chastisement of Philistines for Removal of the Ark. Restoration of Ark with expiatory Gifts. Reception and Settlement of Ark in Israel.
25. 20 Years of Waiting.

Samuel, Last of Judges. (1st Sam. 7)
26. National Repentance through Samuel’s Labors.
27. Israel’s Victory over Philistines.
28. Summary Statement of Samuel’s Work as Judge.

Reign of Saul: (1st Sam. 8 – 15)

Establishment by Samuel of Saul as 1st King of Israel. (1st Sam. 8 – 10)
29. Persistent Demand of the People for King.
30. Samuel meets Saul, who is destined by Jehovah to be King over Israel.
31. Saul is privately anointed by Samuel.
32. Signs of Divine Confirmation.
33. Choice of Saul by Lot at Mizpeh.
34. Installation of Saul as King.
35. Saul’s brief Retirement to private Life.

Saul’s Reign until his Rejection. (1st Sam. 11 – 15)
36. Generic Account of the Whole of Saul’s Reign. (1st Sam. 14)
37. Confirmation and general Recognition of Saul as King. Saul’s Victory over the Ammonites. Confirmation of Saul as King at Gilgal. Samuel’s last Transaction with People at Gilgal.
38. Beginnings of Royalty.
39. War against Philistines. Jonathan’s Exploit in Gibeah. Saul summons Israel to Gilgal. Philistines encamp in Michmash. Distress of Israel. Saul wrongly offers Sacrifice. Samuel’s Prophecy of Retribution. Saul moves his Headquarters to Gibeah. 3 marauding Bands of the Philistines. Jonathan’s bold Attack on Philistines. Flight and Overthrow of Philistines. Saul’s rash Curse and its Consequences.
40. Jehovah’s Rejection of Saul. Commission to destroy Amalek. Saul’s Disobedience. Penalty of Disobedience. Fate of Agag. Samuel and Saul part.

Decline of Saul and Rise of David: (1st Sam. 16 – 28; 2nd Sam. 4; 1st Chron. 10 – 12)

Early History of David. (1st Sam. 16)
41. David chosen and anointed as Saul’s Successor by Samuel.
42. David’s Introduction to Court of Saul.

David’s Advancement and Saul’s growing Jealousy. (1st Sam. 17 – 20; 2nd Sam 23;1st Chron.11)
43. The Story of David and Goliath. Invasion of the Philistines. The Challenge of Goliath. David is sent by his Father to his Brethren in the Army. David accepts Goliath’s Challenge. David’s Contest with Goliath. David once more in the royal Presence. The Deed of Shammah. The Rout of the Philistines.
44. David at the Court of Saul. Saul attaches David to his Suit. Jonathan’s Friendship for David.
David’s Popularity. Saul’s Hatred toward David. Saul’s artful Attempt against David’s Life. David’s increasing Popularity. Jonathan proves his Friendship for David.
45. David is forced to leave Court. David escapes by Michal’s Help. David’s Flight to Ramah and Saul’s Pursuit. Conference between David and Jonathan. Jonathan learns his Father’s Intentions towards David. Parting between David and Jonathan.

David’s Outlaw Life. (1st Sam. 21 – 27; 1st Chron. 12)
46. David’s Flight. To Nob, to Ahimelech, High Priest. To Achish, King of Gath. To Cave of Adullam. To Mizpeh of Moab, where he finds Asylum for his Parents. To Forest of Hereth, in Judah.
47. Saul’s Vengeance on Priests of Nob.
48. David in Keilah. David rescues Keilah. Abiathar joins David. David escapes from Keilah.
49. David’s last Meeting with Jonathan.
50. David’s Betrayal by Ziphites.
51. David’s Escape from Saul in Wilderness of Maon.
52. David in Wilderness of En-gedi: He spares Saul in Cave.
53. Death of Samuel.
54. David in Wilderness of Paran: History of Nabal and Abigail.
55. David’s matrimonial Relations.
56. David, betrayed again by Ziphites, spares Saul 2nd Time.
57. David again in Land of Philistines. David once more flees to Achish, King of Oath. Achish grants Ziklag to David. David’s Operations while at Ziklag. List of Men who came to David at Ziklag.

Saul’s Downfall in War with Philistines. (1st Sam. 28 – 30; 2nd Sam. 4; 1st Chron. 10 &12)
58. Philistines prepare for Campaign against Israel.

59. David and Philistine Invasion of Israel. Achish places Confidence in David. David encamps with Philistines in Aphek: Israelites pitch in Jezreel. David, dismissed from Philistine Army, starts for Ziklag. Philistines march toward Jezreel. List of Men who joined David on his Way to Ziklag.
60. David’s Victory over Amalekites who had destroyed Ziklag.
61. Philistines pitch in Shunem: Israelites in Gilboa.
62. Saul’s Visit to Witch of Endor.
63. Fall of House of Saul. Battle of Mount Gilboa. Accident to Mephibosheth.

Reign of David. (2nd Sam.; 1st Kings 1 – 2; 1st Chron. 3 & 29)
7 1/2 Years in Hebron. (2nd Sam. 1 – 4)
David’s Behavior on Hearing of Saul’s Death.
64. News of Saul’s Death is brought to David.
65. David’s Lamentation for Saul and Jonathan.

Rival Kingdoms. (2nd Sam. 2 – 3)
66. David is anointed King over Judah.
67. David’s Message to the Men of Jabesh-gilead.
68. Ish-bosheth is made King of Israel.
69. Civil War.
70. David’s Family in Hebron.

Events leading to David’s Elevation to Throne of Israel. (2nd Sam. 3 – 4)
71. Abner’s Quarrel with Ish-bosheth.
72. Abner’s Desertion to David: Michal restored to David.
73. Joab’s Murder of Abner: David’s Lamentation.
74. Murder of Ish-bosheth.
75. David punishes Murderers of Ish-bosheth.

Period of David’s Wars. (2nd Sam. 5; 8; 10 – 12; 21; 23; 1st Chron. 11 – 12; 14; 18 – 20; 1st Kings 11)
76. David is made King over Israel.
77. Data concerning Number of Warriors who made David King.
78. Jerusalem captured and made the Capital.
79. Defensive Wars against Philistines. 1st Campaign. David goes “down to the Hold.” Gadites who “separated themselves unto David.” Deed of “3 mighty Men.” David’s Victory at Baal-perazim. 2nd Campaign.
80. David’s Alliance with Hiram of Tyre.
81. Offensive Wars against Philistines. Summary of these Wars.1st Campaign. Withdrawal of David from active military Service. 2nd Campaign. 3rd Campaign. 4th Campaign.
82. Ammonite-Syrian Campaign. David’s Ambassadors insulted by Ammonites. Israelitish Victory under Leadership of Joab.
83. Syrian Campaign.
84. 2nd Ammonite Campaign. Joab lays Siege to Rabbah. David’s Fall. David’s Repentance. Capture of Rabbah.
85. Campaign against Moab. Conquest by David. Exploit of Benaiah.
86. Decisive Campaign against Hadadezer.
87. Subjugation of Damascus.
88. Submission of Hamath.
89. Subjugation of Edom.
90. Summary of David’s Wars: Nations conquered.
91. List of David’s Heroes. “1st 3.” Jashobeam. Eleazar. Shammah. The “3 mighty Men.” Their Exploit at Bethlehem. Abishai. Benaiah. Remaining Heroes.
92. Administration and Officers of Kingdom during this Period.
93. David’s Song of Thanksgiving.

Period of Rest. (2nd Sam. 6 – 7; 9; 12; 1st Chron. 13 – 17)
94. Removal of Ark from Kirjath-jearim. To House of Obed-edom. To Jerusalem. David’s Hymn of Praise. Concluding Statements.
95. Promise of eternal Dominion to House of David. David’s Purpose to build Temple to Jehovah. The Lord’s Answer through Nathan. David’s Prayer and Thanksgiving. David’s Kindness towards Jonathan’s Son, Mephibosheth. Birth of Solomon. David’s Family in Jerusalem.

Period of Internal Dissensions. (2nd Sam. 13 – 15; 21; 24; 1st Chron. 21)

Family Troubles. (2nd Sam. 13 – 15)
99. Amnon’s Crime.
100. Absalom’s Vengeance.
101. Absalom’s Flight and Sojourn in Geshur.
102. Recall of Absalom. Joab’s Stratagem. Absalom’s Return. Absalom and his Family. Absalom’s Waiting in Jerusalem. Absalom’s Readmission to Court.
103. Absalom stealing Hearts of Men of Israel.

National Calamities. (2nd Sam. 21; 24; 1st Chron. 21)
104. 3 Years’ Famine. Execution of Saul’s Grandsons. Burial of Saul and his Sons.
105. 3 Days’ Pestilence. David’s Sin in numbering the People. Choice of Punishments. Pestilence. David purchases Araunah’s Threshing-floor and erects Altar.

David’s Final Arrangements. (1st Chron. 22 – 29)
106. Preparations for Building of Temple. Temple Site chosen. David’s Plans and Foresight. David’s Charge to Solomon. David’s Charge to Princes.
107. National Convention. Convention summoned. Data concerning the Officials “gathered.” Number and Distribution of the Levites. 24 Houses of the Levites. Duties of the Levites. 24 Courses of Priests. 24 Classes of Singers. Courses of Doorkeepers. Officers of Treasuries of “House of God.” Officers and Judges “for outward Business. 12 Captains of Army. Chiefs of 12 Tribes. Overseers of King’s Treasuries and Possessions. Officers of State. Convening into Assembly of the secular Officials “gathered.” Public Acts in National Convention. David causes Solomon to be made King (1st Time). David’s Address. David directs Solomon concerning the Building of Temple. Contributions of David and the Officials for Building of Temple. David’s Thanksgiving and Prayer. Close of Convention.

Absalom’s Rebellion. (2nd Sam. 15 – 16)
108. Outbreak of Rebellion.
109. David’s Flight. He hastily leaves Jerusalem. Ittai’s Fidelity. Priests and Ark. Hushai is sent back to City. Lying Ziba [here WDC is mistaken about Ziba, it is Mephibosheth that was lying] and his Present. Cursing of Shimei.
110. Absalom in Jerusalem. His Entrance into the City. Hushai meets Absalom. Counsels of Ahithophel.
Ahithophel’s Counsel is thwarted by Hushai. Hushai’s Message to David. Ahithophel’s Suicide.
111. Civil War. Absalom’s Pursuit. Reception of David at Mahanaim. Battle of Mount Ephraim. Absalom is murdered by Joab. Tidings brought to David: his Grief for Absalom.

Restoration of David’s Authority. (2nd Sam. 19 – 20)
112. Joab’s Reproval of David’s unworthy Grief.
113. Negotiations for David’s Recall.
114. David’s Return. Homeward March begins. Shimei is pardoned. Meeting with Mephibosheth.
Barzillai’s Farewell. Strife between Judah and Israel
115. Sheba’s Insurrection. Outbreak of the Revolt. David re-enters Jerusalem. Joab, after murdering Amasa, pursues Sheba. Siege of Abel of Beth-maacah, Death of Sheba, and End of Rebellion.
116. Officers of State after the Restoration.

Closing Days of David’s Life. (1st Kings 1 – 2; 2nd Sam. 5; 1st Chron. 3; 29)
117. David’s failing Health: Abishag the Shunammite.
118. Solomon is made King “2nd Time.” Adonijah attempts to seize Kingdom. Nathan and Bath-sheba’s counter Coup d’ ‘etat. Solomon’s 2nd Anointing. Adonijah’s Alarm and Submission.
119. David’s last prophetic Words.
120. David’s last Words to Solomon.
121. Death of David.

Reign of Solomon. (1st Kings 2 – 11; 1st Chron. 29; 2nd Chron. 1 – 9)
Beginning of Solomon’s Reign. (1st Kings 2 – 3; 2nd Chron. 1)
122. Solomon’s Accession to Throne.
123. Solomon’s Removal of his Adversaries. Adonijah, asking Abishag to Wife, is put to Death.
Abiathar is degraded from Priesthood. Joab’s Flight and Death. Elevation of Benaiah and Zadok. Shimei meets with his Deserts.
124. Solomon marries Pharaoh’s Daughter.
125. Spiritual Condition of Solomon and his Kingdom.
126. Solomon’s Sacrifice at Gibeon.
127. Solomon’s Dream and Prayer for Wisdom.
128. God’s Gift of Wisdom manifest by Solomon’s Judgment on Harlots

Solomon in all his Glory: (1st Kings 5 – 10; 2nd Chron. 1 – 9)
129. Preparations for Building of Temple. League with Hiram, King of Tyre. Solomon’s Levy of Laborers.
130. Building of Temple. Commencement of Temple. God’s Promise to Solomon. Dimensions of Temple. Materials of Temple. Porch. Windows. Stories. Most Holy Place. Cherubim. Veil. Walls. Floor. Doors.
131. Completion of Temple. Building of Royal Palace. Thirteen Years in Building. House of Forest of Lebanon. Porch of Pillars. Porch of Throne. King’s own Dwelling House. House of Pharaoh’s Daughter. Materials of Buildings. Great Court.
132. Making of Vessels, etc., pertaining to Temple. Hiram Artisan of Tyre. Two Pillars. Altar of Brass. Molten Sea. Ten Bases. Ten Lavers. Courts. Summary of Hiram’s Work in Brass. Summary of golden Vessels, etc. Completion of Work.
133. Dedication of Temple. Removal of Tabernacle and its Contents from Zion to Temple. Solomon’s opening Address and Blessing. Solomon’s dedicatory Prayer. God’s constant Care invoked. When an Oath is made at Altar. In Defeat. In Drouth. In Famine and Pestilence. For Stranger. In Battle. In Captivity. Close of the Prayer. Solomon’s closing Benediction. Divine Confirmation. Sacrifice and public Festival. God’s second Appearance to Solomon.
134. Solomon’s Activity and Fame. Solomon’s and Hiram’s Exchange of Cities. Subjugation of Hamath. Removal of Pharaoh’s Daughter to her own House. Building of Millo: Affair with Jeroboam. Levy of forced Labor. Building of the Cities. Solomon’s Worship. Navies of Solomon and Hiram. Visit of Queen of Sheba.
135. Glory of Solomon. Princes. Commissaries. Solomon’s Wisdom. Solomon’s Revenue and Splendor.
Solomon’s Chariots, Horsemen, and Traffic. Extent and Security of Kingdom.

Solomon’s Fall and End: (1st Kings 11; 1st Chron. 9)
136. Strange Wives turn away Solomon’s Heart.
137. God’s Anger and Threatening.
138. Solomon’s Adversaries. Hadad the Edomite. Rezon Son of Eliada. Jeroboam Son of Nebat.
139. Death of Solomon

Kingdoms of Judah and Israel: (1st Kings 12 – 22; 2nd Kings 1 – 25; 1st Chron. 5; 2nd Chron. 11 – 36)

Year of Disruption to Rise of Jehu: (1st Kings 12 – 22; 2nd Kings 1 – 10; 1st Chron. 11 – 22)

Kingdom of Judah [Southern] & Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
140. Introduction: Accession of Rehoboam and Revolt of 10 Tribes.
141. Reign of Rehoboam. Rehoboam’s Plans against Israel frustrated by Prophet Shemaiah. Adherence of Levites in all Israel to Rehoboam. Rehoboam is further strengthened by Immigration of other pious Israelites. Rehoboam’s Fortifications. Rehoboam’s Family. Judah’s Apostasy under Rehoboam. Invasion of Shishak. (Constant Warfare between Rehoboam and Jeroboam.) Death of Rehoboam.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
142. Reign of Jeroboam. Jeroboam is made King over Israel. Jeroboam takes Measures to establish his Kingdom. “Man of God out of Judah.” Prophecy against Jeroboam’s Altar in Beth-el. Withering and Restoration of Jeroboam’s Hand. Disobedience of the Man of God. Man of God is slain. “Old Prophet ” buries Man of God, and confirms his Words. Jeroboam’s Persistence in Evil. Ahijah’s Prophecy against House and Kingdom of Jeroboam. Jeroboam’s Inquiry concerning his sick Child. Ahijah’s Prophecy and its partial Fulfillment. (Constant Warfare between Rehoboam and Jeroboam.) (War between Abijah and Jeroboam.) Death of Jeroboam.

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
143. Reign of Abijah. Abijah’s Accession to Throne. War between Abijah and Jeroboam. Family of Abijah.
Character of Abijah. Death of Abijah.
144. Reign of Asa. Asa’s Accession Throne. Ten Years of Peace. (Death of Jeroboam.) Character of Asa: His first Reforms. Asa’s Policy of Defense. Asa’s Victory over Zerah the Ethiopian. Warning of Prophet Azariah. Second Reformation under Asa. 4 Years of Peace. Reforms in Worship. Renewal of the Covenant. Removal of Maacah, Queen Mother. War between Asa and Baasha. Warning of the Prophet
Hanani. Asa’s Transgression. Asa’s Illness. Death of Asa.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
145. Reign of Nadab. Nadab’s Accession to Throne. Character of Nadab. Death of Nadab.
146. Reign of Baasha. Baasha’s Accession to the Throne. (War between Asa and Baasha.)
147. Reign of Elah.
148. Reign of Zimri.
149. Reigns of Tibni and Omri. Civil War. Omri marries his Son Ahab to Jezebel of Zidon. Omri becomes sole King.
150. Reign of Omri. 1st 6 Years in Tirzah. Omri makes Samaria his Capital. Character of Omri. Death of Omri.
151. Reign of Ahab. Ahab’s Accession to Throne. Character of Ahab. Rebuilding of Jericho. (Jehoshaphat marries his Son Jehoram to Athaliah, Daughter of Ahab.) Persecution of the Prophets. Elijah the Tishbite. Famine foretold. Elijah hides by the Brook Cherith. Elijah in Zarephath. Elijah raises the Widow’s Son. Elijah goes to meet Ahab. Elijah’s Challenge. Jehovah versus Baal. Baal’s Priests are slain. Promise of Rain. Elijah’s Flight to Horeb. God’s Revelation to Elijah. Call of Elisha. Ahab’s first Syrian Campaign. Ben-hadad besieges Samaria. Ben-hadad’s arrogant Claims. God’s Promise of Victory. Ahab’s Victory over the Syrians. Ahab’s second Syrian Campaign. Prophet’s Warning. Ahab again victorious. Ahab spares Ben-hadad. Prophet’s Rebuke. 3 Years of Peace. Story of Naboth. Naboth ‘s Vineyard is coveted by Ahab. Jezebel causes Naboth’s Death. Ahab’s Doom pronounced by
Elijah. Ahab’s Repentance gains him a Respite. Ahaziah becomes co-regnant with Ahab. (Jehoshaphat joins Ahab in his third Syrian Campaign. Ahab resolves to recover Ramoth-gilead. Ahab’s Prophets promise him the Victory. Micaiah’s Prophecy. Battle of Ramoth-gilead: Defeat and Death of Ahab.)

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
152. Reign of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat’s Accession to the
Throne. Character of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat strengthens his Kingdom. Mission of the Princes, Levites, and Priests. Jehoshaphat’s increasing Power. Jehoshaphat marries his Son Jehoram to Athaliah, Daughter of Ahab. Jehoshaphat joins Ahab in his third Syrian Campaign. Ahab resolves to recover Ramoth-gilead. Ahab’s Prophets promise him the Victory. Micaiah’s Prophecy. Battle of Ramoth-gilead: Defeat and Death of Ahab. Prophet Jehu’s Judgment on Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat’s further Reforms in Worship and Law. Wondrous Deliverance from Children of Moab and Ammon and Mount Seir. Invasion. Jehoshaphat’s Prayer. Jehovah’s Answer through Jahaziel. Annihilation of the Invading Armies. Spoil. Triumphant Return to Jerusalem. Jehoshaphat’s Shipping Alliance with Ahaziah. Jehoram becomes co-regnant (co-regent) with Jehoshaphat. Jehoram ‘s sixfold Fratricide. Jehoshaphat joins Jehoram of Israel in an Expedition against Moabites. March. Elisha’s Promise of Water and Victory. Morning brings Water. Moabites defeated by the allied Armies. Death of Jehoshaphat.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
153. Reign of Ahaziah. Ahaziah becomes sole King. Character of Ahaziah. Revolt of Moab.
(Jehoshaphat’s Shipping Alliance with Ahaziah.) Ahaziah’s Illness. Jehovah’s Message by Elijah.
Death of Ahaziah.
154. Reign of Jehoram. Jehoram’s Accession to Throne. Character of Jehoram. Elisha Son of Shaphat. Translation of Elijah. Elijah’s Spirit rests upon Elisha. Elisha heals the noxious Waters at Jericho. Cursing of the Children. Elisha’s Journeying. Increase of the Widow’s Oil. Elisha promises Son to
hospitable Shunammite. Elisha heals the noxious Pottage at Gilgal. Elisha feeds one hundred Men
with twenty Loaves. Elisha restores Life of the Shunammite’s Son. 7 Years’ Famine Foretold. Recovery of lost Ax. (Jehoshaphat joins Jehoram of Israel in an Expedition against the Moabites.) Elisha and Syrians. Elisha reveals Ben-hadad’s Plans. Syrian Bands smitten with Blindness at Dothan. Elisha leads blinded Syrians to Samaria. Jehoram restores Shunammite’s Land because of Elisha’s Miracles. Story of Naaman. Healing of Naaman’s Leprosy. Naaman’s Gratitude. Gehazi’s Sin and Punishment. Siege of Samaria. Ben-hadad besieges Samaria. Suffering from Famine. King’s Messenger of Vengeance and Elisha’s Promise of Plenty. Discovery of the four Lepers. Lepers’ Report confirmed, and Elisha’s Promises fulfilled. Elisha’s Interview with Hazael. (Ahaziah aids Jehoram in the Defense of Ramoth-gilead.) Jehoram goes for Healing to Jezreel. (Jehu’s Successful Conspiracy. Ahaziah visits Jehoram in Jezreel.) At Elisha’s Command, Jehu is anointed King over Israel, at Ramoth-gilead. Jehu is proclaimed King by his Brother Officers. (Jehu proceeds to Jezreel and slays Jehoram. Ahaziah is, in turn, also slain by Jehu’s Command.) Fate of Jezebel. Judgment on House of Ahab. Massacre of the Princes Royal of Judah. Jehu attaches Jehonadab to his Support. Complete Success of the Usurper.
155. Reign of Jehoram. Jehoram becomes sole King. Character of Jehoram. Revolt of Edom. Revolt of Libnah. Posthumous Message from Elijah. Invasion of the Philistines and Arabians. Jehoram’s Illness. Death of Jehoram.
156. Reign of Ahaziah. Ahaziah’s Accession to the Throne. Character of Ahaziah. Ahaziah aids Jehoram in the Defense of Ramoth-gilead. Jehu’s Successful Conspiracy. Ahaziah visits Jehoram in Jezreel. Jehu proceeds to Jezreel and slays Jehoram. Ahaziah is, in turn, also slain by Jehu’s Command. (Massacre of the Princes Royal of Judah.)

Rise of Jehu to Fall of Kingdom of Israel: (2nd Kings 10 – 17; 2nd Chron. 22 – 31)

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
157. Reign of Jehu. Jehu’s Destruction of Baal. Jehovah’s Promise to Jehu and his House. Jehu walks in the Sins of Jeroboam. “Cutting short ” of Israel. Death of Jehu.

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
158. Reign of Athaliah. Having slain all Seed Royal save Joash, Athaliah usurps Throne. Rescue of Joash. Jehoiada elevates Joash to Throne. Athaliah meets with her Deserts.
159. Reign of Joash. Joash’s Accession to Throne. Covenant made by Jehoiada. Joash’s Character as influenced by Jehoiada. Spiritual Condition of the Kingdom. Joash’s matrimonial Affairs. Joash’s Commands to repair Temple. Repairing of Temple. Temple Worship. Death of Jehoiada. Sins of Joash. Stoning of Zechariah. Hazael’s Operations in Judah. Reverses of Judah. Hazael subdues Gath. Hazael bought off by Joash. Death of Joash.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
160. Reign of Jehoahaz. Accession of Jehoahaz. Character of Jehoahaz. Oppression of the Syrians. Repentance of Jehoahaz. Jehoash becomes co-regnant with Jehoahaz. Hazael reduces Israel low. Death of Jehoahaz.
161. Reign of Jehoash. Jehoash becomes sole King. Character of Jehoash. Encouraging Prophecy of
Elisha on his Deathbed. Death of Elisha. Miracle in Elisha’s Tomb. Fulfillment of Elisha’s Prophecy: Success of Jehoash over Benhadad. (Amaziah hires 100,000 Mercenaries out of Israel, but subsequently dismisses them.) (Dismissed Israelitish Mercenaries pillage the Cities of Judah.) (War between Amaziah and Jehoash.) Death of Jehoash.

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
162. Reign of Amaziah. Amaziah ‘s Accession to the Throne. Character of Amaziah. Amaziah plans an Expedition against Edom. Amaziah hires 100,000 Mercenaries out of Israel, but subsequently dismisses them. Amaziah’s Success in Edom. Dismissed Israelitish Mercenaries pillage the Cities of Judah. Amaziah’s further Wickedness. War between Amaziah and Jehoash. Last 15 Years of Amaziah’s Reign. Death of Amaziah. Interregnum of 11 Years.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
163. Reign of Jeroboam II. Accession of Jeroboam II. Character of Jeroboam II. Jehovah saves Israel by the Hand of Jeroboam II. Continued Apostasy of Israel. Death of Jeroboam II. Interregnum of 22 Years.

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
164. Reign of Uzziah. Uzziah’s Accession to Throne. Character of Uzziah. Spiritual Condition of Kingdom. Uzziah’s prosperous Years. Building of Eloth. Uzziah’s Success in War. Uzziah’s Building and Husbandry. Uzziah’s Army. Uzziah’s Fame. Uzziah’s Sin and Punishment. Regency of Jotham. Death of Uzziah.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
165. Reign of Zechariah. Zechariah’s Accession to Throne. Character of Zechariah. Death of Zechariah.
Fulfillment of Jehovah’s Promise to Jehu.
166. Reign of Shallum.
167. Reign of Menahem. Menahem’s Accession to Throne. Character of Menahem. Invasion of Pul, King of Assyria. Death of Menahem.
168. Reign of Pekahiah. Pekahiah’s Accession to Throne. Character of Pekahiah. Death of Pekahiah. 169. Reign of Pekah. Pekah ‘s Accession to Throne. Character of Pekah. Beginning of the Captivity. (War between Jotham and Rezin and Pekah.) (War between Ahaz and Rezin and Pekah. Ahaz is defeated by the allied Kings. Oded the Prophet procures Release of Jewish Captives.) Tiglath-pileser captures many
Cities in northern Israel, and deports many Captives. Death of Pekah.

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
170. Reign of Jotham. Jotham’s Accession to the Throne. Character of Jotham. Spiritual Condition of the People. Jotham’s Building. Subjugation of the Ammonites. War between Jotham and Rezin and Pekah. Death of Jotham.
171. Reign of Ahaz. Accession of Ahaz. Character of Ahaz. War between Ahaz and Rezin and Pekah. Ahaz is defeated by the allied Kings. Oded the Prophet procures Release of Jewish Captives. Edomite and Philistine Invasions. Ahaz seeks Help from Tiglathpileser. Tiglath-pileser captures Damascus. Ahaz becomes Tributary to Tiglath-pileser. Ahaz continues in his wicked Ways. Death of Ahaz. Interregnum of 9 Years.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
172. Reign of Hoshea. Hoshea’s Accession to Throne. Character of Hoshea. (Many of Subjects of Hoshea unite with the People of Judah in Keeping Passover. Preparations for the Passover. Keeping of the Passover. Keeping of “other 7 Days.” Enthusiasm aroused results in widespread Iconoclasm.) Hoshea becomes Tributary to Shalmaneser. Secret Alliance with Egypt. Shalmaneser besieges Samaria. Fall of Samaria. Imprisonment of Hoshea.

Kingdom of Judah [Southern]:
173. The Reign of Hezekiah (first 6 years). Hezekiah’s Accession to Throne. Character of Hezekiah.
Cleansing of Temple. Reconsecration of Temple. Many of the Subjects of Hoshea unite with People of Judah in Keeping Passover. Preparations for Passover. Keeping of Passover. Keeping of “other 7 Days Enthusiasm aroused results in widespread Iconoclasm. Hezekiah’s further religious Reforms.

Kingdom of Israel [Northern]:
174. Appendix to the History of Kingdom of Israel. Sins for which Israel was carried into Captivity. Peoples that were brought to inhabit Samaria. Plague of the Lions. Mixed Character of the Samaritans’ Religion.

Kingdom of Judah after Fall of Kingdom of Israel: (2nd Kings 18 – 25; 2nd Chron. 32 – 36)
175. Reign of Hezekiah (last 23 years) Hezekiah throws off Assyrian Yoke. Hezekiah’s successful Philistine Campaign. Sennacherib’s first Invasion of Judah. Hezekiah’s Illness and Recovery. Hezekiah’s Reception of Babylonian Embassy. Hezekiah’s Wealth and Building. Sennacherib’s second Invasion of Judah. Sennacherib enters Judah. Hezekiah’s Precautions. Advance against Jerusalem: Rabshakeh’s Message. Reply of Hezekiah’s Ministers. Further Insolence of Rabshakeh. Despair of Hezekiah’s Ministers. Hezekiah’s Message to Isaiah. Isaiah’s Answer. Rabshakeh’s Departure. Sennacherib’s Letter to Hezekiah. Hezekiah’s Prayer. Jehovah’s Answer through Isaiah. Overthrow of the Assyrians. Hezekiah once more prosperous. Death of Hezekiah.
176. Reign of Manasseh. Manasseh’s Accession to Throne. Manasseh’s excessive Idolatries. Death of Sennacherib. Accession of Esar-haddon as King of Assyria. Jehovah’s Message “by His Servants the Prophets.” Manasseh’s further Crimes. Manasseh’s Captivity. Acts of Manasseh after his Restoration. Spiritual Condition of People. Death of Manasseh.
177. Reign of Amon. Amon’s Accession to Throne. Character of Amon. Death of Amon.
178. Reign of Josiah. Josiah ‘s Accession to Throne. Josiah’s godly Character. Josiah’s Life and Character not sufficient to atone for Judah’s Sins. Josiah’s early Reformations. Repairing of Temple. Book of Law. Finding of Book of Law. Effect of Discovery on Josiah. Words of Huldah the Prophetess. Reading of Book of Law. Making of Covenant. Josiah’s further Reformations. Fulfillment of Prophecy of “Man of God out of Judah.” Keeping of the Passover. Death of Josiah.
179. Reign of Jehoahaz. Accession of Jehoahaz. Character of Jehoahaz. Jehoahaz is deposed by Pharaoh-necoh.
180. Reign of Jehoiakim. Jehoiakim is made King by Pharaoh-necoh. Captivity of Jehoahaz. Character of Jehoiakim. Jehoiakim Tributary to Pharaoh-necoh. Jehoiakim Tributary to Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiakim’s Rebellion. Jehoiakim’s many Adversaries. Death of Jehoiakim.
181. Reign of Jehoiachin. Jehoiachin’s Accession to Throne. Character of Jehoiachin. Jehoiachin is taken Captive by Nebuchadnezzar,
182. Reign of Zedekiah. Zedekiah is made King by Nebuchadnezzar. Great Deportation to Babylon. Character of Zedikiah. Zedekiah’s Rebellion. Wickedness of People the Cause of their Ruin. Siege of Jerusalem. Zedekiah is taken Captive by Nebuchadnezzar.
183. Appendix to the History of the Kingdom of Judah. Overthrow of Jerusalem. Remaining Nobles Slain.
Treasure taken by the Chaldeans. Last Deportation to Babylon. Length of the Captivity. Gedaliah is made Governor of Judah. Murder of Gedaliah and Flight of People. Jehoiachin is set at Liberty. Proclamation of Cyrus permitting Return from Captivity.

(From: Ezra, Nehemia and Esther with Introductions, Notes, and Comments on the Authorized and Revised Versions. By George Carter (1901), Relfe Brothers, LTD. London)

Preface. In compiling the Introductions and Notes, the Author begs to acknowledge his indebtedness to the following books: The Speaker’s Commentary; the Pulpit Commentary; Keil’s Commentaries; Dr. Ryle’s Ezra and Nehemiah (Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges); and Glazebrook’s Lessons from the Old Testament.

The Book of Ezra. Introduction.
1. Title and Authorship of the Book. The two books bearing the name of “Ezra” and “Nehemiah” were in the Hebrew Canon of Scripture one book, with the title of “The Book of Ezra.” But although there is a striking similarity in the style of the two books, yet the general opinion is that the books are the composition of two distinct writers.
The Christian Church has been unanimous in its opinion that the book which bears the title of “The Book of Ezra” in the Christian Canon of Scripture, was written by Ezra himself. Some modern critics, however, assert that only a portion of the book was written by Ezra, and they base their belief on the fact of the varying transitions from the first to the third person which occur in the course of the narrative. But this theory has not much weight when we consider that such changes of persons were common in ancient writers.
2. Life and Character of Ezra. The only information we possess about Ezra is obtained from his own book, and that of Nehemiah. His life, as gathered from these sources, falls
naturally under two headings:
(1) His Life as Governor of Judaea. Ezra was of the sacerdotal order, being descended from Hilkiah, the High Priest in the reign of Josiah. During the reign of Artaxerxes he held a high and important position in the Persian Court, since we find he had easy access to the king, but how he acquired that position we are not told. His great aim was to bring about a religious reformation among his countrymen in Jerusalem by teaching them the “statutes and judgements of God,” and he was well fitted for the task, since we read that he was “well read in the Law, and skilful and ready in its exposition.” Accordingly, he obtained a commission from his royal master allowing him to go to Jerusalem and take with him all those Jews that wished to return to their native land, investing him with full powers to carry out certain social and religious reforms, and granting him many privileges. In the seventh year of Artaxerxes he set out, accompanied with a band of adult males, numbering 1,773, and their families, and after a journey of four months reached Jerusalem in safety. He then handed over to the custody of the priests the sacred vessels, which he had received from Artaxerxes, and gave the king’s commissions to the different satraps of the province.
His first step was to compel the Jews to give up the heathen wives that they had married. Shortly after his arrival at Jerusalem the princes of the people complained to him about the mixed marriages. His grief and indignation were intense. “I rent my garment and my mantle,” he says, “and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down astonied.” But he applied himself earnestly to the task, and in six months all the Jews had discarded their heathen wives. After this he returned to Babylon.
(2) His Life as the Leading Priest under the rule of Nehemiah. About B.C. 444 he returned to Jerusalem, and occupied a position, purely ecclesiastical, under the governorship of Nehemiah. In the discharge of his priestly duties only two facts are recorded of him: (a) That he made arrangements for regular reading and expounding of the Law to the people, he himself taking the lead; (b) That he headed one of the processions formed to perambulate the walls on the day of their dedication. Ezra is the most prominent figure in the Story of the Return of the Exiles. He was in such high favour with King Artaxerxes that he made him governor of Judaea, and in the performance of the duties connected with that high office he was remarkable for his integrity, his moderation, his earnestness of purpose and his patriotism. His use of “persuasion rather than force” is contrasted favourably with the “fiery and intrepid zeal” of his successor, Nehemiah. As a priest and minister of God’s word his piety, his zeal for God’s service, and his anxious care for the spiritual welfare of his countrymen are most conspicuous.

Analysis of the Book of Ezra.
Part I. (Chapters 1 – 6)
The First Return of the Exiles, under Zerubbabel.
1. The Decree of Cyrus, addressed to all the Jews living throughout his dominions: (1) Giving them permission ” to go up to Jerusalem and rebuild the house of the Lord God of Israel; (2) Calling upon all his subjects to facilitate their journey with gifts of gold and silver, goods, boasts of burden and freewill-offerings for the building of the Temple.
2. The Response to the Decree. (1) The chiefs of the houses of Judah and Benjamin, and a band of men numbering 42,360, together with their families and their servants, set out on their journey to Jerusalem; many of the Ten Tribes also accompany them; (2) All the sacred vessels of the Temple which Nebuchadnezzar had carried to Babylon are committed to the care of Zerubbabel.
Note —No doubt a great number of the exiles preferred to remain in the land of their captivity for the following reasons: (a) They were in a very prosperous condition; (b) They lacked patriotism and religious enthusiasm; (c) They feared the long and perilous journey from Babylon to Jerusalem. Those who remained are called “The Jews of the Dispersion.”
3. The Religious Services are restored, and the Foundation of the Temple laid. The Altar of Burnt Sacrifice is set up on the site of the old one; the Feast of Tabernacles is kept; the Daily Sacrifice and the Set Feasts are permanently established. The Foundation of the Temple is also laid.
4. Opposition made by the Samaritans to the Building of the Temple. (1) Zerubbabel refuses the help of the Samaritans. They hire counsellors against the Jews and frustrate their purpose all the days of Cyrus. (2) At the beginning of the reign of Ahasuerus they hinder the work by sending an accusation against the Jews to that king. (3) When Artaxerxes ascended the throne, Bishlam, Mithredath and Tabeel wrote a letter to him laying the most grievous charges against the Jews as a nation. Artaxerxes sends an answer to the effect that the work of building the Temple should be discontinued.
5. The Prophets Haggai and Zechariah urge the people on to finish the work, whereupon the old enemies of the Jews inform King Darius that the work was again commenced, and that the Jews referred to the Decree of Cyrus as their authority for so doing.
6. The Decree of Darius. Darius orders a search to be made, and the Decree of Cyrus is discovered at Achmetha, and confirmed by him. The Temple is then completed, and its dedication follows.
Note —Here a break occurs in the narrative, extending from B.C. 516, the date of the Dedication of the Temple, to B.C. 458, when Ezra undertook his commission.

Part II. (Chapters 7 – 10)
The Second Return of the Exiles, under Ezra.
1. Ezra’s Commission. Ezra receives a commission from Ahasuerus, the details of which are as follows: (1) That permission should be given to all those Jews who were so minded to go up with Ezra to Jerusalem; (2) That Ezra should convey to Jerusalem all the gold and silver which the king and his counsellors freely offered unto the God of Israel; (3) That he should buy bullocks, rams and lambs for the sacrifices in the Temple; (4) That he should draw on the royal treasury for the expense of keeping up the services of the Temple; (5) That all priests, Levites, and other officers connected with the Temple Service should he exempt from every kind of taxation; (6) That Ezra should be empowered to appoint magistrates and judges to instruct the people and to punish evil-doers with death, banishment, confiscation or imprisonment. The number of adult males who accompanied Ezra (including Levites and Nethinims) was 1,773.
2. The Journey to Jerusalem. (1) On reaching the river Ahava Ezra finds that there are no Levites in his company, but through the influence of Iddo a number of Levites and Nethinims are induced to join; (2) He then proclaims a fast with a view to entreat God’s protection for the journey, and consigns the sacred vessels and gifts of the king and his nobles to the safe custody of the priests; (3) In spite of the opposition of enemies and robbers he arrives safely at Jerusalem, after a journey of about four months, and hands over the king’s commissions to the different satraps, and the sacred vessels to the care of the priests of the Temple.
3. The Religious Reforms carried out by Ezra. The Marriages with Heathen Women are Annulled.
The princes of the people complain to Ezra about the marriages of their countrymen with the heathen women. Ezra is filled with indignation and horror, and in the name of the people makes a public confession of sin to God. The people repent and, on the recommendation of Shechauiah, make a covenant to put away their strange wives and they confirm the covenant with an oath. Ezra then orders a general fast to be kept, and issues a proclamation summoning all the people to Jerusalem. At Ezra’s request the people agree to put away their strange wives. Only four showed any opposition to this arrangement; all the rest followed Ezra’s advice. Then follows a list of the names of those who had married strange wives. Here the book closes somewhat abruptly.

Chronology of Events in Ezra & Nehemiah & Esther:
From Destruction of Jerusalem to End of Administration of Nehemiah.
598: Zedekiah is made king of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar, but relying on the assistance of Pharaoh-hophra, king of Egypt, he rebels (2 Kings 24:17-20; Ezekiel 17:15).
588: Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem and destroys it. Zedekiah, while trying to escape, is captured and sent to Babylon (2 Kings 25.).
562: Evil-Merodach succeeds his father, Nebuchadnezzar, on throne of Babylon. He releases Jehoaddin from captivity (2 Kings 25: 27-30).
559: Neriglissar murders Evil-Merodach, and succeeds him.
555: Laborosarchad, son of Neriglissar, is cruelly murdered in 1st year of his reign by a band of conspirators, one of whom, Narbonidus, seizes throne.
538: Belshazzar succeeds Narbonidus, his father. His great Feast. Babylon is taken by Cyrus, and Belshazzar slain (Dan. 5.).
536: Edict of Cyrus, permitting Jews to return to their own land (Ezra 1:1).
536: First return of Exiles, under Zerubbabel, Tirshatha of Judaea. (Ezra 1:5-11).
535: Foundation of New Temple laid (Ezra 3:10-13).
529: Death of Cyrus Cambyses (= Ahasuerus, Ezra 4:6), his son, succeeds him.
522: Psuedo-Smerdis (=Artaxerxes, Ezra 4:7) ascends throne, but is deposed and slain by Darius Hystaspes.
521: Darius Hystaspes (= Darius, Ezra 4:24) becomes king.
520: Prophets Haggai & Zechariah urge on Jews to complete the work of rebuilding Temple (Ezra 5: 1).
520: Darius Hystaspes confirms the Decree of Cyrus (Ezra 6.).
516: Completion and Dedication of Temple (Ezra 6:15-16).
488: Esther is made Queen by Xerxes (= Ahasuerus, Esther 2:17), son of Darius Hystaspes.
488: Institution of the Feast of Purim (Esther 9:26-28).
458: Ezra is appointed Tirshatha by Artaxerxes (= Artaxerxes Longimanus, Ezra 7:11-26).
458: Second return of Exiles, under Ezra (Ezra 8.).
445: Nehemiah is appointed Tirshatha by Artaxerxes Longimanus (= Artaxerxes, Neb. 9:1-9). He rebuilds Walls of Jerusalem, and carries out many reforms (Neh. 3. & 4.).
444: Dedication of Walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:27-43).
413: Nehemiah Returns to Persia, but comes back to Jerusalem in 428.
413: His Second Reformation (Neh. 13.).

Outline of Book of Ezra:

Part I: (Chapters 1-6) 1st Return of Exiles under Zerubbabel.
Decree of Cyrus (Cyrus 1st Year). Response to Decree and Restoration of Sacred Vessels (5,400 vessels of gold and silver).
Register of the Return Remnants: Names of Leaders. Names of Heads of Families and Number of the Returned. Numbers of the Returned by Towns and Places. Names and Numbers of the Families of Levites, Singers, and Children of Porters. Names and Numbers of Families of Nethinim and of Solomon’s Servants. Account of Israelites and Priests of Uncertain Genealogy.
Sum Total (42,360) of all Remnants, together with Number of their Slaves (7,337) (200 Singers of Men & Women) and Baggage Animals (736 Horses; 245 Mules; 435 Camels; 6,720 Donkeys).
Altar of Burnt Sacrifice is restored, Feast of Tabernacles kept, and Daily Sacrifice offered.
Appointed Feasts are permanently established, and Materials got ready for Re-building of Temple.
Foundation of Temple is laid. (2nd Year of Return)
Zerubbabel refuses the help of the Samaritans in Building Temple. They hinder the work during the reigns of Cyrus and Ahasuerus.
Opposition to Building of Temple during the reign of Artaxerxes. Bishlam and his friends make most grievous charges against Jews to the King.
Artaxerxes sends an answer to the effect that Rebuilding of Temple should cease. (Ceased till 2nd year of the reign of King Darius of Persia.)
Prophets Haggai and Zechariah urge People on to finish the Work. Neighbouring Tribes make a complaint to Darius against Jews.
Decree of Cyrus is discovered at Achmetha and confirmed by Darius.
Temple is Completed and Dedicated. (6th year King Darius reign.)

Part II: (Chapters 7-10) 2nd Return of Exiles under Ezra.
Ezra’s Genealogy; his Arrival at Jerusalem. (7th year of King Artaxerxes of Persia)
Ezra’s Commission from King Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes).
Ezra’s Thanksgiving.
Ezra’s Measures for Inducing certain Levites and Nethinim to Join his Expedition.
Details of Journey; Fast at the River Ahava; Sacred Gifts are committed to care of Priests and Levites.
Ezra Arrives at Jerusalem; Consigns Treasure to Care of Priests, and gives King’s Commission to Governors.
Religious Reforms affected by Ezra at Jerusalem. Princes complain to Ezra about the Mixed Marriages. Ezra’s Indignation and Horror.
Ezra’s Confession and Prayer.
Repentance of People. On Recommendation of Shechaniah they make Covenant and confirm it by Oath.
Ezra’s fast. Proclamation is made summoning all People to Jerusalem.
People agree to Put Away their Strange Wives.

Notes on Ezra:
Cyrus king of Persia: Cyrus was a Persian by birth. He took the city of Babylon on the night of Belshazzar’s feast, and became king.

the first year: i.e. the first year of his reign at Babylon.

word of the Lord, etc.: i.e. God’s purpose. The allusion is to the prophecy of Jeremiah, in which the prophet had fixed the date of the return by assigning a duration of seventy years to the Captivity. The prophecy runs thus: “Thus saith the Lord, That after seventy years be accomplished for Babylon I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place.” (Jer. 29:10).

Note 1. —The “Seventy Years” most be regarded as a round number, extending from the year B.C. 598, when Jehoiachin and the greater part of the people were carried away captive, to B.C. 536.

Note 2. —For Ezekiel’s Prophecy of the Restoration, under the “Vision of the Dry Bones,” and Isaiah’s poetical description of the journey of the exiles through the ‘Wilderness from Babylon to Jerusalem, see page 79 = Prophecies Relating to the Return (Remnant):
(1) Ezekiel’s Prophecy of the Restoration under the vision of the Dry Bones. (Ezekiel 37:1-14).
(2) Isaiah foretells the Restoration of the Exiles. (Isaiah 40.)

The whole congregation: The total number here given is 42,360, and it agrees with the total stated in Nehemiah (Neh. 7:66), but it does not agree with the sum of the particulars as given either by Ezra or in Nehemiah, as the following table will show: According to Ezra & Nehemiah:
Men of Israel: 24,144 (Ezra); 25,406 (Nehemiah)
Priests 4,289 (Ezra); 4,289 (Nehemiah) Levites proper, Choral Levites, Doorkeepers,
Nethinim, etc.: 341 (Ezra);360 (Nehemiah)
Solomon’s Servants: 392 (Ezra); 392 (Nehemiah)
Those who could not prove their Israelitish origin: 652 (Ezra); 642 (Nehemiah)
Sum total: 29,818 (Ezra); 31,089 (Nehemiah)
No satisfactory explanation of this discrepancy has been given.
Note —Some think that the number 42,360 was the number of the “heads of families” only, the whole company being from 150,000 to 200,000.))

The Book of Nehemiah:
1. Title and Authorship. It has already been noticed that the two books bearing the names of “Ezra” and “Nehemiah” were in the Hebrew Canon united into one book, under the title of the “Book of Ezra.” Subsequently, however, the book was divided into two parts, called the “First and Second Books of Ezra,” and about the close of the fourth century the “Second Book of Ezra” was called the “Book of Nehemiah.” Most critics allow that Chapters 1-7 and Chapter 13 were written by Nehemiah himself, and that the remaining portions were, in all probability, drawn up under his authority. The parts which are ascribed to Nehemiah are distinguished by their graphic, bold and vigorous style.
2. Character and Work of Nehemiah. Nehemiah was the son of Hachaliah and of the tribe of Judah, and held the important office of cup-bearer to King Ahasuerus. Like Ezra, he was a man of eminent piety: zealous in God’s service, and lived in strict conformity to the Law. He was habitually a man of prayer, and the “short ejaculatory prayers” which appear throughout the book are the outpourings of a deeply religious soul, and show how much he depended upon God in carrying out all his undertakings. He was, moreover, a man of action, and his untiring energy is nowhere better seen than in the rapidity with which he completed the building of the city wall, in the face of so many difficulties from within and from without the city. After the completion of the work his whole aim was to raise the spiritual condition of his people, and to accomplish his purpose he often had recourse to the most drastic measures, and showed no mercy to those who transgressed God’s law. But his patriotism, his liberality, and his unselfishness won the affection of his countrymen, and although no tomb marks his last resting place, yet, as Josephus says, “the city walls form his best and most lasting monument.” (Pulpit Commentary.)

Analysis of the Book of Nehemiah.
Part I.
Nehemiah’s First Visit to Jerusalem and the Restoration of the City Walls.
1. Nehemiah’s Commission. Nehemiah was a cup-bearer to King Ahasuerus, and while in the performance of the duties of his office, he learnt from his kinsman Hanani, and certain other Jews, who had recently returned from Jerusalem, the sad state of the city; how that the “people there were in great affliction, the walls were broken down, and the gates burned with fire.” Overwhelmed with grief, “for several days he sat down and wept and mourned and fasted and prayed.” His mourning continued for four long months and at last attracted the notice of the king, who, on learning its cause, gave him a commission, empowering him to go to Jerusalem and rebuild the city walls and the palace of the governor. Ahasuerus also gave him a body-guard and horsemen as a protection for the journey. Nehemiah at once set out for Jerusalem. Meanwhile, three men —Sanballat, Tobiah and Geahem, all of whom held subordinate positions under the Syrian satrap —were grieved when they heard that “a man was come to Jerusalem to seek the welfare of the children of Israel.”
2. Nehemiah secretly surveys the City Walls. Shortly after his arrival Nehemiah made a secret survey of the walls, and then called together the priests and the rulers and laid before them his plan. They were unanimous in their consent to assist him, and said “Let us rise up and build.”
3. The Building of the Wall. To hasten on the work Nehemiah apportions different parts of the wall to different classes of people —the priests, the goldsmiths, and the merchants. Sanballat and his friends still continued their opposition, but Nehemiah baffled all their attempts to hinder the work by taking the following precautions: (1) He armed all the people with swords and bows, and ordered them to take up their position behind the walls, and there await the attack of the enemy; (2) He divided his own servants into two bands, one of which consisted of those who were engaged in actual labour and the other of armed men; (3) He caused all the actual builders, who needed the use of both hands for their work, each to gird his sword on his side, while the bearers of burdens should work with one hand and carry a weapon in the other; (4) At night every man was to retire within the city, so as to be ready for an attack of the enemy. Nehemiah, his kinsmen, and his servants, kept guard in turns, and “none of them,” he tells us, “put off their clothes, saving that everyone put them off for washing.” Under this arrangement the walls were finished in the short space of fifty-two days.
4. Troubles which arose inside the City, and how Nehemiah overcame them. The poor were in extreme poverty, and complained of the oppression of the rich nobles. The causes of this state of things were the large families of the poor, the dearth and the heavy taxation. The poor said that they had been compelled to mortgage their lands, vineyards and their houses to buy themselves food; to borrow money on their lands and their vineyards to pay the king’s taxes, and even to sell their sons and daughters into bondage to pay the high rate of interest. They appealed to Nehemiah as the new governor to remedy these evils. Nehemiah advised the rich nobles: (1) To restore all the lands, vineyards and houses which they held in pledge; (2) To remit to their debtors all the interest which they had illegally taken. This the nobles agreed to do.
Nehemiah testified to his own unselfish conduct by assuring his countrymen (a) That since his appointment as governor he had not taxed them for his own support or that of his court; (b) That he and his attendants had done their share of the work of building the wall; (c) That he had not bought any land, as indeed, he might have done with advantage, at a time when the famine was raging; (d) That he had maintained daily, at his own expense, one hundred and fifty guests (probably foreign Jews).
5. The Intrigues of Sanballat and Tobiah against Nehemiah. (1) Four times they invited him to a conference in a village near Jerusalem, with a view to assassinate him, but Nehemiah very wisely refused to go; (2) They gave out that he was heading a rebellious movement against the king, a statement which Nehemiah denied; (3) They hired a false prophet named Shemaiah to persuade Nehemiah to seek refuge within the Temple, knowing that if he did so, he would incur the charge of desecration, and be branded as a coward by his countrymen. Nehemiah rejected their proposal.
6. The Wall being finished, Nehemiah makes an arrangement for the effectual guarding of the Gates. He ordered: (1) That the gates should not be opened until the sun was hot and the guards at their posts; (2) That they should be closed before the guards left them; (3) That the inhabitants should undertake the duty of watchmen.
Part II.
The Religious Reforms carried out by Nehemiah.
1. Arrangements are made for the public reading and expounding of the Law. Ezra takes the lead in the affair.
2. The Feast of Tabernacles is kept in strict accordance with the Law.
3. A day of general fasting, prayer and confession is instituted.
4. The Levites give the people a solemn address, reminding them of God’s goodness towards them in times past, and their ingratitude.
5. A covenant is made with God, in which the people bind themselves: (1) Not to intermarry with the heathen; (2) Not to trade on the Sabbath-day; (3) To observe the Sabbathical Year; (4) To pay one-third of a shekel for the maintenance of the Temple services; (5) To give the first fruits and tithes to the priests.
Note —To supply the wood necessary for the burnt sacrifices lots were cast among the priests, Levites and the people.
6. To counteract the attempts of the enemy to destroy the city Nehemiah makes an arrangement for increasing the population within the walls. Lots are cast “to bring one of ten to dwell in the holy city.”
7. The dedication of the city walls follows amidst the greatest rejoicing.
8. Officers are appointed to collect tithes and other dues, and further arrangements are made for the carrying on the Temple services.
9. After Nehemiah had been governor twelve years, and had carried out many reforms, he returned to Shushan. We are not told how long he remained at the Persian court, but on his return to
Jerusalem, he found that many abuses had crept in during his absence. These abuses he now proceeded to remedy; they were: (1) The non-payment of tithes; (2) The desecration of the Temple buildings by Tobiah, who had been permitted by Eliashib, the High Priest, to reside within its sacred precincts; (3) The profanation of the Sabbath by such practices as the treading of grapes, bringing in of sheaves, the carrying of burdens, the lading of asses, and the sale of fish; (4) The intermarriages of the Jews with the heathen.
Note.—Two important points of historical interest are brought before our notice in the books of “Ezra” and “Nehemiah”: (1) The rise of two parties in the Jewish community —the one headed by Ezra and Nehemiah remarkable for its strict observance of the Law; the other, headed by Eliashib, the High Priest, noted for its laxity in its observance of the Law and its favourable attitude towards the Gentile element in the population; (2) The origin and development of the enmity between the Jews and the Samaritans.

Outline of Book of Nehemiah:

Part I: (Chapters 1-7) Nehemiah’s 1st Visit to Jerusalem & Restoration of City Walls.
Nehemiah receives evil tidings of the State of Jerusalem. (20th year of Captivity.)
Nehemiah’s Prayer.
Nehemiah’s intense grief attracts the notice of King. He obtains Commission to Rebuild the Walls of Jerusalem.
Nehemiah’s journey to Jerusalem.
Survey of Walls and resolves to Rebuild them. Sanballat and his friends oppose him.
Names of those who undertook to rebuild the walls, and the parts they rebuilt (Repaired).
Attempts made by Sanballat and his friends to hinder the work.
Precautions taken by Nehemiah.
Troubles within Walls and how Nehemiah met them. People complain of the oppression of Nobles.
Nehemiah advises the nobles (1) To restore all the lands and vineyards which they held in pledge; (2) To remit all the interest which they had illegally taken. The nobles consent to do so.
Nehemiah’s unselfish conduct towards his countrymen.
Intrigues of Sanballat and Tobiah against Nehemiah. (1) They invite him to a conference with a view to assassinate him.
Shemaiah, a false prophet, is hired by Sanballat to persuade Nehemiah to seek refuge within the Temple.
Walls are Finished. Discouragement of Enemies of Jews and Treasonable Correspondence of the Jewish Nobles.
Walls being now Rebuilt, Nehemiah makes arrangements for guarding the gates.

Part II: (Chapters 8-10)
Public Reading and Expounding of the Law by Ezra.
Feast of Tabernacles is kept in strict accordance with the Law.
Day of general Fasting, Prayer and Confession of sins is instituted.
Solemn Address of Levites, reminding the People of God’s goodness towards them in times past and their ingratitude: (1) Call of Abram, and God’s covenant with him. (2) Bondage in Egypt and Deliverance therefrom. Destruction of Egyptians in Red Sea. (3) Journey through Wilderness, Giving of Law on Mount Sinai, and Worshipping of Golden Calf. (4) Conquest of Canaan, and Settlement therein. (5) Disobedience of Israelites, their Oppression, and Deliverance by Judges. (6) Present Humiliation of Israelites. Their Determination to make a Covenant with God.
Terms of Covenant: (1) Marriages with Heathen and Trading on Sabbath were prohibited. (2) Sabbatical Year was to be Observed, Tax of 1/3rd of a Shekel Imposed for Maintenance of Service of Temple. (3) Firstfruits and Tithes were to be Given to the Priests.

Part III: (Chapters 11-13) Miscellaneous Facts.
Arrangement made for Increasing the Population of Jerusalem.
Dedication of the City Walls.
Officers are Appointed to Collect the Tithes and Other Dues.
Arrangements made for Carrying Out the Temple Services.
Religious Reforms Carried Out by Nehemiah. (1) The Israelites Separate themselves from the Mixed Multitude. (2) Nehemiah Casts Forth the Furniture of Tobiah out of the Chambers of the Temple, and Restores the Chambers to their proper use. (3) Nehemiah Provides for the Proper Maintenance of
the Levites. (4) Nehemiah takes Measures to Ensure the Proper Observance of the Sabbath. (5) He takes Prompt Action Against the Mixed Marriages.
Note: (The prophet Malachi gives a pathetic description (Mal. 2:13) of the discarded wives appealing to God, and “covering the altar of the Lord with tears, with weeping and with sighing.”)

Notes on Nehemiah:
Eliashib: he was the grandson of Jeshua (Joshua), the high priest, who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Sheshbazzar).
Note: “The second part of the Book of Nehemiah (chap. 8-10) is generally
supposed to have been written by another hand. The reasons for this statement are: (1) Nehemiah is spoken of in the Third Person; (2) He is called the Tirshatha, whereas in the earlier chapters he has the title of Pekah; (3) He retires into the background, his place being taken by Ezra, who holds the
first and most prominent position.” (Speaker’s Commentary.)

Outlines of Great National Confession made by Levites:
1. Ascription of Praise to God as the Creator and Preserver of the Universe.
2. Concise Summary of the Past History of the Israelites including:
(1) Call of Abram, the Change of his Name and God’s Covenant with him.
(2) Affliction in Egypt and Deliverance therefrom, and Destruction of Egyptians.
(3) Journey of Israelites through Wilderness under God’s Protecting Care. Bread of Heaven and Water from Rock are Miraculously Provided for their Sustenance.
(4) Giving of Law on Mount Sinai, and Worshipping of Golden Calf.
(5) Frequent Murmurings of Israelites and God’s Long Sufferance.
(6) Forty Years’ Wanderings in Wilderness; Conquest of Land and Settlement therein.
(7) Disobedience of Israelites; their Oppression by their Enemies, and Deliverance by Judges.
(8) They Confess that their Punishment has been Result of their Wickedness.
3. Present Humiliation of Israelites; their Determination to make Covenant with God.

Exodus of Exiles under Zerubabbel Compared with that under Ezra:

1. Cyrus, being stirred up by God, issued a decree giving permission to those Jews who belonged to
the tribes of Judah and Benjamin to return to their own land to re-build the House of God which was at Jerusalem, and to carry back with them the sacred vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had taken to Babylon.
2. Zerubbabel, a prince of the house of David, was appointed the Tirshatha.
3. No mention is made of the powers and privileges conferred on Zerubbabel.
4. The number of adults (males) who went up with Zerubbabel, including priests, Levites, Nethinim,
etc., is given as 42,360.
5. A very considerable number of priests and Levites went up with Zerubbabel.
6. Cyrus called upon all his subjects to assist the poorer Jews by every means in their power.
7. Zerubbabel’s main object was to re-build the Temple.
8. No details of Zerubbabel’s journey from Babylon to Jerusalem are recorded.

1. Artaxerxes, induced in all probability by Ezra, issued a decree giving permission to Jews of every tribe, who were so minded, to return to their land, and to take with them the offerings of
gold and silver which the king, his courtiers and his subjects had given them.
2. Ezra, a priest descended from Aaron, was appointed the Tirshatha.
3. A full description of the powers and privileges conferred on Ezra is recorded.
4. The number of adults (males) who went up with Ezra, including priests, Levites and Nethinim, is stated as being 1,773.
5. In Ezra’s company there were very few priests, about 28 Levites and 220 Nethinim.
6. Artaxerxes ordered that all persons connected with the services of the Temple should be exempt
from taxation of every kind.
7. Ezra’s main abject was to bring about a religious reformation among his countrymen in Jerusalem.
8. A short description of Ezra’s Journey is given in Ezra 8.

The Book of Esther. Introduction.
The “Book of Esther ” relates a story in the history of the “Jews of the Dispersion,” as those Jews were called who did not avail themselves of Cyrus’ decree and return to their own land. The great peculiarity of the book is the entire absence of all religious teaching. The name of God nowhere occurs in the book, nor is there any allusion to Palestine, Jerusalem, the Temple, or the Law, but there is an indirect allusion to “prayer” in 4:16. Moreover, the Hand of God is clearly seen directing the course of events, and the main object of the book is to show that the “Jews of the Dispersion” were no less the object of Divine protection than their brethren who had returned to Palestine (see 4:14). But another object of the book is evidently to encourage the observance of the Feast of Purim among the Jews, by showing why the Feast was instituted. The story is told with a considerable amount of literary and dramatic skill, but the name of the writer is unknown.

Analysis of the Book of Esther.
1. Vashti, the Queen of Ahasuerus is deposed. The book opens with an account of the greatness of King Ahasuerus and the two great feasts given by him at Shushan: (1) To his nobles and princes; (2) To all the people in Shushan. Vashti, the queen, refuses to obey the king’s command to appear unveiled before the king and his princes. The anger of the king is so great that Memucan, one of the king’s wise men, advises that Vashti should be deposed, and her dignity conferred on another.
2. Esther is chosen Queen in the place of Vashti. Young virgins are sought throughout the king’s dominions, one of whom the king is to select as queen. The king chooses Esther, a Jewess, who had been brought up with Mordecai, her uncle. Mordecai discovers a plot against the king’s life formed by two of the king’s chamberlains. The conspirators are put to death, and the event written in the book of the “Chronicles of the Kings of Persia.”
3. Haman’s Advancement. Haman, the Agagite, is raised to the position of grand vizier. Mordecai refuses to pay him due respect, whereupon Haman forms the plan of exterminating the whole of the Jews. Ahasuerus sanctions the plan, and decrees are issued to that effect. The mourning of Mordecai and the Jews.
4. Esther appeals to the King to revoke the Edict. Esther, at the peril of her life, resolves to appeal to the king to revoke the edict. She is graciously accepted by the king, and invites the king and Haman to a banquet. But her courage fails her, and she invites the king and his minister to a second banquet. Incensed by Mordecai’s conduct, Haman orders gallows to be erected in the court of his own house on which Mordecai may be impaled (hanged).
5. Haman’s humiliation and fall. Meanwhile the king orders Haman to do honour to Mordecai for the services he had rendered. At the banquet Esther denounces Haman as the enemy of the Jews. The king, in his rage, orders Haman to be impaled on the gallows which had been erected for Mordecai.
The highest honours are conferred on Mordecai.
6. The Jews are avenged of their Enemies. At Esther’s request the king issues a counter-edict, allowing the Jews to defend themselves if attacked by their enemies. On the 13th day of the month Adar, the day fixed for the massacre, the Jews, aided by the Persian governors and officers, slay 500 in Shushan, and on the next day 300 more, and Haman’s ten sons are also hanged. In the provinces as many as 75,000 are said to have been slain.
7. The Feast of Purim is instituted. To commemorate so great a deliverance Mordecai and Esther ordered two days, the 14th and the 15th of the month Adar, to be kept as days of rejoicing. The book closes with a short account of Ahasuerus’ greatness and Mordecai’s efforts to establish peace and to increase the prosperity of his countrymen.

Outline of Book of Esther: (Chapters 1-10)
Two Great Feasts of Ahasuerus. (1) To his Nobles and Princes. (2) To all the People in Shushan.
Queen Vashti Refuses to obey King’s Command.
Memucan Advises that Vashti should be Deposed and her Dignity Given to Another.
Esther is Chosen Queen in Place of Vashti.
Mordecai Discovers Plot Against the Life of King Ahasuerus.
Hainan’s Advancement. Mordecai Refuses to do him Reverence.
Haman Resolves to Exterminate the Whole of the Jewish Race. Ahasuerus Sanctions his Plan and Issues a Decree to that Effect.
Mourning of Mordecai and Jews.
Esther Resolves to Appeal to King to Revoke Edict.
Esther is Graciously Received by King. She invites King and Haman to Banquet, and while there invites
them to 2nd Banquet.
Haman’s Exultation is Damped by Mordecai’s Refusal to Pay him Reverence. Zeresh, Haman’s Wife, advises Haman to erect Gallows on which Mordecai may be Impaled (Hanged).
Mordecai is Rewarded for the Services he had rendered the King.
Haman’s Humiliation.
Esther Denounces Haman as the Enemy of Jews.
Ahaseurus Orders Haman to be Impaled (Hanged) on Cross he had Erected for Mordecai.
Mordecai is Advanced to Haman’s Position.
At Esther’s Request Ahaseurus Issues a Counter-Edict for Jews’ Preservation.
Jews are Avenged of their Enemies.
Institution of the Feast of Purim.
Greatness of Mordecai.


Notes on Esther:
Ahasuerus: generally supposed to be Xerxes, the son of Darius Hystaspes, who led the famous expedition against Greece.
Vashti the queen: The Amestris of secular history.
in the royal house: i.e. the royal harem.
To bring Vashti the queen before the king: As Persian ladies never showed themselves unveiled except to their nearest relations, the king’s order was a gross insult to Vashti.
the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, etc.: In all probability the writer here gives Mordecai’s true descent from a certain Kish, who was of the tribe of Benjamin.
Who had been carried away: “Who” refers to Kish. The Second Captivity is here referred to, when Jeconiah (Jehoiakin) was carried away captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
Hadassah: Like other Jews of the time of the Captivity, Esther had two names. Hadassah is the Hebrew word for “myrtle,” Esther is the Persian word for “star.” By adopting the Persian name Hadassah Esther was able to conceal her Jewish descent.
hanged on a tree: rather, they were impaled on a stake, or crucified, the ordinary death of criminals.
it was written in the book, etc.: Among the Persians important public events were carefully recorded in the book of the chronicles of the kingdom.

Select Notes: Chief Persons Mentioned.

Ahasuerus (1): (Ezra iv. 6); probably Cambyses, the son and successor of Cyrus. All we read of him is that, at the beginning of his reign, Bishlam and his companions, adversaries of the Jews, “wrote an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem,” and the result was that the building of the Temple was stopped.

Ahasuerus (2): (Esther 1:1); generally supposed to be Xerxes, and the opinion is strengthened by the fact that the capricious conduct of Ahasuerus, as related in the Book of Esther, agrees with what we know of Xerxes. We are told that Xerxes scourged the tempestuous sea, and caused the engineers of his bridge to be put to death, because it was damaged by a storm; so Ahasuerus deposed his queen, because she refused to appear unveiled before his guests, and willingly gave his consent to the extermination of the whole of the Jewish people merely to satisfy the caprice of a court favourite.
Ahasuerus’ dominions, we are told, extended from India even unto Ethiopia, and included one hundred and twenty-seven provinces. In the third year of his reign he gave two great feasts on a most magnificent scale (see Esther 1:6,7). The first feast was given to all his princes and nobles, and lasted one hundred and eighty days, during which time the king took special delight in showing “the riches of his glorious kingdom, and the honour of his excellent majesty.” This was followed by a second feast, to which all the dwellers in Shushan were invited; and at the same time Vashti, the queen, also entertained all the women who resided in the royal palace.
In the midst of his drunken revelries, Ahasuerus ordered Vashti, his queen, to appear unveiled before his guests —”to show her beauty, for she was fair to look upon”; but Vashti indignantly refused to obey the king’s command, as, indeed, she had a perfect right to do, according to the customs of the country; “therefore was the king very wroth and his anger burned within him.”
To appease the king and to prevent the re-election of Vashti, Memucan, one of the king’s wise men, advised that Vashti should be deposed, and a royal proclamation issued to that effect, lest, by her contumacious conduct, the women of Persia, following the example set them by the queen, should despise their husbands and refuse to obey them. Further, he advised that fair young virgins should be sought out from every part of the empire, and one of them selected by the king to fill the place of the deposed queen.
The thing pleased the king, and out of the many maidens gathered together unto Shushan the palace, the king chose Esther, a Jewess, “who had neither father nor mother, and was very fair and beautiful” and had been brought up by Mordecai, her cousin. Following the instructions laid down by Mordecai, Esther did not disclose her kindred or her people.
Plots and intrigues were common occurrences in Oriental courts; and shortly after Esther’s election, we read that Mordecai discovered a plot formed by two of the royal chamberlains to assassinate the king. He at once informed Esther, who, in turn, told the king. The conspirators were executed, and the event recorded in the Chronicles of the Persian kings.
Ahasuerus then promoted Haman, the Agagite, to be his grand vizier, and bade all his servants to prostrate themselves before him and do him reverence. Mordecai alone refused to obey the king’s order, whereupon Haman was so incensed that he formed the design of exterminating all the Jews throughout the king’s dominions. Lots were cast to obtain a propitious day for the massacre, and the lot fell on the thirteenth day of the month Adar (12th month, our December). His next step was to obtain the king’s sanction for the undertaking; and to do this he represented that the Jews were a people scattered abroad throughout all the provinces of his kingdom; that their laws were different to the laws of other nations; that they did not obey the king’s commands; and that it was not for the king’s benefit to allow them to live. He also said that if the Jews were exterminated the confiscation of their property would bring no loss than 10,000 talents ((1 million dollars per talent of gold, more or less, in today’s value; if silver talents the value is 5%, more or less, of that of gold, 20 talents of silver = 1 talent of gold)) into the royal treasury.
The king willingly agreed to this proposal, and took off his signet ring from his hand and gave it to Haman, telling him that “the silver was his and the people also, to do with them as it seemed good to him.” Letters containing the king’s decree were dispatched with all possible speed to all the people throughout his dominions, with instructions “to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children, and women, in one day, even the thirteenth day of the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.” Then we read “that the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city Shushan was perplexed.”
When Mordecai perceived what was done, he put on sackcloth and ashes, and, uttering loud and bitter cries of lamentation, came even before the king’s gate. Esther was informed of his doings by her maids and chamberlains, and sent raiment to clothe him, but he received it not. She then sent Hatach, her chamberlain, to enquire the reason of his mourning; whereupon he informed her of the king’s cruel order, and sent her a copy of the writing of the decree, and charged her to go in before the king and make request for her people. At first Esther hesitated; any man or woman, she said, who approached the king unbidden was put to death. Mordecai’s reply was to the effect that she was not to imagine that because she was queen she would escape death; if she refused to supplicate the king, deliverance would arise from some other quarter, and destruction would fall upon her and her father’s house. Mordecai’s words produced the desired effect; she sent word to Mordecai that he should gather together all the Jews in Shushan, and fast; that she and her maidens would also fast; and she added, in a spirit of true resignation, “I will go in unto the king, although it is contrary to law; and if I perish, I perish.”
On the third day Esther put on her royal apparel and stood in the inner court of the palace. She was so graciously received by the king that he promised to give her anything she might ask for. She then requested that the king and Haman would come to a banquet which she had specially prepared for them. The king assented, but when the opportunity came for her to plead for her people, her heart failed her, and she merely requested that the king and his minister would attend a second banquet on the morrow.
Haman went forth from the queen’s presence with a joyful heart; but when he saw that Mordecai “stood not up nor moved for him, his heart was full of indignation against him.” Still he refrained himself and went home; and calling together his friends and his wife, recounted to them the glory of his riches, the multitude of his children, and the distinctions which the king had heaped upon him, and concluded by saying that the queen had conferred on him the greatest honour of all by inviting him alone to a banquet with the king. Yet all this, he said, afforded him no satisfaction so long as he saw Mordecai, the Jew, sitting at the king’s gate and refusing to do him honour. On hearing this, Zeresh, his wife, was so impatient for Mordecai’s death that she advised that a gallows, fifty cubits high, should be erected in the court-yard of the house, and that the king’s permission should be obtained on the morrow to hang Mordecai thereon; meanwhile, that Haman should go merrily in with the king unto the banquet. “And the thing pleased Haman; and he caused the gallows to be made.”
The following night the king could not sleep, and so he ordered the chronicles of the kingdom to be read to him. On being informed by his servants that Mordecai had not been rewarded for the services he had done (Esther 2:21), the king asked who was in the court. Now it happened that Haman had come into the court in the early morning to get the king’s sanction to hang Mordecai; and when the court officials informed the king that Haman was present, he bade his minister do honour to Mordecai by leading him through the city, clad in royal robes and riding on the king’s own horse. Haman was compelled to carry out the king’s order; but after he had done so, “he hastened to his house mourning, and having his head covered.” When Haman had told his wife Zeresh and his wise men all that had happened, they predicted that his recent humiliation was an omen of his ultimate downfall. “If,” said they, “Mordecai is of Jewish origin, before whom thou hast begun to fall, then thou shalt not prevail against him; but shalt surely fall before him. While they were talking with him, the king’s chamberlains came and hasted to bring Haman unto the banquet that Esther had prepared.”
At the second banquet the king again asked Esther what her petition was, and, in reply, she begged that her life and that of her people might be spared, “for she and they were sold to be destroyed, to be slain and to perish.” The king then asked who it was that had dared in his heart to do so terrible a deed. Esther replied, “The adversary and enemy is this wicked Haman.” The king then arose in anger from the banquet, and went into the palace garden; but on his return he found that Haman had fallen on the couch whereon Esther was lying, apparently in the act of pleading for his life. But the king put the worst construction on his degraded minister’s conduct, and thought that he intended to do violence to the queen; and so he sentenced him to death, and ordered him to be impaled (hanged) on the very gallows which he had prepared for Mordecai.
The same day King Ahasuerus installed Mordecai in Haman’s place, with the full powers of a grand vizier. But, although Haman, the enemy of the Jews, was removed, the edict of destruction still hung over their heads. To avert so terrible a calamity, Esther “Fell down at the king’s feet and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman and the device that he had devised against the Jews.” But by the laws of the Medes and Persians the decree could not be rescinded; and so the king issued a counter-edict, giving the Jews permission “to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay and to cause to perish all these that would assault them.” Accordingly, on the thirteenth day of the month Adar, the day fixed for the massacre, the Jews slew five hundred in Shushan, and on the next day three hundred more; while, in the provinces, as many as 75,000 are said to have been destroyed.
The last mention of Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther is that “he laid a tribute upon the land and upon the isles of the sea.”

Artaxerxes (1): (mentioned in Ezra 4:7-9) is generally supposed to be the Pseudo-Smerdis, who succeeded Cambyses. In the above quoted passage wo read that Rehum the chancellor and Shimshai the scribe, acting for Bishlam, Mithredath and Tabeel, the enemies of the Jews, wrote to King Artaxerxes stating that the Jews were a rebellious people, and that if the king allowed Jerusalem to be rebuilt he would have no dominion on this side the river Euphrates. Accordingly Artaxerxes ordered a search to be made among the records of the kingdom, and the charges laid against the Jews were found to be true, and so the king ordered “that the city should not be builded until another commandment should be given from him.”

Artaxerxes (2): i.e. Artaxerxes Longimanus (Ezra 7:11) king of Persia. Two facts are recorded of him: (1) He appointed Ezra Tirshatha of Judaea, and gave him a commission conferring on him many privileges. (2) He also gave a commission to Nehemiah to re-build the walls of Jerusalem, and made him Tirshatha.

Zerubbabel: (called also Sheshbazzar) (Ezra 5:14-16) was the son of Shealtiel, and a prince of the royal house of David. He was the leader of the first band of Exiles who returned to their own land, and from Hag. 2:23 we gather that he had received a special mission from God to undertake the work. “In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servant, and will make thee as a signet: for I have chosen thee.” He was urged on by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah to complete the building of the Temple, but after this he suddenly disappears from the page of history.

Final reflections and conclusions to the Books of Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther of the Historical Books of the Old Testament. The two lengthy selections from the works of Crockett and Carter above allows us to grasp the relations and sequence of events and details in this period of Israel’s history. The generations cover some 500 years, and the transition from the Theocracy of the Judges to the Monarchy of the Kings is recorded with great care. The Historical Books prepares us for the Poetical Books (Job to Solomon’s Song) which in turn prepares us for the Prophetic Books (Isaiah to Malachi).
W.G. Scrooggie in his great work “The Unfolding Drama of Redemption” “the Bible as a Whole”, 3 volumes in one (1976, ©1953 vol. 1, ©1957 vol. 2, ©1970 vol. 3) using the literary motif of the Theatrical Drama of Shakespearean style he presents the Divine Story of Creation and Judgment and Salvation in Divine Acts. The Redeeming Purpose in Revelation, Progression, and Consummation Unfolded in Prologue (Gen. 1-11), Act I (Gen. 11- Malachi), Interlude (Malachi-Matthew), Act II (Matthew-Jude), and Epilogue (Book of the Revelation). Old Testament Begins with the Creation to the Fall to the Flood to Babel; a Divine Covenant of Law Embodied in the History & Literature of a Semitic Race: in 3 Scenes of the Hebrew Family, the Israelitish Nation, and the Jewish Church; then Judaism and Heathenism Preparing the World for the Advent of the Messiah; then the New Testament with a Divine Covenant of Grace Embodied in the History & Literature of the Christian Church: in 2 Scenes of the Introduction of Christianity into the World by Jesus the Messiah, and Progress of Christianity in the World to Close of the 1st Century A.D.; and ends with a Vision of Grace & Christ the Lord (Head) of the Church, a Vision of Government & Christ as Judge of the World, and a Vision of Glory & Christ as King of the Universe. In the Age of the Monarchy, page 238, he writes: After citing Jeremiah 18:1-10 of “the clay was marred in the hand of the potter” “In this story the LORD is the Potter and Israel is the clay. Under the Theocracy the clay was marred in the hand of the Potter, so ‘He made it again another vessel’, Monarchy. A second time the clay defaulted, and the Potter made it yet again, and this time, a Dependency…. It is of vital importance to understand the significance of this change from Theocracy to Monarchy; and two things should be carefully considered: first, the long anticipation of a monarchy; and secondly, the Divine disapproval of it when it came.”
We initiated our survey and reflections in the Historical Books with Joshua and Judges, then then the beautiful and meaningful story of Ruth the Moabite Gentile woman who married an Israelite and brought into relations to the Covenant People and the Covenant God, the Lord God of Israel. She is a widow in the Land of Moab and clings to Naomi her mother-in-law, and she returns with her to Judah of Israel and marries Boaz of the Tribe of Judah, and in time became the great grandmother of King David and the Lord Jesus the Messiah, the Christ of God. In comparison and contrast to the Book of Ruth is the Book of Esther of a Jewish woman concealing her Jewish roots and race by taking on her Persian name and identity in place of her Hebrew name Hadassah, the niece of the Benjaminite Mordecai the Jew. Esther the Jew of the Covenant People and God is exiled outside the Covenant Land, the Promised Land, and she marries a Gentile Persian King, and becomes a Queen of Persia, and in time saves her People from genocide. In Ruth the Lord God is mentioned frequently, but in Esther His name or reference to Him is never recorded. In both Books God never speaks in red.
The Divine Red Words in the Books of Samuel – Esther is interesting and instructive. In 1st Samuel 2 we read that a Man of God said to the High Priest Eli: “Thus saith Jehovah, Did I reveal Myself unto the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt [in bondage] to Pharaoh’s house? and did I choose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be My priest, to go up unto Mine altar, to burn incense, to wear an ephod before Me? and did I give unto the house of thy father all the offerings of the children of Israel made by fire? Wherefore kick ye at My sacrifice and at Mine offering, which I have commanded in [My] habitation, and honorest thy sons above Me, to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel My people? Therefore Jehovah, the God of Israel, saith, I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before Me forever: but now Jehovah saith, Be it far from Me; for them that honor Me I will honor, and they that despise Me shall be lightly esteemed. Behold, the days come, that I will cut off thine arm, and the arm of thy father’s house, that there shall not be an old man in thy house. And thou shalt behold the affliction of [My] habitation, in all the wealth which [God] shall give Israel; and there shall not be an old man in thy house for ever. And the man of thine, [whom] I shall not cut off from Mine altar, [shall be] to consume thine eyes, and to grieve thy heart; and all the increase of thy house shall die in the flower of their age. And this shall be the sign unto thee, that shall come upon thy two sons, on Hophni and Phinehas: in one day they shall die both of them. And I will raise Me up a faithful priest, that shall do according to that which is in My heart and in My mind: and I will build him a sure house; and he shall walk before Mine anointed forever. And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left in thy house shall come and bow down to him for a piece of silver and a loaf of bread, and shall say, Put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests’ offices, that I may eat a morsel of bread.” Then in chapter 3 in the call of the boy Samuel and a word to him of the Lord’s judgment against the House of Eli. Next in chapter 8 He speaks to Samuel against Israel for rejecting the Lord as their King; so he gives them a King after their heart in chapter 9. He speaks in Red in a few verses in chapters 10, 14, 15-16, 23, 24 (a quote by David’s men to David), and 30:8 a sentence. In 2nd Samuel the Words in Red are chapters: in 2 only 4 words (in Hebrew 2 words); in 3 one sentence as a quote; in 5 a few verses; in 7, the Lord by Nathan to David concerning the House of the Lord; in 12; 21 (a sentence about the Gebeonite against Saul’s House); and finally in David’s last words and acts, a few verses in 23 and 24. This trend continues in the Kings and Chronicles, the Lord speaking infrequently and intermittingly as the need demands, even with His favorite Kings like Solomon, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, and Josiah. 1st Kings chapters: 3; 5-6 (3 verses); 8; 9; 11; 12-14; 16-22 (a few verses in each chapter). In 2nd Kings the Red Words are found in chapters: 1-4, few verses in each; 7; 9-10; 15 (a sentence); 17-23, the longest passage in 19:20-34 against the King of Assyria. It is the same in the Chronicles; 1st Chronicles chapters: 11, one verse, a quote, about King David; 14; 16-17; 21-22; and 28. 2nd Chronicles chapters: 1 (two verses to Solomon); 6; 7; 11-12; 18; 20-21; 24-25 (two verses total); 33 to Manasseh; and 34 to Josiah. He is hiding in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. In Ezra the Red Words is found in chapter 9, a quote of two verses in Ezra’s prayer. In Nehemiah the Red is in chapter 1, two verses quoted in Nehemiah’s prayer. As said before Esther is blank, all black and white.
The Dispensational Covenantal relationship between the Lord and Israel from Theocracy to Monarchy to the Captivity under Gentile Power brings us to a new dispensational covenantal relationship between the people and God. The Deuteronomy measurement of the Mosaic Law was unable to preserve the people from judgment or oppression; their condition was such, as it is with all humans of all times and places, that they needed a Savior to save them from themselves, from sin and sins, and from Satan. It is this in view we are about to enter something new and better in the Poetic Books and to be followed by the Prophetic Books; from Poetry to Prophecy. Genesis and Deuteronomy as the two key Books will still govern in the new dispensational revelation and dealings and experiences; but a higher and more spiritual way will unfold in preparation for the New Testament and the Messiah-Christ.


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Christian Biblical Reflections.16

(Here are pages 298-342 of CBR 16, 1st & 2nd Kings. Several personal family matters (but God is good and merciful!) has delayed my installments of the Reflections of the Historical Books from Kings to Esther. The PDF will also be linked installment CBR 17 of these Books. I’ve tried to correct obvious errors and mistakes but will have wait as time goes by to catch the others. I note for the reader that in the PDF version the small additions and revisions I make without notice. mjm.)

KINGS: I and II. (22 & 25 Chapters)

1st KINGS: 22 Chapters: King David’s Death & King Solomon & the Lord’s Temple to Death of King Jehoshaphat of Judah (Southern Kingdom: Jerusalem) and Death King Ahab of Israel (Northern Kingdom: Samaria). The Prophet Elijah.
Now King David was old and ill, and was cold despite blankets; his servants requested that a young virgin be found for the King, to stand before him, to cherish him, and to lay in his bosom, to warm the King. They searched thru all the borders of Israel and found Abishag the Shunamite, and brought her to the King. The damsel was beautiful; she cherished the King, and ministered to him; sexually he knew her not.
Now Adonijah ben-Haggith exalted himself to be made King; he prepared chariots and riders, and 50 front runners. David, his father, had never displeased him negatively; and he was handsome, and born after Absalom. He conspired with Joab ben-Zeruiah and the Priest Abiathar to usurp the throne; but Zadok the Priest, and Benaiah ben-Jehoiada, and Nathan the Prophet, and Shemei, Rei, and David’s mighty men were not with Adonijah. He slaughtered sheep and oxen and fatlings by the Stone of Zoheleth beside En-rogel; he invited his brothers the King’s sons, with all the men of Judah the King’s servants; but he did not invite Nathan the Prophet, Benaiah, the mighty men, or Solomon his brother. Nathan asked Bath-sheba, Solomon’s mother, if she heard that Adonijah reigns, but David knows not. He counseled her to save her life and Solomon’s life, by going to King David and reminding him that he swore to her that Solomon will succeed to his throne; and while relating that, I will appear to confirm thy words. She went to the King’s room, and Abishag was ministering to him; she bowed, and he asked what she wanted; she recalled to the King his oath to her by the Lord God that Solomon will accede to the throne; but instead Adonijah reigns without thy knowledge; and he offers sacrifices, inviting the King’s sons, Abiathar, and Joab; and he did not invite Solomon. All Israel is awaiting my Lord the King to announce who shall sit on his throne; for after the King dies and laid to rest, I and my son Solomon shall be regarded as offenders. Then Nathan the Prophet came, and David was notified, and he reported to the King just as Bathsheba had related, and that the people say, Adonijah lives! Then David ordered that they bring Bathsheba to him; and as she stood in his presence King David said: as the Lord lives, Who delivered my soul from all adversity, as I swore by the Lord, the God of Israel, that Solomon shall reign after me, so I will do it today! Bathsheba bowed and said, may my Lord King David live forever. Then he called for the Priest Zadok, the Prophet Nathan, and Benaiah ben-Jehoiada; and they came before the King; and he said: take some of my servants and cause Solomon to ride on my mule, and bring him to Gihon; there let Zadok and Nathan anoint him King over Israel, and to blow the trumpet, and proclaim: King Solomon lives! Then follow him till he is seated upon my throne as King in my place, as I have appointed him Prince over Israel and over Judah. Benaiah answered, Amen! the Lord, the God of my lord the King, be so with Solomon, to make his Throne greater the Throne of my lord King David. So Zadok, Nathan, Benaiah, with the Cherethites and Pelethites, went and caused Solomon to ride on King David’s mules to Gihon; and the Priest Zadok took the oil out of the Tent and anointed Solomon; and the trumpets sounded, and the people shouted: King Solomon lives! The people followed with playing pipes and rejoicements, and the earth resounded with the celebrations. Adonijah and his people heard the excitement after they had eaten; and Joab asked why the celebration of trumpets in the city; and the Priest Jonathan appeared, and Adonijah asked: thou art a good man with good news: but he answered our lord King David has inaugurated Solomon King, with the help of Zadok, Nathan, Benaiah, and the Cherethites and Pelethites, to ride on the King’s mules, and anointed him King in Gihon; this is the sound of the celebrations ye heard; and Solomon sits on the Throne of the Kingdom; with the blessings of the King’s servants that God make Solomon’s Name greater than David’s, and his Throne a greater Throne; and the King bowed on his bed. And the King said: Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, Who has seated one on my Throne in my presence. Adonijah and his guests were afraid of Solomon; and he went and took hold of the Horns of the Altar; and Solomon was informed that Adonijah in fear has taken hold of the Horns of the Altar demanding that King Solomon sware that he will not put him to death; Solomon replied that if he was a worthy man, not a single hair of his head will fall, but if wicked, he shall die; so he sent for him, and he came and bowed to King Solomon; and he told him to go home.
In David’s final days as death was inevitable, he encouraged his son Solomon to be a strong man, to obey the Lord God, to walk in His ways, keep His statutes, commandments, ordinances, and testimonies, which are written in the Law of Moses; that thou may prosper in all thy works and ways. May the Lord establish His word of promise to me, that if thy children watch their ways, walk in truth before Me with all their heart and soul, there will never lack man to sit on the Throne of Israel. 1st, remember what Joab did to me, in killing two generals of the armies of Israel, Abner and Amasa, shedding war blood in peace time, with his girdle and shoes; therefore in thy wisdom do not let his grey head enter sheol (hell, grave, death) in peace. 2nd, be kind to the sons of Barzillai the Gileadite to eat at thy table; for he accompanied me in my flight from thy brother Absalom. 3rd, Shimei ben Gera a Benjamite of Bahurim grievously cursed me on my way to Mahanaim; but then on my return he met me at Jordan, and I swore to him by the Lord I would not put him to death; he is guilty deserving death, thou art a wise man; so bring his gray head to sheol (hell, grave, death) with blood. Thus David died and was buried in the City of David; he reigned 40 years over Israel: 7 years in Hebron and 33 years in Jerusalem.
Solomon sat on the Throne of David his father, and His Kingdom was established greatly: 1st, Adonijah ben-Haggith came to Bathsheba; she asked if he came in peace; he said, yes; he said he came to make a request; she asked, what; he said that the Kingdom was mine, and Israel expected me to rule; but the Lord gave it my brother; so my petition is that thou may ask King Solomon to give me Abishag the Shunamite to marry; she said: I will ask the King. She went to King Solomon, who rose to meet her, and bowed to her, then sat on his throne; and he had a throne set for the King’s mother to sit at his right. She told him she has a petition that she wish not to be denied; he said ask, I will not deny thee; let Abishag the Shunammite be given to Adonijah thy brother in marriage; the King answered his mother: why ask only for her for him, why not ask for the Kingdom to be his and Abiathar’s and Joab’s, since he is my older brother. He swore: God punish me more, if Adonijah has not asked this against his own life! As the Lord lives, Who has established me on the Throne of my father David, and made a House for me as promised; Adonijah will die today! So Solomon sent Benaiah, who put him to death. 2nd, Abiathar the Priest the King told to return to his fields in Anathoth; for though he deserved to die, he will spare him for now because he carried the Ark of the Lord Jehovah before my father David, and shared in all his afflictions. Thus Solomon ejected him from the Priesthood to fulfill the Lord’s word concerning the House of Eli in Shiloh. 3rd, Joab heard these reports, for he had conspired with Adonijah, but not with Absalom; so he fled to the Tent of the Lord, and held to the Horns of the Altar. King Solomon was told, and he sent Benaiah to go strike him; so he came to the Lord’s Tent and demanded Joab to come out by the King’s order; but he replied that he chooses to die here; Benaiah related it to the King, who replied that he should do as he ask; then bury him; thus remove the blood shed by Joab from my father’s house; thus the Lord will return his blood on his own head, who killed two righteous and better men (generals Abner and Amasa) than himself, without my father’s consent, their blood be on Joab’s head and on his seed forever; but peace be on David, his seed, his house, and his throne forever. Benaiah went and killed him, and he was buried in his own house in the desert. The King put Benaiah in his place as General over the army; Zadok (ben-Ahitub, abi-Ahimaaz & abi-Azariah & abi-Shallum) replaced Abiathar. Then he called for Shimei and commanded him to build a house in Jerusalem and to stay there and not to leave it to go elsewhere, for on that day he would surely die (dying die); thy blood is on thy head; he answered the King it was a good word, I will obey. So he stayed in Jerusalem many days; then about 3 years later two of his servants ran off to King Achish ben-Maacah of Gath; and they told Shimei his servants were in Gath; so he saddled his donkey and retrieved his servants; it was told to Solomon; the King called Shimei, and said: did I not adjure thee by the Lord that never to travel out of Jerusalem because thou wilt die; and thou saidst the word is good; why then did thou not keep the Lord’s oath and my commandment? yu know all the wickedness of yur clever heart, as yu did to David my father; now the Lord turns yur wickedness on yur head; but King Solomon shall be blessed, and David’s Throne shall ever be established before the Lord. The King commanded Benaiah to strike him to death; and the Kingdom was then established in the hands of Solomon.
Solomon in affinity (alliance, treaty) with Pharaoh, King of Egypt, married Pharaoh’s daughter, and brought her to the City of David till he completed the building of his own house (palace), the House (Temple) of the Lord, and the wall around Jerusalem. The people still sacrificed in the High-Places, for no House was yet built to the Lord’s Name. Solomon loved the Lord, walking in David’s statues; but he still sacrificed and burnt incense in the High-Places. He went to Gibeon to sacrifice at the Great High-Place: 1,000 burnt-offerings he offered on that Altar. In Gibeon the Lord appeared to him in a dream at night, and God said: ask what I should give yu; and he answered: Yu’v shown my father David great lovingkindness because he walked before Yu in truth, righteousness, and uprightness of heart; and now this kindness to give him a son to sit on his Throne; now, O Lord my God, Yuv made Yur servant King in place of David, though I am only a boy; not knowing how to go out or come in; Yur servant is among Yur chosen people, great and innumerable; so give Yur servant an understanding heart to judge Yur people, that I may discern between good and evil: for who is able to judge Yur great people? The Lord was pleased that Solomon asked for understanding to discern justice; and God said to him, because yu have asked this, instead of long life, or riches, or the life of yur enemies; therefore I have given yu and understanding heart; so that none has ever before been like yu, nor will ever arise one like yu; and I have also given to yu riches and honor, that no King will be like yu during yur lifetime; and if yu walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and commandments, as yur father David, I will also lengthen yur days. Then Solomon awoke from his dream; then came to Jerusalem, and stood before the Lord’s Ark of Covenant, and offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, with a feast for all his servants.
Now 2 women, whores, came before the King: one said that they both shared a house together, they both birthed at the same time alone; on the 3rd day after birthing, the other woman’s child died, because she slept on it; she then took my child, and placed her dead child in my bosom; but when I awoke it clearly was not my baby that I gave birth; then the other woman replied, no, the living is my child, but the dead baby is yurs. The King perplexed at the two women, ordered a sword to be brought and to take the baby and divide it in two, then give each woman a half; then the true mother begged the King, from her compassion for her baby, my lord, let her have the child, do not kill it; but the other woman said, no, let it be divided, neither hers or mine. The King ordered the child to be given the other woman, do not kill it, because she is the mother. Thus all Israel heard of King’s judgment, and feared because of God’s wisdom in him for justice.
King Solomon over all Israel: his Princes were: the Priest Azariah ben-Zadok; the Scribes Elihoreph and Ahijah, sons of Shisha; the Recorder Jehoshaphat ben-Ahilud; the Army General Benaiah ben-Jehoiada; the Priests Zadok and Abiathar; the Captain of Officers Azariah ben-Nathan; the Chief Minister and King’s Friend Zabud ben-Nathan; the Chief of Domestics Ahishar; and the Chief of Labor Adoniram ben-Abda. He had 12 Officers of Israel for Food Provisions for the King’s Household, one for each month in the year: 1st, Ben-hur of the Hills of Ephraim; 2nd, Ben-deker in Makas, Shaalbim, Beth-shemesh, and Elon-beth-hanan; 3rd, Ben-hesed in Arubboth of Socoh and the land of Hepher; 4th, Ben-abinadab in Dor’s Height, married to Solomon’s daughter; 5th, Baana ben-Ahilud in Taanach and Megiddo, Beth-shean near Zarethan below Jezreel, from Beth-shean to Abel-meholah to and beyond Jokmeam; 6th, Ben-geber in Ramoth-gilead with the towns of Jair ben-Manasseh, with the region of Argob in Bashan having 60 great walls and brazen bars; 7th, Ahinadab ben-Iddo in Mahanaim; 8th, Ahimaaz in Naptali, also married to Solomon’s daughter Basemath; 9th, Baana ben-Hushai in Asher and Bealoth; 10th, Jehoshaphat ben-Paruah in Issachar; 11th, Shimei ben-Ela in Benjamin; and 12th, Geber ben-Uri was sole officer in the Land of Gilead, the country of Sihon the King of the Amorites, and Og the King of Bashan. Thus Judah and Israel were innumerable feasting joyously; and Solomon extended rule over all the Kingdoms from the River to the Land of the Philistines (by the Sea), to Egypt’s border: they all paid tribute and served Solomon while he lived; and his provisions for a single day was 30 measures of fine flour, 60 measures of meal, 10 fat oxen, 20 oxen in pastures (for milk), 100 sheep, besides harts, gazelles, roebucks, and fatted fowls. His dominion extended over all the country and Kings on westside of the River, from Tiphsah to Gaza: ruling in peace; and every man in Judah and Israel dwelling safely, from Dan to Beersheba in his reign. He had 40,000 (or 4,000) stalls of horses for chariots, and 12,000 horsemen. The 12 monthly officers provided food for the King and his court at his table in every detail; and barley and straw for the horses, along with swift steeds handled by men.
God gave Solomon surpassing wisdom and understanding, with largeness of heart as sands of the seashore; he excelled the wisdom of the children of the east (the Easterners), and of Egypt; wiser than all, than Ethan the Ezrahite, or Heman, Chalcol, Darda, or the sons of Mahol; and his fame spread far and wide to the nations. He spoke 3,000 proverbs, and 1,005 songs: speaking of trees, as the cedars of Lebanon to the hyssop of the wall; and of beasts, birds, reptiles, and fishes. The peoples and kings of the earth visited on hearing of his wisdom.

     Now King Hiram of Tyre sent his servants to Solomon after he heard that Solomon was anointed King in David’s place; for he was a lover (friend) of David. Solomon replied to Hiram: Yu know David my father could not build a House to the Lord God due to the wars on every side, till He subdued them. Now He has given me rest and peace without adversary or disturbance. So I intend to construct a House to the Lord God’s Name, as He spoke to my father David. Therefore command that yur servants cut cedar trees of Lebanon, along with my servants; and I will pay for yur servants as yu suggest: for none of us are skilled to cut timber like the Sidonians. Hiram rejoiced at this request, saying: the Lord be blessed for giving to David such a wise son over such a great people. He replied that he would fill the order for trees of cedar and fir; my servants will transport them to the sea, then on rafts float them down to the appointed port, then unloaded for yu to transport inland; in turn yu will pay as I may desire, and provide for my household. So Hiram supplied all the timber as Solomon needed; and he gave him 20,000 measures of wheat for food to his household, and 20 measures of pure oil annually. So the Lord gave wisdom to Solomon, and also peace between them both, and they made a league together. Solomon levied a labor force from Israel of some 30,000 men; he sent them by increments of 10,000 per month, then returned home for 2 months before going back to Lebanon for a month; and Adoniram was overseer of the labor force. Solomon had 70,000 that carried cargo, and 80,000 hewers or miners in the mountains; besides his chief officers over the work, he had 3,300 foremen or supervisors. As he commanded they mined for great and costly stones, and to lay the foundation of the House; which the builders of Solomon and Hiram and the Gebalites fashioned, and prepared the timber and the stones for the House.
In the 480th year after the Exodus, in Solomon’s 4th year of reign, in the 2nd month, Ziv, he began the construction of the Lord’s House: its length was 60 cubits (c.90-100′), by width 20 cubits (c.30-35′), by height 30cbt (c.40-50′). The Porch before the Temple of the House: 20cbt (c30+’) in length, same as the width, and 10cbt (c.15′) in breadth at front entrance. The Windows of fixed lattice-work; opposite the Walls he built Stories around it, for the House and the Oracle; with Side Chambers around; the Lower Story (1st Floor, Level 1) of 5cbt (c.7-8′) wide; 2nd Level (Story, Floor) was 6cbt (c.12′) wide; 3rd Floor (Level, Story) was 7cbt (c.10-11′); the Outside of the House had Offsets around with Hold in the Walls of the House. The House construction was with Stones quarried and finished, so no hammer or axe or iron tool was heard in the building. The Door of the Middle Side Chambers were at the Right Side, Winding Stairs in the Mid-Level to the Top-Level. The House was built and finished, and covered with Beams and Planks of Cedar. Then the Lord’s word came to Solomon, saying: this House yu are building, if yu walk in My statutes, execute My ordinances, and perform My commandments, then will I establish My word as spoken to yur father David; and I will dwell with the Israelites, and not forsake My people Israel. So Solomon completed the construction of the House: the Walls inside the House were of Cedar Boards; from the Floor to the Walls of the Ceiling inside with Wood, Fir Wood Floors; 20cbt (c.30′) in the backside of the House of Cedar Boards from the Floor to the Ceiling Walls, for it (the Holy Place) and the Oracle, the Most Holy Place; the House or Temple in front of the it (the Holiest) was 40cbt (c.60+’); inside the House was Cedar carved with Knops and Open Flowers; all was of Cedar, nothing visible of stone; the Oracle in the midst of the House for the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant; the Oracle was 20cbt (c.30+’) long by 20cbt (c.30+’) wide by 20cbt (c.30+’) high, overlaid with Pure Gold; the Altar was covered with Cedar. Solomon overlaid the whole House with Pure Gold; he drew Chains of Gold across the front of the Oracle; the House was covered and finished in Gold; the Altar near the Oracle was overlaid with Gold; on the Oracle was Two Cherubs of Olive Wood standing 10cbt (c.15′) high, with both Wings of each Cherub of 5cbt (c.7-8′), and 10cbt (c.15′) space arching and facing to touch one another, both Cherubim were exactly alike in measure and form; the Cherubim was placed in the Inner House, their Wings outstretched upward touching both opposite Walls and facing and touching each other’s Wings in the center of the House; the Cherubim were overlaid with Gold; on all the Walls of the House were carved Figures (Pictures, Likenesses) of Cherubim, Palm-trees, and Open Flowers, overlaid inside and outside, as was the Floor of the House. The entrance for the Oracle had Olive-wood Doors; the Lintel and two Door-posts were 1/5th the size; both Doors of Olive-wood, with carvings of Cherubs, Palm-trees, and Open Flowers, overlaid and spread with Gold; for entrance of the Temple Door-posts of Olive-wood, of 1/4th size, with Two Leaves for both Folding Doors each; with carvings like the other Doors, overlaid with Gold fitted on the graven work. The Inner Court had Three Courses of Hewn Stone and One Course of Cedar Beams. Thus the Foundation of the Lord’s House was laid in his 4th year in the month Ziv, and completed in the 11th year in Bul, the 8th month, in all its details and fashion; in all 7 years of construction.
Solomon built and completed his Palace (House) in 13 years: the House was constructed from the forest of Lebanon: 100cbt (c.150+’) long by 50cbt (c.75+’) wide by 30cbt (c.45+’) high; with 4 rows of Cedar Pillars, with Cedar Beams on each; it was covered with Cedar above over the 45 Beams, that were on the Pillars; 15 in a row; with Beams in 3 rows; and Windows facing each other across in 3 ranks; the Doors and Posts were made square with Beams, with Windows facing across one another in 3 ranks. The Porch of Pillars were: 50cbt (c.75+’) long by 30cbt (c.45+’) wide; with a Porch in front, and Pillars in front the entrance. The Porch of his Throne for Judgment was covered with Cedar from Floor to Floor. He made like it also his House or Home to live in, and its Court in the Porch. Also the House or Home for Pharaoh’s daughter, Solomon’s wife, he made like it, with Porch; all these with Costly Hewn Stones by measurement, sawed and cut on both sides; from the Foundation to the Coping, on the outside to the Great Court. The Foundation was of Great Costly Stones, some of 10cbt (c.15′), and some of 8cbt (c.12′); above at top were Costly Hewn Stones by measure, and Cedar-wood. The Great Court enclosed with 3 courses of Hewn Stones, and 1 course of Cedar Beams; just as in the Inner Court of the Lord’s House; and of the Porch of the House.
Now Solomon had contracted Hiram of Tyre, the son of widow of the tribe of Naphtali and of a man of Tyre; he was a master craftsman and experienced brass worker, filled with wisdom, understanding, and skill. He appeared before Solomon to work his craft: he fashioned 2 Brass Pillars 18cbt (c.27+’) high, with a line of 12cbt (c.18+’) enclosing each of them; he made 2 molten Brass Capitals for the tops of the Pillars, both were 5cbt (c.7-8′) in height; both Capitals with nets or embroideries of checker-works, and wreaths of chain-work, 7 per Capital each; the 2 Pillars had 2 rows all around in network to cover the Capitals on top of the Pillars; the Capitals were of lily-work of 4cbt (c.6′); the Capitals were above at the top of both Pillars, near or tapered to the belly near the network, with 200 Pomegranates in rows around both Capitals. The Pillars were set up at the Porch of the Temple, one at the right called Pillar of Jachin, and the other at the left, called the Pillar of Boaz; the tops of the Pillars were of lily-work; thus were the Pillars finished. The Molten Sea Laver he made of 10 cbt (c.15′) circular, brim to brim, 5cbt (c.7-8′) high, with a line of 30cbt (c.45+’) enclosing them; under its brim around it were 2 rows of casted Knops; standing or resting on a base of 12 Oxen: 3 facing the north, 3 facing the west, 3 facing the south, and 3 facing the east; the Sea was elevated on the Base with the Oxen backs inward to the center; the Sea was 1 handbreadth (c.4-5″) thick; its brim was like a brim of a cup, with lily-like floral design; and it held 2,000 baths of water. He made 10 Brass Bases, 4cbt (c.6′) long by 4cbt (c.6′) wide by 3cbt (c.4-5′) high. The Bases were made thus: with Panels between Ledges; on the Panels were Lions, Oxen, and Cherubs; on the Ledges was a Pedestal above, and beneath the Lions, Oxen, and Cherubs were wreaths of hanging work; each Base had 4 Brazen Wheels and Brass Axles; and its 4 feet had Undersetters, and underneath the Laver Molten Undersetters, each with Wreaths at the side; its Mouth inside the Capital at the top was 1cbt (c.27-30″); its Mouth like a Pedestal shape was 11/2cbt (c.30-33″); its Mouth had engravings; their Panels were foursquare or box shape; the 4 Wheels underneath the Panels; the Axletrees (Shaft, Rod) of the Wheels were in the Base; the Wheel was 11/2cbt (c.30-33″). The Wheels were made like Chariot Wheels: with Axletrees, Felloes, Spokes, and Naves, and all were molten; with 4 Undersetters at the 4 Corners of each Base’s bottom; the top of the Base circular 1/2cbt (c.10-12″) high, and its Stays and Panels were of the same; the Plates of its Stays and Panels of graved Cherubs, Lions, and Palm-trees, each in its place, with wreaths around; thus were the 10 Bases casted alike with one measure and form. He made 10 Lavers of Brass, each held 40 baths of water; each were 4cbt (c.6′); the 10 Lavers were on 10 Bases; 5 Bases on the right side of the House, and 5 Bases on the left of the House; the Sea was on the right side of the House eastward and southward. So Hiram made Lavers, Shovels, and Basins; he completed and finished all his work and craft for King Solomon in the Lord’s House: the 2 Pillars, the 2 Bowls of the Capitals on top of the Pillars, the 2 Networks to cover the 2 Bowls of the Capitals on the Pillars; the 10 Bases, and 10 Lavers on 10 Bases; and 1 Sea with 12 Oxen under it; and Pots, Shovels, and Basins: all these Vessels Containers and Wares he made of Burnished Brass for King Solomon for the Lord’s House.
The King casted them in the Plain of Jordan, in the clay ground between Succoth and Zarethan. Solomon did not weigh these many Vessels, so the weight was not known. Solomon made all the Vessels for the Lord’s House: the Golden Altar, the Golden Table of Showbread of Presentation, and the Golden Candlesticks or Lampstands: 5 Lampstands on the right, and 5 Candlesticks on the left, before the Oracle, made of Pure Gold, with Flowers, Lamps, Tongs, each of Gold; Pure Golden Cups, Snuffers, Basins, Spoons, and Firepans; and Golden Hinges for both the Doors of the Inner House, the Most Holy Place, and the doors of the House or Temple. Thus all the work and construction in the building of the Lord’s House was fully completely finished. Solomon brought in the dedicated things of his father David: Silver, Gold, and Vessels; and put them in the Treasuries (Storehouses) of the Lord’s House.
Then King Solomon assembled the Elders of Israel, Leaders of the Tribes, and Princes of the Families of Israelites in Jerusalem, to bring up the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant out of Zion, David’s City; in the 7th month of Ethanim the Elders and Priests and Levites took up the Ark and the Tent of Meeting and all the Holy Vessels in the Tent to relocate them. King Solomon and the Assembly of Israel stood before the Ark sacrificing sheep and oxen without number. The Priests brought in the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant into the Oracle of the House, to the Most Holy Place, under the Wings of the Cherubs; which spread forth their Wings over the place of the Ark, and covered the Ark and the its Staves (Poles), but the Poles were so long that the ends were seen outside in the Holy Place before the Oracle, but not seen beyond on the outside; and are there to this day (time of Hezekiah and Isaiah); in the Ark was only the Two Stone Tablets of Moses, put there at Horeb, when the Lord covenanted with Israel after the Exodus from Egypt. When the Priests came out of the Holy Place, the Cloud filled the Lord’s House, so that the Priests could not minister because of the Cloud of the Lord’s Glory filled the Lord’s House. Solomon’s Blessings: The Lord said He dwells in thick darkness; but I’ve built Yu a House of Habitation, an Eternal Dwelling-place; the King turned around facing to bless the Assembly of Israel while they stood: The Lord God of Israel be blessed, Who spoke to my father David, and has now fulfilled it, saying: From the day of My people Israel’s Exodus from Egypt I have not chosen a city of any tribe to build a House form My Name; but I chose David to be over My people Israel. Now my father David’s heart was to build a House for the Lord God of Israel; but He said to him: yur heart is well to build for Me a House for My Name, but yu must not build the House, but the son from yur loins shall build the House for My Name. The Lord has established His Word, and I have risen in the place of my father David to sit on Israel’s Throne, as He promised; and I have built the House for the Lord’s Name, Israel’s God. In it I’ve placed the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant made with our fathers from the time of the Exodus. Solomon stood before the Lord’s Altar in the Assembly of Israel’s presence, and spread forth his hands toward heaven, and said: (Solomon’s Prayer):

Lord God of Israel, there is no God like Yu in Heaven or on earth, keeping Covenant
and showing lovingkindness to Yur servants, who walk before Yu with all their heart;
and kept Yur promise to my father David;
Yu spoke with Yur mouth and fulfilled it today with Yur hand.
Now keep that promise to David that there will not fail a man to sit on Israel’s Throne,
if yur children (sons) walk before Me has yu’v walked;
I pray, let Yur word be now verified.
But will God indeed dwell on earth, when all the heavens cannot contain Yu;
how much less this House that I’ve built!
Yet respect and regard the prayer and supplication of Yur servant’s prayer this day:
that Yur eyes be open toward this House night and day,
the Place where Yu said Yur Name will abide, and to my prayer;
to hear my supplication; and of Israel’s prayer toward this Place;
hear from Yur Dwelling-place and forgive.
(1) If a man sin against his neighbor,
and he swears under oath before Yur Altar in this House;
hear from heaven and respond and judge Yur servants,
condemning the wicked, bringing his way on his head,
and justifying the righteous, giving him according to his righteousness.
(2) When Israel is defeated by the enemy, because they sinned against Yu,
then turn to Yu to confess Yur Name to pray and petition to Yu in this House;
hear and forgive them, and return them to the promised land Yu gave to their fathers.
(3) When heaven withholds the rain because they sinned against Yu;
if they pray toward this Place to confess Yur Name,
and turn from their sin in Yur afflicting them;
hear and forgive all of them;
when Yu teach them the good way for them to walk,
and send rain on Yur Land, that Yu gave them for an inheritance.
(4) If there is in the land famine, pestilence, blasting mildew, locust, caterpillar,
(or any such plague);
if the enemy besiege them in their cities; whatever plague or sickness;
then what prayer and supplication be made by any man, or by Yur people Israel,
for every man will know the plague of his own heart;
and he spreads forth his hands toward this House:
hear and forgive, respond and render accordingly to the heart,
for Yu alone know the hearts of every man of mankind;
that they may fear Yu all the days of their lives in the Land.
(5) The foreigner (stranger, alien,) not of Israel, from a distant country or nation
for Yur Name’s sake
(for they will hear of Yur great Name and of yur mighty Hand and outstretched Arm);
and he comes and pray towards this House:
hear and respond to what he calls for or invokes;
that all peoples of the earth may know Yur Name, to fear Yu as Israel does,
and know that this House I’ve built is called by Yur Name.
(6) If Yur People battles their enemy in any direction,
and pray to the Lord, toward the Chosen City and the House of Yur Name:
hear their prayer and supplication, and maintain their cause.
(7) If they sin against Yu (for every man sins),
and Yu’re angry with them, to deliver them to the enemy,
to be carried away captive to their enemy’s land both far or near;
and then they consider their captivity,
and turn again in supplication and confessing that they’ve sinned
and acted perversely and done wickedly;
and if they return to Yu with all their heart and soul while captives,
and pray toward their Promised Land and Chosen City and the House of Yur Name:
hear their prayer and supplication, and maintain their cause;
and forgive Yur People who’ve sinned against Yu of all their transgressions and trespasses; grant them compassion in their captivity from their conquerors
(for their Yur people and Inheritance delivered from Egypt (Exodus) the Iron Furnace (Hell)); that Yur Eyes be open to Yur servant’s and Israel’s supplication,
to listen to them whenever they cry to Yu:
for Yu separated them from among all peoples of the earth for Yur Inheritance,
as Yu spoke to Yur servant Moses at the Exodus, O Lord Jehovah.
When Solomon ended his Prayer and Supplication to the Lord, he arose from his knees before the Lord’s Altar, with his hands spread forth toward heaven, he stood and blessed the Assembly of Israel with a loud voice, saying:
the Lord is blessed, He has given rest to His People Israel as He promised:
not a word of His promise by His servant Moses has failed;
may He be with us as He was with our fathers, and not leave or forsake us;
to incline our hearts to Him, to walk in His ways, to keep His commandments,
and statutes, and ordinances, which He commanded our fathers.
May these words of supplication to the Lord God, be near to Him night and day,
that He may maintain the cause of His servant and of His People Israel,
as each day may require;
that all peoples of the earth may know that the Lord only is God alone.
Let your heart be perfect with the Lord our God,
to walk in His statutes, and to keep His commandments, as it is today.

   Then the King and all Israel offered sacrifice before the Lord. Solomon offered the sacrifice of peace-offerings to the Lord, 22,000 oxen, and 120.000 sheep. So the King and the Israelites dedicated the House of the Lord. That day the King hallowed or sanctified the middle of the Court that was before the Lord’s House, where he offered the burnt-offering, meal-offering, and the fat of the peace-offerings, because the Brazen Altar before the Lord was too small to receive the various sacrifices and offerings. So Solomon held a Feast with Israel, a great Assembly, from the Entrance of Hamath to the Brook of Egypt, before the Lord God, for 2 weeks or 14 days. On the 8th day after the second week he dismissed the People; and they blessed the King, and returned home joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness that the Lord showed to His servant David, and to His People Israel.
After Solomon had finished the building of the Lord’s House (Temple), and the King’s House (Palace), and everything he his heart desired; then the Lord appeared to him the 2nd time as the 1st in Gibeon; and said to him: I have heard yur prayer and supplication yu’ve made before Me: I have hallowed (sanctified) this House yu’ve built for My Name forever, and My eyes will always be on it. If yu walk before Me as did yur father David, in the integrity of heart and uprightness, to do all I have commanded yu, and keep My statutes and ordinances; then I will establish the Throne of yur Kingdom over Israel forever, just as I promised yur father David, that a man from yu will not fail to sit on Israel’s Throne. But if ye and your sons shall turn away from following Me, to not keep My commandments and statutes I’ve set before you, but to go and serve and worship other gods; then I will cut off Israel from the Promised Land; and this House hallowed for My Name, will I cast out of My sight; and Israel shall become a proverb and byword among all peoples. And of this high and exalted House shall everyone passing it be astonished and hiss, and ask: why has the Lord done this to this Land and House? And they will answer: because they forsook the Lord their God Who delivered their fathers from Egypt, and went out to lay hold on other gods to worship and serve them; thus the Lord brought this evil on them.
So after 20 years, Solomon completed the construction of the two Houses, the Lord’s Temple and Solomon’s Palace (for King Hiram of Tyre had provided Solomon with cedar and fir trees, with gold, according to his desires); that he gave Hiram 20 cities in the land of Galilee. Hiram came from Tyre to see the Cities, and was displeased, and said: what are these cities, my brother? And he called them the land of Cabul to this day. Now Hiram sent to the King 60 talents of gold. The reason for King’s Solomon levy was to build the Lord’s Temple, and Solomon’s Palace, and Millo, and Jerusalem’s Wall, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. Pharaoh King of Egypt took and burnt Gezer and killed the Canaanites who lived in the city, and gave it to his daughter, Solomon’s wife. So Solomon built Gezer, and lower Beth Horon, and Baalath, and Tamar in the wilderness, in the land; and all the store-cities of Solomon, and cities for his chariots, cities for his horsemen, and everything Solomon desired to build for his pleasure in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion. The people that were in Canaan which the Israelites did not eradicate, the Amorites, the Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, Solomon raise a levy of bondservants (slaves) to this day; but no Israeli was made slaves; but instead they were made men of war, and his servants, his princes, captains, and rulers (guardians, keepers) of his chariots and horsemen. Solomon had 550 Chief Officers over the work, ruling or managing the workforce. After Pharaoh’s daughter moved from David’s City into her own House (Palace), then he built Millo. 3 times a year Solomon offered burnt and peace offerings before the Lord on the Lord’s Altar that he built; thus he finished the House (Temple).
King Solomon made a Navy of Ships in Ezion-Geber, near Eloth, on the shore (seaport) of the Red Sea (Yam Suph (Gulf of Aqaba)) in the Land of Edom. Hiram sent in the Naval fleet servants and shipmen (sailors) of the sea along with Solomon’s servants. They sailed to Ophir and loaded thence gold, 420 talents ((75 lbs = 1 talent = 1-1.5 million dollars 2014-2018; 420 talents = some 30,000 pounds, c. 420-500 million dollars, or 1/2 billion $)), and brought it to Solomon.
When the Queen of Sheba heard of Solomon’s fame concerning the Lord’s Name (the Temple and the Palaces), she came to test him with difficult questions; she visited Jerusalem with a great train, camels carrying spices, great quanities of gold, and precious stones; and when she arrived she conversed with Solomon from her heart concerns; and he answered her questions and desires; nothing was hidden or unknown from the King of her interests. After the Queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon’s wisdom, and the House he built, the food of his table, the sitting of his servants or Court, the attendance of his Ministers, and their apparel, and his cupbearers, and his ascent up to the Lord’s House; she was breathless without spirit. Then she said to the King: It was a true report I heard in my country of yur acts and wisdom, which I did not believe the words; now I see for myself, that the half had not been told me of yur wisdom and wealth exceeding yur fame. Happy and blessed are yur men and servants, who stand before yu to hear yur wisdom; blessed be the Lord yur God, Who delighted to set yu on the Throne of Israel: for He ever loved Israel, and so made yu King, to do justice and righteousness. The Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon 120 talents of gold (some 9,000 pounds, or some 10 million $), a cargo (storehouse) of spices, and precious stones: never again were brought such abundance of spices. And Hiram’s naval fleet besides the gold of Ophir, brought thence great quanities of almug-trees and precious stones. Solomon made from the almug-trees Pillars for the Lord’s House (Temple), the King’s House (Palace), also harps and psalteries for singers: never again were seen such almug-trees to the present (time of Isaiah and Hezekiah). King Solomon gave to the Queen of Sheba all her desires and request, besides his gifts to her from his Royal bounty. So she returned to her country with her servants. The total weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was 666 gold talents (or some 50,000 pounds or 666 million to 1 billion $) ((about 10% of the Israel’s annual wealth; or a rich billionaire today (2014-2018) in USA would need to have annual income of 10% of 20 trillion $ to equal Solomon’s wealth, that is, he must be a trillionaire; compare J.D. Rockefeller, one of the richest man of modern times, at 350 billion $ net worth in 1900s was 1-2% of US GDP); ((it is a mistake to say that Solomon’s wealth annually continued equally for some 20-40 years, making his wealth blown out of proportions)); besides that (the taxes and tributes and gifts) of the traders and merchants, and the various Kings of the mixed people, and of the governors of the country. King Solomon made 200 bucklers or shields of gold, each shield was made with 600 gold shekel coins (c. $300,000 a shield); and 300 shields of beaten gold, each weighing 3 pounds of gold per shield (c. $50-60,000 each), and he stored them in the House of Forest in Lebanon. The King also made a great Ivory Throne overlaid with finest gold; there were 6 steps to the Throne, its top was round or curved at the back, with staves or poles on both sides under the seat, with 2 Lions standing by the poles; and besides the 6 steps were two rows of Lions: not the like was in any other Kingdom. All King Solomon’s drinking vessels were of gold, all the vessels of the Forest House in Lebanon were of pure gold; none were of silver, for silver was of little worth in the days of Solomon. The King had at sea a Navy fleet to sail to along with Hiram’s fleet to Tarshish once every three years, with the imports of gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks. So King Solomon exceeded all the Kings of the earth in wealth and wisdom; and all the earth sought the presence (face) of Solomon to hear the wisdom of God in his heart. Each man brought his tribute of silver and gold vessels, raiment or garments, spices, horses, and mules, a rate or payment yearly. Solomon accumulated chariots and horsemen, some 1,400 chariots, and 12,000 horsemen ((about 8 horsemen to a chariot, or 4 horses and horsemen to a chariot and 4 extra horsemen as reserve)), and kept in the Chariot Cities and with the King in Jerusalem. He made silver as common as stones in Jerusalem, and cedars as plenty as sycamore trees of the lowlands. Solomon’s horses were imported from Egypt; the King’s Merchants or Buyers purchased them in droves or teams at a fixed price. A chariot imported from Egypt cost 600 silver-shekels (c. 5-50 dollars at different times and places per coin, or $3,000 – $30,000 per chariot); and a horse for 150 silver shekels or 1/4 the cost of a chariot, or some $1,000 to $5,000 per horse; and so for all the Kings of the Hittites and Syria supplied as abled.
King Solomon loved many foreign women, beside Pharaoh’s daughter (Egyptian), women and girls of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians, and Hittites; those nations (Gentiles) which the Lord told the Israelite not to go among them, or let them come among yu; because they will surely turn yur heart to follow their gods: Solomon clung (was adhered, was addicted) to these in love. He had 700 wives, princesses, and 300 concubines (secondary wives); and his wives turned away his heart when he was old to follow other gods (their idols), so that his heart was not perfect with the Lord as was his father David. Solomon went after Ashtoreth the Goddess (Idol) of the Sidonians, and Milcom the Abomination (Idol) of the Ammonites: he did evil before the Lord, not fully following Him as did David. Solomon even built a High-Place for Chemosh the Abomination (Idol) of Moab, in the mount before Jerusalem, and also for Molech the Abomination (Idol) of the Ammonites: thus he did for all his foreign wives, who burnt incense and sacrificed to their gods. The Lord became angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned away from the Lord God of Israel, Who appeared to him twice, and commanded him against following after idols: but he disregarded or disobeyed the Lord’s command. So the Lord said to Solomon: Since yu have done this in disobedience to My covenant and statutes to yu, I will surely rip the Kingdom from yu, and give it to yur servant; but I will not do it in yur days for yur father David’s sake, but will by yur son’s hand; but not all the Kingdom, but will reserve one tribe to yur son, for the sake of My servant David and for My chosen place Jerusalem.
Now the Lord raised up an Adversary (Opposer, Enemy, Satan) to Solomon: 1st: Hadad the Edomite, of the King’s seed in Edom; for when David was in Edom, and the Army General Joab went to bury the slain, after he had killed all the males in Edom: for Joab and Israel remained in Edom for 6 months in order to kill all the males; but Hadad, as a young child, escaped with some Edomite servants of his father to go into Egypt. They arose out of Midian and came to Paran, thence they took men and came into Egypt, to Pharaoh King of Egypt, who gave him a house, and appointed him victuals, and gave him land. Pharaoh favored Hadad, and married him to his wife Queen Tahpenes’ sister; and Queen Tahpenes’ sister gave birth to Hadad a son, Genubath, who Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh’s House, and was raised as one of Pharaoh’s sons. Later Hadad heard in Egypt that David and Joab were dead; he asked Pharaoh to permit him to return to his country. But Pharaoh objected asking what he lacked to seek to return to his homeland; and he replied he lacked nothing, but insisted his request. Then a 2nd Adversary God raised up against Solomon in Rezon ben-Eliada, who fled from his master King of Zobah; for he gathered men, and became their Troop Captain; after David killed some of them; the others fled to Damascus and stayed and reigned there. Hadad became Israel’s Adversary all the days of Solomon for mischief; and he abhorred Israel and reigned over Syria. Then the 3rd to lift his hand against the King was Jeroboam ben-Nebat, an Ephraimite of Zeredam Solomon’s servant, whose widowed mother was Zeruah. The reason he rebelled against the King was: Solomon built Millo, repaired the breach of David’s City. Now Jeroboam was a brave warrior, and Solomon noticed he was industrious (ambitious) so he gave him charge over the labor-force of the House of Joseph. Later, Jeroboam left Jerusalem, and the Prophet Ahijah the Shilonite encountered him (Ahijah was clothed in a new garment), and when the two of them were alone in the field; that Ahijah ripped the new garment into 12 Pieces; and said to Jeroboam: take 10 Pieces, for the Lord God of Israel says that He will rend the Kingdom from Solomon and give yu 10 Tribes: (but he will retain one Tribe for David’s and Jerusalem’s sake) for they have forsaken Me, and have worshipped Idols (goddess and gods): Ashtoreth of the Sidonians, and Chemosh of the Moabites, and Milcom of the Ammonites; refusing to walk in My ways, or to do what’s right in My eyes, or to keep My statutes and ordinances, as David did. I will not sever the whole Kingdom in his lifetime, but I will let him be Prince, for David’s sake, My chosen and obedient servant; but I will partition the Kingdom from his son, and give to yu 10 tribes; and reserve one tribe to his son, that David may have a Lamp always before Me in Jerusalem, My chosen city for My Name. I will let yu reign, as yur soul desires, over all Israel as King. If yu will obey My commands, walk in My ways, do what is right to Me, to keep my statutes and commandments, as David did, then I will build yu a sure House, as I built for David, and I will give Israel to yu. Thus will I afflict the seed of David, but not for ever. So Solomon sought to kill Jeroboam; but he escaped and fled to Egypt, to Shishak the King of Egypt, and stayed there till Solomon died.
Now the rest of the Acts and Works of Solomon are written in the Book of Solomon’s Acts. Solomon reigned over Israel, in Jerusalem, for 40 years; then he slept with his fathers; and was buried in the City of David; and his son Rehoboam reigned in his place.
Rehoboam (1st King of Judah, Southern Kingdom (SK)): at Shechem Israel came to make him King; Jeroboam ben-Nebat, still in Egypt, heard; and they sent and called him; Jeroboam and the Assembly of Israel addressed Rehoboam: yur father made our yoke grievous; make his burdensome service and heavy yoke on us lighter, and we will serve yu. He requested they return in 3 days for his reply; he then took counsel with the Elders of his father Solomon’s reign, for an answer to the people; they advised him to serve the people, to reply to them, and speak kindly to them, then they will serve yu always. But rejecting the Elders counsel he turned to his younger peers and friends, and they advised him to tell the people: my little finger is thicker than my father’s loins (1,000 times thicker); my father loaded you with a heavy yoke, but I will add to it; he chastised (punished, disciplined) you with whips, but I will use scorpion-whips. So on the 3rd day the King answered Jeroboam and the people roughly, against the Elders’ counsel, and followed the young men’s words. Thus, the Lord established His word by the Prophet Ahijah. Israel in response to the King said: What portion or inheritance have we in David ben-Jessie? to your tents, Israel! now see to yur own House David! So, Israel returned home; but the Israelites living in the cities of Judah were ruled by Rehoboam. King Rehoboam sent Adoram the Overseer of the laborers, but Israel stoned him to death; so, the King quickly fled back to Jerusalem. Israel continued to rebel against David’s House to this date (Isaiah-Hezekiah times).
Israel heard of Jeroboam’s return and they invited him to the Assembly, and they made him Israel’s King (1st King of Israel, Northern Kingdom (NK)); thus, only the tribe of Judah followed David’s House. After Rehoboam returned to Jerusalem, he assembled the House of Judah with the tribe of Benjamin, 180,000 drafted fighters, to fight the House of Israel, to regain the Kingdom for Solomon’s son Rehoboam. But God’s Word came to the Man of God, Shemaiah, saying: Tell Rehoboam ben-Solomon, Judah’s King, and the House of Judah and Benjamin, and the rest of the people: The Lord says ye are not to go to war against your brothers the Israelites; everyman must return home; because this division is of Me. So, they heard and obeyed the Lord’s word.
Jeroboam built Shechem in the hill-country of Ephraim and lived there; then he built Penuel; and he said in his heart: the Kingdom will return to David’s House, if they go up to offer sacrifices in the Lord’s House at Jerusalem; they will have a change of heart, and return to King Rehoboam of Judah, and will kill me. King Jeroboam took counsel, then made 2 Golden Calves, and said to Israel: it is too much for you to visit Jerusalem; This is yur Gods (God) Who saved yu from Egypt! So he put one in the Bethel and the other in Dan; and made Houses of High Places, and Priests from among the people, who were not Levites; he ordained a Feast in the 8th month, on the 15th day, like the Feast in Judah; and he went up to the Altar in Beth-El, sacrificing to his Calves he had made and placed in Beth-El. So he went up to his Altar in Beth-El on the 15th of the 8th month, his own heart’s device, and ordained a Feast for the Israelites; and he burned Incense.
Now a Man of God from Judah by the Lord’s word came to Beth-El, and Jeroboam stood by the Altar to burn Incense: he proclaimed against the Altar by the Lord’s word: Altar, Altar, the Lord says a son born of David’s House, named Josiah; he will sacrifice the Priests of the High Places, who burn Incense on it, and they will burn on yu men’s bones. He signified it by the Lord’s word: this Altar will be rent, and its ashes dispersed. Hearing the Man of God’s curse, Jeroboam moved his hand from the Altar, and ordered the man to be arrested; but his hand pointing to the man became paralyzed (dried, rigid), so he could not bend it. The Altar was rent, and the ashes scattered as predicted. So he asked the Man of God to entreat the Lord God, and to pray to restore my hand; and he did, and it was so. The King invited the Man of God to be his guest with a reward; he replied that he was warned not to eat or drink in the place, not even to return by the same way. So the Man of God departed from Beth-El by another route. Now in Beth-El was an old Prophet; one of his sons told him of the works of the Man of God, and of his words to the King. He inquired which direction the Man of God took, and he had them saddle a donkey; he rode to meet him; he asked him if he was the Man of God from Judah; he replied: yes, I am. He invited him to dine with him at home; but he replied that he could not by the Lord’s strict command; the old man replied: I too am a Prophet like yu; and the Lord’s Angel (Messenger) spoke to me by the Lord’s word: bring him back to dine with yu; but this was a lie. So he went home with him and dined; at the table the Lord’s word came to the old Prophet; and he proclaimed to him: the Lord says: Cause yu have disobeyed the Lord God’s verbal command in eating and drinking in BethEl, yur body will not be buried in yur fathers’ sepulchre. After he left the old prophet’s house, on the way a lion met and slew him, and his body was tossed at the roadside, and the lion and his donkey stood beside the body. Travelers seeing the body with the lion and donkey, reported it in the city where the old prophet was; and he heard and went and brought back the young’s prophet body to his home; and explained that this young prophet was disobedient and the Lord caused the lion to tear him to pieces; so he mourned for him, and told his sons to bury him in his own sepulchre, and after I die, my bones must be laid next to his: for his words and prophecy from the Lord against the Altar of BethEl and against all the Houses of the High Places throughout Samaria will take place.
But Jeroboam continued in his evil ways, making from the common people, or any who desired to be consecrated, Priests of the High Places: this became the Sin of the House of Jeroboam to cut off and to destroy.
At that time Jeroboam’s son Abijah fell sick; he sent his wife, the child’s mother, to disguise herself, and to go to the Prophet Ahijah, who told him that he would be King, who was in Shiloh; and sent with her 10 loaves, and cakes, and a cruse of honey: that he may tell what will happen to the child. She went and came to Ahijah’s house in Shiloh; and Ahijah was blind from old age; and the Lord had said to him that Jeroboam’s wife will visit him pretending to be another woman, asking concerning her sick son. When Ahijah heard the sound of her feet at his doorway, he spoke up saying: come in, wife of Jeroboam, why pretend to be someone else? I am sent to yu with heavy news: Go tell Jeroboam the Lord God of Israel says: I exalted yu and made yu Prince over Israel, and I ripped the Kingdom away from David’s House and gave it to yu; yet yu have not behaved as My servant David, who kept My commandments, who followed Me with all his heart, to do what was right to Me; but yu have done more evil than those before yu, in making other gods and molten images, to provoke me to anger, to cast Me behind yur back: so I will bring evil on the House of Jeroboam, to cut off from Jeroboam any male-child shut up or at large in Israel, to sweep away Jeroboam’s House as one sweeps away dung (manure). The one who dies of Jeroboam in the city will the dogs eat; the one who dies in the fields birds of the sky will eat; as the Lord has spoken. Return home, and when yu enter the city yur child shall die; and Israel will mourn and bury him; for he alone of Jeroboam shall be buried, for some good thing toward the Lord is found in him; and the Lord will raise up a King in Israel who shall cut off Jeroboam’s House in that day. The Lord will strike Israel as a shaken reed in the water; and will uproot Israel from the promised good Land, and will scatter them beyond the River, for their Asherim, provoking the Lord’s anger. He will surrender Israel for Jeroboam’s sins, and Israel’s sin. She returned home to Tirzah, and when she came to her doorway the child died; and Israel mourned and buried him as the Lord said by His servant the Prophet Ahijah. The rest of the Acts of Jeroboam, how he warred and reigned, are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings.; he reigned 22 years and rested with his forefathers; and his son Nadab (2nd NK) reigned in his place.
Rehoboam ben-Solomon (1st SK) reigned in Judah: he was 41, he ruled for 17 years (d. 58) in Jerusalem, the Lord’s chosen City of Israel’s tribes, for His Name; and his mother’s name was Naamah an Ammonite. Judah, again, by their evil and sins provoked the Lord to jealousy, more than their forefathers: they built their High Places, and Pillars, and Asherim on high hills and under green trees; there were sodomites (male prostitutes) in the land: they practiced all the abominations of the nations the Lord drove out before Israel. In the 5th year of King Rehoboam, Shishak King of Egypt invaded Jerusalem; and he took away the treasures of the Lord’s House (Temple), and of the King’s House (Palace); removing everything, also Solomon’s golden shields. But Rehoboam replaced them with brass shields, and committed them to the care of the Captain of the King’s Palace Guards; and whenever the King went to the Lord’s Temple the guards carried them, then returned them to the guard-chamber. The rest of Acts of Rehoboam, his deeds, are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam continually; Rehoboam died and was buried with his forefathers in David’s City, his mother Naamah was Ammonite; and his son Abijam (2rd SK) reigned in his place.
In the 18th year of King Jeroboam ben-Nebat (1st NK), Abijam (2nd SK) commenced his rule in Judah; he ruled 3 years in Jerusalem; and his mother was Maacah bath-Abishalom. He continued in his father’s sin, with an imperfect heart towards the Lord, unlike his forefather David. The Lord God for David’s sake granted him a lamp in Jerusalem, to set up and establish his son in Jerusalem (for David ever did the right things before the Lord, not departing from His commandments all his life, except the case of the Hittite Uriah). The war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam continued all his days. The rest of the Acts and Deeds of Abijam are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings; he warred with Jeroboam; he died and was buried with his forefathers in David’s City; and his son Asa (3rd SK) reigned in his place
In the 20th year of King Jeroboam, Asa (3rd SK) commenced his rule in Judah; he ruled 41 years in Jerusalem; his mother (grandmother) was Maacah bath-Abishalom. Asa did right in the Lord’s eyes as David his forefather; he expelled the sodomites (male prostitutes, homo-sexuals); he removed his father’s idols; and he ousted his mother (grandmother) as Queen for her abominable Asherah Image, which he cut down and burnt in the Brook Kidron. The High Places were not removed; yet his heart was always perfect with the Lord. He brought into the Lord’s House the dedicated things that his father and himself had dedicated of silver, gold, and vessels. War continued always between Asa and King Baasha of Israel. King Baasha of Israel assaulted Judah, and built Ramah, to prevent anyone to go to or come from King Asa of Judah. Asa then took the silver and gold treasures of the Lord’s Temple and the King’s Palace, and entrusted them to his servants, and sent them to King Ben-Hadad ben-Tabrimmon ben-Hezion of Syria at Damascus, saying: a League exist between us and our fathers; a present to yu of silver and gold to break yur Treaty with King Baasha of Israel to depart from me. Ben-Hadad accepted King Asa, and sent Army Captains against the cities of Israel, and struck Ijon, Dan, Abel-Beth-Maacah, Chinneroth, and the land of Naphtali. Baasha heard news, and abandoned Ramah, and stayed in Tirzah. King Asa proclaimed to Judah, none is exempted to transport the stones and timber of Ramah of Baasha’s construction to rebuild Geba, Benjamin, and Mizpah. The rest of the Acts, Power, and Deeds of Asa are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. But in old age his feet were diseased; he died and was buried with his forefathers in David’s City; and his son Jehoshaphat (4th SK) ruled in his place.
In the 2nd year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah, Nadab ben-Jeroboam (2nd NK) commenced his rule in Israel; he ruled Israel 2 years; he did evil in the Lord’s eyes, walked in his father’s way and sin, who made Israel sin. Baasha ben-Ahijah (3rd NK) (New Line) of Issachar’s House conspired against him, and killed him at Gibbethon of the Philistines, for Nadab and Israel laid siege to Gibbethon.
In the 3rd year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah, Baasha (3rd NK) murdered him (Nadab) and ruled (by usurpation) in his place; then as King he murdered all of Jeroboam’s House, just as the Lord foretold by His servant Ahijah the Shilonite; for Jeroboam’s sins causing Israel to Sin and provoking the Lord God of Israel to anger. The rest of the Acts and Works of Nadab are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. There was always war between Asa and King Baasha of Israel.
In the 3rd year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah Baasha ben-Ahijah (3rd NK) commenced his reign in Israel at Tirzah; he ruled 24 years; doing evil in the Lord’s eyes, walking in Jeroboam’s way and sin, causing Israel to sin.
The Lord’s Word came to Jehu ben-Hanani against Baasha, saying: I exalted yu from dust to be Prince over My people Israel; yu have walked in the way of Jeroboam, caused Israel to sin, to enrage Me with their sins; I will wipe out Baasha and his House, and make yur House like that of Jeroboam ben-Nebat: the dead of Baasha in the city will be eaten by the dogs, and the dead in the fields the birds will eat. The rest of the Acts, Deeds and Power of Baasha are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. He died and was buried with his forefathers in Tirzah; his son Elah (4th NK) ruled in his place. The Prophet Jehu ben-Hanani was sent by the Lord’s word against Baasha and his House, cause of his evil before the Lord, provoking His anger by his works, like that of Jeroboam’s House, and for murdering him.
In the 26th year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah, Elah ben-Baasha (4th NK) commenced his reign over Israel in Tirzah; he ruled for 2 years; his servant Zimri, captain of 1/2 his chariots, conspired against him. In Tirzah he got drunk in Arza’s House, who was over the household in Tirzah: Zimri (5th NK) went in and murdered him in the 27th year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah, and reigned (by usurpation) in his place. Zimri (5th NK) commenced his reign in Israel and sat on his throne; he murdered the House of Baasha to the last male child (kin, friends). Zimri destroyed Baasha’s House by the Lord’s word spoken by the Prophet Jehu, for the sins of Baasha and Elah, causing Israel to sin to provoke the Lord’s anger with their vanities. The rest of the Acts and Deeds of Elah are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings.
In the 27th year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah, Zimri (5th NK) ruled in Tirzah for 7 days. The people were encamped against Gibbethon of the Philistines; they heard that Zimri has conspired and assassinated the King; so Israel made Omri (6th NK), the Army General, King over Israel that day in the camp. So Omri and Israel went up and besieged Tirzah. When Zimri saw the city was taken, he went into the castle of the King’s House, and burnt the King’s House over him, and he died; for his sins in all the evil he did in the Lord’s sight, in walking in the way of Jeroboam, in his sin, to make Israel to sin. The rest of the Acts of Zimri, and his Treason, are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. Now the people of Israel were divided: half followed Tibni benGinath; and the other half followed Omri. The people that followed Omri prevailed against those who followed Tibni benGinath; so Tibni died, and Omri ruled.
In the 31st year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah, Omri (6th NK) commenced his reign over Israel; and he ruled 12 years; but 6 years in Tirzah. And he bought the Hill Samaria of Shemer for 2 talents of silver (c. $ 60,000); and he built a city on the hill and named it Samaria after its owner Shemer. Omri did evil in the Lord’s eyes; doing more wickedly than those before him. He walked in the way of Jeroboam benNebat, in his sins which he made Israel to sin, to provoke the Lord God of Israel to anger with their vanities. Now the Rest of the Acts of Omri, and his Power, are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. So Omri slept with his forefathers and was buried in Samaria; and his son Ahab (7th NK) ruled in his place.
In the 38th year of King Asa (3rd SK) of Judah, Ahab benOmri (7th NK) commenced his reign over Israel; and reigned in Samaria for 22 years. Ahab benOmri did evil in the Lord’s sight more than those before him. As if it was a light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam benNebat, he married Jezebel daughter of King Ethbaal of the Sidonians and went and served and worshipped him. He erected an altar for Baal in Baal’s House, which he had built in Samaria. Ahab made the Asherah; he did more to provoke the anger of the Lord God of Israel than those before him. In his days Hiel the BethElite rebuilt Jericho: he laid the foundation at the cost (loss) of his firstborn Abiram; and he set up the gates at the cost (loss) of his youngest son Segub; just as the Lord’s word spoken by Joshua benNun.

     Elijah the Tishbite of the sojourners of Gilead, said to Ahab: as the Lord God of Israel lives, before whom I stand, there will be no dew or rain except by my word. The Lord’s word came to him: leave and go eastward, hide by the Brook Cherith by the Jordan; drink from the brook, and I have charged the ravens to feed yu there; and he did so. The ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morn and eve, and he drank from the brook. When the brook dried up because there was no rain, the Lord’s word came: go stay at Zarephath of Sidon; I have commanded a widow there to sustain yu. He came to Zarephath, at the city gate was a widow gathering sticks; he asked her to draw a little water in a container for him to drink; as she went to do so he, called out to her to bring him a morsel of bread in her hand; but she said: as the Lord yur God lives, I have no cake, but only a handful of meal in a jar, and a little oil in the cruse; I am gathering two sticks to prepare a meal for me and my son, to eat then to die. Elijah told her fear not, but to go do as she said, but first make him a little cake to eat, then she may make for herself and her son. For the Lord God of Israel says: the meal jar shall not waste, and the cruse of oil not fail, till the Lord sends rain on the earth. So she did as Elijah spoke, and he and she and her house ate for days according the Lord’s word by Elijah. After these things, the son of the widow and mistress of the house fell very sick and stopped breathing. She asked Elijah: Man of God are yu come to bring my sin to remembrance and to kill my son! He told her to give him her son, he took him from her bosom and carried him to his guest room and laid him on his bed; then he stretched himself over the child three times, and cried out to the Lord God: please restore the child’s soul; and the child revived; he then brought the child down from his chamber into the house and gave him to his mother; and said yur son lives! She said to him that I now know that yu are a Man of God, and the Lord’s word in yur mouth is truth.
Many days later, the Lord’s word came to Elijah, in the 3rd year (of the drought), to go show himself to Ahab before I send the rain. Elijah went to show himself to Ahab, the famine being severe in Samaria. Ahab called Obadiah, who was over the household (now Obadiah feared the Lord greatly; for he hid 100 of the Lord’s prophets, 50 to a cave, and fed them bread and water, when Jezebel murdered the Lord’s prophets); and said: go through the land, to the water fountains and brooks, to find perhaps grass for the horses and mules, the beasts, to stay alive. Ahab and Obadiah divided the land between them, one went one way, the other went the opposite direction. Elijah met Obadiah on his way; he recognized him and asked is this my lord (master) Elijah? He answered it was he, and to go tell yur lord (master) Ahab that Elijah is here. He replied: have I sinned that yu deliver yur servant into the hands of Ahab to kill me? As the Lord God lives, my lord (master) has sent and searched every nation and kingdom for yu; making them swore that they have not found yu. Now yu say go tell him Elijah is here; and after I have gone to tell him, the Lord’s Spirit will carry yu elsewhere, and Ahab will not find yu where I told him and will kill me: but yur servant fears the Lord from my youth. Where yu not told that when Jezebel murdered the Lord’s prophets, that I hid 100 by sets of 50 in caves, and fed them with bread and water? Elijah answered: as the Lord lives, before Whom I stand, I will this day show myself to Ahab. Obadiah reported to Ahab, and he went to meet Elijah; he asked him: are yu the troubler of Israel? he replied: I have not troubled Israel, rather yu and yur father’s house, in forsaking the Lord’s commandments, to follow Baalim. Now gather to me all Israel to Mount Carmel, with the 450 prophets of Baal, and the 400 prophets of Asherah, to eat at Jezebel’s table; and Ahab sent and gathered the prophets on Mount Carmel. Elijah approached the people and said: how long will you limp between two sides? if the Lord is God, follow Him; if Baal is, then follow him; but the people said nothing. Elijah said: I alone remain a prophet of the Lord, but Baal’s prophets are 450. Bring two bullocks: let them choose one bullock for themselves, and let them cut it in pieces, lay it on the wood without fire. Now call on your God; but I will call on the Lord’s name; they agreed, and they did so. They shouted and cut themselves with knives and lances, till the blood poured out; they carried on from noon till the evening sacrifice; yet there was not heard a voice or answer regarding the oblation. Elijah then called the people and repaired the overturned altar of the Lord. Elijah took 12 stones, one for each tribe of Jacob’s sons, to whom the Lord’s word designated or renamed Israel; he built an altar to the Lord’s Name; he made a trench around the altar, wide enough to contain two measures of seeds; he put the wood in order, and cut the bullock in pieces, laying the parts on the wood; then he ordered that 4 jars of water be poured out on the burnt-offering on the wood; then again, the second and third time the same, till the water flowed about the altar and filled the trench. At the time of the evening oblation the Prophet Elijah approached and cried out: Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, be known today that Yu are the God of Israel and I have done these things at Yur word; hear me, that this people know that Yu are God, and has turned about their hearts. Then the Lord’s fire fell, and consumed the burnt-offering, the wood, and the stones, the dust, and licked up the water in the trench. The people saw and fell to their faces, saying: the Lord is God! Elijah ordered to arrest the prophets of Baal, let none escape; and they brought them to the Brook Kishon, and slew them. Elijah told Ahab to go and eat and drink for the abundance of rain; Ahab went to do so, and Elijah went to the top of Carmel; he bowed himself to the ground, his face between his knees; he told his servant to look toward the sea; and he said I see nothing; he told him to look 7 times, and on the 7th time he said there is a small cloud the size of a man’s hand; he told him to tell Ahab to leave quickly that the rain do not stop yu; quickly the sky became dark with clouds and wind, with much rain. Ahab rode to Jezreel: the Lord’s hand was on Elijah, he girded his loins, and ran ahead of Ahab to the entrance of Jezreel.
Ahab told Jezebel what Elijah did, and how he killed all the prophets by sword; Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah swearing that God do to me and more, if by tomorrow I make not yur life as one of the slain. So he fled for his life to BeerSheba of Judah, there he left his servant and went further a day’s journey (some 10-20 miles) into the desert, and sat down under a juniper-tree, desiring to die: it is enough Lord, take my life, for I am not better than my fathers. He rested and slept under the juniper-tree; then an angel (messenger) touched him, saying: arise and eat. He looked and saw near his head a cake baked on the coals, and a cruse of water; so he ate and drank, and slept again; again the Lord’s angel (messenger) awoke him the 2nd time to eat and drink, cause the journey is a great distance; so he did; and he went on its nourishment or strength for 40 days and nights unto Horeb the Mount of God (in Midian, some 100 miles (160 kms) away). There he rested in a cave; and the Lord’s word asked him: what are yu doing here Elijah? He said: I have been jealous for the Lord God of hosts; the Israelites have forsaken Yur covenant, thrown down Yur altars, murdered Yur prophets, and I alone remain, and they seek to kill me. He told him to go outside, and to stand on the mount before the Lord. The Lord passed by, and a great strong wind rent the mountains, and broke the rocks in pieces before the Lord; but the Lord was not in the wind; after the wind and earthquake; but He was not in the earthquake; after the earthquake a fire; but He was not in the fire; after the fire was a still small voice (a whisper). When Elijah heard the whisper, he wrapped his face in his mantle, and went out, and stood in the entrance of the cave. Then a voice asked: why are yu here Elijah? He answered as before. The Lord told him to return on the way to the desert of Damascus (some 300 miles or 450 kms): then anoint Hazael as king over Syria; and Jehu benNimshi as king over Israel; and Elisha benShaphat of AbelMeholah as prophet in yur place. He who escapes from Hazael’s sword shall Jehu slay, and he who escapes from Jehu’s sword shall Elisha slay. Yet I will still reserve 7,000 in Israel of the knees of those who have not bowed to Baal, and mouths that have not kissed him.
So he departed, and he found Elisha benShaphat plowing with (driving) 12 yokes of oxen. Elijah came near and threw his mantle on him; he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, asking: please let me kiss my father and mother goodbye, then I will follow yu; he told him go return, for what have I done to yu? He returned home, then took a yoke of oxen and slaughtered them, boiled their flesh with the wood of the yokes, and fed the people; then he left to follow Elijah and ministered to him. (These 3 anointings by Elijah are fulfilled in Elisha in 2nd Kings 2, and by Elisha in chapters 8-9.)
King BenHadad of Syria gathered his armies allied with 32 kings, with horses and chariots, then besieged and fought Samaria; he sent messengers to King Ahab of Israel, into the city, saying: yur silver, gold, wives, children and finest things are mine. Ahab replied that it is as he has said, all is yurs. Again BenHadad sent messengers adding: surrender yur silver, gold, wives and children; but I will also send my servants tomorrow to search yur House, and the houses of yur servants, to take the best and most pleasing things. Ahab summoned the Elders of Israel, and said: see how this man seeks mischief; he demanded my wives, children, silver, and gold; an I did not refuse him. The Elders and the people advised him to listen or consent. So he told the messengers of BenHadad: tell my lord and king, that his first request he would comply, but not this second request. They reported back to benHadad, who resent a threat: the gods do more to me if the dust of Samaria will suffice for handfuls for all the people who follow me. Israel’s king answered: let not him who girds armor boasts as one who takes it off after the battle. BenHadad received the message while he and the kings were drinking in the pavilions; he said to his servants: prepare to attack. Then a prophet came to Ahab, saying: the Lord says: yu see this great host? I will deliver them into yur hands, and yu will know I am the Lord. Ahab asked by whom; he replied: the Lord says by the young men and princes of the provinces. He asked, who should commence the battle; and he replied, yu. He then mustered the young men of the princes of the provinces, 232; then he mustered the people, 7,000; marching at noon. Meanwhile BenHadad continued getting drunk in the pavilions with the 32 allied kings. So the young men of the princes of the provinces went out first; then BenHadad sent out, and they told him that some men of Samaria have come; he replied to take them alive, whether for peace or war. So they went outside the city to the young provincial princes, and the army that followed them; and they killed them all; and the Syrians fled with Israel in pursuit; and King BenHadad of Syria escaped by horse and horsemen. The King of Israel went out and struck the horses and chariots and slaughtered the Syrians. Then the prophet came near to the King of Israel, and said: strengthen yurself and mark carefully yur actions, for at the return of the year the King of Syria will come up against yu. Now the servants of the King of Syria said to him: their God is a God of Hills; therefore they were stronger than we; let us fight them in the plain, and we will prevail. But first replace the kings by substituting each one with a captain; then muster an army like the one defeated, equal in horses and chariots; then we’ll fight them again in the plain, and prevail; and so they did. So at the year’s return BenHadad mustered an army and went to Aphek to fight Israel; Israel mustered with food supplies and encamped, in appearance as two little flocks of kids; but the Syrians filled the country. A Man of God came and told the King of Israel: the Lord says, Because the Syrians have said, the Lord is a God of the Hills but not God of the Valleys; I will deliver this great multitude into yur hands; and you shall know I am the Lord. So they camped opposite each other for 7 days; on the 7th day the battle engaged; and Israel slew 100,000 Syrian footsoldiers in one day. The rest fled to a city of Aphek; and its wall fell on the remaining 27,000; and BenHadad fled and hid in the inner chamber of the city. Then his servants said: we have heard that the kings of Israel are merciful kings; let us dress in sackcloth around our waists, and ropes on our heads, and go to the King of Israel; perhaps he will spare us. So they came thus to the King of Israel, and said: BenHadad, yur servant, asks to be spared; he asked in reply if he was still alive? he is my brother. The men listened carefully to see his mind; replying yur brother BenHadad. He told them to bring him back to him; and he caused him to ride in his chariot. He said to him: the cities that my father took from yur father I will restore; and yu will make streets for yu in Damascus, as my father did in Samaria. Then he covenanted with him and let him go. Then one of the sons of the prophets, by the Lord’s word, said to his companion: strike me, please; but the man refused; so he said to him: cause yu obeyed not the Lord’s voice, after yu leave a lion will kill yu; and so it happened. Then he found another man and said: please strike me; the man struck and wounded him. So the prophet departed and waited for the king by the pathway; he disguised himself, with a headband over his eyes. As the king passed by, he shouted out: yur servant went out in the battle; a man turned and brought a man to me and said: guard this man; if he is missing then yur life shall be for his, or yu must pay a silver talent. As yur servant was busy about; he escaped. The King of Israel said to him: yu have decided yur judgment! He quickly removed the headband from his eyes; and the King of Israel discerned he was of the prophets. Then he told him: the Lord says, because yu let go from yur hand the man whom I had devoted to destruction, therefore yur life shall be for his life; and yur people for his people. So the King of Israel returned heavy and displeased to Samaria.
Afterwards, Naboth the Jezreelite vineyard was close to King Ahab’s palace in Samaria; and Ahab asked Naboth to give him his vineyard to become his garden of herbs, being so close; he said he would trade him with a better vineyard or buy it at full value. But Naboth refused saying God forbids him to give away his forefather’s inheritance (in compliance to the Mosaic Law). Ahab went home heavy and displeased, and laid on his bed, turning away his face, and refusing to eat. His wife Jezebel asked him why his spirit was sad so not to eat; he told her about Naboth’s vineyard; she replied: do yu not govern the Kingdom of Israel; arise and eat with a merry heart, for I will give yu the Jezreelite Naboth’s vineyard. Then she wrote letters in Ahab’s name, sealed with his seal, to the Elders and Nobles in Naboth’s city; saying: proclaim a fast, set Naboth on high among the people; set 2 men, base fellows, to witness against him that he cursed God and the King; then take him out and stone him to death; so they did as she instructed; and sent word to Jezebel that Naboth was stoned to death. So Jezebel told Ahab to go take possession of Naboth’s vineyard, because he is dead. So Ahab went to take possession of Naboth’s vineyard; but the Lord’s word came to Elijah the Tishbite: go meet King Ahab of Israel of Samaria in the Jezreelite Naboth’s vineyard, where he is taking possession of it, and say: the Lord says, have you murdered and taken ownership? the Lord says, where the dogs licked the blood of Naboth, they’ll lick yur blood! Ahab said to Elijah: have yu found me, O my enemy? he replied: I have found yu, cause yu have sold yurself to do evil in the Lord’s eyes. I will bring evil on yu, and utterly sweep yu away, and will cut off from Ahab every man-child, and the one shut up and the one free in Israel; I will make yur house like the house of Jeroboam benNebat, and like the house of Baasha benAhijah, for the provocation with which yu have provoked My anger, and made Israel to sin. And the Lord says of Jezebel: the dogs shall eat Jezebel by the rampart of Jezreel. He who die of Ahab in the city the dogs shall eat; and he who dies in the field shall the birds of the heavens eat. (There was none like Ahab, who sold himself to do evil in the Lord’s sight, whom his wife Jezebel stirred up. Who did abominably in following idols, according to all that the Amorites did, whom the Lord cast out before the Israelites.) When Ahab heard those words, he tore his clothes, and put sackcloth, and went softly. Then the Lord’s word came to Elijah the Tishbite, saying: because Ahab humbles himself before Me, I will not bring the evil in his days; but will bring it in his son’s days on his house.
Now 3 years passed with war between Syria and Israel; but in 3rd year King Jehoshaphat (4th SK) of Judah visited the King of Israel (Ahab the 7th NK); who said to his servants: RamothGilead is ours, but we are still, and have not taken it from the hands of Syria; and to Jehoshaphat he said: will yu go to battle with me to RamothGilead? and he answered him: I am as yu are, my people as yur people, and my horses as yur horses. But Jehoshaphat asked if there was a prophet of the Lord to inquire or consult; the King of Israel said there is only man, Micaiah ben-Imlah; but I hate him, for he never prophesy good about me, but only evil. Jehoshaphat replied, let not the King say so. The King of Israel ordered an officer to quickly bring him; both Kings were sitting each on his throne, Israel and Judah, clothed in their robes, in an open place at the entrance of the Gate of Samaria; and all the prophets were prophesying before them. Then Zedikiah benChenaanah made horns of iron, saying: the Lord says, with these shall yu push the Syrians till they are consumed; likewise all the prophets prophesied, saying, go up to RamothGilead and prosper; for the Lord will deliver it into the hand of the King. But the messenger bringing Micaiah, said to him: the words of the prophets all agree for good to the King; please let yur words agree for the good; but Micaiah said: as the Lord lives, what He speaks to me, I will speak. The King asked him: Micaiah, shall we to battle to RamothGilead, or forbear? He answered: go and prosper, for the Lord will deliver it into the hand of the King. The King responded: how many times must I adjure yu to speak to me only the truth in the Lord’s name! So he said: I saw Israel scattered on the mountains as sheep without a shepherd; and the Lord said: these have no master, let them return each man to his house in peace. The King of Israel said to Jehoshaphat: I told yu he would not prophesy good about me, but only evil. So he responded: hear the Lord’s word: I saw the Lord sitting on His throne, and the host of heaven standing by Him on the right and the left. The Lord said, who shall entice Ahab to go up and fall at RamothGilead? One answered this way, another answered otherwise; then a spirit came forward, and stood before the Lord, and said: I will entice him. The Lord ask how? he said, I will go and be a lying spirit in the mouth of his prophets; so He said, go do it, and prevail. Now then, the Lord has put a lying spirit in the mouths of these prophets; and the Lord has spoken evil concerning yu. Then Zedekiah benChenaanah struck Micaiah on the cheeks, and said: which way went the Lord’s Spirit from me to speak to yu? Micaiah said: yu will see on the day when yu hide yurself in the inner chamber. The King of Israel ordered that Micaiah be taken to Amon the city governor, and to Joash the King’s son; and tell them: the King says to imprison this man and feed him bread and water of affliction or scarcity, till I return safe. Micaiah responded: if yu return in peace, then the Lord has not spoken by me; and he added, listen up you peoples! So the King of Israel and Jehoshaphat King of Judah went to RamothGilead. The King of Israel told Jehoshaphat: I will disguise myself and go into the battle; but yu put on yur robes. Now the King of Syria had commanded the 32 chariot captains: fight with no one, small or great, but only with the King of Israel. So the chariot captains saw Jehoshaphat and said: it is the King of Israel; and turned to fight against him; but Jehoshaphat cried out. So when the chariot captains saw it was not the King of Israel, they stopped pursuit. Now a certain man drew his man at venture and struck the King of Israel between the joints of the armor; so he told his chariot driver: turn yur hand, take me from the army, for I am seriously wounded. The battle increased that day; the King stayed up in his chariot against the Syrians and died at even; and the blood ran out of the wound into the bottom of the chariot. Then about sunset a shout went thru the army: every man to his tent and to his country! Thus the King (Ahab) died and was brought to Samaria and was buried. They washed the chariot by a pool of Samaria; and the dogs licked up his blood (now the harlots washed themselves there); according to the Lord’s word. Now the rest Acts and Deeds of Ahab, and the Ivory House he built, and the Cities he built, are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. So Ahab slept with his forefathers; and his son Ahaziah (8th) ruled in his place.
Jehoshaphat benAsa (4th SK) commence to reign over Judah in the 4th year King Ahab (7th NK) of Israel. Jehoshaphat was 35 years old when he commenced his reign; and he reigned 25 years in Jerusalem; his mother’s name Azubah bathShilhi. he walked in the ways of his father Asa (abiAsa); turning not aside from what was right in the Lord’s sight; however the High-Places were not removed; the people still sacrificed and burnt incense in the High-Places. Jehoshaphat made peace with Israel’s King (Melek Israel). The rest of the Acts of Jehoshaphat, and his Might and Wars, are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. The rest of the Sodomites, remaining from the days of his father Asa, he removed from the land. There was no king in Edom, only a deputy as king. Jehoshaphat commissioned ships of Tarshish (Spain) to go to Ophir (Arabia) for gold; but they could not, cause the ships were wrecked at EzionGeber (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, YamSuph). Then Ahaziah benAhab said to Jehoshaphat: let my servants go with yur servants in the ships; but Jehoshaphat refused. So Jehoshaphat slept with his forefathers and was buried with them in the City of David his forefather; and his son Jehoram (5th SK) ruled in his place.
Ahaziah benAhab (8th NK) commence to reign over Israel in Samaria in the 17th year of King Jehoshaphat (4th SK) of Judah; and he ruled 2 years over Israel. He did what was evil in the Lord’s eyes. and walked in the ways of his father and mother and Jeroboam benNebat, wherein he made Israel to sin; and served and worshipped Baal and provoked the Lord God of Israel’s anger; like his father had done.

2nd KINGS: 25 Chapters: King Ahab’s Death to the Northern Kingdom Captivity & Exile by Assyria’s Kings to the Southern Kingdom Captivity & Exile by Egypt’s & Babylon’s Kings. Prophet Elijah & Prophet Elisha. The Reforms of Kings Hezekiah & Josiah.

   Moab rebelled against Israel after the death of Ahab. And Ahaziah (8th) fell through the window in his upper chamber in Samaria, and was sick; so he sent messengers, and told them: go, inquire of BaalZebub, the God of Ekron, if I will recover of this sickness? But the Lord’s Angel (Malak Yehowah) said to Elijah the Tishbite: go up to meet the messengers (angels, malachey, malachi) of the King of Samaria, and say: is it because there is no God in Israel that ye go to inquire of BaalZebub the God of Ekron? Thus says the Lord: yu will not come down from yur bed but will surely dye. Then Elijah departed. The messengers returned to him; he asked why they returned; they told him of an encounter with a man with words from the Lord. He asked them to describe the man; they said he was a hairy man, girt with a leather girdle (belt) around his waist. He said: it is Elijah the Tishbite. Then he sent to him a captain with his 50; and he came to him as he was sitting on the top of the hill; and he said to him: Man of God, the King says come down! Elijah answered the captain of 50: if I be a Man of God, let fire from heaven consume yu and yur 50; and so it happened. Again, he sent another captain of 50 with 50, with the same words; and it happened as before that fire consumed the captain and his 50. Again, a 3rd time he sent another captain of 50 with his 50; but the 3rd captain of 50 came and fell on his knees before Elijah, saying: please let my life and these 50 of yur servants, be precious in yur sight; now fire from heaven consumed the two former captains of fifty with their fifty; but now let my life be precious in yur sight. Then the Lord’s Angel (Messenger) told Elijah to go down with without fear; and he went with him to the King; and he said to him: the Lord says, since yu have sent messengers to inquire word of BaalZebub, Ekron’s God, instead of Israel’s God; therefore yu will die in yur bed. So he died by the Lord’s word from Elijah.
And Jehoram (or Joram benAhab) (9th NK) began to rule in his place in Israel and Samaria, in the 2nd year of Jehoram (5th SK) the son of King Jehoshaphat (4th SK) of Judah, because he had no son. The Rest of the Acts of Ahaziah (8th NK) are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings.
When it was time for the Lord to take up or transport Elijah to heaven (in the sky), Elisha accompanied him from Gilgal. Elijah told Elisha to please wait here; for the Lord has sent me further to BethEl; but he replied: as the Lord lives, and as yur soul lives, I will not leave yu; so they both went to BethEl. The Sons of the Prophets (Prophetic Sons or School) at BethEl approached Elisha, and said: yu know the Lord will take away (rapture, transport) yur master today from yur head; he replied, I know it, but keep quiet. Again Elijah told Elisha to please wait here, for the Lord has sent me further to Jericho; but he replied as before; so they went to Jericho. Likewise the Sons of the Prophets said to Elisha as did those before, and he replied the same. The 3rd time Elijah told Elisha to wait here, for the Lord has sent him further to Jordan; and he replied as before; and they went on. Then 50 men of the Sons of the Prophets stood opposite facing them while they both stood by the Jordan. Elijah took his mantle and wrapped it together, and struck the waters, and they divided in two, so they both crossed on dry ground. After they crossed, Elijah asked Elisha to ask what he should do for him before he is taken; he replied, please let a double portion of yur spirit be on me. Yu have asked a hard thing; if yu see me when I am taken from yu, it shall be only then be so done. So as they walked and talked, a chariot of fire and horses of fire, which separated them apart; and Elijah went up by whirlwind into heaven. Elisha saw it and shouted: my father! my father! (Abi, Abi) the chariots of Israel and their horsemen! (riders). He no longer saw him; and he grabbed and ripped his own clothes into pieces. Then he took up Elijah’s mantle that fell from him, and went back, and stood by the Jordan; and he struck the waters with Elijah’s fallen mantle, saying: where is the Lord God of Elijah? the smitten waters were divided in two; and Elisha crossed over. The Sons of the Prophets (Beney-hanN’biim, BeniNebiim) at Jericho across from him, said: Elijah’s spirit rests on Elisha; and they came and met him, and bowed to the ground. They said to him: please, let 50 strong men of yur servants from among us go search for yur master; perhaps the Lord’s Spirit has raptured or transported him, and thrown him on some mountain, or into some valley; but he replied: you must not send. They continued to urge him till he was ashamed; and said: send. The 50 men went and searched for 3 days but did not find him; so they returned and stayed at Jericho; and he told them: I told you not to go. The men of the city (Jericho) told Elisha: my lord sees that the city is pleasant, but the water is bad, and the land miscarries (unproductive): he replied: bring me a cruse, put salt in it; and they brought it to him; he went to the spring of the waters, and threw salt in it. and said: the Lord says, I have healed these waters to longer cause death or miscarriage; thus the waters were healed to this date (Isaiah’s time). From there (Jericho) he went to BethEl; while going on, some youths from the city mocked him, saying: go up (go on, go away), yu baldhead! go up, yu baldhead! he turned around and saw them, and cursed them in the Lord’s name. Then there came out two she-bears (female bears) from the woods (forest) and tore to pieces some 42 youths. From there (BethEl) he went to Mount Carmel, and then returned to Samaria Jehoram (Joram) benAhab (9th NK) commenced his reign over Israel in Samaria in the 18th year of King Jehoshaphat (4th SK) of Judah, and he reigned 12 years. He did evil in the Lord’s sight, but not like his father or mother; he removed the Baal Pillar his father made. But he continued in clinging to the sins of Jeroboam benNebat that caused Israel to sin. Now King Mesha of Moab was a sheep-master; and rendered to the King of Israel the wool of 100,000 lambs, and 100,000 rams; but after Ahab died he rebelled and refused. So King Jehoram left Samaria, and mustered Israel; and sent for King Jehoshaphat of Judah, saying: the King of Moab has rebelled against me; will yu go to battle with me against Moab; and he said: I will go; I am as yu, my people as yurs, and my horses as yurs. And he asked: which way will we go; and he answered, by the way of the wilderness of Edom. So the 3 Kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom went by a circuit of 7 days journey; but there was no water for the army, or for the animals that followed. The King of Israel said: the Lord has called these 3 Kings to deliver them into the hands of Moab. But Jehoshaphat said: is there prophet of the Lord to inquire from the Lord? One of Israel’s King’s servants answered: Elisha benShaphat is here, who poured water on the hands of Elijah. Jehoshaphat responded: the Lord’s word is with him. So the 3 Kings went to him; and Elisha said to the King of Israel: what have I do with yu? go to yur father’s and mother’s prophets! And Israel’s King answered: no! for the Lord has called these 3 Kings to deliver them into the hand of Moab. And Elisha said: as the Lord of Hosts lives, before whom I stand, where it not that I regard the presence (face) of King Jehoshaphat of Judah, I would not be toward yu, or see yu. Now bring me a minstrel; then the minstrel played, and the Lord’s hand came upon him; and he said: the Lord says: make this valley full of trenches; for the Lord says, you shall not see wind or rain; yet that valley shall be filled with water, and you shall drink, you and your cattle. This is a light thing in the Lord’s eyes; also he will deliver the Moabites into your hand; and you must strike the fortified cities, the choice cities, every good tree, and seal the water fountains, and mar the good pieces of land (lots) with stones. So in the morn, about the time of offering the oblation, that water came by the way of Edom, and the country was filled with water. When the Moabites heard that the Kings were come to fight against them, they all gathered who could bear arms, and went up and stood at the border. They rose early in the morn, the sun shone on the water, and the Moabites saw the water opposite them was red as blood; and they said: this is blood; the Kings are surely destroyed, and have beaten each other; now then, Moab, to the spoil. When they came into the camp of Israel, the Israelites arose and struck the Moabites, so that they fled before them; and they continued in the land striking the Moabites; just as the Lord instructed, up to Kir-hareseth, where they left the stones; yet the slingers went about it and struck it. The King of Moab saw the battle was against him, took 700 swordsmen, to break through to the King of Edom; but they could not. He then took his oldest son, the heir to the throne, and offered him as a burnt-offering on the wall. There was great rage against Israel: and they departed and returned to their home land.
(1st) A woman of the wives of the sons of the prophets cried to Elisha: yur servant, my husband, is dead; yu know that he feared the Lord: now the creditor is come to take my two children as servants (slaves). Elisha asked: how may I help yu; what is in yur house? she replied, I only have a pot of oil. He told her to go, borrow many empty containers from yur neighbors; then close yur door behind yu and yur sons; pour out into all the vessels, and set aside the full containers. So she went and did so; and after the last vessel she asked her sons for another container, but they said there is no more; so the oil stopped. She reported it to the Man of God; and he told her to sell the oil, pay her debt, and for her and her sons to live on the rest.
(2nd) Afterwards, Elisha went to Shunem, where was a great woman, who constrained him to eat bread; so whenever he passed by, he turned in to eat bread. Then she told her husband: I perceive this is a holy Man of God, that passes by continually; let us make a little chamber on the wall, and set in the room a bed, table, chair, candlestick; that whenever he visits he may stay there. So he visited again, and went into the room and rested. He said to his servant Gehazi: call this Shunammite; he called her, and she came and stood before him. Then he said to him to ask her: yu have been careful in caring for us; what can be done for yu? would yu be spoken of to the King, or general of the army? but she answered: I dwell among my own people. He said again to him: what is to be done for her? Gehazi answered: she has no son, and her husband is old. He told him to call her; when he called her, and she stood at the door. And he said to her: at this season next year, yu will embrace a son; but she responded: no my lord, Man of God, do not lie to yur handmaid! But the woman conceived, and gave birth to a son that season the next year; as Elisha said. Years later, when the child was older, the boy was with his father with the reapers (harvest time, Autumn); and he said to his father: my head hurts! so he said to his servant to carry him back to his mother; so he took him to her, and he sat on her knees till noon, then died. She took him up and laid him on the bed of the Man of God, then shut the door, and left; she called her husband and requested: send to me a servant and a donkey, that I may visit the Man of God and then return. And he answered: why must yu go to him today? it is not new moon or sabbath; she said, its ok, She saddled a donkey, and told her servant, drive fast; slow not down the riding, unless I tell yu! She went and came to the Man of God to Mount Carmel. The Man of God saw her at a distance, and he said to his servant Gehazi: there is the Shunamite; run to meet her, and ask: is it well with yu, with yur husband, and the child? she answered all is well. When she came to the Man of God to the hill, she grabbed his feet. Gehazi came to push her away, but the Man of God told him to leave her alone: her soul is vexed; and the Lord has hid it from me, and not told me. Then she said: did I desire a son from my lord? did I not say, do not deceive me? Then he told Gehazi to gird his loins, take his staff in hand, and go his way: if yu meet any man, greet him not; if any greet yu, do not respond: and place my staff on the face of the child. But the child’s mother said: as the Lord lives, and yur soul lives, I will not leave yu; so he arose and followed her. Gehazi arrived and did as instructed, placing it on the child’s face; but there was no response; so he returned to meet him, and said: the child is not awake (alive). But when Elisha came into the house, the child was dead on the bed; he went and shut the door, he and the child in the room; and he prayed to the Lord; then got up, laid on the child, his mouth on the child’s mouth, his eyes on the child’s eyes, his hands on the child’s hands; he stretched himself over him; and the child’s flesh became warm. Then he got up, walked about in the house; then again stretched himself over the child; and the child sneezed seven times, and the child opened his eyes. He called Gehazi, and said: call the Shunamite; so he called her; and she came to him; and he said: take yur son; but she went in and fell at his feet bowing; then she took her son and left.
(3rd) Then Elisha again visited Gilgal; there was a famine in the land; the sons of the prophets (prophetic sons, disciples) were sitting before him; and he said to his servant: set on the great pot, and boil pottage for the sons of the prophets. Someone went out to the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine, and gathered from it wild gourds, a lap full, and returned, and shred them into the pot of pottage; but they did not know them (being non-edible). So they poured out the soup to eat; but as they were eating the pottage, they cried out: Man of God, there is death in the pot; and they could not eat. But he said: bring me some meal, and throw it into the pot; then he said: pour out for the people to eat; and there was no harm in the pot.
(4th) Now there came a man from BaalShalishah, and brought the Man of God bread of the first-fruits, 20 loaves of barley, and fresh ears (kernels) of grain in his sack; and he said: give to the people to eat. His servant replied: what, should I set this before 100 men? But he replied: give to the people to eat; for the Lord says: they shall eat and have leftovers! And so it was as the Lord’s word.

   (5th) Naaman the captain (General) of the army of the King of Syria, he was a great man with his master, and honorable. for by him the Lord gave victory to Syria; he was a mighty man (valiant warrior) and a leper. Now the Syrians had gone out in bands (earlier), and had taken captive a little maiden (young girl); and she waited on Naaman’s wife. And she said to her mistress: wish that my lord were with the prophet who is in Samaria, for he would recover (heal) him of his leprosy. Someone went in and said to his Lord: thus spake the girl from the land of Israel. Then the King of Syria said: now go, I will send a letter to the King of Israel. So he departed, and took with him 10 talents of silver (c. 800 lbs; c. 1/2 million $), and 6,000 gold coins (=2 talents of shekels; c.150 lbs, c. 1/2 million $), and 10 changes of clothes (royal robes) (about 5,000-10,000 dollars total). And he delivered the letter to the King of Israel, saying: when this letter is given to yu, see, I have sent my servant Naaman to be healed of his leprosy. When the King of Israel read the letter, he tore his clothes, and said: am I God, to kill and resurrect, that this man does send to recover a man from his leprosy? but consider please to see he seeks a quarrel with me. When Elisha, the Man of God, heard that the King of Israel ripped his clothes, that he sent and asked why? let him come to me, and he shall know that there is a Prophet in Israel. So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariots, and stood at the door of Elisha’s house; Elisha sent a messenger to him, saying: go wash (dip) in the Jordan 7 times, and yur flesh will renew, and yu shall be clean. Naaman, in anger and rage, went away saying: I thought he would at least come out to me, and stand, and call on the name of the Lord his God, and wave his hand over the place, and recover the leper (leprosy). Are not the rivers of Damascus, Abanah and Pharpar, better than all the waters of Israel? could I not wash (dip) in them, and be clean? But his servants came near and spoke to him: my father, if the Prophet had bid yu to do some great thing, would yu not have done it? how much more when he says to wash (dip) and be clean. Then he went down and dipped 7 times in the Jordan as the Man of God instructed; and his flesh was renewed as of a little child, and he was clean. He returned with his company to the Man of God, and stood before him; and said: I now know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel; please take a present from yur servant. But he said: as the Lord lives, before Whom I stand, I will receive nothing. And he urged him to take it; but he refused. Naaman requested: please, let there be given to yur servant 2 mules’ burden of earth; for yur servant will hereafter not offer burnt-offering nor sacrifice to other gods, but only to the Lord. In this thing may the Lord forgive yur servant: when my master goes into Rimmon’s House to worship there, and he leans on my hand, and I bow myself in Rimmon’s House, the Lord pardon yur servant. He replied: go in peace. He left at a short distance; and Gehazi, servant to Elisha the Man of God, said: my master has spared Naaman the Syrian by not receiving from his hands what has brought; as the Lord lives, I will run after him and take something from him. He pursued, and Naaman saw him, and stepped down from his chariot to meet him, and asked if all was well. He said all is well; my master has sent me, saying: just now has arrived from the hill-country of Ephraim two young men of the Sons of the Prophets; please, give a talent of silver (1/10) and 2 changes of clothes (1/2). Naaman answered: please, take 2 talents; and he bound 2 talents of silver in 2 bags, with 2 changes of clothes, and laid them on 2 of his servants; and they carried them. When they came to the hill, he took them from their hand, and put them in the house; and he let the men return. Then he went in and stood before his master; and Elisha said: Where have you come from Gehazi? he said: yur servant didn’t go anywhere. And he said: did not my heart go when the man left his chariot to meet yu? Is it a time to receive money, garments, oliveyards, vineyards, sheep, oxen, men-servants, and maid-servants? Therefore Naaman’s leprosy shall cling to yu and to yur seed forever. And he went out from his presence a leper, snow-white.

   (6th) Now the Sons of the Prophets said to Elisha: this place we are staying is too narrow for us; let us go across the Jordan, taking each man a log to build us a place there to live. He answered them: go; but someone said: please go with yur servants; he answered: I’ll go; so he went. When they came to the Jordan, they cut down wood; but as one was felling the log, the axe-head fell into water; and he shouted: oh no, my master! it was borrowed. And the Man of God asked: where did it fall? and he showed him the place; and he cut down a stick, and threw it in, and made the iron to swim; and he said: take it out; so he put his hand out and took it.
(7th) Now the King of Syria warred against Israel; and he counseled with his servants: in such a place will be my camp. The Man of God sent to the King of Israel, saying: beware not to pass such a place; for there the Syrians are coming down. So the King of Israel sent to the place warned of by the Man of God; thus saved himself 3 times. The King of Syria’s heart was very troubled about this; so he asked his servants to tell him who was for the King of Israel? One of his servants said: not so, my Lord King, but Elisha the Prophet in Israel relates yur words spoken in the bedroom to the King of Israel. He told them to go see where he is, and bring him; and he was told that he resides at Dothan. So he sent horses, chariots, and a great host; which came by night and surrounded the city. The servant of the Man of God rose early and went outside, and saw the host with horses and chariots surrounded the city; then said to him: Master, what shall we do? But he answered him: fear not; for more are with us than with them. So Elisha prayed: Lord, please open his eyes to see. The Lord opened the eyes of the young man; and he saw the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha. And when they came down to him, Elisha asked the Lord: please strike these people with blindness; so He did according to Elisha’s word. Then Elisha said: this is not the way or the city; follow me; I will bring you to the man you seek; thus he led them to Samaria. Then Elisha prayed again: Lord, open the eyes of these men to see; and He again did so; and they saw that they were in Samaria. The King of Israel saw them and asked Elisha: my father, shall I strike them? shall I strike them? But he answered: yu must not strike them; would yu strike yur captives taken by yur sword and bow? set bread before them to eat and drink, and then return to their master. Thus he prepared a great provision for them; and after they ate and drank, he sent them away to their master. Thus the bands of Syria no longer raided the land of Israel.
(8th) After this, BenHadad King of Syria gathered his army, and went up and besieged Samaria. There was a great famine in Samaria when it was besieged; so that a donkey’s head sold for 80 silver-pieces (a horse was sold before for 150 silver-pieces, and 1/4th kab of dove’s dung (used as fertilizer in ordinary times, and often contained undigested grain or seeds) for 5 silver pieces (30 pieces of silver bought a slave; and a silver shekel worth 4 drachmas or dinars, or about a week’s wage of a poor laborer; thus kab=quart, 1/4th kab=2handfulls or 2 cups). Then as the King of Israel was passing by on the wall, a woman shouted to him: help, my lord O King. The King replied: if the Lord does not help yu, whence shall I help yu? from the threshingfloor? from the winepress? And the King asked: what troubles yu? she answered: this woman told me to give her my son to eat him today, then we will eat my son tomorrow. So we boiled and ate my son; the next day I demanded her to give yur son to be eaten; but she has hid her son. When the King heard the words of the woman; he tore his clothes (while he was passing on the wall); and the people saw him with sackcloth over his flesh. He then said: God do more to me if the head of Elisha benShaphat shall remain on him this day! But Elisha was sitting in his house, the Elders sitting with him; and he sent a man from him: but before the messenger came to him, he told the Elders: you see how this son of a murderer has sent to take away my head? Look, when the messenger arrives, shut and bolt the door behind him: is not the sound of his master’s feet behind him? So while he was still talking to them, the messenger arrived: so he said: this evil is of the Lord; why should I wait any longer for the Lord?
Thus Elisha said: Listen to the Lord’s word: the Lord says: tomorrow about this time shall a measure of fine flour before a shekel, and two measures of barely for a shekel (shekel= a week’s wages), in the gate of Samaria. Then the captain on whose hand the King leaned answered the Man of God: if the Lord should make windows in heaven, will this happen? But he replied: yu will see it with yur own eyes, but will not eat of it. Now there were 4 leprous men at the entrance of the gate; and they said to one another: why sit we here till we die? If we say, we will enter the city, the famine in it will be our death; if we stay here we will also die. Let us fall to the host of the Syrians; if they spare us, we’ll live; if they slay us, we will but die. They arose at twilight to go to the camp of the Syrians; but when they reached the utmost fringe of the Syrians’ camp, they found no man. For the Lord had made the host of the Syrians to hear a noise of chariots, and noise of horses, as the noise of a great host; and they said: the King of Israel has hired against us the Kings of the Hittites and Egyptians to come upon us. So they arose and fled in the twilight, leaving their tents, horses, donkeys, even the camp as it was, and fled for their life. So when these lepers came to the outskirts of the camp, they went into one tent, and ate and drank, and took thence silver, gold, and raiment, and went and hid it; then they came back, entered another tent, and did likewise. But then they said: we do not do well; this day is a day of good news, and we keep quiet: if we stay till morning light, punishment will overtake us; so let us go tell the King’s household. So they came and called to the porter of the city; saying: we came to the Syrians’ camp, and there is no man (no human voice), but the horses and donkeys are tied, and the tents as they were; and he called the porters; and they related it to the King’s household inside. So the King arose in the night, and said to his servants: I will show you what the Syrians have done to us: they know we are hungry; so they deserted the camp to hide themselves in the field, saying: when they leave the city we shall take them alive, and take the city. But one of his servants answered: please permit some of us to take 5 horses that are left in the city (since they are like the population of Israel already consumed); and let us send and see. Thus they took 2 chariots with horses; and the King sent them after the host of the Syrians to go see. So they travelled to Jordan; and along the way were garments and vessels, which the Syrians had thrown away in haste. So the messengers returned and told the King. So the people went out and plundered the camp of the Syrians. Thus a measure of fine flour was sold for a shekel, and two measures of barely for a shekel, according to the Lord’s word. And the King appointed the captain on whose hand he leaned to be in charge of the gate: and the people trod over him at the gate, and he died as the Man of God had said before the King at the gate of Samaria, for his response of unbelief.
(9th) Now Elisha told the woman whose son he had raised to life: go take yur family to stay somewhere else: for the Lord has called for a famine in the land for 7 years. The woman obeyed the Lord’s word by the Man of God, she and her family stayed in the land of the Philistines for 7 years. After 7 years the woman returned from the land of the Philistines; then she went to plead to the King for her house and land. The King was talking with Gehazi the servant of the Man of God, saying: tell me, please, all the great things that Elisha has done. While he told the King how he raised to life the dead boy, the woman of the restored boy pleaded with the King for her house and land. And Gehazi told the King: my Lord King, this is the woman and her son who Elisha restored to life. When the King asked her she told him; so he appointed an officer for her, saying: restore all that was hers, and the fruits of the field since the day she left the land till now.
(10th) Then Elisha came to Damascus; and BenHadad the King of Syria was sick; and they told him that the Man of God was here. So the King told Hazael to take a present in hand, and go meet the Man of God, and inquire of the Lord by him, if I shall recover from this sickness? Hazael went to meet him, with a gift of the best of Damascus: 40 camel’ burden (c. 250 lbs x 40 = 10,000 lbs), and came and stood before him, and said: yur son BenHadad King of Syria has sent me to yu, saying: shall I recover from this sickness? Elisha told him to return and tell him yu will surely recover; however the Lord has shown me that he will indeed die. But he settled his face fixed till he was embarrassed: and the Man of God wept. Hazael asked why my lord cried? he replied: because I know the evil that yu will do to the children of Israel: their strongholds will yu set on fire, and their young men yu’ll slay with the sword, and will dash in pieces their little ones, and rip up their pregnant women. But Hazael responded: what is yur servant but a dog, that he should do such a great thing? And Elisha answered: the Lord has shown me yu will be King over Syria. Then he departed from Elisha and returned to his master; who asked him: what did Elisha tell yu? he answered: he said yu would surely recover. But in the morning, he took the coverlet, and dipped it in water, and spread it on his face, till he died: thus Hazael reigned in his place.
In the 5th year of Joram benAhab King of Israel (9th NK), Jehoshaphat being King of Judah (4th SK), Jehoram benJehoshaphat King of Judah (5th SK) commenced to rule; Jehoram benJehoshaphat was 32 years old when he commence to rule: and he reigned 8 years in Jerusalem. He walked in the way of the Kings of Israel, as did the House of Ahab: for he had the daughter of Ahab as wife; and he did what was evil in the Lord’s sight. But the Lord would not destroy Judah, for His servant David’s sake, as He promised him to give him a lamp for his children always. In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a King for themselves. Then Joram (Jehoram) passed over to Zair with all his chariots; and arose by night and struck the Edomites that surrounded him, and the captains of the chariots; and the people fled to their tents. So Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah to this day; at the same time Libnah also revolted. Now the rest of the Acts and Deeds of Joram (Jehoram), are written in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. So Joram (Jehoram) (5th NK) died and was buried with his fathers in David’s City; and Ahaziah (6th NK. a) his son ruled in his place.
In the 12th year of King Joram benAhab (9th NK) of Israel did King Ahaziah benJehoram (6th SK. a) of Judah commence to rule; Ahaziah was 22 years old when he commence to rule; and he reigned 1 year in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Athaliah bathOmri (6th SK. b) King of Israel. He walked in the way of Ahab’s House, doing evil in the Lord’s eyes, as did the House of Ahab; for he was the son-in-law of the House of Ahab (by Ahab’s daughter). Thus he went with Joram benAhab to war against Hazael King of Syria at RamothGilead: and the Syrians wounded Joram. So King Joram returned to be healed in Jezreel from the wounds inflicted by the Syrians at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael King of Syria. Then Ahazaiah benJehoram (6th SK. a) King of Judah went down to see Joram benAhab in Jezreel, because he was sick.
And Elisha the Prophet called one of the Sons of the Prophets (prophetic sons, disciples), and said: gird yur loins, and take this vial of oil in hand, and go to RamothGilead. And when yu arrive, find Jehu benJehoshaphat benNimshi (10th NK), enter and make him arise from his brothers, then take him into an inner chamber. Take the vial of oil and pour it on his head, and say: thus says the Lord: I have anointed yu King over Israel. Then open the door and flee without delay. So the young prophet went to RamothGilead. When he arrived, the captains of the army were sitting; and he said: I have an errand to yu captain. And Jehu asked: which one of us? and he answered: yu, captain. So he arose and went into the house; then he poured the oil on his head, and said: the Lord God of Israel says: I have anointed yu King over the Lord’s people Israel. And yu shall strike the House of Ahab yur master, that I may avenge the blood of my servants the prophets, and the blood of all the Lord’s servants, at the hand of Jezebel. For the whole House of Ahab shall perish; and I will cut off from Ahab every man-child, the one shut up and the one at large in Israel. I will make Ahab’s House like Jeroboam benNebat’s House, and like Baasha benAhijah’s House. The dogs shall eat Jezebel in the area of Jezreel, and there shall be none to bury her. So he opened the door and fled. Then Jehu came out to his lord’s servants: someone asked: is it well? why did this madman come to yu He said: yu know the man and his kind of talk. They said: it is false; tell us now; and he said: this is what he told me: the Lord says: I have anointed yu King over Israel. Then they hasted, and took each man his garment, and put it under him on the top of the stairs, and blew the trumpet, saying: Jehu is King! So Jehu benJehoshaphat benNimshi (10th NK) conspired against Joram (Joram was guarding RamothGilead, he and all Israel, because of Hazael King of Syria; for Joram had returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which the Syrians had inflicted, when he fought with Hazael King of Syria.) Now Jehu said: if this is your mind, let no one escape to leave the city to go tell it in Jezreel. So Jehu rode in a chariot to Jezreel to Joram; when King Ahazaiah of Judah came to visit Joram. The watchman was standing on the tower in Jezreel, and spied the company of Jehu as he came, and said: I see a company. Joram said: get and send a horseman to meet him, saying: is it peace? One went on horseback to meet him, and said: the King says: is it peace? Jehu said: what have yu to do with peace? turn and follow me? The watchman reported: the messenger met them, but isn’t returning. A second rider went to him and said the same; and Jehu replied as before; and the watch likewise reported it; and added: the driving is like Jehu benNimshi; for he drives furiously. So Joram said: make ready; and they made ready his chariot. And King Joram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah went out, each in his chariot, to meet Jehu, and found him in the area of Naboth the Jezreelite. When Joram saw Jehu, he said: is it peace, Jehu? but he answered: what peace, as long as the whoredoms of yur mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many? So Joram turned his hands, and fled, and said to Ahaziah: there is treachery, Ahaziah! Jehu drew his bow with his full strength, and struck Joram between his arms; and the arrow went out at his heart, and he sunk down in his chariot. Then he said to Bidkar his captain: take up, and throw him in the area of the field of Naboth the Jezreelite; for remember when I and yu rode together after Ahab his father, the Lord laid this burden upon him: surely, I have seen yesterday the blood of Naboth, and the blood of his sons, says the Lord; and I will requite yu in this place, says the Lord. And King Ahaziah of Judah saw it and fled by way of the garden-house; but Jehu pursued him, and said: strike him also in his chariot; there in the ascent of Gur, by Ibleam; but he fled to Megiddo, and died there. And his servants carried him in a chariot to Jerusalem, and buried him in his sepulchre beside his forefathers in David’s City.
Now in the 11th year of Joram benAhab (9th NK) began to rule Ahaziah (6th SK. a) over Judah.
So when Jehu (10th NK) came to Jezreel, Jezebel heard of it; and she painted her eyes, and attired her head, and looked out thru the window. As Jehu entered in at the gate, she said: is it peace Zimri, yur master’s murderer? And he lifted up his face toward the window and asked? who is on my side? who? Two or three eunuchs looked out to him. And he said: throw her down; so they threw her out the window; and some of her blood splashed on the wall, and on the horses: and he trodden her under foot. And after he came in, he ate and drank; then said: see to this cursed woman, and bury her; for she is a King’s daughter. So they went to bury her; but found nothing of her than the skull, feet, and palms of her hands. So they returned and reported; and he responded: this is the Lord’s word which He spoke by his servant Elijah the Tishbite, saying: in the parcel of Jezreel shall the dogs eat the flesh of Jezebel; and the body of Jezebel shall be as dung upon the face of the field in the parcel of Jezreel, so that they shall not say: this is Jezebel.
Ahab had 70 sons in Samaria; and Jehu wrote letters, and sent to Samaria, to the rulers of Jezreel, the elders, and to those brought up Ahab’s [sons], saying: As soon as this letter comes, your master’s sons being with you, and you have chariots, horses, and a fortified city, with armor; so take the best and fittest of your master’s sons and set him on his father’s throne, and fight for your master’s House. In great fear they said: two Kings could not withstand him; how shall we? So the head over the household, and the chief over the city, and the elders, and the guardians, sent to Jehu, saying: we are yur servants, and will do all that yu bid; we will not make a King: do what is best to yu. Then he wrote a 2nd letter: if you are on my side, and will listen to my voice, bring to me to Jezreel the heads of the men, your master’s sons, by this time tomorrow (the King’s sons were 70, raised by the great men of the city). When the letter came they took and slew the 70 sons of the King, and put their heads in baskets, and sent them to Jezreel. A messenger reported to him: they brought the heads of the King’s sons; and he said: lay them in two heaps at the entrance of the gate till morning. In the morn he went out and stood, and said to the people: you are righteous: I conspired against my master, and slew him; but who smote all these? Know now that nothing shall fall to the earth of all the Lord’s word, concerning the House of Ahab: for the Lord has done what He spoke by His servant Elijah. So Jehu smote all the rest of the House of Ahab in Jezreel, and his great men, and familiar friends, and priests, till none remained. Then he rose and departed to Samaria; and as he was at the shearing-house of the shepherds in the way, Jehu met the brothers of King Ahaziah of Judah, and said: who are you? they answered: Ahaziah’s brothers; and we go down to greet the children of the King and Queen. He said: take them alive; and they took and slew them at the pit of the sheering-house, all 42 men; none was left. When he departed there, he met Jehonadab benRechab coming to meet him; and he greeted him: is yur heart right, as my heart to yur heart? Jehonadab answered: it is; if so, give me yur hand; and he gave him his hand; and he took him up in to the chariot; and he said: come with me, and see my zeal for the Lord; so he rode in his chariot. When he came to Samaria he struck the rest of those of Ahab in Samaria, till he destroyed him, according to the Lord’s word, which He spoke by Elijah. And Jehu gathered the people and said: Ahab served Baal a little; but Jehu will serve him much. Call to me the prophets of Baal, all his worshippers and priests, let none be lacking: for I have a great sacrifice to Baal; anyone not present shall not live. But Jehu was subtle, intending to destroy Baal’s worshipers. Jehu said: sanctify a solemn assembly for Baal; and they proclaimed it. Jehu sent throughout Israel: and Baal’s worshipers came, every one of them; they came into Baal’s House and filled it completely. And he said to the vestry overseer: bring out vestments for all Baal’s worshipers; and he did it. Jehu and Jehonadab benRechab went into Baal’s House (Temple); and he told them to search that not one of the Lord’s servants are with Baal’s worshipers. So they went in to offer sacrifices and burnt-offerings. Jehu had appointed 80 men outside, and said: if any of the men whom I bring into your hands escape, his life shall be for his life. So when he ended the offering the burnt-offering, Jehu said to the guard and captains: go in, and slay them; let none survive; so they struck them with the edge of the sword; and the guard and captains threw them outside, and went to the city of Baal’s House. And they brought out the Pillars of Baal’s House and burnt them; they broke down Baal’s Pillar and House, and made it a draught-house, to this day. Thus Jehu destroyed Baal out of Israel.
However from the sins of Jeroboam benNebat, who made Israel to sin, Jehu departed not from following them: the golden calves in BethEl and in Dan. The Lord said to Jehu: because yu have done well in what was right in my sight, and has done to Ahab’s House what was in My heart, yur sons to the 4th generation shall sit on Israel’s throne. But Jehu took no heed to walk heartily in the Lord’s law, Israel’s God: he departed not from Jeroboam’s sins, who made Israel to sin. In those days the Lord began to cut off from Israel: and Hazael smote them in all the borders of Israel; from the Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Manassites, from Aroer, which is by the valley of the Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan. Now the rest of the Acts and Works and Power of Jehu, are written in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. So Jehu (10th NK) rested with his forefathers; and was buried in Samaria; and his son Jehoahaz (11th NK) reigned in his place; the time Jehu (10th NK) ruled over Israel in Samaria was 28 years.
Athaliah (6th SK. b), Ahaziah’s (6th SK. a) mother, saw her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the seed royal (heirs to the throne). Jehosheba, King Joram’s daughter, Ahaziah’s sister, took Joash (7th SK), Ahaziah’s son, and hid him from among the King’s sons who were slain, both him and his nurse, inside the bedchamber; hid from Athaliah, so he was not slain; and he was hid with her in the Lord’s House 6 years. Athaliah (6th SK. b) reigned over the land. In the 7th year Jehoiada sent and fetched the Captains Over Hundreds of the Carites and of the Guard, and brought them to him into the Lord’s House; and covenanted with them, and took their oath in the Lord’s House, and showed them the King’s son. He commanded them: this you shall do: a third of part of you, that come in on the sabbath, shall be keepers of the watch of the King’s House; and a 1/3rd shall be at the Gate Sur; and 1/3rd at the Gate behind the Guard: so shall you keep the watch of the House, and be a barrier. Your two companies, going out on the sabbath, shall keep watch of the Lord’s House for the King; encompassing the King, with weapons in hand; and any who comes within the ranks to be slain: and be with the King when he goes out or comes in. The Hundreds Captains did as the priest Jehoiada commanded; they took each man his men, those to come in on the sabbath, and those to go out on sabbath, and they came to the priest Jehoiada. The priest delivered to the Hundred Captains the spears and shields of King David’s, which were in the Lord’s House. The guard stood, each man with weapons in hand, from the right side of the House to the left side, along by the altar and the House, by the King round about. He brought out the King’s son, put the crown on him, and the testimony; they made him King, and anointed him; they clapped their hands, and said: the King lives! Athaliah heard the noise of the guard, and the people, and she came to the people into the Lord’s House: and she looked, and saw the King stood by the pillar, as the manner was, and the captains and trumpets by the King; and the people of the land rejoiced, and blew trumpets. Athaliah ripped her clothes, and shouted: treason! treason! And Jehoiada the priest commanded the captains of hundreds that were set over the host, and said: take her out between the ranks; and he who follows her slay with the sword; for the priest said: let her not be slain in the Lord’s House. So they made way for her; and she went by the way of the horses’ entry to the King’s House: and there was she slain. Jehoiada made a covenant between the Lord and the King and the people, that they should be the Lord’s people; between the King also and the people. The people of the land went to the House of Baal, and broke it down; his altars and images they broke thoroughly in pieces, and slew Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars. And the priest appointed officers over the Lord’s House. And he took the Captains over hundreds, and the Carites, and the guard, and the people of the land; and brought down the King from the Lord’s House. And he sat on the throne of the Kings. So the people of the land rejoiced, and the city was quiet; and Athaliah (6th SK. b) they had slain with the sword at the King’s House.
Jehoash (7th SK) was 7 years old when he began to reign. In the 7th year of Jehu (10th NK); he reigned 40 years in Jerusalem; his mother was Zibiah of Beer-sheba; he did right in the Lord’s sight all the days wherein Jehoiada instructed him; yet the high places were not removed; the people still sacrificed and burnt incense in the high places. Jehoash said to the priests: the money of the hallowed things brought into the Lord’s House, in current money, the money for each man so rated, and money of any man’s heart to bring into the Lord’s House; let the priests take it, each from his acquaintance; to repair the breaches of the House, wherever found. Yet, by the 23rd year of King Jehoash the priests had not repaired the breaches of the House. The priests consented to take no money from the people, nor to repair the breaches of the House. So Jehoiada the priest took a chest, bored a hole in the lid of it, and set it beside the altar, on the right side as one comes into the Lord’s House: and the priests that guarded the threshold put in it the money brought into the Lord’s House. When they saw much money in the chest, the King’s scribe and the High Priest came up, they put it in bags and counted the money found in the Lord’s House. They gave the weighed money into the hands of the workers, that had the oversight of the Lord’s House: and they paid it out to the carpenters and builders, who worked on the Lord’s House, and to the masons and hewers of stone, and for buying timber and hewn stone to repair the breaches of the Lord’s House, and for all that was laid out for the repair of the House. But there was not made for the Lord’s House silver cups, snuffers, basins, trumpets, gold vessels, silver vessels, from the money brought into the Lord’s House. Thus they reckoned not with the workers to whom they delivered the money: for they dealt faithfully. The money for the trespass-offerings, and for sin-offerings, was not brought into the Lord’s House: it was the priests’. Then King Hazael of Syria went up, and fought against Gath, and took it; and Hazael set his face to go up to Jerusalem. And King Jehoash of Judah took all the hallowed things that Jehoshaphat and Jehoram and Azariah, Kings of Judah, had dedicated, and his own hallowed things, and the gold found in the treasures of the Lord’s House, and of the King’s House, and sent it to King Hazael of Syria: and he went away from Jerusalem. Now the rest of the Acts of Joash, and his Works, are written in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. And his servants arose, and made a conspiracy, and smote Joash in the House of Milo which goes down to Silla. For Jozacar benShimeath, and Jehozabad benShomer, his servants, smote him, and he died; they buried him with his forefathers in the City of David: and Amaziah (8th SK) his son reigned in his place.
In the 23rd of King Joash (7th SK) benAhaziah of Judah, Jehoahaz benJehu (11th NK) began to reign over Israel in Samaria, for 17 years; he did evil in the Lord’s sight, he followed the sins of Jeroboam benNebat, who made Israel to sin; he departed not thence. The Lord’s anger was kindled against Israel, and He delivered them into the hand of King Hazael of Syria, and of BenHadad benHazael, continually. Then Jehoahaz sought the Lord, and the Lord listened to him; for He saw the oppression of Israel, how the King of Syria oppressed them. (And the Lord gave Israel a savior, that they went out from under the hand of the Syrians; and the children of Israel dwelt in their tents as beforetime. Yet they departed not from the sins of the House of Jeroboam, who made Israel to sin, but walked therein: and there remained the Asherah also in Samaria.) For he left nothing to Jehoahaz, and all his Deeds and Power, are written in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. Jehoahaz (11th NK) slept with his forefathers; they buried him in Samaria: and Joash (12th NK) his son reigned in his place.
Elisha became deathly sick; King Joash of Israel (7th NK) visited him, weeping over him: my father, my father, the chariots of Israel and their horsemen! Elisha said to him: take bow and arrows; and he did. He said to the King of Israel: put yur hand on the bow; and he did; and Elisha laid his hands on the King’s hands. He said: open the window eastward; and he did. Elisha said: shoot; and he did. He said: the Lord’s arrow of victory over Syria; for yu shall strike the Syrians in Aphek, till yu have consumed them. Elisha died, and they buried him. The Moabites’ bands invaded the land in the beginning of the year, and while they were burying a man, they spied a band, so they threw the man into Elisha’s sepulchre: but as soon as the man’s bones touched Elisha’s bones, he revived and stood up on his feet. Now King Hazael of Syria oppressed Israel all the days of Jehoahaz; yet the Lord was gracious to them with compassion and regard, because of His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, unwilling to destroy them, nor yet to cast them from his presence. King Hazael of Syria died; and his son Benhadad reigned in his place. Jehoash benJehoahz again took from the hand of Benhadad benHazael the cities which he had taken by his hand from his father Jehoahaz by war; three times he struck him and thus recovered the cities of Israel.
In the 2nd year of King Joash benJohaz (12th NK) of Israel, King Amaziah benJoash (8th SK) of Judah, began to reign; he was 25 years of age when he commenced to rule; he ruled 29 years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Jehoaddin of Jerusalem. He did what was right in the Lord’s eyes, but unlike his forefather David; but did according to the deeds of his father Joash. Yet the high places were not removed: the people still sacrificed and burnt incense in the high places. After the kingdom was established in his hand, he slew his servants who had slain his father the King: but the children of the murderers he put not to death; according to what was written in Moses’ law book, as the Lord commanded: fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor children for the fathers; but each one shall die for his own sin. He slew of Edom in the Valley of Salt 10,000, and took Sela by war, and renamed it Joktheel, to this day (time of Ezra). Then Amaziah sent messengers to King Jehoash benJehoahaz benJehu (12th NK), of Israel, saying, come, let us look face to face. But King Jehoash of Israel replied to King Amaziah of Judah: the thistle in Lebanon sent to the cedar in Lebanon: give yur daughter to my son to marry: but a wild beast in Lebanon passed by and trampled the thistle. Yu have smitten Edom, and yur heart has lifted yu up: glory in that, stay at home: why should yu meddle to ruin, and to fall, yu and Judah with yu? Amaziah listened not; so King Jehoash of Israel went up; they faced each other at BethShemesh of Judah. Judah was routed by Israel, so each man fled to his tent. King Jehoash of Israel took the King of Judah, Amaziah benJehoash benAhaziah, at BethShemesh, and came to Jerusalem, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate, some 400 cbts (600 ft). He then took all the gold and silver, and all the vessels found in the Lord’s House, and in the treasures of the King’s House, and the hostages, and returned to Samaria. Now the rest of the Acts and Power of Jehoash, and his fight with King Amaziah of Judah, are recorded in the Book of Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. Jehoash slept with his forefathers and was buried in Samaria with Israel’s Kings; and his son Jeroboam (2nd, 10th NK) reigned in his place. King Amaziah benJoash (8th SK) of Judah lived after the death of Jehoash benJehoahaz (12th NK) King of Israel 15 years. The rest of the Acts of Amaziah are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. They conspired against him at Jerusalem; and he fled to Lachish: but they sent after him to Lachish, and there slew him; and brought him on horses, and buried him in Jerusalem, alongside his forefathers in the City of David. All the people of Judah took Azariah (Uzziah, 10th SK), only 16 years old, and made him King in place of his father Amaziah. He built Elath, he restored it to Judah; then afterwards he slept with his forefathers.
In the 15th year of King Amaziah benJoash (9th SK) of Judah, King Jeroboam benJoash (II, 13th NK) of Israel commenced his rule in Samaria, and ruled 41 years. He did evil in the Lord’s sight: he departed not from all the sins of Jeroboam benNebat, who caused Israel to sin. He restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath to the Sea of Arabah, according to the word of the Lord God of Israel, Who spoke by His servant the prophet Jonah benAmittai of GathHepher. The Lord saw Israel’s affliction, it was very bitter, there was none to shut up nor left at large, and no helper for Israel. The Lord said He would not blot out the name of Israel from under heaven; but He saved them by the hand of Jeroboam benJoash. The rest of the Acts and Works and Power of Jeroboam, and Wars, and how he recovered Damascus and Hamath from Judah, for Israel, are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. Jeroboam (II, 13th NK) slept with his forefathers, the Kings of Israel; and Zechariah (14th NK) his son ruled in his place.
In the 27th year of King Jeroboam (II, 13th NK) of Israel began King Azariah (Uzziah) benAmaziah (9th SK) of Judah to rule; at 16 years of age, ruling for 52 years in Jerusalem, his mother’s name was Jecoliah of Jerusalem; he did what was right in the Lord’s sight, as did his father Amaziah. The High Places were not removed; and the people still sacrificed and burnt incense in them. The Lord struck the King, so he was a leper till his death; and he lived in a separate house. The King’s son Jotham was over the household, judging the people of the land. The rest of the Acts and Works are written in the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. Azariah slept and was buried in the City of David with his forefathers; and his son Jotham (10th SK) reigned in his place.
In the 38th year of King Azariah (Uzziah, 9th SK) of Judah, Zechariah benJeroboam (14th NK) ruled Israel in Samaria 6 months: he did evil, as his father, in the Lord’s sight; he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam benNebat, by which he made Israel to sin. Shallum benJabesh (15th NK) conspired and killed him before the people and ruled in his place. Zechariah’s Acts are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. This fulfilled the Lord’s word to Jehu that his sons to the 4th generation should sit on Israel’s throne. Shallum benJabesh ruled 1 month in Samaria in the 39th year of King Uzziah (Azariah) of Judah: Menahem benGadi (16th NK) from Tirzah came to Samaria and slew him and ruled in his place. Shallum’s Acts and Conspiracy are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings. Menahem struck all Tiphsah and its borders from Tirzah because they refused his entrance and he ripped open the pregnant women.
In the 39th year of King Azariah (Uzziah, 9th SK) of Judah, Menahem benGadi (16th NK) commenced his rule over Israel, for 10 years in Samaria. He did evil in the Lord’s sight: he followed the sins of Jeroboam benNebat in Israel’s sin. King Pul of Assyria came against the land, and Menahem gave him 1,000 silver talents to help him confirm the kingdom; he exacted the money from Israel from the wealthy, by 50 silver shekels each, for the King of Assyria; and he withdrew from Israel. Menahem Acts and Works are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings; he died and his son Pekahiah (17th NK) ruled in his place.
In the 50th year of King Azariah (Uzziah, 9th SK) of Judah, Pekahiah benMenahem (17th NK) commenced rule over Israel in Samaria, for 2 years. He did evil in the Lord’s sight, not departing from the sins of Jeroboam benNebat in Israel’s sin. His captain Pekah benRemaliah (18th NK) conspired and killed him in Samaria, in the castle of the King’s House, with Argob and Arieh, with 50 men of the Gileadites, and ruled in his place. Pekahiah Acts and Works are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings.
In the 52nd year of King Azariah (9th SK) of Judah, Pekah benRemaliah (18th NK) commenced rule over Israel in Samaria, for 20 years: he did evil in the Lord’s sight, not departing from the sins of Jeroboam benNebat in Israel’s sin. King Tiglath-pileser of Assyria took Ijon, Abel-beth-maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria. Hoshea benElah (19th NK) conspired against him and killed him and ruled in his place, in the 20th year of Jotham benUzziah (10th SK). Pekah’s Acts and Works are recorded in the Books of the Chronicles of Israel’s Kings.
In the 2nd year of King Peka benRemaliah (18th NK) of Israel, King Jotham benUzziah (10th SK) of Judah commenced his rule; he was 25 years old and ruled for 16 years in Jerusalem; his mother’s name was Jerusha bathZadok. He did good in the Lord’s sight as his father Uzziah had done; but the high-places were not removed, the people sacrificed and burned incense on them; but he did build (rebuild) the upper gate of the Lord’s House. Jotham’s Acts and Works are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. The Lord began to send against Judah King Rezin of Syria and Pekah benRemaliah; he died, and his son Ahaz (11th SK) ruled in his place.
In the 17th year of Pekah benRemaliah (18th NK), King Ahaz benJotham (11th SK) of Judah commenced to rule; he was 20 years old, he ruled 16 years (d.36); he did wrong in the Lord his God’s sight, unlike his forefather David; but he walked in the way of the Kings of Israel, and made his son pass through the fire after the abominations of the nations (Gentiles, Goiim), forced out before children of Israel; he sacrificed and burnt incense in the high-places, on the hills , and under every green tree. King Rezin of Syria and King Pekah benRemaliah came to war against Jerusalem, they besieged Ahaz but did prevail; but Rezin did recover Elath to Syria and drove out its Jews, and the Syrians dwelt there to this day (time of Ezra). Ahaz sent messengers (angels) to King Tilath-pileser of Assyria, as a servant and son, to be saved from the Kings of Syria and Israel; he sent the silver and gold of the Lord’s House, and the treasures of the King’s House, as gift to Assyria’s King; he accepted, and sacked Damascus, took captives to Kir, and killed Rezin. Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglath-pileser, and he saw the Damascus Altar, so he sent to Urijah the Priest its pattern and features, and he built it to the King’s description ready for his return; when he saw it, he offered upon it with burnt-offering, meal-offering, drink-offering, and peace-offerings. The brazen altar, which was before the Lord, in the forefront of the House, between his Altar and the Lord’s House, and put it on north side of his Altar. King Ahaz commanded the Priest Urijah that on the Great Altar to burn the morning burnt-offering, the evening meal-offering, the King’s burnt-offering, his meal-offering, the people’s offerings, but the brazen altar shall be for him to inquire by; so, did priest and king. Ahaz cut off the panels of the bases, removed the laver from off them, took down the sea from off the brazen oxen under it, and put it on a stone pavement; the covered way for the sabbath built in the House. And the King’s entry outside, he turned to the Lord’s House, because the King of Assyria. Ahaz’s Acts and Works are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings; he died, was buried in the City of David; and his son Hezekiah (12th SK) ruled in his place.
In the 12th year of King Ahaz (11th SK) of Judah, Hoshea benElah (19th NK) commenced to rule in Samaria over Israel, for 9 years. He did evil in the Lord’s sight, but not as the previous kings of Israel; King Shalmaneser of Assyria came against him; and Hoshea became his servant and paid tribute; but he found out he conspired against him with King So of Egypt and stopped the yearly tribute to Assyria’s King; he arrested and imprisoned him. He then invaded the land, and Samaria, and besieged it 3 years; in the 9th year of Hoshea he captured Samaria and carried Israel away to Assyria to Hala, and on the river Habor of Gozan, and in the cites of the Medes.
The sons of Israel sinned against the Lord God Who delivered from Egypt and Pharaoh Egypt’s King, and they feared other gods, walked in the Gentiles’ statutes, which He had cast out before Israel, and of those of Israel’s kings which they made; they did evil secretly in the Lord God’s sight, they built high-places in all their cities, from the watchmen’s tower to the fortified city; and set up pillars and Asherim on many high-hills and under green trees, and burnt incense in many high-places like the outcast exiled Gentiles; they worked wickedness to provoke the Lord’s anger; and they served forbidden idols. The Lord testified to Israel and Judah by many prophets and seers to turn them from their evil ways, to keep His commandments and statutes, the Law He commanded their fathers, and sent to them by His servants the prophets. But they refused to listen, hardened their neck, like their fathers, who did not believe the Lord their God. They rejected His statutes, His covenant with their fathers, His testimonies against them, followed vanity, became vain, like the excluded alienated Gentiles about them; forsook the Lord their God’s commandments, and made an Asherah, and worshipped the host of heaven, and served Baal. They passed through fire their sons and daughters, used divination and enchantments, sold themselves to do evil in the Lord’s sight to provoke Him to anger. The Lord was very angry with Israel, He removed them from His sight, and left only the tribe of Judah. Judah also kept not His commandments but walked in the statutes made by Israel; so, He rejected the seed of Israel, afflicted them, delivered them to spoilers, till He had cast them out of His sight. He tore Israel from David’s House, they made Jeroboam benNebat King, who drove Israel to not follow the Lord and made them sin a great sin. The children of Israel continued to walk in the sins of Jeroboam till He exiled them as He spoke by His servants the prophets. Israel was deported to Assyria to this day (time of Ezra). Assyria’s King transplanted men from Babylon, Cuthah, Avva, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, to the cities of Samaria in place of Israelis, and they occupied Samaria and its cities. At the beginning of their immigration they did not fear the Lord, so He sent lions to kill some of them. They spoke to Assyria’s King that the nations he transplanted in Samaria are ignorant of the law of the God of the land, and He has sent lions to kill some of them; he commanded that one of the captive priest to be returned to teach the immigrants the law of the God of the land. An exile priest returned to Samaria and lived in Beth-el and taught them how to fear (worship) the Lord. But the Gentiles made their own gods and put them in the houses of the high-places of the Samaritans, each had their own idol in their cities. The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, men of Cuth made Nergal, men of Hamath made Ashima, Avvites made Nibhaz and Tartak, Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim. They feared (worshipped) the Lord but made their own priests for their high-places to sacrifice for them in the houses of the high-places. They feared (worshipped) the Lord but served their own gods in the manner before their deportment: to this day they practice their former ways: they do not fear (worship) the Lord, nor their statutes, or ordinances, or the law , or the commandment the Lord commanded Jacob’s sons, whom He named Israel; whom He covenanted with, and charged them not to fear other gods, not to bow to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them: but the Lord Who delivered them from Egypt by great power of an outstretched arm, Him they must fear, and bow, and sacrifice: and His statutes and ordinances, law and commandment, which He wrote for them (by Moses), they must obey always, and never fear other gods: His covenant with them never forget; never fear other gods; to fear the Lord their God; Who will deliver them from their enemies. They did not listen, but did as before. These nations (Gentiles, Goiim) feared (worshipped) the Lord (YHWH), and served their own graven images, they and their children and grandchildren, as did their fathers so do they to this day (time of Ezra).
In the 3rd year of King Hoshea benElah (19th NK) of Israel, King Hezekiah benAhaz (12th SK) of Judah commence to rule: he was 25, ruled 29 years in Jerusalem (d.54), his mother was Abi bathZechariah: he did right in the Lord’s sight like his forefather David; he removed the high-places, broke the pillars, cut down the Asherah; demolished the brazen serpent made by Moses on which the Israelites burned incense, he called it Nehushtan; he trusted in the Lord God of Israel; none was like him after or before of all Judah’s Kings; he clung to the Lord continually keeping His commandments given through Moses.; the Lord was with him; he prospered in everything; he rebelled against the King of Assyria, refusing to serve him; he also struck the Philistines to Gaza and its borders, from the tower to the fortified city. In the 4th year of King Hezekiah, the 7th year of King Elah of Israel, King Shalmaneser of Assyria came against and besieged Samaria, after 3 years captured it in the 6th yr of Hezekiah, the 9th yr of King Hoshea of Israel; he deported Israel to Assyria, put them in Halah, Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes; because they disobeyed Him, transgressed His covenant and Moses’ commandments. In the 14th yr. of King Hezekiah, King Sennacherib of Assyria attacked and captured the fortified cities of Judah. King Hezekiah sent word to him at Lachish, that he has offended, to please withdraw, and he will pay whatever tribute demanded; and he required 300 talents of silver, and 30 talents of gold. He gave him all the silver found in the Lord’s House and the treasures of the King’s House. Hezekiah cut off from the doors of the Lord’s Temple, and from the pillars he had overlaid, and gave it to him.
The King of Assyria sent Tartan and Rab-saris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to King Hezekiah in Jerusalem with a great army; they stood by the conduit of the upper pool by the highway of the fuller’s field; they called out to the King, and Eliakim benHilkiah, who was (Steward) over the household, and Shebnah the Scribe, and Joah benAsaph the Recorder. Rabshakeh shouted to them, tell King Hezekiah that the great King of Assyria, what is yur confidence and trust, to boast empty words: Counsel and Strength for War; on who do yu rely to rebel against me; yu rely on the Egypt the staff of a bruised reed, a man leans on it to pierce his hand: so is Pharaoh Egypt’s King to all who rely on him. If you claim to rely on the Lord your God, whose high-places and altars Hezekiah removed, and ordered Judah and Jerusalem to worship only at the altar in Jerusalem. Give pledges to the King of Assyria, and here are 2,000 horses if yu can put riders on them. How can yu resist one of the least of my master the King’s servants, to trust Egypt for chariots and riders. The Lord sent me to attack this land and destroy it. Eliakim benHilkiah and Joah asked Rabshakeh to speak to them only in Syriac (Aramaic, Syrian language) and not in Hebrew (Jews’ language) that the people on the wall do not hear; but he replied that his master sent him to tell all the Jews, to them, those on the wall, to eat their own dung and drink their own urine together; he then shouted out in Hebrew: the word of the great King of Assyria warns against listening to Hezekiah to deceive them, he cannot save them, and don’t trust in the Lord to deliver the city from the King of Assyria; make a peace-treaty to eat from their own vine and drink from their own cistern till he return to transport them to a new land like theirs of grain and new wine, of bread and vineyards, of olive-trees and honey, to live and not die; do not listen to Hezekiah to persuade them to hope in the Lord. The gods of the nations have not delivered their lands from the King of Assyria; not even the gods of Hamath or Arpad, of Sepharvaim, of Hena, and of Ivvah, have delivered Samaria. None of the gods have delivered their country, and who is the Lord to deliver Jerusalem? The people kept quiet as the King commanded them. Eliakim benHilkiah the household Steward, Shebna the Scribe, and Joab the Recorder, returned to Hezekiah with ripped clothes, and reported the words of Rabshakeh.
King Hezekiah heard, tore his clothes, and went into the Lord’s House, he sent Eliakim the Steward and Shebna the Scribe, and the Elders of the priests covered with sackcloth to the prophet Isaiah benAmoz: Hezekiah says: Today is a day of trouble, rebuke, and insult: the children are ready to be born, but there is no strength to give birth. Perhaps the Lord will hear the words of Rabshakeh from his master the King of Assyria to defy the living God, and He might rebuke his words: so, pray for the remaining remnant. Isaiah replied: Tell your master the Lord says: Fear not the words of the servants of the King of Assyria who blasphemed Me; I will put a spirit in him, he will hear news, he will return home, an I’ll cause him to die by his own sword. Rabshakeh returned, and Assyria’s King was at war against Libnah, for he heard he departed from Lachish. He heard that King Tirhakah of Ethiopia came to fight against him, he sent messengers to Hezekiah: Let not yur God who yu trust deceive yu that Jerusalem will be spared from Assyria’s King; but yu have heard what he has done destroying all the other lands; and his father before him destroyed, without the gods intervention, Gozan, Haran, Rezeph, the children of Eden in Telassar; just like the Kings of Hamath, Arpad, Sepharvaim, Hena, and Ivvah. Hezekiah received the letter from the messengers, read it, went to the Lord’s House and spread before the Lord. He prayed: Lord God of Israel, seated above the cherubs, God alone of all the kingdoms of the earth, Maker of heaven and earth: incline Yur ear to hear, open Yur eyes to see, the words of Sennacherib to defy the living God; true the Kings of Assyria have laid waste nations and lands, and thrown their gods into the fire; for they were no gods but men’s work, of wood and stone; save us from his hands, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that Yu alone are God. Then Isaiah benAmoz sent to Hezekiah: The Lord God of Israel says: I have heard yur prayer against King Sennacherib of Assyria. This is the Lord’s word concerning him: The Virgin Daughter of Zion has despised yu and scorned yu in laughter: whom have yu defied and blasphemed, exalted yur voice and uplifted yur eyes on high, against the Holy One of Israel. Yur messengers defied the Lord, yu boast of chariots on the mountaintops, to the innermost parts of Lebanon to cut down tall cedars and choice fir-trees to enter his farthest lodging-place, the forest of his fruitful field; and dugged and drunk foreign waters, to dry up the rivers of Egypt with the sole of my feet. But long ago I did it and said: I have brought it about that yu might destroy the fortified cities to ruin heaps; they were weak, dismayed and confounded, like grass of the field, as the green herb, as the grass on the housetops, as grain blasted before it is grown up. I know yur sittings, yur goings, yur rages against Me; for yur rages and arrogancy against me I will put My hook in yur nose, My bridle in yur lips, I will turn yu back the way yu came. This is a sign for yu: eat this year of what grows itself, 2nd yr what springs, in 3rd yr sow and reap, and eat of it. The escaped remnant of Judah’s House shall root again and bear fruit; from Jerusalem and mount Zion the escaped remnant, done by the zeal of the Lord. Assyria’s King shall not enter this city, nor shoot his arrow, nor with a shield, or cast a mound against it; by the way he came he will return without entering this city; I will defend it for My own sake and for David. That night the Lord’s Angel struck the camp of the Assyrians of 185,000, in the morning they were all dead. King Sennacherib of Assyria departed and returned to Nineveh. While he worshipped in the House of his God Nisroch, Adrammelech and Sharezer struck him with the sword, and they escaped to Ararat. His son Esar-haddon ruled in his place.
Hezekiah was deathly sick: the prophet Isaiah benAmoz came to him: the Lord tells him to get his house in order before he dies; he turned his face to the wall and prayed the Lord to remember his walk before the Lord in truth and goodness; and he wept deeply. Before Isaiah had left the city, the Lord’s word came to him, return to Hezekiah the Prince of My people: the Lord God of yur father David has heard yur prayer, seen yur tears, I will heal yu, on the 3rd day yu will go up to the Lord’s House, and I will add 15 years to yu, I will deliver yu and this city from Assyria’s King, for my sake and for David. Isaiah told them to place a cake of figs on the boil, and he recovered. Hezekiah had asked what is the sign of his recovery and go to the Lord’s House on the 3rd day? Isaiah told him the Lord asks him to choose for the shadow to go forward 10 steps or go backward 10 steps; Hezekiah said it’s easy to advance but very hard to go backwards; Isaiah cried out to the Lord and he made the shadow go backwards 10 steps on Ahaz’ sun-dial. King Berodach-baladan benBaladan of Babylon, after he heard he was sick, sent letters and gifts to Hezekiah. Hezekiah was pleased and showed them the houses and precious valuables of silver, gold, costly oil, the house of his armor and weapons, all his treasures of his House and dominion. The prophet Isaiah came and asked what these men said, and whence they came, and he said from Babylon. He asked what they have seen in his house, he said they have seen all things in my house, I’ve shown them all my treasures. Isaiah told Hezekiah the Lord’s word: Soon all they’ve seen and been shown will be taken to Babylon, including his sons, who will be eunuchs in the Palace of Babylon’s King. Hezekiah replied that the Lord’s word is good, if peace and truth shall be in my days. The Acts and Works of Hezekiah, his Pool and Conduit (Waterway, Channel) to bring water into the city, they are recorded in Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. He died, and his son Manasseh (13th SK) ruled in his place.
Manasseh was 12 yrs old when he commenced his rule, and ruled for 55 yrs (d.67) in Jerusalem, his mother was Hephzibah; he did evil in the Lord’s sight, after the abominations of the prior outcast nations; he rebuilt the high-places that Hezekiah destroyed; he erected altars for Baal, made an Asherah like King Ahab of Israel; and he worshipped and served the host of heaven. He built altars in the Lord’s House in Jerusalem, the place of the Lord’s name; he built altars for heaven’s host in the 2 courts of the Lord’s House; he made his son to pass through the fire, he practiced augury, used enchantments, had dealings with familiar spirits, with wizards; he worked immense evil in the Lord’s sight to provoke him to anger. He set the graven image of his Asherah in the Lord’s House in Jerusalem, which He told David and Solomon that this is My chosen place for My name in all of Israel forever; neither will I allow Israel to be exiled or deported, if they will obey My commandments in the law of Moses My servant. They never listen, Manasseh seduced them to do more evil than all the prior Gentiles whom the Lord destroyed. The Lord spoke to His servants the prophets: Because King Manasseh of Judah did these abominations, more wickedly than the Amorites, and made Judah sin with idols; I will bring upon Jerusalem and Judah such evil that ears shall tingle. I will measure Jerusalem with the line of Samaria, with the plummet of Ahab’s House; I will wipe Jerusalem as a man wipes a dish inside and out. I will throw away the remnant of My inheritance, and hand them over to their enemies for a prey and spoil; because of all their evil and provocation from Egypt to this day. Manasseh murdered many innocent people and filled Jerusalem with blood; this besides his open idolatry before the Lord. The Acts and Works and Sin of Manasseh are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings; he died and was buried in the garden in his own house, the Garden of Uzza; and his son Amon (14th SK) ruled in his place.
Amon (14th SK) was 22 when his rule commenced; he ruled 2 yrs in Jerusalem; his mother was Meshullemeth bathHaruz of Jotbah. He did evil in the Lord’s sight like Manasseh, he walked in all his ways, he served and worshipped idols; he forsook the Lord God and walked not in the Lord’s way. Amon’s servants conspired against him, killing him in his own house. The people in turn slew all those who conspired against King Amon; and they made his son Josiah (15th SK) King in his place. The Acts and Works of Amon are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings; he died and was buried in his sepulcher in Uzzah’s Garden; and his son Josiah (15th SK) ruled in his place.
Josiah (15th SK) was 8 when he commenced his rule, he ruled for 31 yrs (d.c.40) in Jerusalem, his mother was Jedidah bathAdaiah of Bozkath. He did right in the Lord’s sight, walked in the ways of David, and did not stray or detour. In the 18th yr of King Josiah (his 26th yr) he sent Shaphan benAzaliah benMeshullam the Scribe to the Lord’s House: Go to Hilkiah the High Priest to get the sum of the money brought into the Lord’s House, collected by the keepers from the people; to deliver the money to the workmen supervising the Lord’s House, to be given to the workers in the Lord’s House to repair the breaches of the House, to the carpenters, to the builders, to the masons, and to buy timber and pre-cut stones to repair the House. They did not count the sum transferred to them because they were faithful.
The High-Priest Hilkiah told the Scribe Shaphan that he found the Book (Sepher, Scroll) of the Law (ha-Torah) in the Lord’s House (Y’howah’s Beth); and gave it to him, and he read it. ((No doubt the copy of Deuteronomy, in an earlier script which Shaphan the Scribe could read and understand.)) Shaphan returned to the King to report: the servants have exhausted the money found in the House, they distributed it to the supervisors and workers of the Lord’s House; and the Priest Hilkiah handed to him the Book, and he read it to the King. The King heard the words read from the Book of the Law and tore his clothes; he commanded the Priest Hilkiah, Ahikam benShaphan, Achbor benMicaiah, the Scribe Shaphan, and the King’s Servant Asaiah: go, inquire of the Lord for him, for the people, and for all Judah, concerning the words of this lost Book; for great is His wrath against them, since their forefathers have not obeyed all the words of this Book. They went to the Prophetess Huldah (wife) ’esheth-Shalum benTivah ben Harhas the keeper of the wardrobe she lived in Jerusalem in a college (school, school of the prophets), and they communed with her: she told them that the Lord tells them to tell their sender, that He will bring evil on this place and citizens, all the words which Judah’s King read: they have forsaken Me, burned incense to other gods, provoked Me to anger by their deeds; My unquenchable wrath will burn against this place. Tell the King of Judah who enquires from the Lord: the words heard, in yur tender heart, and yu humbled yurself at My words, of desolation and curse, tore yur clothes and shed tears; the Lord has heard yu. Yu will die in peace and not see the evil I will bring on this place and people. And they returned and reported to the King.
The King gathered all the Elders of Judah and Jerusalem and he went up to the Lord’s House with the men of Judah and the citizens of Jerusalem, with the priests, prophets, all the people, small and great: and he read to them all the words of the Book of the Covenant (Deuteronomy) found in the Lord’s House. He stood by the pillar and made a covenant before the Lord to walk with Him, to keep His commandments, His testimonies, His statutes, with all his soul, to confirm the words of the Covenant written in this Book. He commanded the Priest Hilkiah, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the threshold, to bring out of the Lord’s Temple the vessels made for Baal, for Asherah, and for the host of heaven; and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes to Beth-el. He removed the idolatrous priests of the Kings of Judah ordained to burn incense to Baal, to the sun, to the moon, to the planets, and to all heaven’s host. He brought out the Asherah from the Lord’s House outside Jerusalem, to the brook Kidron, and burned it, beat it to dust, and threw the dust on the graves of the common people. He destroyed the houses of the Sodomites inside the Lord’s House, where the women wove hangings for the Asherah. He took all the priests out of the cities of Judah and defiled the high-places where the priests burned incense, from Geba to Beer-sheba; he demolished the high-places of the gates at the entrance of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, at the left of the city’s gate. The priests of the high-places did not come to the Lord’s altar in Jerusalem, but they ate unleavened bread with their brothers. He defiled Topheth in the valley of the children of Hinnom, to prevent anyone ever to make his son or daughter pass through the fire to Molech. He removed the horses of the Kings of Judah given to the sun, at the entrance of the Lord’s House, by the chamber of Nathan-melech the Chamberlain in the precincts; he torched the sun chariots. The altars on the roof of Ahaz’ upper chamber of the Kings of Judah, and the altars of Manasseh in the 2nd courts of the Lord’s House he demolished, beat them down, and threw their dust in brook Kidron. The he defiled the high-places in front of Jerusalem, on the right side of the mount of corruption of Solomon Israel’s King, built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. He broke the pillars in pieces, cut down the Asherim, and filled their places with the bones of men. The Altar at Beth-el and the High-Place of Jeroboam benNebat, who made Israel to sin, he destroyed, burned, beat into dust, and burned the Asherah. Josiah turned around and noticed the sepulchers in the mount, he removed the bones and burned them upon the Altar and defiled it as the word of the Lord proclaimed these things by the Man of God. He asked whose monument is this? The citizens said it was the sepulcher of the Man of God from Judah who proclaimed the things he has done against the altar of Beth-el; he ordered his bones not to be disturbed, nor of the prophet that came from Samaria. The houses of the high-places of the Kings of Israel of Samaria’s cities he removed and did like he did at Beth-el; he put to death the priests of the high-places on the altars, and on them burned their bones; then he returned to Jerusalem.
The King commanded the people to keep the Passover to the Lord God as written in the Book of the Covenant (Sepher ha-Berith, Deuteronomy)); and never was there a Passover kept from the days of the Judges of Israel or the days of the Kings of Israel and Judah; in the 18th year of King Josiah was this Passover kept to the Lord in Jerusalem. All those with familiar spiritism, the wizards, teraphim, idols, and all the abominations seen in the land of Judah and Jerusalem, he removed, to confirm the words written in the Book (Deuteronomy) the Priest Hilkiah found in the Lord’s House. Not before or after was there a King like him who turned to the Lord with all his heart, soul, and strength, in all the law of Moses. Yet the Lord continued His fierce wrath against Judah for all their provocations of Manasseh. The Lord promised to remove Israel and throw away His chosen city Jerusalem, and the House of His name. The Acts and Works of Josiah are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. King Pharaoh-necoh of Egypt went against the King of Assyria at the river Euphrates, King Josiah also went against him, and was slain at Megiddo confronting him. His servants carried him after he died in a chariot from Megiddo to Jerusalem and buried him in his own sepulcher. The people anointed Jehoahaz benJosiah (16th SK) King in his place.
Jehoahaz (16th SK) was 23 yrs when he commenced his rule; he ruled 3 months in Jerusalem; his mother was Hamutal bathJeremiah of Libnah. He did evil in the Lord’s sight, as did his forefathers. Pharaoh-necoh jailed (arrested, imprisoned) him at Riblah in Hamath that he ruled not in Jerusalem; and the land gave tribute of talents of silver and a talent of gold; he also made Eliakim benJosiah King in place of Josiah and changed his name to Jehoiakim (17th SK); but he removed Jehoahaz; and he returned to Egypt and died.
Jehoiakim (Eliakim, 17th SK) gave the silver and gold to Pharaoh; he taxed the land to give the money at Pharaoh’s command: he exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land, each according to his taxation, to give to Pharaoh-necoh. Jehoiakim (17th SK) was 25 yrs when he commenced to rule; he ruled 11 yrs in Jerusalem; his mother was Zebidah bathPedaiah of Rumah. He did evil in the Lord’s sight like his forefathers. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon came and made him his servant for 3 yrs, then he rebelled. The Lord sent against him and Judah the bands of Chaldeans, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, to destroy, according to His word He spoke by His servants the prophets: by the Lord’s commandment it came on Judah to deport them from His sight, for all the sins of Manasseh, and all the innocent blood he shed in Jerusalem; the Lord would not pardon. The Acts and Works of Jehoiakim are recorded in the Book of the Chronicles of Judah’s Kings. He died, and his son Jehoiachin (18th SK) ruled in his place. The King of Egypt never again came from his land, because the King of Babylon conquered from the brook of Egypt to the river Euphrates, all Egypt’s dominion.
Jehoiachin (18th SK) was 18 yrs when he commenced his rule, he ruled 3 months in Jerusalem; his mother was Nehusta bathElnathan of Jerusalem. He did evil in the Lord’s sight like his forefathers. The servants of King Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city, and King Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem, and King Jehoiachin surrendered to him, he and his mother, servants, princes, and officers; and the King of Babylon captured him in the 8th year of his rule (he was 26). He exported all the treasures of the Lord’s House, of the King’s House, and cut in pieces all the vessels of gold in the Lord’s Temple made by King Solomon of Israel; he deported all Jerusalem, all the princes, the mighty men of valor, total of 10,000 captives, with the craftsmen and smiths, everyone except the poorest of the land. He deported Jehoiachin to Babylon, with his mother, wives, officers, and nobles, deported and exiled from Jerusalem to Babylon; with 7,000 mighty men, 1,000 artisans and craftsmen, all strong and able to fight, he made captives and slaves. He made Mattaniah [Jehoiachin’s] father’s brother King in his place and changed his name to Zedekiah (19th SK).
Zedekiah (19th SK) was 21 yrs when he commenced his rule, he ruled 11 years in Jerusalem; his mother was Hamutal bathJeremiah of Libnah. He did evil in the Lord’s sight like Jehoiakim. By the Lord’s anger all this came on Jerusalem and Judah till he exiled them from His presence. Zedekiah rebelled against the King of Babylon.
In the 9th yr of his rule, the 10th month and the 10th day, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon with his army besieged Jerusalem with encampments and forts around it till the 11th yr of King Zedekiah. In the 9th day of the [4th] month the famine was very severe in the city, there was no bread left for the people; a breach was made in the city, and the fighters fled by night by the gate between the two walls by the King’s Garden (the Chaldeans surrounded the city), and [the King] escaped by the way of the Arabah. The Chaldeans’ army pursued the King and caught up with him in the plains of Jericho and his army scattered; the King was captured and escorted to the King of Babylon at Riblah; and he judged him; Zedekiah’s sons were slain in his sight, his eyes were put out, he was chained, and deported to Babylon. In the 5th mnth, the 7th day, in the 19th yr of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, the Captain (general) of the Guard, Babylon’s King’s servant, entered Jerusalem; he torched the Lord’s House, the King’s House, all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great house and building. The Chaldean army demolished the walls of Jerusalem; the rest of the citizens and the deserters to the King of Babylon, and all residents of the crowds, the Captain of the Guard Nebuzaradan deported and exiled; but he left the poorest of the land to be vinedressers and farmers. The brass pillars of the Lord’s House, the bases and brazen sea in the House, the Chaldeans dismantled and transported to Babylon; with all the pots, shovels, snuffers, spoons, all brass vessels and utensils ministered with; the firepans, basins, gold things, silver things, was carried off; the two pillars, the one sea, the bases made by Solomon for the Lord’s House, the brass weight of these were immense. One pillar’s height was 18 cbts (c. 30 ft), with its brass capital, height of 3 cbts (c. 5 ft.), with a network of pomegranates around the capital, all of brass, and the 2nd pillar was identical. The Captain of the Guard took Seraiah the Chief Priest, Zephaniah the 2nd Priest, the 3 Keepers of the Threshold (Doorway, House-Entrance), the city’s Officer over the soldiers, with 5 special Guards of the King’s Presence, the Scribe, the Captain (General) of the Host who mustered the people, and 60 citizens (Nobles) of the city; all these Nebuzaradan deported and transported to the King of Babylon at Riblah. The King of Babylon put them to death at Riblah in Hamath. So, Judah was exiled from his land.
The rest of the people of the land of Judah, not deported by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, he put over them Gedaliah benAhikam benShaphan as Governor. The captains of the forces heard of Governor Gedaliah, and they came to him at Mizpah; namely, Ishmael benNethaniah, Johanan benKareah, Seraiah benTanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah son of the Maacathite, with their men. Gedaliah swore to them, do not be afraid of the Chaldeans, stay in the land and serve Babylon’s King, and all will be well. But in the 7th month, Ishmael benNethaniah benElishama of the royal seed, came with 10 men and murdered Gedaliah, along with the Jews and the Chaldeans at Mizpah. All the people, small and great, fled to Egypt in fear of the Chaldeans. In the 37th year of the Captivity of King Jehoiachin of Judah (18th SK), in the 12th mnth on the 27th day, King Evil-merodach of Babylon, in the 1st yr of his rule, promoted King Jehoiachin of Judah from prison; he spoke kindly to him, and exalted his throne above the other Kings’ thrones in Babylon, and changed his prison garments; he ate bread with him continually for the remainder of his days; and his daily allowance came from the King each day to the end of his life.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.15


(Here are pages 260 – 297, the Books of Samuel. Kings to follow shortly. PDF created after the Historical Books completed in Esther. I have had to delete the Hebrew  and Greek words at times in this WordPress format, till the PDF is created it is deficient.mjm)

SAMUEL: 1st & 2nd: The Kingdom: Samuel: United: House of Saul & House of David

1st SAMUEL: 31 Chapters: Samuel’s Birth to Saul’s Death.

      Elkanah ben-Jeroham ben-Elihu ben-Tohu ben-Zuph; Ephraimite of Ramathaim-Zophim in the hills of Ephraim; he had two wives, Hannah childless, and Peninnah with children. He yearly visited Shiloh to worship & sacrifice to the Lord of Hosts. Eli sons Hophni & Phinehas were priests to the Lord. Elkanah gave of his sacrifice portions to Peninnah and her children, but to Hannah double portions, for he loved her, though the Lord prevented her conceptions, for which her rival troubled her to tears yearly on visits to the Lord’s House. Elkanah comforted her that he was better to her than 10 sons. Hannah at Shiloh, after feasting, went to the Lord’s Temple as Eli the Priest was seated by the door-post; and she prayed in tears quietly only moving her lips, vowing that if the Lord grant her a man-child, she would devote him to the Lord as a Nazirite all his life. Eli noticed her lips moving without sounds and rebuked her as a drunkard; but she replied that in sorrow of spirit she has poured out her soul to the Lord with complaint and provocation. Eli blessed her with peace and that the Lord grant her petition. Hannah was glad; she and her husband worshipped the Lord and returned home in Ramah; the Lord remembered Hannah and she conceived and gave birth to a son and named him Samuel (Ask, Request, Borrow, Loan), because she asked the Lord for him. The next three years Hannah stayed home with Samuel when Elkanah and his house went to Shiloh for the annual sacrifice and his vow. When she weaned her son on the third year to keep her vow, she went up to the House of the Lord in Shiloh, and brought three bullocks and one ephah of meal and a bottle of wine. The bullock was slain; and she gave the child to Eli saying that she had prayed and vowed for this child to the Lord that he is loaned and given to be a Nazirite to the Lord as long as he lives; Samuel worshipped the Lord.

Hannah’s Prayer:
Joy in Jehovah’s Salvation; God the Holy Rock; God knows our words and ways;
the mighty are broken; the fallen made strong;
the full beg bread; the hungry are fed;
the barren is fertile, and the fertile frets;
He kills, and He enlivens; He lowers, and He raises;
He makes poor and rich;
He helps the poor and needy to set them with princes and glory.
He maintains the world; He protects His saints; He silences the wicked.
His foes are demolished; He judges all the earth;
He strengthens and exalts His King and His Anointed.

       Samuel’s parents return to Ramah, but he stays ministering to the Priest Eli. Eli sons are base and godless young men; abusing the Lord’s sacrifices at Shiloh causing Israel to despise the Lord’s offerings. Samuel ministered to the Lord girded in a linen ephod, and wore a little robe made and given by his mother every year. Eli blessed Samuel’s parents that the Lord lend to her her request (samuel). The Lord enabled Hannah to be fertile and she in time bore 3 sons and 2 daughters. Samuel grew before the Lord. Eli was aged, and his two sons were fornicating with women serving at the door of the Tent of Meeting; Eli rebuked and warned them for their sins, but they paid no heed, for the Lord determined to kill them. Samuel continued to grow in the Lord’s grace and men’s favor. (It appears Samuel is now entering his teen years.) A Man of God prophesied to Eli concerning the House of Aaron; reminding him of the elect priesthood to serve and wearing an ephod, accusing him of honoring his sons by their fattening themselves from the best of Israel’s offerings to the Lord. So instead of a promised perpetual priesthood, for the Lord honors only those who honor Him, the house of Eli will be cut off by his two sons dying on the same day. The Lord will raise up a faithful Priest fulfilling His heart and mind, to walk always before His Anointed. And Eli’s household will bow and beg him to let them serve in some priest’s office so that they may eat bread.
Samuel continued to care for Eli in his old age (the Word of the Lord was rare and precious, few visions), blind and weak, asleep while the Lamp of God was still burning, Samuel in bed, in the Lord’s Temple with the Ark of God. The Lord called to Samuel and he answered, running to Eli thinking he called, but Eli told him he did not call out, and to return to bed. Again The Lord called to Samuel, who did as before, and Eli in turn replied as before. Again the 3rd time was as before; but Eli told Samuel to answer the next time saying: speak Lord Thy servant is listening. The 4th time the Lord called saying: Samuel, Samuel; and he answered as instructed. The Lord told Samuel He is about to shock Israel and Eli by fulfilling everything He foretold and sworn concerning the house of Eli, without mitigation of any sacrifice or offering. In the morning Samuel opened the doors of the House of the Lord, afraid to tell Eli. He constrained Samuel to tell him every word that the Lord told him last night; Samuel told him every word; and Eli owned it from the Lord Who will do as He pleases. Samuel grew in the Lord’s favor Who established Samuel’s words; and Israel from Dan to Beersheba knew he was a Prophet of the Lord; Who appeared to him again at Shiloh as before. (Samuel now reaches his 20s; as Eli reaches his 90s.)
Israel encamped for battle near Eben-ezer and the Philistines at Aphek. The engaged in battle and they slew of Israel some 4,000. Distressed they brought the Ark of Covenant to the camp to save them from the Philistines. Israel shouted in joy to see the Ark, and Eli’s sons accompanied it. The Philistines hearing the shouts of Israel and heard that the Ark of the Lord was in the camp were afraid, for nothing like this was ever done before, that is, God coming into the camp to fight; for they heard of the God of Israel delivering Israel from the Egyptians with plagues. The Philistines encouraged themselves overcoming their fear of defeat and enslavement to Israel engaged the battle and killed some 30,000 soldiers of Israel; capturing the Ark of God, and killing Eli’s two sons. A Benjaminite runner came to Shiloh and related the battle news to the city and to Eli who was sitting watching for the outcome. Eli asked why the people made such noise, and was told that Israel fled in defeat from the Philistines, that a great slaughter of the soldiers, that his two sons were dead, and that the Ark of God was captured. Eli on hearing the Ark of God was captured fell backwards near the gate and broke his neck, dying old and heavy at 98; he had judged Israel for 40 years (this makes Eli the 13th or 14th Judge and Samuel the last of the Judges; but this must not be taken that there were no more or other judges, it is clear there were). Eli’s daughter-in-law, Phineas’s pregnant wife, heard of the captured Ark of God and the deaths of Eli and her husband bowed in severe labor, dying when the women told her that she birthed a son, calling him Ichabod: for the glory is departed from Israel.
The Philistines moved the Ark of God from Eben-ezer to Ashdod and put it in the House of Dagon. In the morn those of Ashdod found Dagon fallen on his face to the ground before the Ark. They reset Dagon in his place, and the next morn again found him fallen with his head and hands broken off, leaving him a stump; thus no priest or worshiper of Dagon ever crosses the threshold of Dagon in Ashdod. The Lord plagued Ashdod and its borders with tumors or hemorrhoids; so they consulted with the Lords of the Philistines to send the Ark to Gath. But the Lord plagued Gath with tumors; they in turn quickly sent it to Ekron, but the Ekronites cried out against the Ark of God as a curse and plague; and they consulted with the Lords of the Philistines to send the Ark back to Israel to be healed of the plague and death.
The Ark was with the Philistines now 7 months, then the Philistines with their priests and diviners sought appeasement from the Lord cause of His plagues, so they gave a tress-offering of 5 golden-tumors and 5 golden mice, saying perhaps He will lighten His hand off them and their gods, and not to do what He did to Egypt and pharaoh. So they made a new cart, yoked two milk-cows never before yoked, and they put the Ark on the cart, and put on the side in a coffer the jewels of golden images. They let the oxen wander at will to see if they go towards Beth-shemesh of Israel as sign that the Lord accepted their offering. Those of Beth-shemesh while reaping their wheat harvest in the valley rejoiced seeing the Ark. The Ark came to the field of Joshua the Beth-shemite and stopped by a great stone; so they chopped up the cart for fire and offered up the kine for a burnt-offering to the Lord. The Levites took down the Ark; and offered the golden jewels and sacrifices to the Lord. The Philistines after seeing all this returned home to Ekron. The 5 golden tumors and mice were for the 5 Cities and Lords of Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron. But the Lord smote 70 men and 50,000 men of Beth-shemesh because they had looked inside the Ark; terrified they sent messengers to Kiriath-jearim asking them to come get the Ark.
And they came and took it to the house of Abinadab in the hill. and sanctified Eleazar his son to keep the Lord’s Ark. The Ark remained in Kiriath-jearim for 20 years while Israel lamented. Samuel told Israel to repent and turn to the Lord, remove the idols and Ashtaroth that He might deliver them from the Philistines. Samuel gathered Israel at Mizpah in fasts and prayers, judging Israel. The Philistines heard and mustered against Israel at Mizpah; Israel in fear cried to the Lord and to Samuel for salvation. He then offered burnt-offering to the Lord and cried to Him for Israel. The Philistines drew near to attack while Samuel was praying and sacrificing, but the Lord thundered against them and confused them and slew them. Israel pursued the Philistines and killed of them up to Beth-car. There between Mizpah and Shen Samuel set up a stone called Eben-Ezer (Stone of Help) for the Lord’s help. Thus were the Philistines subdued and no longer advanced into Israel’s lands during the life of Samuel. The cities and borders captured by the Philistines from Ekron to Gath were restored; and there was peace between Israel and the Amorites during Samuel’s administration. His circuit as Judge (the 14th or 15th) was from Beth-El, Gilgal, Mizpah, and Ramah his hometown; and he built an Altar to the Lord.
Samuel in his old age put his sons Joel and Abijah as judges in Beer-sheba; but they loved money and bribes and perverted justice so that Israel’s Elders came to Samuel at Ramah complaining about them and demanding to be given a King to judge us like the Gentiles. Samuel displeased prayed to the Lord Who told him to listen to them for they have decided to reject the Lord as their King and Ruler; for since the Exodus till Samuel they have been rebellious idolaters. In protest he is to warn them of the manner of their King; and Samuel described to Israel that their King will make their children his servants and soldiers, his farmers and merchants, his perfumers, cooks, bakers; he will take their best fields and vineyards and oliveyards to give them to his officers and servants; he will enlist and draft your best children and animals for his service and pleasure and enterprise; and he will tax to take a 10th of your flocks, and make you his servants; so that you will complain to the Lord because of your King, but He will not hear or help you. Israel told Samuel: No, we will have a King over us, like the Gentiles, to judge us, and to lead us in battles. Samuel reported Israel’s words to the Lord, Who told him to do as them have decided. Samuel dismissed Israel to go to their cities.
Benjaminite named Kish (Qish) ben-Abiel ben-Zeror ben-Becorath ben-Aphiah ben-Ben-Jamin, valiant fighter, whose son was Saul, a handsome young man, a foot taller than most Israelites. Kish’s donkeys were lost, and he sent Saul and a servant to find them, who searched the hills of Ephraim and in Shalishah then in Shaalim then in the land of the Benjaminites without finding the donkeys, finally at Zuph Saul told his servant we should return lest his father now worry that they too were lost. Saul’s servant suggested that in this city was a Man of God honorable and whose words come to pass, perhaps he can help. Saul asked what they can offer as a gift to him, and his servant said he had 1/4th a shekel silver-coin; (for it was custom to give the Man of God who was a Prophet as Seer and note here the Prophet-Seer is in Samuel as Judge and Priest) such payment or donations). So ascending to that city they met young maidens going to draw water who informed them the Seer was here and for the people’s sacrifice in the High Place, he can be easily found, for the people will not partake of the sacrifices till he is present to bless. As they drew near Samuel, forewarned by the Lord to anoint the visiting Benjaminite as Prince over Israel and Savior from the Philistines, came toward to them on the way to the High Place. When Samuel saw Saul the Lord said: this man shall have authority over My People. Saul unknowingly asked Samuel where the Seer’s house was; Samuel told Saul he was the Seer, and to go ahead to the High Place, since he must eat with him today; and in the morn he may return home, informed of all on his heart, and not to fret about the donkeys that his father has found; adding is not the desire of Israel on Saul and his father’s house. Saul surprised asked why Samuel said this since his father’s house was insignificant of the smallest tribe of Israel (which we saw in Judges was almost exterminated about 100 years earlier). Samuel seated Saul and his servant at the chief place amid 30 of his guests, and had the cook bring the reserved thigh for Saul to eat. Afterwards they descended the High Place, and Samuel talked with Saul on the housetop. Early the next day Samuel awoke Saul and told him to send his servant ahead; and he related to him the Word of God.
Samuel poured from a vial oil on Saul’s head, and kissed him saying: The Lord has anointed him to be Prince over His Inheritance; and he will meet by Rachel’s sepulchre in the border of Benjamin at Zelzah two men, who will tell him that his father’s donkeys are found, and he is looking for his son. Then at the Oak of Tabor he will meet three men on the way to Beth-El, with 3 kids and 3 loaves of bread and a bottle of wine; they will greet him and offer him two loaves, which he must take; afterwards at the Hill of God near the garrison of the Philistines, near the city he will meet a band of prophets descending the High Place with musical instruments in processions while prophesying; and the Lord’s Spirit will change him and cause him to prophesy; and at that time act for God Who is with him; afterwards to wait for Samuel at Gilgal for the sacrifices and offerings to the Lord. Saul departed and met a band of prophets and the Spirit of God caused him to prophesy with them, so that the people asked if Saul ben-Kish was also a prophet, but who is his Father (Master). So he ended his prophesying and came to the High Place. Saul’s uncle (Abner’s father) asked the servant where they went, he told him of the donkeys and Samuel, and he wanted to know what Samuel said, so Saul related about the donkeys but withheld the details of the Kingdom. Samuel assembled the People to the Lord at Mizpah, telling that the God of Israel saved them from Egypt and the kingdoms that oppressed them, yet Israel has rejected their Savior God for a human King. So he gathered the tribes of Israel and chose Benjamin, and of all the families of the Benjaminites he selected the Matrites, and of them Saul ben-Kish, but he could not be found; but the Lord revealed that he was hiding, so they brought him out and he stood taller than all the people. Samuel told the people this is King the Lord has chosen, and Israel shouted Life to the King; so Samuel described the manner of the Kingdom and wrote it in a Book and deposited before the Lord. Samuel dismissed the People. Saul returned home to Gibeah attended by a host whose hearts God had touched, but some worthless fellows voiced doubt and despised him, not giving any token gifts, but he kept quiet.
Nahash the Ammonite encamped against Jabesh-Gilead, but they tried to make a covenant to serve him; but he stipulated that they put out their right eyes as a reproach to Israel; the Elders of Jabesh ask for 7 days to send messengers to Israel’s borders for help, and if none, they will comply. The messengers (angels) came to Gibeah of Saul and related the crisis, and the people cried. Saul heard and asked and was told the details; then God’s Spirit came upon Saul and he was enraged. He took a yoke of oxen and cut them into pieces and sent the pieces throughout the borders of Israel, saying so will happen to their oxen if they refuse to muster to Saul and Samuel. The Lord’s dread was on the people who rallied as one man. Israel was numbered in Bezek some 300,000, and of Judah 30,000. They sent the messengers back with words of promise to Jabesh-Gilead of deliverance the next day. They in turn told the Ammonites the next day they’ll come out as they demanded. Saul divided the host into 3 divisions, and early attacked and slaughtered all the Ammonites. Some called for the men who mocked Saul as King to be put to death, but Saul prevented them since it is the Lord’s deliverance in Israel. Samuel then took Israel to Gilgal to renew the Kingdom and inaugurate Saul as King; and they offered sacrifices in gladness to the Lord.
Samuel said to Israel concerning their new King and called them to witness against him as wronging and abusing them, and they said he has never defrauded or oppressed them or taken a bribe. So he confirmed their testimony before the Lord and the King of his innocence. Samuel testified to Israel: The Lord by Moses and Aaron delivered Israel from Egypt by righteous acts after they cried to Him, and brought them to this Place. Israel forgot Him, and He sold them to Sisera of Hazor, to Philistines, and to Moab; who fought them, and made them cry to the Lord confessing their sins and idolatry; He sent Jerubbaal, Bedan, Jepthah, and Samuel to save them. (Tolah and Jair were both Gileadites, like Jepthah ((‘Bedan is named as the deliverer of Israelites in 1 Samuel 12:11. (compare 1st Chron. 7:14-17; compare Num. 26; 27; 32). He is not mentioned elsewhere as a judge of Israel. Bp. Patrick and others hypothesis the name to be a contraction of ben Dan (ben-Dan) by which they suppose Samson is meant, as the Targum reads. The LXX, Syriac, and Arabic, however, refer to the name as Barak, instead of Bedan; and the two latter versions refer to Samson, instead of Samuel. These readings are adopted by Houbigant, and appear to be genuine, for it is not probable (except as quoted or cited by the Lord and spoken by another) that Samuel would enumerate himself.” The Study Bibles cite the reading from the LXX and the Pesh., settling that Bedan = Barak, and Samuel = Samson; Bullinger offers a soft reason from Hebrew similarity and Dake adds his interpretation to that, and as usual without credit or referral; the Net Bible gives two notes on the reading and rendering; some even translate Barak and Samson as the text, without a note or comment. Here is William Smith’s Bible Dictionary (1863) entry: “BE’DAN (bedan; Badan), mentioned 1 Sam. 12:11, as a Judge of Israel between Jerubbaal (Gideon) and Jephthah. As no such name occurs in the Book of Judges, various conjectures have been formed as to the person meant, most of which are discussed in Pole (Synopsis, in loc.). Some maintain him to be the Jair mentioned in Judg. 10: 3, who, it must then be supposed, was also called Bedan to distinguish him from the older Jair, son of Manasseh, (Num. 32: 41), a Bedan being actually named among the descendants of Manasseh in 1 Chron. 7: 17. The Chaldee Paraphrast rends Samson for Bedan in 1 Sam. 12: 11, and many suppose Bedan to be another name for Samson, either a contraction of BenDan (the son of Dan or Danite), or else meaning in or into Dan (be) with a reference to Judg. 13: 25. Neither explanation of the word is very probable, or defended by any analogy, and the order of the names does not agree with the supposition that Bedan is Samson, so that there is no real argument for it except the authority of the Paraphrast. The LXX., Syr., and Arab, all have Barak, a very probable correction except for the order of the names. Ewald suggests that it may be a false reading for Abdon. Alter all, as it is clear that the Book of Judges is not a complete record of the period of which it treats, it is possible that Bedan was one of the Judges whose names are not preserved in it, and so may perhaps be compared with the Jael of Judg. 5: 6, who was probably also a Judge, though we know nothing about the subject except from Deborah’s song. The only objection to this view is, that as Bedan is mentioned with Gideon, Jephthah, and Samuel, he would seem to have been an important Judge, and therefore not likely to be omitted in the history. The same objection applies in some degree to the views which identify him with Abdon or Jair, who are but cursorily mentioned. [G.E.L.C.]”))). When Nahash the king of the Ammonites attacked, Israel insisted on greeting a King to rule though the Lord God was their King. So now you have your chosen King; to fear the Lord, to serve and fear and listen to Him, not rejecting His commandment, and following Him; and if not His hand will be against you and your king. Samuel to Israel called in the wheat-harvest for the Lord to make it rain with thunders and lightening; that they know and see that their rejection of the Lord for a King was wickedness; and it was so, and they feared the Lord and Samuel. Israel asked Samuel to pray for them in this great sin against the Lord; and He bid them to fear not but to continue to serve Him with all their heart, for the Lord will not forsake them for His great name’s sake, since He was pleased to make them His People. Samuel assured them he would not sin against the Lord to neglect to pray for them and to instruct them in the good and right way; but only that they fear and serve Him whole heartedly in truth, considering His ways; and if they do wickedly He will destroy them and their king.
Saul (ben-shanah Saul) ruled Israel, the 2nd year he mustered 3,000 fighters, 2,000 with him at Michmash and a mount of Bethel, 1,000 with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin [this suggests Saul some 40 years old and Jonathan about 20]; and he dismissed the rest of the hosts. Jonathan struck the Philistine’s garrison at Geba, then Saul sounded the trumpet for the Hebrews to hear; so Israel thought that Saul had defeated the Philistines, and they hated Israel; Israel gathered to Saul at Gilgal. The Philistines mustered 30,000 chariots, 6,000 horsemen, and a mighty host at Michmash east of Beth-Aven. Israel distressed hid in everywhere; and some went across the Jordan to Gad and Gilead; the rest was with Saul at Gilgal trembling. He waited 7 days as Samuel ordered, but Samuel did not show up, and they people scattered; so Saul offered the sacrifices himself. Samuel arrived and Saul went to meet him. Samuel asked him what he was doing; he said that he was afraid in Samuel’s delay so he offered to the Lord for His protection. Samuel rebuked him for such foolishness and disobedience, and now his kingdom will not be established permanently; rather the Lord has found him a man after His own heart, and appointed him to be Prince over the People, because of Saul’s disobedience. Samuel left Gilgal to go to Gibeah of Benjamin; Saul with 600 men with Jonathan and some of the people stayed at Geba of Benjamin while the Philistines were at Michmash. The Philistine fighters (spoilers) moved in 3 companies: one toward Ophrah of Shual, second to Beth-Horon, and 3rd to the desert of the valley of Zeboim. (Now Israel had no smiths or iron-workers or tool-sharpeners, except some sharpening files, because the Philistines were afraid that the Hebrews would make weapons; thus most the people had no iron weapons, except for Saul and Jonathan.) The troops of the Philistines restationed to the passage of Michmash.
Jonathan and his armor-bearer decided to get near the garrison of the Philistines, but had not informed his father Saul, who was still at Gibeah by the pomegranate-tree of Migron; with Ahijah ben-Ahitub, Ichabod’s brother, ben-Phineas ben-Eli the Lord’s Priest in Shiloh, wearing the Ephod. Jonathan was between two passes of rocky crags, Bozez and Saneh., one north before Michmash, the other south before Geba. Johnathan told his armor-bearer that they should attack the uncircumcised Philistines for the Lord saves by few or many, and he agreed to go. They went and plotted to test for a sign if they should wait or advance by asking the fighters if they should come or stay for the battle; the Philistines replied thinking the Hebrews were coming out of their hiding places to fight, so bid them come on, to teach them; thus Johnathan took it as the Lord’s answer of victory. They crept into the garrison and killed about 20 men in distance of 1/2 a furrow of 1/2 acre; causing great fear and confusion in the camp, and the earth quaked. Saul’s watchmen of Gibeah of Benjamin saw the Philistines dwindle in numbers being routed; he asked who was missing from his fighters and was told Jonathan and his armorbearer. Saul told Ahijah to bring the Ark of God, and while he talked with the Priest the Philistines continued their tumult, Saul told Ahijah to withdraw his hand (that is from the breastplate of the lots of the Urim & Thumim); when Saul and his men came to the camp the Philistines were slaughtering themselves in confusion. The Hebrews allied to the Philistines then deserted and aligned themselves with Israel; and the Israelites in hiding came out to take part in the battle.; the Lord saved Israel, and the battle spread to Beth-aven. But Israeli fighters became hungry because Saul had cursed and banned anyone from eating till the evening till he was avenged. The people came to the forest and Jonathan tasted some wild honey not knowing Saul’s curse, but the men refused fearing the King’s oath; Jonathan objected to Saul’s ban as troublesome and deprived the men their portion from the spoils. They continued to fight from Michmash to Aijalon, and the people flew in craze upon the spoil, eating animals raw with blood. Saul was told, and he ordered a great stone be rolled for the sin; then he dispersed men throughout the camp to order every man to bring their animals to be slaughtered before him to prevent their eating blood meat; and he built an Altar to the Lord. Saul desired to pursue the Philistines to complete destruction and his men agreed, but he asked counsel from God, but He answered not; so he demanded of the chiefs what is this sin, but none answered; Saul swore that even if the sin is in Jonathan his son, as the Lord lives, he shall die. Saul set Israel on one side and he and his son on the other, and cast lots, and he and Jonathan was taken; he cast lots between them, and Jonathan was taken. Saul demanded what he had done, Jonathan related about the honey, and Saul was determined to kill him for violating the ban; but the people rescued Jonathan from death saying he shall not die for he worked with God to save Israel. So Saul abandoned his pursuit, and the Philistines went home. Now Saul in his kingdom over Israel defeated Moab, Ammon, Edom, the Kings of Zobah, the Kings of the Philistines, and wherever he turned; he was valiant against the Amalekites, delivering Israel from his spoilers. His sons were Johnathan, Ishvi, and Malchishua; his daughters were Merab the older, and Michal the younger; his wife was Ahinoam bath-Ahimaaz; his general was Abner ben-Ner, Saul’s uncle; Kish (Qish) was his father; and Ner, ab-Abner, was ben-Abiel. (Now the Philistines warred against Israel through Saul’s reign; and whenever he found a mighty man or valiant or brave man, he enlisted him.
Samuel told Saul how the Lord sent him to anoint him as King over Israel, now listen to the voice of the Lord’s words to destroy completely Amalek and all that belongs to them for their assault on Israel after the Exodus. Saul mustered 200,000 footmen of Israel, and from Judah 10,000; he came to the City of Amalek in ambush; he told the Kenites to depart lest they be destroyed, for they showed kindness to Israel after the Exodus. So Saul struck the Amalekites from Havilah going towards Shur before Egypt; he took Agag the King of the Amalekites as hostage, but utterly destroyed the people, but spared Agag and the best of the animals and good things, only destroying the useless or worthless things. The Lord’s words came to Samuel: I regret making Saul king, for he has stopped following Me and disobeyed My commands; and Samuel was angry and cried to the Lord all night. Samuel went to meet Saul early next morn, but was told that Saul came to Carmel and set up a monument, but went to Gilgal. Samuel went to Saul and greeted him in the Lord and declared his obedience; but Samuel asked what the noise of the animals was; he told him it was the Lord’s sacrifices from the slaughter of the Amalekites. Samuel told Saul to stay to hear what the Lord told me tonight: When you were little in your sight, the Lord made you Head of Tribes of Israel and anointed you King of Israel; He sent you on a journey to utterly exterminate the sinners, the Amalekites; but you have disobeyed, and fly upon the spoils, and did evil before Me. Saul replied defending his actions and excusing the people’s actions. Samuel replied that the Lord delights in obedience than animal sacrifices (ritual worship), for rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness (self-will) as idolatry and idols; since Saul rejected the Lord’s word, He has rejected him as King. Saul confessed his sin and asked forgiveness from him, and that he go with him to worship the Lord, but Samuel refused and turned away, but Saul grabbed his skirt and it was torn; thus Samuel said the Lord has torn away the Kingdom or Monarchy and given it to a better neighbor: the Strength of Israel will not lie or repent as if a man. Saul insisted that Samuel honor him with his presence in prayer before the Elders and the People in worship. Samuel yielded, and Saul worshipped the Lord. Samuel called for Agag who thought death was past; but Samuel said as he made mothers’ childless so too his mother would be, and he cut him in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal. Then he returned to Ramah, and Saul to Gibeah; Samuel never saw Saul again till his death but mourned for Saul whom the Lord rejected.
The Lord told Samuel stop mourning Saul, take a horn of oil and anoint one of the sons of Jesse the Beth-lehemite; but Saul said Saul will kill him; so told him to take a sacrifice for the Lord, and invite Jesse; so he came to Beth-lehem, and the Elders in fear asked if it was in peace, and he replied in peace, to sacrifice to the Lord, sanctify yourselves for the sacrifice, and he sanctified Jesse and his sons. Samuel saw Eliab and thought he was the Lord’s anointed, but the Lord said not to look on the outward features for the Lord looks at the heart. Jesse then showed him Abinadab, then Shammah, then his other sons, but the Lord did not choose them. Samuel asked if he had any other sons, and he said his youngest was watching the sheep. Samuel told him to fetch the boy, then he took him to Samuel, who saw he was ruddy and handsome, and the Lord told him to anoint this boy. Samuel anointed David witnessed by his brothers. The Spirit of the Lord thence moved upon David. Samuel returned to Ramah. The Spirit of the Lord left Saul and a evil spirit from the Lord troubled him; his servants suggested to rid the evil spirit from God by a skilled harpist playing when he was oppressed; and Saul agreed; they suggested young David who also was brave fighter and prudent and handsome and favored of the Lord. Saul sent messengers (angels) to Jesse to send to him David the shepherd youth. Jesse sent him to Saul with a donkey loaded with bread and wine, and a kid. David stood before Saul who loved him, and he became his armorbearer; and he told Jesse he wants to keep David as favored. When Saul was troubled by the evil spirit from God David played and Saul was refreshed, and the spirit departed.
The Philistines gathered to battle at Socoh of Judah and encamped at Ephes-dammim between Socoh and Azekah. Saul and Israel encamped in the Vale of Elah; the Philistines on one mountain and Israel on another, a valley lay between them. A Philistine man, a champion (ish-habenaim), Goliath of Gath, 6 cubits 1 span (some 9 feet) tall, with a helmet of brass on his head, wearing a coat of mail, an armor weighing some 5,000 brass-shekels, with greave leggings of brass, a brass javelin between his shoulders, his spear staff was like a weaver’s beam weighing 600 iron-shekels, and his shield-bearer before him ((“5,000 shekels (of brass or otherwise) is equal to approximately 125 lbs or 2000 ounces. Example: 1 talent= 60 maneh (mina)= 3,000 shekels = about 75 lbs or 1200 oz (little less than half ounce per shekel 0.4 oz) 1 maneh= 50 shekels= 100 beka= 1,000 gerahs= about 20 ounces or 1 lb 4 ounces, one beka or a half shekel is about equivalent to the weight of a US Jefferson 5¢ coin.)) ((125 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 50 = armor items = some 275 pounds of armory)). Goliath shouted out a challenge to Israel and Saul that one man be sent to fight him and if he kills him then the Philistines will serve Israel, but if he kills him then Israel must serve the Philistines; he defied Israel with these words. Saul and Israel were dismayed in fear. Now David was son of Jesse an Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-Judah, father of 8 sons, very old at this time. His 3 oldest sons (Eliab, Abinadab, and Shammah) fought for Saul; but David was his youngest. David went from Saul to Jesse, back and forth, to tend his father’s flocks at Beth-lehem. The Philistines taunted Israel for 40 days. Jesse sent David to his brothers encamped with ephah of parched grain and 10 loaves of bread, along with 10 cheeses to the captains of their 1,000; to see how his brothers fared and their report or pledge. Saul and his men fought with the Philistines in the Vale of Elath; David leaving his sheep with a keeper, went early has he was instructed, and came to the place of the wagons (supply wagons) and the armies were marching to fight with battle shouts. The hosts faced off, and David leaving his baggage (provisions) with a keeper, he ran to the battle field to greet his brothers. Goliath again came forth with his challenge, and David heard his words. The fighters of Israel in fear talked with each other, and mentioned that the King will enrich anyone who defeats Goliath, and offer him his daughter and make his father’s house free in Israel. So David asked concerning the King’s words and offer, and replied who was this uncircumcised Philistine to defy the armies of the living God; and the men in turn repeated the reward. Eliab his oldest brother heard and reproached him as a proud brat, deserting the flocks, desiring to see the battle; but David objected and turned to the men repeating his words. His words were rehearsed to Saul who had him brought to him; and he said to Saul no one need fear, he would go and fight the Philistine; Saul told him he cannot fight him for he was but a boy, and he Goliath was a man of war from his youth. David replied that when a lion or bear took a lamb from the flock he went after him to save the lamb and took it by the beard and killed it., both lion and bear; and so will do to this uncircumcised Philistine who has defied the armies of the living God; so as the Lord delivered me from the paws of the lion and bear, so He’ll deliver me from the hand of this Philistine; so Saul permitted him to go and the Lord be with him. Saul clad David with clothes, brass helmet, coat of mail, and girded with a sword; but David could not move easily for it was not proved, so he told Saul he could use these, and took them off. David took his staff, chose 5 smooth stones from the brook and put them in his shepherd’s bag in his wallet pouch, and his sling was in his hand; and he drew near the Philistine. The Philistine with his shield-carrier ahead in front advanced towards David, and when he saw him he disdained him with his pretty features, asking if he was a dog that David came to him with sticks; and he cursed David by his gods; telling David to come to him that he might feed the birds and beasts with his flesh. David shouted back that the Philistine came with sword, spear, and javelin, but he came in the name of the Lord of hosts (Jehovah Tsabaoth), the God of Israel’s armies whom he defied; and today the Lord will deliver the Philistine into David’s hand to kill him, cut off his head, feed the birds and beasts with the carcases of the Philistines, that all the earth may know there is a God in Israel, and all this assembly may know that the Lord saves not with sword and spear: for the battle is the Lord’s and he will give him into Israel’s hands. The Philistine moved closer to David, David quickly ran toward the army to meet him, and took a stone from his bag and slingged it and struck the Philistine in his forehead, and the stone sunk into his forehead and he dropped dead. David did not have a sword, so he ran and stood over the Philistine and drew his own sword from his sheath and cut off his head. The Philistines saw their champion was dead and they fled, but Israel and Judah pursued them with shouts to Gai and to Ekron, and the wounded fell along the way to Shaaraim to Gath and to Ekron. Israel then returned and plundered their camp. David took the head of Goliath the Philistine to Jerusalem, but but his armor in his tent. Saul afterwards asked Abner his general whose son was this youth, and Abner said he had no idea; so Saul asked Abner to find out; so Abner found David after his return and brought him to Saul, who asked him, and he answered that he was the son of his servant Jesse the Beth-lehemite.
Saul’s son Jonathan was knit in love in soul to David; Saul enlisted David as his servant; Jonathan covenanted with David, clothed him in his own robe, sword, bow and girdle. David went as Saul sent him, behaved wisely, and he set him over the men of war, and the people and Saul’s servants were pleased. When David returned from the defeat of the Philistines the women from the cities of Israel celebrated with songs and dance to meet Saul with musical instruments, singing Saul slayed his 1,000s and David his 10,000s. Saul was angry and displeased that they ascribed 10,000s to David but to him only 1,000s; and what is left but the kingdom for him. Saul eyed David ever after; and the next day an evil spirit from God visited him in his house, and he prophesied while David played as usual, and he threw a spear at David to kill him, and again at another time. Saul was obsessed with fear of David (phobic insanity) for the Lord was with him and He had abandoned Saul. Saul then reassigned David to military field service as captain over 1,000s, marching to and from, conducting himself wisely and favored by the Lord, so that Saul was in awe; and Israel and Judah loved David as a leader. Saul then offered David his oldest daughter Merab as a bride if he would show himself brave in in fighting the Lord’s battles, thinking that in this way he will die in war rather than by Saul. But David replied to Saul why should he be considered of such honor to be the King’s son-in-law; and in time when Merab should have been given to David she was given in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite. But Saul’s daughter Michal, loved David, and Saul heard and was pleased, saying he would let him marry her that she might be a snare to him, and that he might die fighting the Philistines. So again Saul offered David the chance of becoming the King’s son-in-law; and he urged his servants to commend David to accept the King’s offer being loved and favored by all. David objected to the servants that they treated it easy and small matter for a poor and simple man should be the King’s son-in-law. The servants related his answer to the King, who in turn demanded only a dowry of 100 foreskins of the Philistines as vengeance against his enemies, thinking thus will he die. They told David who was pleased, and in the time allotted went with his men and slew 200 Philistines, and he presented to the the King the foreskin dowry; so Saul married off his daughter to David. Saul saw and knew the Lord was with David; and Michal loved him; and he became more afraid (paranoid), and was his enemy continually. The Philistines Princes went forth, and David responded more wisely than all Saul’s servants so that his name was famous and respected.
Saul solicited David’s death from his son and his servants; Jonathan related to David that his father sought to kill him, so he told him to be careful, and to hide himself, and he will talk to Saul of David and see his father’s response and then tell David. Jonathan defended David as a faithful and good servant, a great warrior favored by the Lord, and innocent of any wrong against the King. Saul reconsidered and agreed and swore that David will not be put to death. So Jonathan told David, and brought him back, and he was in the King’s presence as before. Again the Philistines made war, and David defeated them again; but an evil spirit from the Lord caused Saul to throw a spear at David while he played, but he got away again, and fled. Saul sent messengers to David’s house to watch and kill him, so Michal urged him to escape that night, and she let him down through the window; she then took a teraphim idol and laid it in David’s bed covered, and when Saul’s servants came she told them he was sick in bed; they told Saul and he ordered them to bring him in bed to him that he might slay him. The messengers came and found a teraphim idol in bed with goat’s hair at the head. Saul demanded from Michal why she deceived him and let his enemy escape, she replied he threatened to kill her. David escaped to Samuel at Ramah, and told him all that Saul did, so they went to stay in Naioth. Saul was told, and he sent messenger’s to Naioth in Ramah, but when they saw the company of prophets led by Samuel, the Spirit of God made the messengers of Saul prophesy, so Saul sent other messengers, but they too prophesied, and then the 3rd time with the same result; so Saul went to Ramah near the great well in Secu and asked for Samuel and David, and was told they were in Naioth of Ramah, and as he went the Spirit of God made him prophecy up to Naioth, and he stripped naked while he prophesied that day and night. So people asked if Saul also was one of the prophets.
David fled Naioth of Ramah and came to Jonathan asking for what wrong Saul sought his death; he replied that its not true, his father would have disclosed it to him; but David swore it was so, and Saul knowing that it would grieve Jonathan he hid his intent; he agreed to do whatever David asked; David said to him that tomorrow on the new moon he must sit at the King’s table, but he will hide himself for three days, and if he notice, tell him that he requested to go to his city Bethlehem for a yearly family sacrifice, and if he says its good, then there is peace; but if he is angry, he intends evil. Since we have a mutual covenant in the Lord then slay me rather than wait for your father. Jonathan objected and said he will tell him his father’s intent; David asks how, and he said let’s go into the field and he said good or bad he will tell him. He promised David, and asked the same kindness from David towards his house and family; so they both swore and reaffirmed the covenant before the Lord. He told David to hide in the field for 3 days near the stone Ezel, and on the 3rd day he would shoot 3 arrows toward the the place, then will tell his servant to fetch the arrows by saying the arrows are on this side, then there is peace all is well; but if he says the arrows are beyond you, then David must go for the Lord is sending him away. The King sat to eat at the new moon, he was seated by the wall as usual, Jonathan stood, and Abner sat by Saul’s side, Saul notice David’s place was empty but thought maybe he was unclean, The next evening he asked of David, and Jonathan told, and Saul was enraged and accused him as a son of a perverse rebellious woman that has chosen the son of Jesse to his shame and his mother’s nakedness; and that his kingdom will never be established while he lives; and he demanded David be brought and killed. Jonathan protested that David has done nothing worthy of death; Saul threw a spear at him, so he knew his father was determined to kill David; and he arose in rage and ate nothing, grieved for David and for his father shaming him. In the morn he and a lad went to the field as he promised and did as they agreed; he then gave his weapons to the boy and sent him back to the city. David surfaced from the South and bowed 3 times, and they hugged and kissed and cried. Jonathan bid him to go in peace in the Lord’s name, and may He be with their offspring for ever; and David departed, and Jonathan returned home.
David came to Ahimelech the Priest at Nob, who greeted in fear and caution; David relates to him that he is on secret errand from the King, and in a hurry took no food, and he asks if any bread was on hand; the Priest had no common bread, but offered him holy bread (the Show-Bread of Presentation to the Lord) soon to be exchanged for fresh hot loaves, only if the men have abstained for 3 days from their women (sexual pollutions); David assures him none of them have been near women for 3 days, and the men’s vessels were holy when they left. Now Saul’s servant Doeg the Edomite, his chief of his herdsmen, was detained before the Lord that day. David asked Ahimelech for any spear or sword on hand, and he only had the sword of Goliath the Philistine who David slew, wrapped in cloth and placed behind the Ephod; David said there is none like it, so he took it, and fled in fear of Saul to Achish the King of Gath. Achish’s servants said to him, is this the David that they celebrate in songs that Saul slew 1000s but David his 10,000s; David wondered and worried of Achish; he then acted insane with erratic motions at the city-gate, spit drooling on his beard; so Achish asked why such a madman was brought to him.
David then escaped to the Cave of Adullam, and his relatives and family went to him; any who were distressed or discontented joined him, some 400 men. He then removed to Mizpeh of Moab (David’s great great grand-mother was a Moabitess), and he requested of the King of Moab asylum for his kin folks till he knew what might do for him; they stayed there while David hid in the Stronghold (Fortress). The Prophet Gad told David to leave the Fortress and go to Judah; so he went to Hereth. Saul, while sitting under a tamarisk-tree in Ramah of Gibeah, holding his spear with his men, heard David and his men was discovered. Saul accused his servants as Benjaminite traitors conspiring to get rewarded and promoted as captains by the son of Jesse, so no one has felt sorry for Saul to reveal that his son has plotted with his servant waiting to attack him. Doeg the Edomite standing near Saul’s servants, informed the King that he saw and heard that the son of Jesse came to Ahimelech ben-Ahitub the Priest, who inquired of the Lord for him, gave him food, and the sword of Goliath. Saul summoned Ahimelech the Priest and his house, the priests of Nob; Saul demanded why he has conspired against the King and help David the rebel. The Priest Ahimelech replied that who is as faithful to Saul as David the King’s son-in-law, of the King’s council, and honorable in the King’s house; and it’s not now he has inquired of God for him, it is not so, I know nothing of any of this. The King sentenced Ahimelech and his house to death; and he ordered the guard to execute the Lord’s priests, but his servants refused to slay the Lord’s priests; so he ordered Doeg the Moabite to do it, and so he did killing all 85 priests wearing linen ephods. He also smote Nob, the city of the priests, slaughtering every living animal or persons. But Abiathar, Ahimelech’s son, escaped and related all to David; David said I knew that day that Doeg the Edomite would tell Saul; I have caused the death of all your father’s house; stay with me without fear and in safety, for he who seeks my life seeks your life.
David was told the Philistines were fighting Keilah and robbing the threshing-floors; he inquired of the Lord Who told him to go save Keilah; but David’s men voiced their fears in Judah how much more with the armies of the Philistines; he again inquired of the Lord, again He told him to go, for He will deliver the Philistines into his hands. David and his men fought the Philistines and slaughtered them, taking their cattle, and saved Keilah. Now Abiathar ben-Ahimelech had brought with him an Ephod. Saul was told that David was at Keilah, so he said alas God has delivered him into his hands, for he is imprisoned in a town with gates and bars. Saul summoned all the people to war against David at Keilah. and they besieged them. David had Abiathar bring forth the Ephod; he asked the Lord if the people of Keilah will hand him over to Saul; and He answered yes. David and his 600 men left Keilah; Saul heard, and gave up the chase. David stayed in the wilderness of Ziph, and God did not let Saul capture him. Jonathan went to David in the woods and strengthened his hand in God, assuring him that Saul will not find him, and that David will be King over Israel and Jonathan will be next to him, as Saul knows. Again they renewed their covenant, then he returned home, and David stayed in the woods. The Ziphites told Saul David was hid in the fortress in the woods, in the Hill of Hachilah, south of the desert. They invited Saul to come get him as he desired, and they will deliver him to the King; and Saul blessed them in the Lord for their compassion. Saul asked them to make certain David’s whereabouts, his hiding places, and movements, then return with the intelligence, and he will come and hunt him anywhere he runs, to the thousands of Judah. So they returned to Ziph ahead of Saul; but David was now in the desert of Maon in the Arabah south of the desert. So Saul went after David in the desert of Maon by a mountain side, David and his his men on the other side, in flight, Saul and his men compassed them on all sides. Then news came to Saul that the Philistines had raided the land; so Saul gave up the pursuit, and went to fight with the Philistines; the place was thus called Sela-ham-mahlekoth (Rock of Division). David repositioned to the fortresses of En-gedi.
Saul returned from fighting the Philistines and was told David was in the wilderness of En’gedi; and he took 3,000 chosen men of Israel to seek David and his men among the rocks of the wild goats; and came to the sheepfolds by the way, near a cave, where Saul went to cover his feet. David and his men were in the innermost of the cave; his men wanted David to kill Saul as the Lord promised to deliver him into his hands; but he only cut off the skirt of Saul’s robe quietly. David was grieved for this action, saying the Lord forbid that I shout mistreat the Lord’s anointed; thus he checked his men’s desire against Saul. Saul arose and went on his way; then David followed and shouted out : my Lord the King; Saul turned around to see David bowing face down in obeisance; saying to Saul, why he was listening to men’s words that David seeks his hurt; when today the Lord delivered the King into his hand but he would not kill Saul being the Lord’s anointed; and he lifted up Saul’s skirt of his robe in his hand as proof that he is innocent, without evil or transgression or sin, though Saul hunted to slay him. The Lord judge between us, avenge me, but I will not harm thee; as says the ancient proverb: wickedness from the wicked, but my hand shall not touch thee. The King of Israel pursues a dead dog and a flea. The Lord vindicate me rightly. Saul shouted back: is this my son David, and he cried aloud, saying you are more righteous than me, rendering me good for my evil; seeing that you spared my life when the Lord gave you a chance to kill me; for who spares his enemy and let him go free. I know you will be King, and the Kingdom of Israel will be established in your hands; swear to me by the Lord you will not cut off my seed or my name in my father’s house. David swore to Saul; Saul returned home; David and his men went to the fortress.
Samuel died, and all Israel lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah. David relocated to the wilderness of Paran. A man, named Nabal (Folly), in Maon was very rich, having some 3,000 sheep, and 1,000 goats, shearing his sheep in Carmel; his wife’s name was Abigail, intelligent and beautiful, but her husband was churlish and an evil doer, and was of the house of Caleb. David sent 10 young men to Nabal to greet him in peace, informing him that he and his men have protected his shepherds without robbery, requesting favor and whatever he could give to help. The men went and related to Nabal David’s words, but he answered roughly: who was the son of Jesse, for many servants are run-aways from their master; that I should give bread and water and my shearer’s meat, to give to nobodies. They returned and reported Nabal’s words to David; he ordered 400 hundred men to girt for war, and 200 to stay with the stuff. Abigail was told by the servants of her husband’s actions and David’s reaction and intent to wipe out Nabal’s house; she quickly took 200 loaves, 2 bottles of wine, 5 prepared sheep, 5 measures of parched grain, 100 clusters of raisins, and 200 fig cakes, all loaded on donkeys. She ordered her young men to ride ahead, and she’ll follow; and she did not tell her husband. As she rode by the covert of the mountain, David came to meet her; voicing his rage and threatened to get revenge on Nabal for his ingratitude and offense, by slaughtering all the males of his house to the last man-child. Abigail dismounted and bowed before David’s feet, asking his wrath be upon her, begging with words and admitting her husband named Nabal which means Folly is true to his name, informing him she did not know when the young men came for help; requesting that David has been kept back from guilt of personal revenge, and may my lord David’s enemies all perish; that he forgive her trespass, for the Lord will establish David’s house, for he fights the Lord’s battles, and thus be free from evil; though men seek to kill him, his soul will be bundled with life with the Lord his God; but the souls of his enemies will be shot out as from a sling’s pouch (mouth); thus when the Lord has appointed David Prince over Israel that this revenge will not grieve or stain his heart; and at that time remember your handmaid. David blessed the Lord for Abigail for her discretion and preventing his vengeful act that he was determined to carry out on Nabal’s house. David received Abigail’s gifts of supplies, dismissing her in peace and favor. Abigail returned to Nabal who held a great feast as a king, got merry and drunk; the next day she told him everything, and he became as a stone; about 10 days later the Lord smote Nabal to death. David heard that the Lord had avenged him of Nabal, and sent for Abigail to be his wife; David’s men came to Abigail with David’s marriage proposal; she in turn offered to become his handmaid to wash his servants feet; but David married her (as his second wife). He married also Ahinoam of Jezreel (as his 3rd wife); for Saul had married off Michal, David’s 1st wife), to Palti ben-Laish of Gallim.
The Ziphites came to Saul in Gibeah informing him that David was hiding in the hill of Hachilah before the desert; Saul went to the wilderness of Ziph with 3,000 select Israelites, and encamped near David’s hide out; David sent spies to verify Saul’s position, then came to Saul’s camp while he rested, near Abner ben-Ner his general, within the place of the wagon supplies, surrounded by the people. David asked Ahimelech the Hittite and Abishai ben-Zeruiah, Joab’s brother, to go down with him into Saul’s camp. Abishai volunteered, and they went at night and found Saul sleeping, with his spear by his head stuck in the ground; Abishai wanted David to let him spear Saul to death with one stroke, for God has delivered his enemy to him; but David told them not to touch the Lord’s anointed and be guilty. He said the Lord will one day smite him, or by chance die in battle; but only take his spear and the cruse of water; Saul and his men were in deep sleep caused by the Lord. David went over the other side opposite Saul and shouted out to the people and to Abner; Abner in turn asked who was shouting to the King; David replied that Abner deserved death for not guarding the life of his King and Master, the Lord’s anointed; and showed the King’s spear and cruse as proof. Saul recognized David’s voice, and spoke; David asked why was he seeking to kill him, and petitioned the King to accept a peace offering, and let the sons of men be cursed by the Lord for driving him out from the Lord’s inheritance to serve idols; and that David not perish outside Israel as a flea or a hunted partridge in the mountains. Saul responded that he sinned, that David return without harm, because he spared the King’s life, for he has played the fool and sinned. David asked the King to let a young man come fetch the King’s spear; and may the Lord repay each man his righteousness and faithfulness, and as I have regarded the King’s life, the Lord’s anointed, may He regard and preserve me from all trouble. So Saul blessed David to do mightily and prevail; and David departed but Saul returned home.
David said in his heart that one day he will perish by the hand of Saul; its best that I escape to the land of the Philistines that Saul give up pursuing me in the borders of Israel. David and 600 men passed over to Achish ben-Maoch, King of Gath, along with all their households, and David’s two wives. Saul heard and stopped chasing David. David asked favor from King Achish to settle in a city in the country away from the King’s royal city; so he gave him Ziglag, which belongs to Judah to this day (perhaps Solomon’s time and after). Now David stayed in the country of the Philistines 1 year 4 months. He and his men made raids on the Geshurites, Girzites, and Amalekites, for they inhabited the land anciently, from Shur to Egypt; he slaughtered the people, taking the livestock and clothes, then returned to Achish. He asked David of his recent raids, and he said on South of Judah, and South of Jerahmeelites, and South of the Kenites; sparing no person that could tell of his manner in the country of the Philistines. Achish believed David, saying he has made himself odious to his people, and he will be my servant forever.
Now in those days the Philistines mustered their armies for warfare against Israel; and Achish told David he and his men will join him in the battle; David agreed, and Achish said he’ll be my body guard. Samuel was dead and buried in Ramah, while Israel mourned. Saul had put away those of familiar spirits and wizards from the land. The Philistines were encamped in Shunem, and Saul and Israel were in Gilboa; he was afraid of the Philistines’ host; and he inquired of the Lord, but He answered not by dreams or Urim or prophets. So Saul demanded that a woman with a familiar spirit be brought to him; he was told that there is such a woman at En-dor; he went disguised to her by night, and asked her to divine by the familiar spirit and bring up the one he names. The woman said that Saul has cut off the witches and wizards from Israel, why is he trying to snare her life to die. Saul swore to her by the Lord that she would not be punished; so she asked who he wished to be brought up; he said Samuel; when she saw Samuel she screamed at Saul that he has deceived her; the King calmed her not to fear, but tell him what she saw; she said she sees a god rising from the earth; Saul asked of his form; she said a old man dressed in a robe; so Saul perceived it was Samuel, and he bowed in homage. Samuel asked Saul why he disturbed him to bring him up; Saul said that he was distressed for the Philistines at war with him, and God has departed from him and will not communicate with him by any means; that I might known what will happen. Samuel told Saul since God has deserted him and become his adversary; He is fulfilling His words that He spoke by Samuel, that the Lord has rent the Kingdom from Saul and given it to David; because Saul disobeyed the Lord’s voice in not executing His wrath on Amalek. The Lord will deliver Israel with Saul into the hands of the Philistines, and tomorrow Saul and his sons will be with Samuel. Saul immediately fell flat face down on the ground at these words, having no strength not having eaten that day and night; so the woman pleaded with Saul to grant her favor for doing as he wished, and to eat some bread to be strengthened for his journey; but he refused, but his servants and the woman prevailed to persuade him, so he sat up on the bed, while she took the calf and killed it, and prepared unleavened bread, and they all ate, then departed.
The Philistines hosts were in Aphek and Israel was encamped in Jezreel; and the Lords of Philistines crossed on by 100s and by 1,000s; David and his men passed on rearward with Achish; the Princes of the Philistines objected to Hebrews’ presence; Achish told them David the ex-servant of Saul Israel’s servant, has been these days and years faithful and loyal. The Princes protested in anger, and told Achish to send David away from the battle lest they turn against us in the fighting to reconcile himself to Saul; for it this David that they sing and dance that Saul slew his 1,000s and David 10,000s. Achish told David that though, as the Lord lives, he has been upright and loyal in everything; yet the Lords of the Philistines, demand he turn back ; David replied that he is loyal and ready to fight all the enemies of the Lord and King Achish; he in turn agreed that David as been good, as angel of God; but the Lord insist. Achish ordered David and his men to return at early light in the morn; so David returned to the land of the Philistines in Ziklag; but the Philistines moved on to Jezreel.
David returns to Ziklag on the 3rd day to find that the Amalekites had raided the South, and attacked Ziklag and burned it, taking the women and children captive with them. David and his men cried and shouted for their families, and David’s two wives were taken captive also; he was in great distress for the people talked of stoning him in their grief; but David strengthened himself in the Lord. He asked the Priest Abiathar to bring the Ephod and inquire of the Lord if he should pursue the troop; and was told to pursue and overtake them, and recover all. David and the 600 men advanced to the brook Besor, then left 200 men to guard the stuff because they were exhausted, he and 400 continued. They found an Egyptian in the field famished, they fed with bread and fig-cakes and gave him water to drink, for he had not eaten or had water for 3 days. David asked and was told he was an Egyptian a servant to an Amalekite, who left him sick 3 days ago; that they had raided the South of the Cherethites in Judah, and the South of Caleb, and burnt Ziklag. David asked if he could lead them to this troop; he made them swore to not kill him nor hand him over to his master, and he will lead them to them. They came to the Amalekites who were spread out eating, drinking, and dancing for all the spoils they had gotten from the land of the Philistines and from Judah. So David smote and slaughtered them from that evening to the next evening, killing all except for 400 who escaped on camels.; thus he recovered all, his wives, the women and children, the cattle and goods; and they called it David’s spoil. They returned to the brook Besor to the 200 men guarding the stuff; then so base wicked men said that the 200 men who stayed behind should get nothing of the spoils save their own wives and children. David protested not so, for the Lord gave us and preserved us and defeated the troop that came against us; we must share alike all with those who went to battle and with those who stayed with the baggage; thus David made from that day a statute and ordinance for Israel to share equally the spoils of war. When they came to Ziklad David sent gifts and presents of the Lord of the spoils to the Elders and his friends, to them in Beth-El, in Ramoth of the South, in Jattir, in Aroer, in Siphmoth, in Eshtemoa, in Racal, in the cities of the Kenites, in Hormah, in Bor-ashan, in Athach, in Hebron, and to all the hiding places of David.
The Philistines defeated Israel at Mount Gilboa, and they pursued Saul and his sons and killed his sons Jonathan, Abinadab and Malchishua; and the battled increased and Saul was distressed by the archers; and he commanded his armorbearer to slay him with the sword, for he was wounded, and did not want to be struck and abused by the hands of the uncircumcised; his armorbearer was too afraid to obey; so Saul fell on his own sword and died. When the Israelites on the other side of the valley saw the Israelites with Saul retreating, and that Saul and his sons were dead they also deserted the field, and forsook the cities; the Philistines then occupied the cities. Next morn the Philistines came to strip the slain and found the bodies of Saul and his 3 sons at Mount Gilboa; they cut off Saul’s head, removed his armor, and sent news and tokens through the land of the Philistines, to the house of their idols, and to their people. They put Saul’s armor in the House of the Ashtaroth, his body on the wall of Beth-shan. The citizens of Jabesh-gilead heard and sent valiant men to take the body of Saul and his sons from the wall of Beth-shan; then came to Jabesh and burnt the bodies there; and buried the bones under the tamarisk-tree in Jabesh, and fasted 7 days.

        2nd SAMUEL: 24 Chapters: Saul’s Death to David’s Last Days:

      After Saul’s death, after David returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, after 2 days in Ziklag; on the 3rd day a man from Saul’s camp came to David with torn clothes and dirt on his head and knelt in homage to David; saying he was escaped from Israel’s camp. David asked of the battle; he said the people fled the battle, many wounded and dead, and Saul and Jonathan were dead. David asked how he knew this: he said that in Mount Gilboa he noticed Saul was leaning on his spear, the chariots and riders were in hot pursuit; when Saul looked behind him and saw me he called me to him, and asked who I was; I said I was an Amalekite, and he asked me to stand near to slay him, for he was in anguish of bare life; so I stood and slew him, for he was already mortally wounded. I then took his crown and arm bracelet to bring to my Lord. David and his men tore their clothes, mourned in tears, and fasted till eve, for Saul, Jonathan, the Lord’s people, and the house of Israel slain in battle. Again David questioned the Amalekite that reported Saul’s death, and asked why he was not afraid to destroy the Lord’s Anointed. He commanded a young man to execute him, for his blood is on his own head by his own mouth.

David lamented the death of Saul and Jonathan with a Lamentation Song, (and taught that children of Judah must learn to use the bow, this is written in the Book of Jashar (Upright, or Ya-Shar, Jehovah’s Prince or Captain)):

Israel thy Glory is slain on the High-places; the Mighty are fallen.
Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon;
lest the daughters of the uncircumcised Philistines rejoice in triumph.
Mountains of Gilboa be without dew or rain or fields of offerings:
for the shield of the mighty was tossed as trash;
Saul’s shield was not anointed with oil.
Jonathan’s Bow was stained with the blood of the mighty;
and Saul’s Sword returned soaked.
They were lovely and pleasant in life, and undivided in death:
swifter than eagles and stronger than lions.
Daughters of Israel weep for Saul, who clothed you scarlet and gold ornaments.
The Mighty are fallen in battle: Jonathan slain on the heights!
I am distressed for thee my brother Jonathan;
you were pleasant with love surpassing women.
The Mighty are fallen and the weapons perished!

      Afterwards David inquired of the Lord which of Judah’s cities should he enter; He told him Hebron; David, his two wives, Ahinoam the Jezrelitess, Abigail the Carmelite, Nabal’s wife (widow), with his men and their families, and resettled in Hebron. The men of Judah anointed David as King over the House of Judah. David was told that those of Jabesh-gilead buried Saul; he sent messengers (angels) to them with the Lord’s blessings for their kindness to their Master Saul, and that the Lord show mercy and truth to them, and also, he will requite their deed. Abner ben-Ner Saul’s army general conveyed Ish-bosheth ben-Saul to Mahanaim, and made him King over Gilead, the Adhurites, Jezreel, Ephraim, Benjamin, and over Israel; he was 40 years old, and reigned 2 years. But the House of Judah followed David. He was King in Hebron for 7 1/2 years. Abner and Ish-bosheth’s servants moved from Mahanaim to Gibeon.; Joab and David’s servants met them at the Pool of Gibeon, each sitting opposite each other at the pool; Abner said to Joab that the young men should compete, 12 for Benjamin and Ish-bosheth, and 12 of David’s servants. The young men each grabbed his opponent and thrust each his sword in each other to death, so that the place was called Helkath-hazzurim in Gibeon. The battle was intense, and Abner and Israel was beaten before David’s servants. The 3 sons of Zeruiah: Joab, Abishai, and Asahel (who was swift as a wild roe deer) were there; Asahel pursued Abner tenaciously, and Abner turned while running and bid Asahel to turn and seize a young man, and take his armor; but he refused, and again Abner warned him, for how would he face Joab if he should kill Asahel; but he still refused, so he thrust his spear shaft into his body and the spear end came out his back and he dropped dead on the ground. Joab and Abishai continued to chase Abner till sunset and the reached the Hill of Ammah before Gath by way of the Wilderness of Gibeon. The Benjaminites united as one band under Abner atop the hill. Abner called out to Joab asking if the sword will forever devour ending in bitterness; and how long before the chase of the people against their brothers end. Joab blew the trumpet, and the people quit the chase, never to pursue again. Abner and his men continued through the night crossing the Jordan passing through Bithron till they arrived at Mahanaim. Joab gathered the people and found only 19 men plus Asahel were missing. But David’s men had killed some 360 of Benjamin. They buried Asahel in his father’s sepulchre in Beth-lehem. But Joab and his men traveled all night till daybreak at Hebron.
The House of Saul and House of David continued at war, David getting stronger, and Saul weaker. David 6 sons born in Hebron were by birth: Ammon of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; Chileab of Abigail the Carmelite (Nabal’s wife (widow)); Absalom ben-Maacah bath-Talmai king of Geshur; Adonijah ben-Haggith; Shephatiah ben-Abital; and Ithream of Eglah, David’s wife. As the two Houses warred, Abner made himself strong in Saul’s House. Saul’s concubine Rizpah bath Aiah, was suspected with Abner of infidelity; but Abner in anger replied if he was a dog’s head of Judah, and for the kindness he’s shown to Saul’s House, his brothers, and his friends that he should be accused with fault with the woman. He said, by God he will now fulfill the Lord’s words sworn to David, to transfer the Kingdom from Saul’s House to establish the Throne of David over Israel and Judah, from Dan to Beer-sheba. He was afraid to answer Abner. Abner sent messengers (angels) to David asking who’s the land is, and to make a league with him to bring all Israel to David. David agreed with the condition Abner must also bring his wife Michal. David sent messengers to Ish-bosheth demanding his wife Michal betrothed at the cost of 100 Philistines’ foreskins; he sent and took her from her husband Paltiel ben-Laish, who followed her in tears up to Bahurim, where Abner told him turn back. Abner communicated with Israel Elders that in time past they wanted David to be King, as the Lord spoke that by David’s hands Israel should be delivered from the Philistines. He spoke also to Benjamin, then went to relate it all to David in Hebron, and with him 20 men. David made a feast for Abner and his men; Abner said he would now go to gather all Israel to his lord the King, so that they may covenant, and that David may rule over all he desired; and he sent him away in peace. David’s servants and Joab returned from a raid with great spoils; they told Joab Abner came, and David let him go in peace. Joab asked David why he let him go, since came to deceive and betray as an informant; he left David and sent messengers to bring Abner back to the well of Sirah secretly; and when Abner returned to Hebron Joab took him aside to speak quietly, and he smote him to death for his brother’s Asahel’s blood. David heard and said: I and my Kingdom are guiltless before the Lord for Abner’s blood, but the guilt fall upon Joab and his father’s house, so that none be without disease, wounds in war, or poverty. So Joab and Abishai killed Abner to avenge Asahel’s blood in battle at Gibeon. David ordered Joab and the people with him to rip their clothes, gird with sackcloth, and mourn for Abner; and David followed the bier; they buried him in Hebron; and the King cried aloud with tears at the grave, and so too the people. David lamented Abner saying:
Should Abner die as a fool die? Hands unbound, and feet unfettered:
As a man falls by sons of iniquity, so fell thou!
The people wept, and tried to get David to eat, but he swore he will not eat till the sun sets; thus, they knew David did not intend Abner’s death; they noticed and were pleased, as ever, with the King. David said to his servants that today a great man has fallen in Israel; and I am weak because these sons of Zeruiah are too much: may the Lord reward the evil-doer for their wickedness.
Saul’s son (ish-bosheth) heard that Abner was dead in Hebron, he became feeble, and the Israelites were troubled; Saul’s son had 2 captains over 2 divisions, Baanah and Rechab, sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, Benjaminites, (for Beeroth is reckoned to Benjamin, for the Beerothites fled to Gittaim and settled there to this day). Saul’s son Jonathan also had a son with lame or crippled feet from when he was 5 years of age, news of Saul and Jonathan at Jezreel, so that his nurse took him and fled, and he fell and injured his feet; his name was Mephibosheth. Rechab and Baanah came at noon to the house of Ish-bosheth while he rested in bed, acting as if they would fetch wheat, instead struck him and beheaded him, and took his head, then escaped by way of Arabah at night. They brought the head of Ish-bosheth to David in Hebron, saying, here is the head of thine enemy, the Lord has avenged my lord the King of Saul and his seed. David answered them, as the the Lord my Redeemer from adversity lives, when a man brought me news of Saul’s death by his hands, thinking I would reward him, instead I slew him at Ziklag for his news; how much more now when wicked men kills a righteous person in his own house in his bed, shall their blood be required and they be removed from earth; so David commanded a young man to slay them, to cut off their hands and feet and hang them beside the pool in Hebron. But they buried Ish-bosheth’s head in Abner’s grave in Hebron.
The tribes of Israel came to David saying: we are thy bone and thy flesh; when Saul was King, it was David that led Israel, and to whom the Lord said he will be My Shepherd and Prince of My people Israel. The Elders of Israel came to King David in Hebron and covenanted and anointed him before the Lord over Israel; he was 30 years old, and reigned 7 1/2 years in Hebron over Judah, and 33 years he ruled over Israel and Judah, some 40 years (30th – 70th year). The King and his men went to Jerusalem (Yeru-Shalem, City of Peace) against the Jebusites, its citizens, who had mocked David saying he must remove the blind and lame before he enter. David took the Fortress of Zion to become the City of David: and he said those who smite the Jebusites, first get up to the watercourse and strike the lame and blind hated by David: thus they say: No blind or lame may enter the house. David dwelt in the fortress and called it his city, and he built it around from Milo and inward. David continued to increase by the Lord God of hosts. Hiram the King of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar-trees, carpenters and masons to build him a house (palace). David perceived that the Lord had established his Throne and his Kingdom for His people’s sake. David took more concubines and wives from Jerusalem and had more children: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon; Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet (11 sons in addition to the 6 sons at Hebron). The Philistines heard that Israel had anointed David, so sought him, and David heard, so he went to the fortress or garrison; the Philistines spread themselves in the Valley of Rephaim; David inquired of the Lord, if he should go against them with success; the Lord said to go, and they will be defeated by David; so he came to Baal-perazim, and smote them, saying: the Lord has broken his enemies, so he called it Baal-perazim; for they left their images (of Baal) which David and his men destroyed. Again the Philistines encamped in the Valley of Rephaim; David inquired of the Lord, and He told him not to go up, but to make a circuit behind them across from the mulberry-trees, then stir themselves when they hear the sound of marching in the tops of the trees, for then the Lord has defeated them; so David obeyed and smote the Philistines from Geba to Gezer.
David with 30,000 Israelites went to Baale-judah to bring back the Ark of God, called by the Name (Shem), the Name of the Lord of Hosts (Jehovah-Sabaoth) seated over the Cherubim (Cherubs); they placed the Ark of God on a new cart, brought it out of the house of Abinadab on the hill; Uzzah and Ahio, sons Abinadab, drove the cart; so they took the Ark led by Ahio; David and the House of Israel celebrated to the Lord with various instruments of strings and percussions; near the threshing-floor of Nacon, Uzzah touched the Ark of God to steady it from falling; the Lord in anger killed him for this error. David displeased called the place Perez-Uzzah because the Lord Broke Forth against Uzzah; and he was afraid to move the Ark any further, but took it to the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite, and it remained there for 3 months, with the Lord’s blessings. David was told of His favor towards Obed-edom, so he brought the Ark of God to the City of David with joy. Now when they moved the Ark about 6 paces (about 20 feet) they sacrificed an ox and fatling; and David danced before the Lord girded with a linen ephod, with Israel, with shouts and music, and came to the City of David. Michal saw David from a window leaping and dancing and she despised him. They placed the Lord’s Ark in a tent that David had pitched for it, and he offered sacrifices to the Lord; afterwards he blessed the people in the name of the Lord of hosts, giving each and every person cake of bread and some meat, and raisin-cakes, and they returned home. He returned home to bless his household, but Michal criticized him as a shameless naked fool; but he replied that before the Lord Who chose me above thy father’s house and appointed me Prince over His people; and I will be viler and baser, but the handmaids will have me in honor. Thus Michal was childless to her death.

      David dwelt in his house, the Lord giving him rest all about; he said to Nathan the Prophet that he dwells in a cedar house but the Ark of God in curtains. Nathan told him to do what he desires, for the Lord is with him; but that night the Lord’s word came to Nathan to tell My servant David he will not build Me a House to dwell in; for from the Exodus to now I have walked in a Tent and Tabernacle; and I never asked of any tribe of Israel to build Me a cedar House. Tell David My servant that I took thee from following sheepfolds to be Prince of My people Israel, to be with thee, and to subdue all thine enemies, and made thy name great as those of great ones of the earth. I will appoint a place for My people to be planted, no longer to be afflicted by wicked men as before and during the time of the Judges; also I will cause thee to rest from thine enemies, and the Lord will build thee an House; after thee I will set up thy seed and establish thy Kingdom, and he will build a House for My Name, and I will establish his Kingdom forever. I will be His Father, and he will be My Son; if he is lawless I will chasten him with the rod of men and the stripes of children of men; but My mercy will never depart from him as with Saul. Thy House and Kingdom and Throne will abide and be established. By these words and this vision Nathan spoke to David.

King David sat before the Lord:
Who am I and what is my house that Thou hast brought me to this;
that Thy servant’s future House be after the manner of man;
and what can David say more, for Thou knowest me.
For Thy word’s sake of Thine heart to work this greatness to show me.
Thou art great, none like Thee, no other God exists as we have heard with our ears.
What nation on earth is as Thy people Israel,
whom God redeemed for Himself, for His great Name,
for greatness and awesome works,
redeemed from Egypt and the nations and their gods;
to make them Thy people, and Thou Lord became their God.
Now Lord God establish and confirm Thy word to Thy servant;
Thy name be magnified, Thou Lord of hosts, Thou God over Israel;
and establish Thy servant’s David House forever:
for Thou hast revealed to build a House for Thy servant:
and for this reason, I pray this prayer.
Thou art God and Thy words are truth, and promised good things;
so be pleased to bless Thy servant’s House forever with Thy blessings.

      Later David subdued the Philistines and took the bridle of the mother (Methegammah) city from them; then he measured Moab, making them lie down on the ground in two lines to put them to death or to keep alive; making Moab subservient, paying tribute. Then he stopped Hadadezer ben-Rehob King of Zoah as he went to recover his dominion at the River; taking from him 1,700 horsemen and 20,000 footmen; he hocked the chariot horses reserving 100 chariots. When the Syrians of Damascus tried to help Hadadezer David killed 22,000 of them; putting garrisons in Syria of Damascus, making them tribute paying subjects. The Lord gave David victory wherever he went. He brought the shields of gold of the servants of Hadadezer to Jerusalem; and much brass from Betah and Berothai, cities of Hadadezer. Then Toi the King of Hamath heard news of the defeat of the Syrians, and he sent his son Joram to King David to greet and bless him for victory against a common enemy; and he also gave David vessels of silver, gold, and brass: these spoils as with the other silver and gold he dedicated from all nations he subdued: Syria, Moab, Ammon, Philistines, Amalek, and of Hadadezer. David was famous after he had defeated 18,000 of the Syrians in the Valley of Salt. David put garrisons in Edom, and the Edomites became subject to him. David prevailed, and ruled Israel, and executed justice and righteousness to his people. Joab ben-Zeruiah was General, Jehoshaphat ben-Ahitub was Recorder; Zadok ben-Ahitub, Ahimelech ben-Abiathar, were Priests; Seraiah was Scribe; Benaiah ben-Jehoiada over the Cherethites and Pelethites; and David’s sons were Chief Ministers.
David asked if any of Saul’s house survived that I might show kindness for Jonathan’s sake. Ziba a servant of Saul’s house was brought to David, and told him that Jonathan’s son who with crippled feet was in the house of Machir ben-Ammiel in Lo-debar. David sent and brought to him Mephibosheth, who bowed before the King; and David said not to fear, for I will be kind to you for Janathan’s sake; I restore to thee all the land of Saul thy grand-father, but thou wilt eat bread at my table. He bowed again and asked why such kindness to such a dead dog; but David called Ziba and commanded him to care for all the household and property and possessions than belonged to Saul for Mephibosheth thy master: to till the ground, to harvest the crops, to feed the servants; but he must eat at my table. Now Ziba had 15 sons and 20 servants; and he agreed to do as the King ordered. Mephibosheth’s young son was Mica; so he ate at the King’s table in Jerusalem.
Later the King of the Ammonites died, and his son Hanun ben-Nahash reigned in his place. David sent servants to console him with kindness as his father had treated David kindly; when they came to the land of the Ammonites, the Princes accused the men as spies of David to overthrow the land; Hanun then shaved half the beards of the men, cut off their garments exposing their butts, then sent them away. David was told how they were shamed; and he told them to stay at Jericho till their beards grew back before they returned to him. The Ammonites seeing they made themselves odious to David, also hired the Syrians of Beth-rehob and of Zobah, with the men of Tob, some 12,000 men. David sent Joab with a large militia of warriors; and the Ammonites engaged battle at the gate: the Syrians and Tobites being in another division. Jobab in response to these two divisions before and behind Israel, divided his armies in two, the most mighty Israelites under himself against the Syrians, the majority of the Israelites under Abishai his brother against the Ammonites; instructing that if the Syrians prove too strong you must come to my help; and if Ammon prove too strong we will aid you; be brave and manly for our people the cities of our God, and the Lord do as He please. The battle begun and soon the Syrians fled from Joab’s army, and the Ammonites seeing their retreat fled also from Abishai’s force into the city. Joab returned to Jerusalem; but the Syrians being defeated, gathered a great army under Hadarezer, who enlisted the Syrians beyond the River Euphrates, that came to Helam with Shobach his general. David responded by leading a large army of Israel; and they fought but David defeated the Syrians killing some 700 chariots, and 40,000 riders, and killed Shobach the general. The Kings subject to and in league with Hadarezer being defeated made peace with Israel to be subjects. The Syrians feared to ever help the Ammonites again.

       At the the return of the year when kings go to war, David sent Joab and his men and Israel to destroy the Ammonites by besieging Rabbah. But David stayed at Jerusalem; and in the evening he arose from bed and walked on the roof of the King’s house; and he noticed across the way a beautiful woman bathing; he inquired concerning her and was told she was Bath-sheba (Daughter of Sheba) bath-Eliam, the wife of Urijah the Hittite. David sent for her, and he laid with her (she was already purified of her uncleanness); then she returned home. She was pregnant, and informed David; who sent for Joab to send him Uriah the Hittite. When he came David asked concerning the Joab and Israel in the war; then he told Uriah to go home to wash and rest; he departed, and David sent to him food from the King; but Uriah slept at the door of the King’s house with the servants without returning home. David was told, so he asked Uriah why he did not return home after such a long journey; he answered that the Ark and Israel and Judah abide in booths, while my lord Joab and my lord’s servants are encamped in the fields; how can I go home to eat and drink and lay with my wife; as thou livest I will not do it. David told him to stay in Jerusalem that day, and the next day will send him back. David invited him to feast at his table and got him drunk; but when he retired he slept near the servants and did not go home. In the morn David wrote a letter to Joab and sent it with Uriah. The letter instructed Joab to place Uriah at the forefront of the hottest battle, then withdraw, so that he will die. Joab set Uriah with the bravest warriors; and in the fierce fighting some men died along with Uriah the Hittite. Joab sent a report of the war to David and told the messenger that after he related the war details, that when the King became angry, and say why they went so near to the city, did you not know they would shoot from the wall; like Abimelech ben-Jerubbesheth, when a woman threw an upper millstone from the wall and he died at Thebez; then tell the King that thy servant Uriah the Hittite is also dead. When the messenger related to the King that the enemy prevailed at first into the fields, but we pushed them back to the entrance of the gate; the shooters on the wall shot and killed some of King’s servants, also Uriah the Hittite is dead. David told the messenger to tell Joab don’t be displeased, the sword devours one as the other; strengthen yourself against the city and overthrow it; to encourage him. Uriah’s wife heard and lamented her husband’s death; and afterwards David married her, and she birthed him a son. But this thing David did, displeased the Lord.
The Lord sent Nathan to David, and he said: Two men in the same city, one rich, the other poor; the rich man had great flocks and herds; the poor man only one she lamb as a pet and a daughter in his family; the rich man had a traveling guest, so he took the poor man’s lamb and prepared it for his guest. David became enraged and said to Nathan: as the Lord lives this man deserves to die! and he must restore the lamb fourfold for his merciless act. Nathan said to David: Thou art the man; the Lord God of Israel says that I anointed thee King over Israel, delivering thee from Saul, I gave thee thy master’s house, his wives, and the House of Israel and Judah; and if that was not enough I would have added more. Why did thou despise the word of the Lord to this evil in killing Uriah the Hittite by the hands of the Ammonites and then taking his wife to be thy wife? For this reason the sword shall never depart from thy house; I will take thy wives and give them to thy neighbor, and he will violate then in broad daylight; for thou did it in secret, but I will do it in the sight of all Israel. David confessed to Nathan: I have sinned against the Lord; and he replied that the Lord has put away thy sin, thou shalt not die; however, because thou hast occasioned the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, the child must die. Nathan departed; and the child became sick; David begged God for the child, fasting and lay prostrate that night; the elders of his house tried to get him up to eat but he refused, then on the 7th day the child died; but they were afraid to tell him lest he does something to himself in his despair. But David saw them whispering and asked is the child dead; they said he is dead; so David arose, bathed, anointed himself, changed his clothes, then came into the Lord’s House and worshipped; he then requested bread to be served him to eat. The servants amazed asked why he fasted and cried for the child when he was alive, but now after his death thou rise and eat. he replied that while the child lived he fasted and mourned in hopes that the Lord may be gracious to spare the child; but now he is dead, I cannot bring him back, but I will go to him. David then comforted Bath-sheba and again lay with her and she gave birth to a son, and he named him Solomon; and the Lord loved him; and sent the Prophet Nathan to him, calling the child Jedidiah (Jehovah’s Beloved), for the Lord’s sake.
Now Joab fought against Rabbah of the Ammonites, and took the royal city; and he sent word to David that he took the City of Waters; therefore to muster the rest of the people and encamp against the city and take it, lest it should be named after Joab’s name; so David did it, and took the crown of their King which weighed a talent of gold, and in it precious stones, and it was set upon David’s head; and he brought back great spoils; but he slaughtered the citizens by saws, iron, axes, and brick-kiln; and in like manner other cities of Ammon; then they returned to Jerusalem.
After this Absalom, David’s son, whose sister Tamar was a beautiful virgin; Amnon, David’s son, loved her; so that he became sick over her, how he might have her. Amnon’s friend and cousin, Jonadab ben-Shimeah, David’s brother, cleverly suggested to the King’s son: why art thou daily so lean and sad; he told him; he replied that Amnon should pretend to be sick and confined to the bed, and to ask the King to let Tamar prepare food before to eat from her hands. David told Tamar to go to her brother Amnon’s house to prepare food for him. She took dough and baked cakes, giving them to him in a pan, but he refused to eat. Instead he ordered everyone to leave his chamber, but told Tamar to bring the cakes to him; he then took hold of her demanding her to have sex with him ; she begged him not to force her for no such folly (rape and incest) should be done in Israel; and where will I hide my shame, and you will be treated as one of the fools in Israel; so she pleaded with to ask the King to let them marry; but he refused to listen, and being stronger forced or raped her. Afterwards he hated her even more than when he loved her before, and told her to get out. She replied no, this was even worse than the wrong or rape itself; but he rejected her, and ordered his servants to put this woman out, and to bolt the door. Tamar with ashes on her head, tore her dress of multi-colors, with her hands on her head, went crying aloud. Absalom her brother asked if Amnon thy brother had been with her; and said she should not be too troubled, but be quiet since he was her brother; so she remained desolate and stayed in Absalom’s house. When King David heard he was enraged. Absalom did not speak with Amnon good or bad, but hated him for raping his sister Tamar. After 2 years Absalom had sheep-shearers in Baal-hazor near Ephraim, and he invited all the King’s sons and the King and his servants to a feast; but the King turned down the invitation as too burdensome for his son, but blessed him anyway. He asked the King to permit Amnon to attend; but David asked why; but he pressed the King till he consented for Amnon and the King’s sons to go. Absalom instructed his servants to watch Amnon, and when he is merry with wine, and he gives the order, they must kill him without fear or reserve; and so they did. The King’s sons all fled by mule; and David heard news that Absalom had slain all the King’s sons; the King tore his clothes and lay prostrate on the ground, with his servants standing with torn clothes. But Jonadab ben-Shimeah, his brother’s son, told the King the truth is only Amnon is dead, for Absalom had appointed it from the day Tamar was violated. Absalom fled; and the servants which watched saw a crowd coming, and Jonadab said to the King: look, your sons ; and they came in tears and the King and his servants cried with them. Absalom took refuge with Talmai ben-Ammihur King of Geshur; but David mourned for his son daily. Absalom was with Talmai for 3 years; and David’s soul longed for Absalom, for he was comforted from the loss of Amnon.
Now Joab sent for a wise woman of Tekoa; and told her to pretend to be a mourner in mourning clothes, without the oil of anointment, be a mourner of many days; to go to the King and speak in this manner; just as Joab instructed her. She spoke to the King, prostrate, begging for help; the King asked of her trouble; she replied that she was a widow with two sons who were fighting and one slew his brother and he died; the family arose and demanded the death of her surviving son, thus to quench the last of her coal, leaving no male heir. The King dismissed her saying I will decide; but the woman of Tekoa implored the King to remove the iniquity from the King and her father’s house, that the King and his throne be guiltless; the King assured her that she may bring anyone wanting to harm her son, and that will end the matter. But she petitioned the King by the Lord God, not to let the avenger of blood destroy him; so he swore to her by the Lord; so she asked for a few more words with the King; he said speak; she said why he has devised a thing against the people of God; for by such words he incriminates himself guilty, in that he has not fetched and restored his banished exile. We all must die as spilt water on the ground; but even God restores life by making a way for the exile to return; and I have spoken these words to the King because the people made me afraid; so perhaps the King will grant this one favor towards his handmaid; for the King is determined to deliver me and my son from the avenger to preserve the inheritance; so I said my Lord the King’s word is comforting, he is as an angel of God, and knows the good and the bad, for the Lord God is with him. The King then asked her to tell him the truth about these words she has spoken if Joab was not behind them; she replied the King knows all secrets as an angel of God, and yes, thy servant Joab put all these words in my mouth to persuade the King. So the King told Joab I have heard you, go and bring the young man Absalom back. Joab bowed in homage and blessed the King for the favor shown him in this request. Joab brought Absalom from Geshur to Jerusalem. The King said he must not see my face, but must go to his own house. In Israel none was praised for spotless beauty as Absalom; when he cut his hair yearly, for it was heavy, it weighed 200 shekels according to the King’s scale. Absalom had 3 sons and one daughter, who he named Tamar, and she was beautiful; and he stayed 2 full years in Jerusalem never seeing the King’s face. He sent for Joab to go to the King, but he ignored him; so he told his servants burn Joab’s field of barely next to his; so Joab demanded why he set his field aflame; and he replied that he wanted him to go to the King and ask why he was brought from Geshur if I cannot see the King’s face; if I deserve to die then let the King put me to death. So Joab went to the King, and he permitted Absalom to see his face, and he came and bowed, and the King kissed Absalom.
Afterwards Absalom prepared a chariot with horses and 50 front runners; early he stood by the way of the city gate, and when anyone had a case that should go to the King for judgment; he asked what city they were from, and when they said they were from a certain city of Israel’s tribes, he told them their case is valid but there is no one deputed to hear the case for your city, adding that if only he was a judge in the land he would hear every litigation and give justice. When any bowed to him he extended his hand and kissed him; thus he stole the hearts of the men of Israel. Absalom (now 40; or end of David’s 40th year reign) asked the King to pay his vow to the Lord in Hebron, which he made at Geshur in Syria, that if the Lord bring me back to Jerusalem then I will serve Him; so the King permitted him and he went to Hebron. But Absalom sent spies to all the tribes of Israel that at the sound of the trumpet they should shout that Absalom is king in Hebron. He had 200 men from Jerusalem ignorant of his intentions; he then sent for Ahithophel the Gilonite, David’s counselor from his city Giloh, while offering sacrifices; the conspiracy was strong for Absalom; and a messenger told David; so David told his servants that we must flee lest Absalom quickly overtake us and strike the city with the sword. His servants replied that they were ready to do his will; the King and his household escaped; but he left 10 concubines to tend the house; the King and the people came to Beth-merhak; followed by his servants the Cherethites, Pelethites, Gittites, and 600 followers from Gath. The King asked Ittai the Gittite to stay home with the King (Absalom), being a foreigner and an exile, arriving only yesterday; return with your brothers, and mercy and truth be with thee. But Ittai insisted as the Lord and the King lives he will go with the King to life or death; David permitted him and his men and his little ones to cross over; the country wept, and the people crossed over the brook Kidron with the King by way of the wilderness. Zadok and the Levites, carrying the Ark of God and set it down, while Abiathar went up till the people exited the city. The King told Zadok to take the Ark of God back into the city; for if the Lord show me favor He will return me to see it and His habitation; but if not, let Him do as He please. The King told Zadok the Priest and Seer to return in peace with his two sons, Ahimaaz and Jonathan ben-Abiathar; and I will stay at the fords of the wilderness until I hear word; they returned with the Ark to Jerusalem. David ascended the Mount of Olives, crying as he went, head covered and barefoot, together with the people. David was told that Ahithophel is among the conspirators with Absalom; so David prayed that the Lord turn his counsel to foolishness. David reached the top where God was worshipped; Hushai the Archite came with coat ripped and earth on his head; but David said if he cross over to him he will only be a burden, but if he returns and be Absalom’s servant as the King, just as he was his father’s servant; thus, thou will defeat Ahithophel’s counsel. What you hear in the King’s house thou may send me word by Zadok and Abiathar the Priests, by sending their sons Ahimaaz or Jonathan. So Hushai went to the city, and Absalom came to Jerusalem.
David passed over the top of the mount, and Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with couple of donkeys saddled, loaded with 200 loaves of bread, 100 clusters of raisins, 100 summer fruits, and bottle of wine. The King asked what is all this; he replied that these are for the King’s household, for the young men, and for the faint in the wilderness; and he asked where was his master’s son; and Ziba said he was staying in Jerusalem, saying that today the House of Israel might restore to me the Kingdom of my father. The King told Ziba that now all that belongs to Mephibosheth is thine; but Ziba said I bow in the favor of my Lord the King. ((Those who think that Ziba is false and deceptive are in error; it is clear he was on David’s side againt the House of Saul, including Mephibosheth.)) David then came to Bahurim, and Shimei ben-Gera of the family and House of Saul came out and cursed him as he went along, throwing stones at David and the servants; the people and fighters on the right and the left of the King. Shimei cursed, saying, begone! get out! thou man of blood and base fellow: the Lord has returned on thee the blood of Saul’s House, whose reign thou replaced, and He has delivered thy Kingdom to Absalom, and thou art taken in thy mischief, thou bloody man! Abishai ben-Zeruiah asked the King to permit him to go cut off this dead dog’s head that curses my lord the King. The King replied: what do I have to do with you sons of Zeruiah? The Lord permits him to curse me, who can say no? My own son from my body seeks my life, how much more this Benjaminite; let him curse as the Lord bids; perhaps the Lord will see the wrong done to me and requite me with good for his curses. So they continued on while Shimei cursed and threw stones and dust. The King and the people were tired and he refreshed there. Absalom and the people of Israel with Ahithophel came to Jerusalem; Hushai the Archite, David’s friend, greeted Absalom, saying, the King lives! Absalom responded: Is this thy kindness to thy friend, why are you not with him? He said that whom the Lord and Israel chooses to him will he stay; as I served thy father, so I now serve his son. Absalom asked counsel from Ahithophel; who said he should violate his father’s concubines keeping the house; thus Israel will know thou art odious to thy father, and will be more resolute in supporting you. So they spread a tent for him on the housetop, and he violated his father’s concubines before Israel. Now the counsel of Ahithophel was in those days, for David and Absalom, as if one inquired from the Oracle of God. Further, he asked Absalom to permit him to take 12,000 men and pursue David this night, and will catch him weak and weary, and he will be afraid, and the people will desert him; and I will only need to kill the King; and I will bring back all the people in peace. Absalom and the Elders of Israel were pleased with this counsel; but he asked Hushai his counsel; he replied that at this time Ahitophel’s counsel was not good; for you know that your father and his men are brave fighters and chafed in their minds, as a bear robbed of her cubs, and your father as a valiant warrior will not lodge with the people; he will be hid in some pit or place, and when some are fallen (naphal, nephallim), they will report that there is a slaughter of Absalom’s followers; and even the most valiant warrior with a lion’s heart will melt at the news. But I counsel that Israel be mustered from Dan to Beer-sheba, a great army led by Absalom; and we will surprise him as the morning dew and leave none alive; and if he flees to a city of Israel, we will take ropes and drag it into the river, that a stone be not left. Absalom and the men of Israel declared the counsel of Hushai the Archite is better than Ahitophel’s counsel. The Lord had ordained to defeat the good counsel of Ahitophel, that He may destroy Absalom. Hushai related to the Priests Zadok and Abiathar to tell David the counsels given to Absalom, and that he lodge not at the fords of the desert, but pass over, lest the King and the people be swallowed up. Now Jonathan and Ahimaaz were staying by En-rogel, a maid-servant would inform them, then they would go tell David, thus not be seen to come into the city; but a youth saw them and informed Absalom; meanwhile they both went quickly to the house of a man in Bahurim, who had a well in his court; they hid inside; and a woman covered the well with straws of bruised grain; so they were undetected. Absalom’s servants asked the woman of the house, where are Ahimaaz and Jonathan; she told them that they crossed over the brook; they searched but could not find them, they returned to Jerusalem. They then came out of the well and went and told David the counsel of Ahithophel against David. David quickly crossed the Jordan. When Ahithophel’s counsel was ignored, he saddled his donkey and went home to his city, put his house in order, then hanged himself, and they buried him in his father’s sepulchre. David came to Mahanaim; but Absalom and the Israelites crossed Jordan. Absalom replaced Joab with Amasa as general, he was the son of Ithra the Israelite, that wedded Abigail bath-Nahash, Zeruiah’s sister, Joab’s mother. Israel and Absalom encamped in the land of Gilead. At Mahanaim Shobi ben-Nahash of Rabbah of the Ammonites, and Machir ben-Ammiel of Lodebar, and Barzillai the Gileadite of Rogelim; they brought beds, basins, earthen vessels, wheat, barley, meal, parched grain, beans, lentils, parched pulse, honey, butter, sheep, and cheese for David and his people, who were hungry, weary, and thirsty in the desert.
David numbered the people, he set captains of 1,000s and 100s; and divided the people in thirds, 1/3 under Joab, 1/3 under Abishai ben-Zeruiah, Joab’s brother, and 1/3 under the hand of Ittai the Gittite. The King also said he would go with them; but the people said no, for if all the people flee, they will not care if we all die, but thou art worth 10,000 of us; so it’s better that thou comfort us out of the city. The King agreed to do as they deem best, and he stood by the gate-side, while the people exited by 100s and 1000s. Now the King commanded Joab, Abishai, and Ittai to deal gently with young man Absalom, and the people heard; so they went to war with Israel in field and forest of Ephraim. The Israelites were beaten by the servants of David, some 20,000 were slaughtered; the battle spread over the country, so that the forest devoured more of them than the sword. Absalom by chance encountered David’s servants, while riding his mule, and he rode under the thick boughs of a great oak tree. and his head got stuck, and his mule went on. One told Joab that Absalom was hanging in the oak tree; and he replied that you should have struck him to the ground, and I would have given you 10 silver pieces and a girdle; he replied that not 1,000 pieces of silver would entice him to harm the King’s son, since he commanded us specifically; and if I had acted falsely against his life, the King knows all things, even thou would be set against me. Joab said he could not waste time; so he took three darts and pierced Absalom’s heart; then 10 young men that carried Joab’s armor struck Absalom to death. Joab blew the trumpet and Israel returned from the chase; they took Absalom and threw him into a great pit in the forest, and heaped stones over him; and Israel fled to their tents. Now Absalom had before erected a pillar in the King’s Dale in his own memory, saying he had no son to remember him, and he called it Absalom’s Monument to this day (times of Solomon to Ezra.). Ahimaaz ben-Zadok asked to run to the King with the news of the Lord avenging the King of his enemies. Joab said not today, maybe another time, for the King’s son is dead. Then Joab told the Cushite (black runner) to tell the King what he has seen, so he bowed and ran; Ahimaaz insisted to be allowed also to run, saying why? you will get no reward for the news; yet he insisted to let him run. Ahimaaz ran by way of the Plain, and outran the Cushite. David was seated between the two gates; the watchman from the roof of the gate of the wall, shouted out that a lone runner was coming; David said if he is alone he brings news. The watchman shouted to the porter that another man runs alone; the King said he too brings good-news. The watchman said that the fastest runner appears to be Ahimaaz; the King said he is a good man with good news. Ahimaaz greeted the King and bowed, saying, the Lord is blessed Who delivered up those who rebelled against the King; but he asked is the young man Absalom safe; he said when Joab sent him he heard a tumult but did not know why. The King told him to step aside; then the Cushite greeted the King saying the Lord has avenged him of all his enemies; David asked of Absalom; he answered that may all those who rise up against my Lord the King be as that young man. The King greatly moved went to the chamber above the gate and wept, and as went crying: O Absalom, my son! my son Absalom! wished I had died for thee!
Joab was informed of the King’s grief for Absalom, turning the victory into sorrow; the people quietly as if ashamed deserters, moved in the city; while the King agonized over Absalom. Joab came to the King’s house and rebuked the King for shaming his men and people who saved his live and of all those loyal to the King, showing that the King loved his haters more than his lovers; and if Absalom survived and we all, princes and servants, died, the King would be pleased. Now get up and speak comfort to thy servants, or I swear by the Lord, not one man will be loyal to thee this night; and that will be the worse evil to thee from thy youth to today. The King arose and sat in the gate; the people were told, and they stood before him; for they had fled to their tents, quarreling that he delivered us from our enemies and the Philistines, but now flees because of Absalom who is dead; and why have we not brought back the King. King David sent the Priests Zadok and Abiathar to the Elders of Judah, asking why they are the last to reinstate the King in his house, as Israel has voiced. Ye are my brethren and kin; tell Amasa that thou art my bone and flesh, and God act, if I do not make thee my general of the army to replace Joab. Thus he bowed the heart of the men of Judah as if one man, that they might restore the King and his servants; so he returned, and Judah met him at Jordan, to escort him over the Jordan, Judah also came to escort him at Gilgal. Shemei ben-Gera the Benjaminite of Bahurim in haste joined the Judaens to meet King David; also 1,000 Benjaminites; and Ziba Saul’s servant with his 15 sons and 20 servants accompanied the King; a ferry-boat transported the King’s household, and for his use. Shimei prostrated himself, and spoke to the King not to impute lawlessness or perversity to his actions on the King leaving Jerusalem, for he knows his sin, and came first of all the House of Joseph to meet my Lord the King. Abishai demanded that Shimei be put to death for having cursed the Lord’s Anointed! But David objected that ye sons of Zeruiah are my adversaries; no, not a man shall be put to death this day, for I am now King over Israel. So he swore to him not to put him to death; Mephibosheth also came to Jerusalem, unkept from the time the King fled till his return; the King asked why he was not an exile with him; he replied that Ziba deceived him when he was about to saddle the donkey and ride out to the King; also he has slandered me to the King; but the King is as an Angel of God ; so do what you deem best; for I and my father’s house were good as dead before the King’s favor when you me at your table; so I have need to trouble the King. But the King said, why speak of any of this; I have declared that thou and Ziba divide the land! Mephibosheth told the King to let Ziba have it all; for my Lord the King has returned home. ((Mephibosheth expected that David’s death at Absalom’s hand would disrupt the Throne of David’s House, and the Kingdom would be restored to the House of Saul; so he played the part of an unkept mourner, and his alibi, a lame excuse, was to accuse Ziba as subverting his attempt to flee; but David did not fall for this version)) Barzillai the Gileadite, a great man, came from Rogelim, to accompany the King across Jordan; he was 80 years old; and he had supplied the King with provisions at Mahanaim. The King asked him to go with him to Jerusalem, and he would take care of him; but he said no, I am a very old man ready to die, poor health and vision, feeble mind, simple diet, and bad hearing, why be a burden; why reward me for just going a little way with the King; no, let me return to die in my own city, and my grave to be with my parents. Instead let thy servant Chimham cross over with the King, and do to him what is good. He said, yes, he will go with me and I will do what you require. So the people and the King crossed Jordan, the King kissed Barzillai and blessed him, he went to his place. The King came to Gilgal, with Chimham; and all Judah and half Israel brought the King over; the rest of Israel complained to the King that Judah has stolen the King from them, along with his household and men. The Judaens answered the Israelites: the King is our near kin; why are you upset? have we ate at the King’s expense or be rewarded? Israel answered them that we have 10 parts in the King, with more rights to him; so why did you despise us to not seek our help to restore our King. But the words of Judah were more fierce that those of Israel.
Then Sheba ben-Bichri, a Bemjaminite, a base fellow, sounded the trumpet declaring that Israel has no portion or inheritance in David ben-Jesse, thus back to your tents; Israel left and followed Sheba; but Judah stayed loyal to their King, from Jordan to Jerusalem. David returned to his house in Jerusalem, he took the 10 concubines that kept the house, and he sheltered them and sustained them as widows, but never cohabited with them again. He ordered Amasa with Judah to appear before him in 3 days; but Amasa took longer than the days appointed; so David told Abishai that maybe Sheba will do more harm than Absalom: so take the servants and pursue him, before he escapes to fortified cities. Joab’s men, and the Cherithites, and Pelethites, and all the mighty men pursued Sheba; at the Great Stone in Gibeon Amasa met them; Joab was girded war clothes, with girdle and sheathed sword around his waist; the sword fell out while approaching Amasa, asking him if all was well; he answered it was; Joab held Amasa’s beard as if to kiss him, but he did not notice the sword in Joab’s hand, by which he thrust him to death, disembowelling him. Then Joab and Abishai continued after Sheba; a young man of Joab’s stood and said: he who is for Joab and David follow Joab; but Amasa still laid in his blood, and the men refused to march till they removed his body from the highway to the field, and covered him; then the soldiers pursued; and Joab pursued him thru Israel’s tribes, to Abel and to Beth-maacah and the Berites, all together; and they besieged him in Abel of Beth-maacah; they made a mound and set up the rampart, and battered the wall to overthrow it. A wise woman cried out to Joab to come near and let her speak; he answered her that he was listening; so she said that they say of old that go ask at Abel and that settles it: I am one of peace and faith in Israel; so why do you seek to destroy a city and mother in Israel; will you swallow up the Lord’s inheritance? Joab replied, never, but only Sheba ben-Bichri of the hill-country of Ephraim has revolted against King David; deliver him over and I will depart; she answered that his head will be tossed over the wall. The woman in her wisdom convinced the people, and they cut off his head and threw it to Joab; so he blew the trumpet and dispersed; and he returned to Jerusalem to the King. Joab was general over all the army of Israel; Benaiah ben-Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and Pelethites; Adoram over the taskworkers; Jehoshaphat ben-Ahilud was Recorder; Shava was Scribe; Zadok and Abiathar were Priests; and Ira the Jairite was Chief-minister to David.
Now a famine lasted for 3 years in the days if David, and sought the Lord concerning it, and He said it was because of Saul and his bloody house putting the Gibeonites to death; the King David asked the Gibeonites (these were not Israelites but  remnants of Amorites, who had a treaty with Israel, but Saul in his zeal for Israel and Judah slaughtered attempting to exterminate them) what do you want to make atonement, and for your blessing on the Lord’s inheritance. We want neither money nor innocent blood, only the 7 sons of Saul’s House be handed over, that we may hang them to the Lord in Gibeah of Saul, the Lord’s Chosen; he gave them over, but he spared Mephibosheth ben-Jonathan ben-Saul for his oath’s sake; the 7 sons were: 2 sons Saul by Rizpah bath-Aiah, Saul’s concubine, Armoni and Mephibosheth; 5 sons of Michal bath-Saul born to Adriel ben-Barzillai the Meholathite. The Gibeonites hung them together in the mountain before the Lord, this was in harvest season, the first days of the barley harvest (spring, April); then Rizpah covered the rock (covering the bones) with sackcloth and guarded it till the rain fell upon it, letting no birds near by day, or beasts by night. David was told about Rizpah, and he went and took the bones of Saul and Jonathan from the Jabesh-gileadites, who had stolen them from the street of Beth-shan, where the Philistines had hanged them in Gilboa; so he buried all the bones of Saul, Jonathan, and the others, in Benjamin in Zela, in the sepulchre of Kish, just as the King commanded; afterwards God was entreated for the land.
The Philistines again warred with Israel, and David and his servants fought them; he was exhausted, and Ishbi-benob, a son of the giant (offspring of Rapha), whose spear weighed 300 brass-shekels, girt anew, intended to kill David; but Abishai defended him by slaying the Philistine. David’s men swore that he must not again go out to war lest he quench the lamp of Israel. Again (2nd time) the Philistines fought at Gob, and Sibbecai the Hushathite slew Saph one of the sons of the giant (offspring of Rapha). Again (3rd time) the Philistines warred at Gob; and Elhanan ben-Jaareoregim the Beth-lehemite slew Goliath the Gittite, whose spear staff was like a weaver’s beam. Again (4th time) they warred at Gath, and a giant of great stature, having 6 fingers hands, and 6 toes feet, 24 in all; he defied Israel, and Jonathan ben-Shimei, David’s brother, slew him. These 4 were born to the giant in Gath (Rapha in Gath), and were killed by David and his servants.

David’s Song of Jehovah’s Deliverance from his Enemies and Saul:

Jehovah is my Rock, my Fortress, my Deliverer;
God my Rock and Refuge; my Shield, and Horn of my Salvation;
my High Tower, and my Refuge; my Saviour from violence;
I will call on the Lord, the praise-worthy: I shall be saved from my enemies.
The waves of death compassed me; the floods of ungodliness frightened me;
the cords of hell (sheol) surround me; the snares of death upon me.
In my distress I cried to the Lord and called to my God:
He heard my voice from His Temple, my cry with His ears.
The earth shook & trembled, heaven’s foundations quaked and shook at His wrath.
Smoke from His nostrils, devouring fire from His mouth: coals were kindled.
He bowed the heavens and descended with thick darkness under His feet.
He rode a flying Cherub, on the wings of the wind;
darkness were pavilions, waters gathered in thick clouds of the skies;
brightness before Him, kindled coals;
The Lord thundered from heaven, the Highest shouted;
His arrows scattered them, lightning discomfited them.
Sea channels appeared, the world foundations laid naked,
at His rebuke and the blast of His nostrils;
from on high He rescued me out of many waters,
He delivered me from a strong enemy, and the mighty who hated me;
they came in my calamity, but the Lord was my Stay;
He brought me to large place, He delivered me because He delighted in me;
He rewarded my righteousness, He recompensed my clean hands.
I have kept the Lord’s ways, and not departed from my God.
His ordinances were before me, His statutes were not abandoned;
I was perfect toward Him, and kept from my iniquity;
the Lord repaid my righteousness and cleanness.
Thou art merciful to the merciful, and perfect with the perfect;
and pure with the pure, but perverse with the perverse.
The afflicted Thou wilt save, but Thine eyes are against the haughty to humble them.
Lord, Thou art my Lamp! enlighten my darkness!
By Thee I run upon a troop, by God I leap over a wall.
God’s Way is perfect, the Lord’s Word is tried;
He is a Shield to all who seek refuge in Him.
God is the Lord, the Rock and Strong Fortress;
He guides the perfect, and makes his feet like the hinds,
and set me on high-places, and teaches my hands to war, to bend a brass bow.
Thou gavest me the shield of Thy salvation; Thy gentleness made me great.
Thou enlarged my steps, and my feet slipped not;
I pursued and destroyed my enemies, relentless to consume them,
striking them down, they cannot arise, under my feet;
Thou girdest me with strength for battle and subdued the rebels.
They looked for salvation even to the Lord, but He answered not;
I beat them to dust, crushed them as mud in the streets, and spread them all over.
Thou delivered me from the people’s strife;
made me Head of the nations (Gentiles), of foreigners who submit to me,
they hear and obey, they fade away and tremble in hiding places.
Jehovah lives! blessed and exalted be my Rock of Salvation!
my Avenging God and Subduer of my people and subjects my enemies.
Thou elevate me above my conspirators and the violent man:
I thank Thee among the Gentiles, and sing praises to Thy Name:
great deliverance He gives to His King, and shows lovingkindness to His Anointed;
to David and his seed forever!

The Last Words of David:
David ben-Jesse, the Man Elevated, the Anointed of Jacob’s God,
the Sweet Psalmist of Israel:
Jehovah’s Spirit spake by me, His Word on my tongue;
the God of Israel, Israel’s Rock spoke:
the righteous ruler over men, ruling in the fear of God,
is as morning light, as sunrise, a cloudless morn,
as the earth’s tender grass, in the sunshine after the rain.
My house is not ordered so with God,
yet He made with me an everlasting changeless covenant;
it is my salvation and honor, although unborn;
but the ungodly as thorns are thrust away as useless thorns,
which must be handled with gloves of iron and staff (fork) of spear,
to be utterly burned in fire.

These are the Mighty Men, Valiant Warriors, Brave Fighters of David:
1st, Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite, Chief of the Captains (same as Adino the Eznite), against 800 slain at one time.
2nd, Eleazar ben-Dodai, son of an Ahohite, one of David’s three mighty men, when they defied the Philistines in battle while Israel was absent; he fought the Philistines until his hand clung to his sword, and the Lord gave great victory that day, and the people took spoils.
3rd, Shammah ben-Agee an Hararite; when the Philistines encamped near a plot of ground full of lentils, the people fled, but he stood in the middle of the field and defended it, and slew them, the Lord giving victory.
Now 3 of David’s special 30, came to David during the harvest time, to the Cave of Adullam, while the Philistines’ troops camped in the Valley of Rephaim; David was still in the fortress, but the Philistines’ garrison was in Beth-lehem. David sighed that he longed for a drink from the Well of Beth-lehem by the city’s gate! The Three Mighty Men broke through the Philistine’s army and drew water from the Well of Beth-lehem and brought it to David; but he refused to drink, but poured it out to the Lord, saying he would not drink the blood of these Three warriors who risked their lives for his thirst.
4th, Abishai ben-Zeruiah, Joab’s brother, was Chief of the 3; he fought with spear some 300 and killed them, he was famous among the 3, but was not the most honorable, he was their Captain, but not one of the Three.
5th, Benaiah ben-Jehoiada, son of a brave fighter of Kabzeel, famed for killing the two sons of Ariel of Moab (two Ariel, Warriors, Champions, Lion-like): he went into a pit and killed a lion in the snow; and he killed a handsome Egyptian with his own spear, which had taken from him; he was famous among the three, and more honorable than the 30, but not of the Three; and David set him over his guard.
David’s 30 Mighty Men: 1, Asahel, Joab’s brother; 2, Elhanan ben-Dodo of Bethlehem; 3, Shammah the Harodite; 4, Elika Harodite; 5, Helez Paltite; 6, Ira ben-Ikkesh Tekoite; 7, Abiezer Anathothite; 8, Mebunnai Hushathite; 9, Zalmon Ahohite; 10, Maharai Netophathite; 11, Heleb ben-Baanah Netophathite; 12, Ittai ben-Ribai of Gibeah of Benjamin; 13, Benaiah Pirathonite; 14, Hiddai of the Brooks of Gash; 15, Abialbon Arbathite; 16, Azmaveth Barhumite; 17, Eliahba Shaalbonite; 18, Jonathan of the sons of Jashen; 19, Shammah Haraite; 20, Ahiam ben-Sharar Ararite; 21, Eliphelet ben-Ahasbai ben-Maacathite; 22, Eliam ben-Ahithophel Gilonite; 23, Hezro Carmelite; 24, Paarai Arbite; 25, Igal ben-Nathan of Zobah; 26, Bani Gadite; 27, Zelek Ammonite and 28, Naharai Beerothite; both Joab’s armorbearers; 29, Ira Ithrite; 30, Gareb Ithrite; and 31, Uriah the Hittite.
Again the Lord’s Anger was ignited against Israel, so He moved David to number Israel and Judah; so David ordered Joab to take a census of all the people from all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beer-sheba; that I may know the sum. Joab objected saying may the Lord add 100 fold, but why must my Lord the King delight in this; David insisted and prevailed against Joab and the Captains of the army; and they crossed Jordan, encamped in Aroer, to the right of city in the middle of Gad, and to Jazer; they came to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; to Dan-jaan, and all about to Sidon; to the Fortress of Tyre; to all the cities of the Hivites, and Canaanites; down to the south of Judah at Beer-sheba; completing the circuit thru all the tribes in 9 months 20 days, and returned to Jerusalem and reported to the King the census numbers: 800,000 fighters with swords in Israel, and in Judah 500,000; thus in all 1.3 million ready militia. But David regretted and confessed to the Lord he had sinned greatly in ordering this census; he asked forgiveness for his wicked folly. David arose early the next morn, and the Word of the Lord by Gad the Prophet, David’s Seer, saying: The Lord gives thee 3 options of judgment, choose one: 1st, 7 years of famine in thy land; or 2nd, to flee for 3 months from thy enemies chasing thee; or 3rd, 3 days plague of pestilence in thy land. David very perplexed said its best to fall into the Lord’s hands, for He shows great mercies, than in man’s hand. So the Lord sent a pestilence on Israel from dawn to dusk as appointed, and some 70,000 people died from Dan to Beer-sheba. When the Angel stretched out his hand toward Jerusalem to destroy it, the Lord repented and said: Enough! hold thy hand; now the Angel of the Lord was in the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. David saw the Angel and spoke to the Lord: I alone have sinned perversely, but not these sheep; let Thy hand be on me and my father’s house. Then Gad that day told David to erect an Altar to the Lord in the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. David went to Araunah, who saw the King and his servants, and bowed before him; asking why the King has visited his servant. David said he wished to buy the threshing-floor to erect an Altar to the Lord to stop the plague from the people. Araunah: Let the King take it and offer what he deems best; take the oxen for the burnt-offering and take the threshing tools and yokes for wood to burn; all of it I give to the King, and may the Lord thy God accept thee. The King replied: No, I must buy it at price, for I will not offer to the Lord my God what cost me nothing. So David bought everything for 50 silver shekels; and built an Altar to the Lord and offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings; and the Lord was entreated for the land, and the plague was stopped against Israel.

Some Reflections on SAMUEL:
The Theocracy of Moses Law and Covenant on behalf of the Lord as the representation and reflection of the Divine Word and the Kingdom it reveals during the rule of the Judges over a 500-year period is about to change to a Monarchy. God had given Israel 5 centuries to generate a world which conformed to the Divine Will, and to eradicate all opposition to the Word revealed. The Land and the People were to be transformed by the Book, and the Divine work of Creation and Judgment and Salvation was to produce fruit to God’s glory. The world of the Gentiles, the Nations not in covenant with God, nor related to the Lord, had for a millennium gone astray, and as they strayed, they altered all Divine knowledge and memory, and substituted vain imagination for truth and facts. The world history in each nation was more fiction than veracity, more virtual than real. The Law as Testimony had failed to change or perfect the chosen elect nation but was very much alive in judgment against the sins and nature of man in Israel and the world. Mankind was also maturing and aging in their own distinct ways and cultures. Religion was everywhere, but philosophy was becoming visible in many ways. Wisdom was discovered to be unique with man, and that with wisdom in its many forms, a man or a family, or a tribe, or a nation, could dominate all others. The Book as the repository of wisdom, human and divine, could unlock well guarded secrets and forbidden mysteries. Israel must needs undergo a change in regard to wisdom, and the Book must be enlarged to incorporate new features and meanings to the Divine knowledge. This wisdom will produce what centuries later we call science, that is, to apply the wisdom to produce, invent, create, make, and manufacture from ideas to reality for life and living. The sea merchant nations like the Phoenicians and the Greeks (the Hellenes) would learn from and teach to the nations of the Mediterranean world, and the Alphabet and the Book would spread throughout the earth; and with the Greeks new versions of old stories borrowed from Egypt, Canaan, Babylon, and elsewhere: stories, myths, legends and the like, of their gods and goddesses, of Hercules (compare with Samson), of Achilles, of David’s Mighty Men, of Goliath, etc.
In Samuel we have a member of the  tribe of Judah and Ephraim. The similarity to 1st Chron. 6:33-38 of Elkanah ben-Jeroham of Kohath ben-Levi is problematic and uncertain. The Levites lived in various cities of Israel among the different tribes, their lineage became mixed and diluted among the tribes as seen in Judges, and often mixed with foreign marriages. Samuel as a decedent of Levi instead of Judah via Caleb, or of Benjamin, is confused and difficult to determine. The names are common and popular, the variants of spelling adds to the problem and eludes the solution. (In Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on 1st Samuel 1 it is properly treated, and Samuel as a Levite maintained; and also more fully treated in Lange & Schaff Commentary; and Barrett’s; but I am not convinced that is the best or accurate solution, but I agree it is reasonable; and some interpret Samuel Levitically (Lee in the Recovery Version, and others), while most emphasize his prophetic-judicial significance. But I lean closer to Driver’s note and solution, but with caution: (((From: S. R. Driver ‘Notes on Hebrew Text of Books of Samuel’ (1890)) [’aphrthi] This word appears to represent Elqanah not merely as resident in Ephraim (mohed ’Ephrim), but as an Ephraimite; in 1 Chron. 6 he is represented as a Levite, of the descendants of Qohath (Num. 3:27 etc.). The discrepancy is hard to reconcile. Jud. 17: 7 the expression ‘of the family of Judah,’ applied to a Levite, shews that Levites settled in a particular tribe may have been reckoned as belonging to it (cf. Ew. Hist. ii. 421); but there the addition (whu’ lui) makes the double relationship clear; here the addition (’Ephrthi) seems to shew that the narrator has no consciousness of Samuel’s Levitical descent. The explanation that the term designates Elqanah as an Ephraimite, merely so far as his civil rights and standing were concerned, makes it express nothing more than what is virtually declared in v. a (v. 1-4), and moreover implies a limitation which is not, at least, sustained by usage. It is a question whether the traditions embodied in Chron. have been handed down uniformly in their original form, and whether in some cases the genealogies have not been artificially completed. The supposition that Samuel was really of Ephraimite descent, and was only in later times reckoned as a Levite, appears to be the simplest explanation of the divergence.) But see Oehler’s solution below, that Samuel was a non-priest Levite of Ephraim.)) It is certain Samuel is shown to be a little priest adopted into Eli’s care, if not family, and is made to appear Levitical, but no more than symbolic, for his priesthood was to be a prophetic nature in relations to the new monarchy. Like Samson his birth is by divine intervention, and like the Angel’s instruction to Samson’s parents that he will be a Nazirite for life (‘from the womb to the tomb’), and his long hair ever a sign of his divine relation and obligation; so too, Samuel’s mother uses the Nazirite vow to bind her son to the priesthood and the Lord’s House and Tabernacle. There was a new way at work to displace and expose the priesthood, both Aaronic and Levitical. With Samson God uses a warrior and wild man, but with Samuel He has a scribe and prophet. The prophetic office was developing out of the Mosaic law, and Moses as a Prophet prefigured both the prophetic office of which Samuel is to play a major role, and ultimately Messiah the Prophet and the Anointed. In Moses’s death his prophetic office is given as the standard and measurement of all future prophets (Deut.34), and we saw in Deut. 18 and 13 the nature of the future prophetic office. We will not here future explore the prophetic office, but reserve that for the division of the  Tanakh beginning with Isaiah the Prophet. The School of the Prophets, as colleges and bands or families, will multiply and adapt to their heads, leaders, and fathers. Soon the Prophets Elijah and Elisha will display those features of which we speak and seek. The Theocracy of the Judges was that of a prophetic nature and not lordship or monarchy in government. Samuel as the last and final judge will become a warrior and prophet in his priestly function. Eli and his sons died, and the priesthood is temporarily suspended till the monarchy is established. In Joshua the priesthood, with the High Priest in Eleazar and Phinehas known and served, but the in Judges they are hidden, lost, and void. We find in Samuel that the priesthood, headed by Eli, is corrupt and artificial, and contrary to the Mosaic order. The prophets will be raised up to reform and renew the priesthood and the people. There are many doctrines and principles both small and great that are matured and germinated in this new period, and we must each search and explore as He gives us desire and power to find and understand. I leave Samuel to move on to the Kings with these selections form Oehler who has taught many of the former generations.

(From: G. F. Oehler ‘Theology of the Old Testament’ (1874).  Opening Words at the Last Delivery of Lectures October 21, 1870 (end of the Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War 1870-1871):

     “Gentlemen, in resuming our academic activity after long interruption, we all doubtless feel emotions of mingled joy and sorrow. We thank God for the deeds of deliverance by which He hath glorified Himself in our nation, and for the gracious protection which makes it possible for us to pursue here the works of peace while the conflict still surges without; we trust that He will bring forth judgment to victory, and from the pangs of these days bring forth for our nation a felicity worthy of the sacrifices offered. But, on the other side, we may not doubt that the duration of the serious crisis of history in which we stand is still incalculable; that perhaps it bears in its lap many new sufferings, and will yet add many to the lamented sacrifices which already have fallen on the altar of our Fatherland. In such critical moments, in which man would gladly have leave to ask a question at fate, and in lieu of this is ready to cradle himself in sanguine dreams, the Christian is referred to the word of God, as the light by which we ever learn to read God’s ways, as the source from which in all circumstances we are to draw doctrine and counsel, admonition and comfort. In this blessing, by the divine word, the Old Testament has its proper share, as a prophetic word unveiling the divine purposes and the goal of all God’s ways, and displaying in every crisis of the fortunes of nations the coming of the God who judgeth and delivereth the world, perfecting His own kingdom;—as an historic word holding up tons a mirror in which we see the severity and goodness of God in the guiding of men: His severity against those who, revolting from Him, harden themselves in pride and lies; His goodness to those who, in repentance and humility, give Him honour and walk in His paths;—finally, as a word of prayer which teaches us in every case to seek God’s face, and to seek help from Him.
In the course of recent years it has often been said, especially in ecclesiastical assemblies, that a special need of the age is a better recognition of the importance of the Old Testament for religious knowledge and life—that the treasures of this book, so little known, especially to so-called persons of culture, be more fully laid open to the body of the Church. To this end the first requisite is, that theologians shall form a more thorough acquaintance with the Old Testament, especially that they become more familiar with it as a whole. It is true of every intellectual product, that it cannot be rightly esteemed by those who concern themselves only with its outer features, or with individual fragments of it; and of the Bible this is peculiarly true. What is here unfolded is one great economy of salvation—unum continuum systema, as Bengel puts it—an organism of divine deeds and testimonies, which, beginning in Genesis with the creation, advances progressively to its completion in the person and work of Christ, and shall find its close in the new heaven and earth predicted in the Apocalypse; and only in connection with this whole can details be rightly estimated. He who cannot apprehend the Old Testament in its historical context may produce in detail much that is valuable and worth knowing, but he lacks the right key to its meaning, and there fore true joy in the study of it; then he easily stops short at the puzzles which lie everywhere on the surface of the Old Testament, and from them he condemns the whole. Now, to introduce to organic historical knowledge of the Old Testament, is the very business of the discipline to which these lectures are to be devoted. We must not think it below its dignity to serve the practical need just indicated; nay, in general, he is no true theologian who leaves an open breach between science and life. But we vindicate for Old Testament theology no small importance also for science, especially for systematic theology. It possesses this importance as a part of biblical theology, since, in virtue of the Protestant principle of the authority of Scripture, every question for which the Protestant theologian seeks an answer leads back directly or indirectly to Scripture, and the historical investigation of the divine revelation it contains.
In its development as an independent science, biblical theology is one of the most recent branches of theology. We shall see by and by that the name and conception of biblical theology as a special historical science arose only in the course of last century, and the division of Old and New Testament theology was made still later. Older theologians did not separate dogmatic and biblical theology, and were still further from the idea of dividing Old and New Testament theology, ignoring the gradual progress of revelation, the constant connection of the revealing word with the advance of the revealing history, and treating the Old and New Testament as a sort of promptuarium which could be used alike in all its parts—prooftexts for every Christian doctrine being brought together from the various parts of the Bible. We are now far beyond such onesidedness, although some recent Old Testament theologians (Hengstenberg) still show a tendency to confuse the two Testaments after the fashion of the older orthodoxy. On the other hand, we are confronted in recent times by a view of the Old Testament which entirely cuts loose the Old Testament religion from specific connection with the New Testament, placing it on one line with the other pre-Christian religions, which also in their own way were a preparation for Christianity, —a view of the Old Testament which scarcely allows its theology to claim a higher significance for the theologic knowledge of the Christian, than could, for example, be ascribed to Homeric theology. This antipathy to the Old Testament in the spirit of Marcion and Schleiermacher is still prevalent among theologians, though far less so than it was twenty or thirty years ago. From this point of view the name Old Testament religion is as far as possible avoided, and Judaism and Judish religion are spoken of by preference, although everyone may learn from history that the Old Testament and Judaism are distinct—that Judaism begins when the Old Testament is about to end, viz. with Ezra and the wisdom of the scribes founded by him. This view consistently leads to the ignoring of the specific character as revelation of the New Testament also—of Christianity. On this point we must not allow ourselves to be deceived. The relation of the New Testament to the Old is such, that both stand or fall together. The New Testament has no other view than that Old Testament law and prophecy form its positive presupposition. According to the New Testament, God built up Christianity out of other elements than those with which modern destructive criticism is accustomed to calculate. We cannot have the redeeming God of the new covenant, without the Creator and covenant God preached in the old; we cannot place the Redeemer out of connection with Old Testament predictions which He appeared to fulfill. No New Testament idea, indeed, is already fully set forth in the Old Testament, but the genesis of all the ideas of New Testament salvation lie in the Old Testament; and Schleiermacher himself was compelled to give a striking testimony to the organic connection of the two Testaments, which in principle he denies, when he reintroduced into dogmatic the treatment of the work of Christ on the type of the threefold office. Against the assertion that, to gain the true sense of Scripture, we must put aside everything that is Israelitish, or, as people say, everything that is Jewish, or, in Bunsen’s words, must translate from Semitic into Japhetic, we must teach, with Hofmann (in his Schriftbeweis), that the history contained in Scripture being the history of Israel, is what makes it Holy Scripture; for Israel is the people whose vocation lies in the history of salvation [Greek deleted in WordPress, see PDF, when created.] (hë sötëria ek tön Ioudaiön estin), says our Lord to the woman of Samaria. Not to conceal God from the world, but to reveal Him to the world as the Holy One whom heathenism knows not, is the work for which Israel was chosen. In Israel were implanted such living forces, thatonly in this people could be born the God-man, the Redeemer of theworld. The whole national figure of Israel; the election and the rejection; the curse that lies upon the nation, which Hitzig has compared to the oyster, which produces the pearl by its own destruction, —all these are revelations of God to the world.
Therefore Old Testament theology still retains its importance for Christian dogma, though not in the same way in which the older Protestant theology utilized the Old Testament in dogmatic. The old atomistic system of Scripture proof must be superseded by one that shows that the truths of salvation formulated in dogmas, arise as the result of the whole historical process through which Revelation has passed. The possibility of such a Scripture proof is demonstrated just by biblical theology, which presents the Bible revelation in its totality and in its gradual historical course, and so displays the genesis
of the scriptural notions from which dogmatic propositions are to be coined, and the context in which they appear in the divine economy of salvation. When dogmatic makes use of the structure of biblical theology, this not only serves continually to renew and deepen the former in regard to existing dogmas; but also those biblical doctrines which, in the dogmatic labours of former centuries, fell too much into the shade, will receive more justice. For Scripture is, as Oetinger has called it, the store-book of the world, the store-book of all times: it offers to the Church in every age just such instruction as it specially requires. Thus, to give a single example, recent times have directed to biblical eschatology an interest in which the older Protestant theology had no share.
In these remarks I think I have brought forward the principal points of view by which the importance of Old Testament theology is to be estimated, and which are my guides in dealing with the Old Testament. Of the greatness and difficulty of the task, no one can have a livelier conviction than I myself. There are good reasons why there are innumerable monographs on isolated portions of biblical theology, but only few discussions of the whole subject, and also few separate books on Old Testament theology, and that some of these are posthumous. If these lectures awake in one or other of you an inclination to labour at the solution of this problem independently, not through the glasses of a theological system or a critical school, but to devote to the Old Testament a thorough study, with a receptive sense of its holy grandeur, this will be the best result which I could wish for these lectures. So, then, let us begin the journey that lies before us with trust in God, that we may pass through it without disturbance to its goal, and, arrived thither, may thank Him for His help in the way.”

(From Oehler’s as cited above.)
Part II —Prophetism. First Section. The Development of the Theocracy, from the Death of Joshua to the Close of the Old Testament Revelation.
First Division. The Times of the Judges. I. —The Disintegration of the Theocracy till the Times of Samuel.
§157. Course of Events. Import of the Office of Judge.

      “The history of the period of the judges, when viewed from the theocratic point of view in which it is contemplated in the Book of Judges, and especially in the second introduction to this book (chap. ii. 6-iii. 6) (1), presents a constant alternation between the apostasy of the people and their consequent chastisement by the Divine Power, on the one hand, and the return of the people to their God and the Divine deliverances therewith connected, on the other. The course of events during the three centuries preceding the time when Samuel filled the post of judge, may be generally described as follows: —After Joshua, who had no immediate successor, and the other elders, who had known all the works of the Lord that He had done for Israel ” (Josh. xxiv. 31), had passed from the scene, the nation was left to itself, that its life might now be freely developed under theocratic institutions. So long as the remembrance of the Divine manifestations endured, the people remained faithful to these institutions. Even the internal war against the tribe of Benjamin, related in the sequel of the Book of Judges (chap. xix—xxi), which, occurring during the high-priesthood of Phinehas, must have been waged shortly after the death of Joshua, is an indication that the theocratic zeal of the nation had as yet suffered no diminution. This is, however, the last occasion for many years on which we meet with the united action of the whole people. For Joshua having committed the further execution of the work of conquest to the individual tribes, it ceased to be the common concern of the nation, and opportunity was thus given for the promotion of private interests. The several states were not always entirely successful in the petty warfare which they carried on; a portion of the still remaining Canaanites were not subdued, against others the sentence of extermination was not strictly carried out. Those who were rendered merely tributary, and suffered to dwell among the Israelites, not only seduced the people to the service of Canaanitish gods, but also regained the mastery in isolated parts of the land. Irruptions of numerous nomadic hordes of Midianites and Amalekites from the east ensued, while the nation was repeatedly exposed to danger from the hostile attacks of the neighbouring Moabites and Ammonites. In the west, the power of the Philistine Pentapolis, situate on the low-lying plains near the Mediterranean, became increasingly formidable during the middle period of the judges. The oppressions which the Israelites suffered at the hand of these different nations usually extended only to certain tribes; but this very circumstance was the reason that not even these afflictions were capable of drawing the tribes out of their isolation, and uniting them in a common enterprise. Such slothful selfishness on the part of individual tribes, in withdrawing from the national cause, is sharply reproved in the Song of Deborah, Judg. v. 15-17. In times of oppression like these (when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord, chap. iii. 9, 15, iv. 3, etc.), individuals called judges arose, who, aroused by the Spirit of Jehovah, turned back the heart of the people to their God, revived in them the remembrance of God’s dealings with them in past times, and then broke the hostile yoke under which they were suffering. The whole intention of the narrative of this book is not, however, fulfilled in the glorification of these men as the heroes of the nation, —-its purport being rather to show that the help afforded was the result of an outpouring of the Divine Spirit; and that God, in effecting the deliverance of His people, made choice of the lowly and despised as His instruments. Compare what is already said of Shamgar, iii. 31. Very instructive in this respect is the history of Gideon, the most prominent among the earlier judges; see such passages as vi. 15, vii. 2. It was on this account that these ministers of the theocracy were called, not kings or rulers, but Shophetim (judges). This name must not, moreover, be specially restricted to the exercise of the judicial office, though its performance is asserted in the cases of Deborah (iv. 5), Eli, and Samuel, and must be assumed in that of others in so far as they remained for any length of time at the head either of the whole nation or of single tribes. It bears a more general signification, and represents these men as advocates of those Divine claims which it was their part to maintain and restore. The office of judge was neither permanent nor hereditary, but purely personal. Called to a prominent position by the necessities of the times, they interposed with energy in the affairs of the individual tribes at the head of which they were placed, but exercised no abiding influence upon the nation, which, on the contrary, relapsed into its former course, when its burdens were lightened or when the judge was dead; comp. especially the passage ii. 16-19.”

(From Oehler’s as cited above.)
§ 158. Religious Condition: Decline of the Theocratic Institutions.
§ 159. Continuation: Religious Syncretism of the Period,

II. Restoration of the Theocratic Unity by Samuel. Growth of Prophetism. Foundation of the Monarchy,
§ 160. The Philistine Oppression. Changes effected by Samuel.

     “The appearance of Samuel, and the growth of Prophetism by his means, forms the turning-point of the period of the Judges. The new state of affairs had been prepared for, partly by the Philistine oppression, which was both a longer and a heavier judgment than any with which the people had yet been visited, partly by the judgeship of Eli. For the judgeship depending in his case not upon a successfully-conducted war or on any other act of heroism, but upon the high-priestly office, the sanctuary could not fail to acquire fresh importance, and consequently the theocratic union fresh power with the people. Their first attempt, however, to break the Philistine yoke in united battle, ended in a fearful overthrow, in which even the ark, which had so often led them to victory, fell into the hands of the enemy, 1 Sam. iv. The oppression of the Philistines then became still more grievous, for it is evident, from xiii. 19-22, that they disarmed the entire nation. The fact that the ark of the covenant, the medium of Jehovah’s help and presence, should have fallen into the hands of the heathen, could not fail to exercise an important influence upon the religious consciousness of the people. The ark, after being restored by the Philistines, was for a long time laid aside: ” it was not inquired after,” 1 Chron. xiii. 13 (comp. Ps. cxxxii. 6); it continued an object of fear, but not of worship. The tabernacle was transferred from Shiloh, as a place now rejected of God, to Nob in the tribe of Benjamin; but, having lost with the ark its essential significance as the place of God’s habitation, it ceased to be the religious centre of the nation, though, as we may infer from 1 Sam. xxi. and xxii. 17 sq., the Levitical services were carried on in it without interruption. The person of Samuel, impelled as he was by the prophetic spirit, was now the centre of the nation’s vitality. The sanctuary being rejected, and the agency of the high-priesthood suspended, the mediatorship between God and His people rested with the prophet, who, though not of the priestly race, but by descent a Levite of the region of Ephraim, now performed sacrificial services in the presence of the people (1 Sam. vii. 9 sq.). The central sanctuary no longer existing, we now also find various places of sacrifice, as the high places at Raman, 1 Sam. ix. 13, Bethel and Gilgal, x. 3 sq., comp. xi. 15, xv. 21. Thus were the bounds imposed by the Mosaic ritual for the first time broken through. Israel attained to the experience that the presence of God is not confined to an appointed and sensible symbol, but that wherever He is sincerely invoked, He bestows His abundant blessing. The day of penitence and prayer for which Samuel assembled the people at Mizpah, in the tribe of Benjamin, after he had put down idolatry, became, by the help of Jehovah, who acknowledged the prayer of His prophet, a day of victory over their enemies, and the beginning of their deliverance (chap. vii.). Samuel was henceforth judge of the whole nation; and the prophetic office began from this time to develope its agency, on which account the history of Prophetism, properly speaking, dates from Samuel (Acts iii. 24).”

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Christian Biblical Reflections.14

(Here are pages 238-260, covers Judges and Ruth; as stated before, the PDF will not be created till Esther is completed in the Historical Books; Samuel and Kings are finished but sickness, and other matters has delayed my submission by the date intended. mjm)

JUDGES: 21 Chapters: 400 Years Transition: 12 (13) Judges:

JUDGES open after the death of Joshua: the Israelites asked the Lord who should lead the war against the Canaanites; He said Judah must lead, for I have delivered the land into his hand; Judah requested Simeon to help them in the fight, and we will also help you in your fight; and they went. The Lord defeated the Canaanites and Perizzites; and they killed in Bezek 10,000 men. Adoni-Bezek escaped, but they caught him and cut off his thumbs and great toes; and he said 70 kings I cut off the thumbs and great toes, so God has repaid me; and they brought him to Jerusalem to die. The Judaites (Jews) fought and destroyed by sword and fire Jerusalem. Judah fought the Canaanites in the hill-country and the Negev and lowland. They went against the Canaanites at Hebron (Kiriath-Arba), and smote Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai; thence to Debir (Kiriath-Sepher). Caleb said that the one who takes the city he may marry my daughter Achsah; Othniel his nephew (son of Kenaz, his younger brother) took it and got Achsah. Later she requested the springs of water in the Negev, and Caleb gave her the upper and lower springs. Now the Kenites were from Moses’ brother-in-law (his wife’s (cothen)), they left the City of Palm-Trees with Judah, in the south of Arad and lived with the People. Judah and Simeon defeated and destroyed the Canaanites of Zephath (Hormah). Judah also captured 3 cities with borders: Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron. The Lord was with Judah to drive them out of the hill-country; but they could not drive them out of the valley due to their iron-chariots. They gave Hebron to Caleb as Moses instructed, and he drove out the 3 sons of Anak. But the Benjaminites did not expel the Jebusites from Jerusalem. The house of Joseph went against Beth-El, and the Lord was with them. And they sent spies to Beth-El (Luz); the ones on watch ask a man leaving the city to show them entrance and he will be spared; he did so, and they struck the city, but let go the man and his family; and he moved to the land of the Hittites, built a city and named it Luz which continues (to the time of Samuel). Manasseh did not expel those of Beth-Shean and its towns, or of Megiddo, but the Canaanites still dwelt in them; but Israel made them subservient instead of expelling them. Ephraim did not expel the Canaanites in Gezer; and Zebulun expelled not those of Kitron or Nahalol; but the Canaanites continued as their task-workers. Asher expelled not those of Acco, Sidon, Ahlab, Achzib, Helbah, Aphik, or Rehob; but the Asherites dwelt together with the Canaanites. Naphtali expelled not those Beth-Shemesh or Beth-Anath, but dwelt together with the Canaanites, and made them laborers. Now the Amorites forced the Danites into the hill-country and kept them out of the valley; the Amorites resided in Heres, Aijalon, and Shaalbim; yet the house of Joseph prevailed and made them subservient. The border of the Amorites was from the ascent of Akrabbim, from the Rock, and upward.
The Lord’s Angel or Messenger (Malak-Yehowah) came from Gilgal to Bochim, and said: I extracted you out of Egypt, and then I introduced you into the Promised Land of My sworn Covenant; that ye make no covenant with the Canaanites, but to demolish their altars; ye refused to obey; so I will not drive them out, but they shall be your thorns, and their gods your snare. The People (Israel) heard and wept and called the Place Bochim (Place of Tears or Weeping); and there they sacrificed to the Lord. When Joshua had died at a 110, and they buried him in his inheritance in Ephraim; and that Generation with the elders who outlived Joshua, Israel then continued to serve the Lord; but the next Generation (some 20-40 years later), did not know the Lord or His work for Israel. The Israelites did evil in the Lord’s sight and served Baalim; they forsook Him for the gods of Canaan to worship idols to provoke Him to anger. They served Baal and the Ashtaroth, and His anger ignited against Israel, and He turned them over to the spoilers who despoiled them; and He sold them to their enemies in defeat. The Lord was against Israel in their goings for evil and distress as He warned and swore. The Lord rose up Judges who saved them from their despoilers; but they refused to listen to their Judges; for they played the harlot with other gods and bowed to them; turning away quickly from the way of their fathers who obeyed the Lord’s commandments. And when the Lord established Judges, He was with that Judge, and saved them from their enemies while the Judge lived: for He regretted and grieved for their groans by those who oppressed and vexed them. But after the Judge died they turned back to worse corruption and idolatry than their fathers; never ceasing from evil and stubbornness. The Lord’s anger burned against Israel: Because this Nation transgressed My Covenant in disobedience, I will not quickly expel those nations (Gentiles) that Joshua left at death; I may prove Israel, if they will keep and walk in the Lord’s way; and it was.
These are the Nations the Lord allowed to prove the next Generation of Israel, those who did not know the Wars of Canaan; so that they might learn War: the 5 Philistines’ Lords, Canaanites, Sidonians, and Hivites of Lebanon, from Mount Baal-Hermon to the Entrance of Hamath. These peoples were to test if Israel would listen to the Lord’s commandments as commanded by Moses. These nations Israel co-existed in the Land: Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites; intermarrying with them, and served their gods in idolatry and evil, forgetting Him to serve Baalim and Asheroth. The Lord’s anger ignited against Israel, and He sold them to Cushan-Rishathaim a King of Mesopotamia, and Israel served him for 8 years. Israel cried to the Lord, and He provided a saviour to save them in Othniel ben-Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother. The Spirit of the Lord visited him, and he judged Israel, and initiated war: and the Lord delivered Cushan-Rishathaim into his hand, and he defeated him; the Land rested from War for 40 years; and Othniel (1st Savior-Judge) died. Israel offended the Lord with evil, so He strengthened Eglon the King of Moab against Israel. And Eglon allied himself with Ammon and Amalek, and they struck Israel and captured the City of Palm-Trees. Israel was subject to Eglon for 18 years. They cried to the Lord, and He provided a saviour in Ehud ben-Gera (2nd Savior-Judge) the left-handed Benjamite. Israel sent the tribute-money to Eglon the King of Moab by Ehud; who made a short sharp two-edged sword or dagger (cubit or 1 1/2 feet in length) which he secured to his right thigh under his clothing. He offered the tribute-money to Eglon, who was very fat; then departed and dismissed tribute envoy; but himself returned to Eglon with a secret errand to the king; Eglon bid silence, then the attendants left. Ehud drew near to Eglon while he was alone in his cool upper room, to convey the message from God; Eglon stood up, and Ehud with his left hand drew the dagger from under his clothing from his right thigh and thrust it into Eglon, the handle followed the blade and the blade went out the back. Ehud secured the upper room and left. His servants returning assumed he was resting but waiting very long became concerned and opened the room and found him dead. Ehud escaped beyond the quarries to Seirah; He then blew the trumpet in the hill-country of Ephraim, and Israel gathered to him. He bid them follow him for the Lord has delivered their enemies the Moabites to them. He took the fords of Jordan preventing the Moabites to cross. 10,000 Moabites were slain, attractive and brave, none escaped; and Moab was subdued by Israel; and the Land rested 80 years. Next Shamgar ben-Anath (3rd Savior-Judge), who himself struck 600 Philistines with his ox-goad and saved Israel.
Israel again did evil to the Lord after Ehud died; and the Lord sold them to Jabin King of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor, and his Captain of the army was Sisera of Harosheth of the Gentiles (Nations). They cried to the Lord because Jabin had 900 iron chariots; and he oppressed Israel 20 years. Now Deborah (4th Savior-Judge) a Prophetess and wife of Lappidoth, judged Israel at the time, who lived under the Palm-Tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill-country of Ephraim; and Israel came to her for judgment. She summoned Barak (4th Savior-Judge co-ruled with Deborah) ben-Abinoam of Kedesh-Naphtali, saying that the Lord God of Israel commands him to muster 10,000 men from Naphtali and Zebulun; and He will draw Sisera the Captain of Jabin’s army with chariots and numbers to him. Barak stipulated that Deborah must go to war with him; she replied if she does the honor will not be his, for the Lord will sell Sisera to a woman. Deborah and Barak went to Kedesh. Barak gathered Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh with 10,000; and Deborah went. Heber the Kenite had separated from the sons of Hobab, Moses’ brother-in-law, and pitched tent as far as the Oak in Zaananannim by Kedesh. They told Sisera Barak went to Mount Tabor; and he gathered his 900 iron chariots and people fro Harosheth of the Goim (Gentiles, nations) to Kishon. Deborah told Barak to engage against Sisera for the Lord will give victory; and he went with his 10,000 to Mount Tabor; and the Lord defeated them utterly by Barak. Sisera escaped by foot to Jael the wife of the Kenite Heber; for there was peace between King Jabin and the Kenite Heber’s house. Jael met and invited Sisera to hide in her tent, and she covered him with a mantle or blanket. He asked for water for his thirst and she gave him a bottle of milk and covered him; He asked her to stand at the tent door and divert anyone seeking him. Jael took a tent-pin or spike and a hammer and went softly to him and struck the spike through his temples to the ground while he slept, and he swooned or jerked and died. Barak in pursuit of Sisera came, and Jael met him and showed him a dead Sisera by a tent-pin in his temples. God subdued Jabin the King of Canaan by Israel, and they prevailed to destroy him.

Deborah and Barak sang this Song:
Bless the Lord for the leaders in Israel, and for the people who offered themselves freely.
Listen up you kings and princes to my Song of Praise to the Lord God of Israel.
Lord, in Your advance to Seir, and Your march from Edom’s field;
the earth trembled, the heavens dropped, the clouds rained,
and the mountains quaked at Your Presence, (this or that) Sinai at the Lord’s Presence.
In the days of Shamgar ben-Anath, and Jael,
the highways untraveled, and byways travelled; no rulers in Israel.
Then I, Deborah, arose as a Mother in Israel.
Israel chose new gods; war at the gates: no shield or spear among 40,000 in Israel.
My heart is for the governors of Israel who offered themselves willingly among the people.
Bless the Lord! declare ye riders on white donkeys,
ye that sit on rich carpets, and walk by the way:
Far from the noise of the archers, in the places of drawing water,
they will rehearse the Lord’s righteous acts, and His rule in Israel;
then His people went down to the gates.
Awake Deborah with a Song, arise Barak and lead away captives;
the remnant of the nobles of the people;
the Lord came against the mighty for me;
from Ephraim the roots of Amalek; after Benjamin among Thy peoples;
from Machir came governors, from Zebulun the handlers of the marshal’s staff.
Issachar’s princes with Deborah, Issachar and Barak;
into the valley they rushed following him;
by the watercourses of Reuben were great resolve of heart.
They sat with the sheepfolds, by the watercourses of Reuben with great heart searchings;
Gilead stayed beyond the Jordan, and Dan remained in ships,
Asher sat in the sea haven and stayed near his creeks.
The Zebulunites risked their lives, with Naphtali on the high places in the field.
The kings battled, the Kings of Canaan fought,
in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; without money;
the stars fought from heaven, from their courses against Sisera;
the ancient Kishon River swept them away.
My soul march on in strength!
The horse-hoofs stamped by the prancings of the strong ones.
The Lord’s Angel cursed Meroz and its citizens for not aiding the Lord against the mighty. Blessed is Jael, the wife of the Kenite Heber, above women in the tent:
He asked water, she gave milk, with butter in a lordly dish;
she took a tent spike in the left hand, and in her right hand the workmen’s hammer;
she pierced his head through his temples (she severed his head after she pierced his temples); he bowed and fell at her feet dead.
Sisera’s mother looked out the window lattice, asking why his chariot wheels delayed;
her wise ladies answered with her reply:
they have found spoil to divide; a damsel or two for each man;
to Sisera dyed double embroidered garments, from the necks of the defeated.
O Lord, let all Thine enemies so perish;
but let those who love Him be as the sun in high noon.

The Land rested 40 years. The Israelites again offended the Lord with evil, so He handed them over to Midian for 7 years. Midian prevailed against Israel, so that Israel hid in mountain dens and caves and strongholds. When Israel farmed, the Midianites, Amallekites, and the children of the east (Beney-Qedem, Qedemites, easterners), came and encamped against them to destroy the produce and harvest, up to Gaza, leaving no sustenance in Israel, no sheep, ox, or donkey. They invaded with their cattle and tents, as locusts, with countless camels. Thus Israel was reduced by Midian, and they cried to the Lord; who in reply sent a Prophet to the Israelites, saying: The Lord God of Israel says: I saved you from Egypt the house of slavery; and from your oppressors, expelling them, and gave their land to you; I told you not to fear the gods of the Amorites in Canaan; but you refused to obey. Now the Angel of the Lord sat under the Oak-tree in Ophrah of Joash the Abiezrite, whose son Gideon was threshing wheat in the winepress to hide it from the Midianites. The Lord’s Angel appeared and greeted him: The Lord is with you mighty man of valor; he replied that if so why has all this befallen us? And where are all His wondrous works our fathers told us of from Egypt to Canaan? He has cast us off and delivered us to Midian. The Lord looked at him and commanded him to go in might and save Israel from Midian as I send you. Gideon asked how he was to save Israel, since his family is the poorest of Manasseh, and he the least of his father’s house. But the Lord assured him that He will be with him; and he must strike the Midianites as one man. Gideon asked for a visible sign that it was the Lord speaking. He asked the Angel to stay under the Oak till he returns with meal as an offering; and he agreed; Gideon cooked a kid, baked unleavened cakes or loaves; then put the meat in a basket, the broth in a pot, and set it before the Visitor. The Angel of God told him to put the meat and the unleavened cakes upon this rock and pour the broth out; then the Angel of the Lord extended his staff and touched the meat and the cakes, and fire came from the rock and consumed the meat and cakes; then the Angel departed. Gideon then surprised realized he had seen the Lord’s Angel face to face. The Lord assured him with peace, and that he will not die. Gideon built an Altar there, calling it Jehovah-Shalom (the Lord of Peace); it still exists in Ophrah of the Abiezrites. That night the Lord told him to take his father’s second bullock of 7 years old; and he must demolish his father’s altar of Baal, and to cut down the Asherah next to it; and to build an Altar to the Lord on this stronghold, in an orderly manner; and offer the second bullock on it as a burnt-offering with the wood cut from the Asherah. Gideon did so with 10 of his servants, at night for fear of his father’s household and men of the city. In the morn the citizens saw it and demanded to know who did this; they discovered it was Gideon ben-Joash; they demanded Joash to hand over his son to die for demolishing Baal’s altar and cutting down the Asherah. But Joash responded that if anyone contends to save Baal, they must be put to death immediately; if Baal is a god let him contend for himself against the one who destroyed his altar; he called him Jerubbaal (Baal’s Contender or Opponent). The armies or divisions of the Midianites, Amalekites, and Easterners assembled, and passed over the Jordan, and encamped in the Valley of Jezreel. The Lord’s Spirit came upon Gideon (5th Savior-Judge), and he blew the trumpet, and Abiezer gathered after him; he sent messengers (angels) through Manasseh, to those who gathered to him, to Asher, to Zebulun, and to Naphtali; and they gathered to him. Gideon prayed to God for a sign that He will save Israel by his hand as He said; let me, he said, put a fleece of wool on the threshing-floor, and if the dew is on the fleece but not on the ground, then he will know the word is sure; so he did and he wrung out a bowlful of water. Gideon begs for another sign; that another fleece will be dry put the ground soaked; and God did as he asked.
Then Jerubbaal (Gideon) (5th Savior-Judge), and all the people with him, early in the morn and encamped beside the Spring of Harod; the camp of Midian was on the north side by the Hill of Moreh, in the Valley. The Lord told Gideon that people are too many to give victory over the Midianites, lest Israel boast that they saved themselves. He told Gideon to dismiss anyone who is fearful and trembling to return and depart from Mount Gilead; 22,000 departed, leaving 10,000. He reduced the number by bringing them to the waters to drink; those who lap water with their tongue as a dog to stand in one group, and all who bow on their knees to drink in another group. Those who lapped from their hand to mouth were 300, all the rest (9,700) knelt to drink. The Lord told Gideon that He will save Israel from the Midianites by the 300 that lapped; and the rest were dismissed with food in their hand, and their trumpets, to return to their tents; and the camp of Midian was below in the valley. That night the Lord told him to go down to the camp, for He will deliver them to him; but if you fear to go down, then take Purah your servant to the camp; and you will hear their plans; then you will be strengthened to attack; so they went down to the edge of the camp of the armed men. The hosts were like countless locusts along the valley, and camels without number, as sand of the sea-shore. Gideon came near and heard a fighter telling his dream to another, that a cake of barley bread tumbled into the camp of Midian into the tent and knocked it over, and it fell and flipped over flat; the other replied with the interpretation that it was the Sword of Gideon of Israel, that God has delivered Midian and all the host to him. Gideon after the dream and interpretation, worshipped, then returned to the camp of Israel; saying, up, the Lord has delivered to us the armies of Midian. He divided the 300 hundred men into 3 companies, each with trumpets, empty pitchers with only torches in them; he instructed them to copy his action as they reached the outer limits of the camp, and to say: for the Lord and Gideon. Gideon and his men did so at the time of the middle watch when they changed watch and guard; they blew the trumpets with the right hands, and shattered the pitchers, and held the torches in the left hands, and they shouted: The Sword of the Lord and Gideon. They stood in place encircling the camp; the armies were routed and fled to escape; but the 300 trumpets blew, and the Lord turned each man’s sword against his fellow through all the army; they fled as far as Beth-Shittah toward Zererah, to the border of Abel-Meholah by Tabbath. The Israelites from Naphtali, Asher, and Manasseh pursued Midian. He invited those of Ephraim to come against Midian before the waters as far as Beth-Barah to Jordan; and they did so; capturing the 2 princes of Midian, Oreb and Zeeb; Oreb they slew at the Rock of Oreb, and Zeeb at the Winepress of Zeeb; they continued their chase of Midian across the Jordan, carrying the heads of Oreb and Zeeb.
The Ephraimites, west of Jordan, criticized Gideon, that he insulted them by not inviting them at outset of the assault against Midian; he replied that the gleaning of grapes of Ephraim are better than the vintage of Abiezer; and since God has handed over the Princes of Midian Oreb and Zeeb, what is my comparison; with that word they were appeased, and their anger abated. Gideon and the 300 crossed Jordan in hot pursuit but tired. He asked from the men of Succoth for loaves of bread for his tired and hungry men, in pursuit of the Kings of Midian, Zebah and Zalmunna; but they answered asking if he already captured them, so that food should be rewarded to his army. Gideon promised them that after capturing them by the Lord’s help, I will tear your flesh with desert thorns and briers. He asked the same of the men of Penuel, who answered like the men of Succoth; he promised to return in peace and victory and will demolish this Tower. Zebah and Zalmunna were in Karkor with their hosts of some 15,000 from the Easterners, for some 120,000 soldiers died. Gideon went by way of tent dwellers on the east of Nobah and Jogbehah and attacked the secured army; so Zebah and Zalmunna escaped; but he chased both and caught them and routed the host. He returned from the battle from the Ascent of Heres, and caught a young man of Succoth, and interrogated him; he described to him the Princes of Succoth and the Elders, in all 77 men; he came to the men of Succoth and reminded them of their words to him in refusing food for his tired men; so with desert thorns and briers he taught the City Elders a lesson; and he demolished the Tower and killed the men of the city. Then he asked Zebah and Zalmunna what kind of men they killed at Tabor; they told him they were like him, they resembled sons of a king. He said to them that they were his brothers, his mother’s sons; and if they had been spared, by the Lord they would be allowed to live. Gideon told Jether his firstborn to slay them, but he was afraid being young; the two Kings bid him to prove his manhood to slay them himself; he slew them and took the crescents from their camel’s necks. Israel asked Gideon to rule over them, you and your sons and your grandsons, since you saved us from Midian. Gideon declined, telling them the Lord must rule over them. He requested of them to give him the ear-rings of the plunder, for the Ishmaelites had golden ear-rings. They spread a garment and gave the spoil of golden ear-rings, weighing some 1,700 shekels of gold, besides the crescents and pendants, and the purple garments on the Kings of Midian, and the chains about their camel’s necks. Gideon made an Ephod from them, and put it in his city (Ophrah), and all Israel played the harlot with it there; which was a snare to Gideon and his house. Midian was subdued before Israel, and they did not lift their heads again. And the Land rested 40 years in Gideon’s days. Jerubbaal (Gideon) went home; his own sons, by his many wives, were 70. His concubine in Shechem birthed to him his son Abimelech. Gideon died in old age and was buried in the sepulchre of his father Joash, in Ophrah of the Abiezrites. Again, Israel turned to idolatry and harlotry with Baalim, and made Baal-Berith their god; and Israel forgot the Lord God Who saved from all their enemies; neither showed kindness to the house of Jerubbaal-Gideon for all his goodness to Israel.
Abimelech ben-Jerubbaal (6th Judge and King or Ruler) went to Shechem to his mother’s brothers, asking the house of his mother’s father if it’s better that 70 or 1 to rule over them; and to remember he is their bone and flesh; the men of Schechem heard and agreed to follow their brother Abimelech. They gave him 70 silver pieces from the House of Baal-Berith, which he used to hire worthless and useless followers. He went to his father’s house at Ophrah and murdered all 70 sons of Jerubbaal; but Jotham the youngest hid himself. The Shechemites assembled at the House of Milo, and they made Abimelech King by the Oak of the Pillar in Schechem. It was told to Jotham, and he went on top of Mount Gerizim, and shouted for the Shechemites to listen to him that God may hear them: The Trees went to anoint a King over them, and asked the Olive-Tree to reign over them; the Olive-Tree declined not wanting to leave their fatness which honor God and man, to wave to and fro over the Trees. The Trees asked the Vine; which declined, not desiring to leave its new wine, which cheers God and man, to wave over the Trees. The Trees asked the Bramble; which agreed to be anointed King over them if they take refuge in its shade; but if they refuse, let fire from the Bramble consume the Cedars of Lebanon. So, he asked, have you have done right in making Abimelech King, and treated Jerubbaal and his house properly for his fighting and risking his life to deliver them from Midian: rather you have risen against my father’s house, murdered his 70 sons on one stone, and made Abimelech, his maid-servant’s son, your kin, King over the Shechemites; then rejoice in him, and he with you; and if not, let fire from Abimelech devour the Shechemites and the house of Millo; and let the fire from the Shechemites and the house of Millo devour Abimelech. Then Jotham ran away, and escaped to hide at Beer, for fear of his brother Abimelech. He was Prince over Israel 3 years, and then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the Shechemites to deal treacherously with him, to repay his treatment, Jerubbaal’s 70 sons, for blood-guilt murder to him and them. The Shechemites set ambush on the mountain tops for him and robbed all that passed by that way; and it was told to Abimelech. Gaal ben-Ebed came to the Shechemites and they trusted in him; they gathered from their vineyards in the field, trod the grapes, and held a festival, and went into the house of their god to eat and drink, and cursed Abimelech. Gaal denounced Abimelech as Jerubbaal’s son and a nobody, and Zebul his officer; rather serve the men Hamor Shechem’s father; would that this people were under my rule, then I would get rid of Abimelech; he challenged Abimelech to a great battle. Zebul the city’s ruler heard and was enraged. So Gaal sent messengers (angels) to Abimelech craftily, warning him that Gaal has attack the city against you; at night you and the people lay in ambush to come against him in the morn by surprise, and meet him as they leave the city, and do what you will. Abimelech and his men by night lay ambush in 4 companies against the Shechemites; Gaal stood at the entrance of the city gate, and Abimelech rose from the ambush to confront him; Gaal told Zebul that the people are coming down the mountains; Zebul said he was seeing the mountains shadows as men; but Gaal said again, the people, as one company, are in the middle of the land by way of the Oak of Meonenim. Zebul asked him about his mouth against service to Abimelech, and to go out to fight the people he despised. So Gaal leading the Shechemites in battle, was chased by Abimelech; and he fled the field of the many wounded, up to the city entrance. While Abimelech was at Arumah, Zebul ousted Gaal and his brothers from Shechem. They told Abimelech, and he with three companies ambushed the city, and they killed the people leaving the city; then he rushed the city at the gate, while the two companies killed those in the field. He fought the city that day, then captured it, killed the citizens, destroyed the city, and salted it. The Shechemites of the Tower entered the Stronghold of the house Elberith; and Abimelech was told; he and his men went to Mount Zalmon, and he and they took axes and cut down branches and carried them on their shoulders; then they sieged the Stronghold and set in on fire, killing about 1,000 men and women. Abimelech besieged and captured Thebez; but the people had fled to the city’s strong Tower and shut themselves in and went to the roof. Abimelech attacked it, and was about to burn it, when a woman on the roof of the Tower threw a millstone down on his head, breaking his skull. He called to his armorbearer while dying to kill him with the sword that it may not be said a woman killed him, and thus he did. Israel departed and returned to their place after his death; for God requited Abimelech’s wickedness and murder of his brothers; and that of the Shechemites with the curse of Jotham ben-Jerubbaal
After Abimelech, arose Tola ben-Puah ben-Dodo of Issachar (7th Judge) at Shamir, in the hill-country of Ephraim. He judged Israel for 23 years and was buried at Shamir. Next Jair the Gileadite (8th Judge) judged Israel 22 years; he had 30 sons riding 30 donkeys’ colts, having 30 cities called Havvoth-Jair in Gilead; he died and was buried in Kamon. Again, Israel outraged the Lord by idolatry in service to Baalim, the Ashtaroth, and the gods or idols of Syria, Sidon, Moab, Ammonites, and Philistines; they forsook the Lord in disobedience. The Lord sold them to the Philistines and Ammonites. That year they vexed and oppressed Israel, for they had done so for 18 years in Trans-Jordan in Gilead. Now the Ammonites crossed Jordan to attack Judah and Benjamin and the house of Ephraim; Israel was distressed, and cried to the Lord, confessing their sin of disobedience and idolatry to Baalim. The Lord responded to Israel, that He saved them when they cried to Him, from the oppression of Egyptians, the Ammorites, Ammonites, Philistines, Sidonians, Amalekites, and Maonites. But, He said, you have forsaken Me for idols; I will no longer save you; rather go to your gods to be saved from distress. But Israel confessed their sin, and begged to be saved now, and for Him to do with them what He will. Israel got rid of the foreign gods to serve the Lord; and He was grieved for Israel’s misery. The Ammonites encamped in Gilead and Israel in Mizpah. The Princes of Gilead asked who could lead the fight against the Ammonites; and they promised to make him head or ruler of all the Gileadites.
Jephthah the Gileadite (9th Judge-Ruler) was a brave warrior, but was a son of a harlot, but Gilead fathered him. Gilead’s wife bore him sons, who when grown rejected and banished him from the household as an outcast; he fled and lived in the land of Tob; and outcasts gathered to him. When the Ammonites warred against Israel, the Elders of Gilead appealed to Jephthah to be their Chief and fight the Ammonites; he reminded them that they hated him, and drove him away, so why come to him in trouble. But they insisted that he help them against the Ammonites, and become, they said, our head; he committed them to their word; if the Lord should give him victory. They made him head and chief, and he spoke these words in Mizpah. He sent messengers to the King of the Ammonites as to their campaign, which he answered, that Israel after the Exodus from Egypt appropriated my land from Arnon to Jabbok to Jordan; and demanded the lands be restored peaceably. Again he sent messengers stating that Israel did not take land of Moab or Ammon; but after the Exodus entreated the King of Edom for passage, which he refused; in like manner the King of Moab; so Israel stayed in Kadesh; going through the Desert or Wilderness, going around Edom and Moab, to the east side of Moab, and encamped on the other side of Arnon, and no closer. Afterwards, Israel sent messengers to Sihon King of the Amorites and Heshbon, asking for passage; Sihon refused, and gathered his people and encamped against Israel in Jahaz for battle; the Lord God of Israel defeated them by Israel’s sword, and Israel thus possessed the land of the Amorites by conquest; occupying the borders from Arnon to Jabbok, and from the desert to Jordan. The Lord our God dispossess the Amorites for us by conquest. Should you now take possession? Are you better than Balak ben-Zippor the King of Moab, who never warred against Israel? Israel dwelt in Heshbon and its towns, in Aroer and its towns, and all the cities along the way, for 300 years; why did you not recover them during that time? I have not sinned against you, but you wrong me to war against me; the Lord judge between Israel and Ammon; but the King of Ammon refused this response. The Spirit of the Lord (Ruach Yehowah) came on Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead and Manasseh, Mizpeh of Gilead, to the Ammonites. He vowed to the Lord for victory, to sacrifice the first thing that meets him at the door of his house after his success as a burnt-offering. He fought and utterly defeated the Ammonites from Aroer to Minnith, 20 cities, even to Abelcheramim; thus, Israel subdued the Ammonites. Jephthah returned to his house in Mizpah, and his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and dances; and she was his only offspring. He saw her and tore his clothes in shame and blame, very troubled for the oath or vow he made to the Lord; she replied that since the Lord has given him victory over the Ammonites, he should do with her according to his vow or oath. She requested a leave of 2 months to go along the mountains and bewail her virginity with her companions; and so she did; then she returned and Jephthah did with her as he vowed (he sacrificed her as a burnt-offering); she died a virgin; and it became a custom in Israel that the Daughters of Israel to yearly celebrate or commemorate the Daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite for 4 days.
The Ephraimites gathered and passed northward and asked Jephthah why he fought the Ammonites without consulting them and said they will burn his house and him with fire. He replied that he and his people were at great strife with the Ammonites, and they turned to the Ephraimites but were not helped; he risked his life against the Ammonites; and the Lord delivered them into his hand. So why do you now come to fight against me? Jephthah and the Gileadites fought against the Ephraimites; who said that the Gileadites were but fugitives of Ephraim and Manasseh. The Gileadites took the fords of the Jordan against the Ephraimites, so that when a fugitive of Ephraim tried to pass over, and denied being an Ephraimite, he was asked to pronounce Shibboleth, but would say Sibboleth incorrectly; they killed him at the Jordan’s banks; all Ephraimites killed were 42,000. Jephthah judged Israel for 6 years; then he died and was buried in one of the cities of Gilead. Next Ibzan of Beth-Lehem (10th Judge) judged Israel; he had 30 sons and 30 daughters; he got 30 daughters from abroad as wives for his sons; he judged Israel for 7 years; he died and was buried at Beth-Lehem. Next Elon the Zebulunite (11th Judge) judged Israel for 10 years; he died and was buried at Aijalon in Zebulun. Next Abdon ben-Hillel the Pirathonite (12th Judge) judged Israel for 8 years; he had 40 sons, and 30 grandsons, and they rode on 70 young donkeys; he died and was buried in Pirathon in Ephraim, in the hill-country of the Amalekites.
Now there was a man of Zorah of the Danites, Manoah, whose wife was barren; the Lord’s Angel appeared to her with news that she will become pregnant and birth a son; that she must not drink wine or strong drink, nor eat anything unclean; the boy must not have a haircut or eat unclean things; for he is a Nazirite from birth to death. Manoah prayed that the Lord would send that Man of God to teach us how to raise the child. God heard and sent His Angel to the woman in the field, her husband not present; she hurried and told her husband, Manoah came to the Man and asked him if he spoke to the woman; and how to raise the child. The Lord’s Angel told him to do all that he instructed his wife, she must abstain from all product of the vine, no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean. Manoah desired the Angel to stay for a meal; but he said that if he is detained he will not eat, and if a burnt-offering is offered it must be to the Lord; for he did not know it was the Lord’s Angel. Manoah asked the Angel’s Name to honor him after his words come true; but he said, why? for it is Wonderful. Manoah offered a kid and grains on the rock to the Lord; and the Angel did wonders while he and his wife watched; as the flames consumed the sacrifice and ascended, so too the Angel ascended in the flames of the altar; they fell face down to the ground. The Angel never appeared again; but Manoah told his wife of his fear of death for seeing God; she replied that if the Lord wanted to kill them He would not have accepted the offerings or showed us or told us these things. The woman gave birth to a son named Samson; which grew with the Lord’s blessing. The Spirit of the Lord began to move on him in Mahaneh-Dan, and Zorah, and Eshtaol.
Samson (13th Judge) went to Timnah and saw a woman of the daughters of the Philistines. He told his parents to arrange for him to marry her; but they objected that he wanted a wife from the uncircumcised Philistines; but he insisted he was pleased with her. But his parents did not know that Lord by him sought occasion against the Philistines; since they were then rulers of Israel. He and his parents went to Timnah; but near the vineyards a young lion roared against him; and the Lord’s Spirit came on him mightily, and he tore him as if a kid with his bare hands; but he did not tell his parents. Samson was pleased with her, and soon went to take her; and on the way the carcass of the lion had a swarm of bees in the lion’s body and honey; he took some honeycomb to eat along the way, then gave the rest to his parents without telling them that he took it out of the lion’s body. Samson’s father went to the woman, and Samson made a feast as the young men were accustomed to do. They brought 30 companions as guests; he put a riddle to them, and if they can explain it in 7 days he will give them 30 linen garments and 30 robes; but if they cannot, they must give him 30 linen garments and 30 robes; they agreed. Samson’s Riddle: From the Eater came forth Food and from the Strong came forth the Sweetness. For 7 days they tried to explain the Riddle, and his wife also they threatened to get the meaning of the Riddle, or, they threatened, would burn her and her family, for making them poor. She complained that he did not reveal it to her, but he said I have not told it even to my parents; she cried for seven days; on the 7th day she begged him, and he told her, and she told them. Before sunset they interpreted the Riddle: What is sweeter than Honey? Or what is stronger than a Lion? But he replied: If ye had not plowed with my Heifer, ye had not found out my Riddle. The Lord’s Spirit mightily came upon him and he went to Ashkelon and killed 30 men and took their clothes as spoil and gave it to the interpreters of his Riddle. His anger burned, so he went to his father’s house; but his wife was given to his companion he used as a friend.
Later, during the wheat harvest, Samson visited his wife with a kid, and desired to be with her in the bedroom; but her father objected, saying he thought he renounced her, so he married her off to his companion; but offered, in her place, her younger and more beautiful sister. Samson now said he would be blameless to do more mischief to the Philistines. He caught 300 hundred foxes, and tied firebrands between every two tails, then lit them and turned them loose in the standing grain of the Philistines; and it burnt up shocks, standing grain, and the oliveyards. The Philistines was told that Samson the son-in-law of the Timnite did it, because his wife was given to his companion; they burnt up her and her father. But Samson said this thing is reason to get more revenge, and then he will cease. He struck and slaughtered them hip and thigh; then went to stay in the Cleft of the Rock of Etam. The Philistines encamped in Judah and spread out in Lehi. The Judaens demanded why they came; they said for Samson to do to him what he did to them. Then 3,000 Judaens came to him and said the Philistines are our rulers what have done? he replied that I did to them what they did to me. They demanded him to be bound and handed over to them; but he insisted that they swear not to kill him themselves; they agreed that they will bind and deliver him to them; they bound him with 2 new ropes and brought him from the Rock. At Lehi the Philistines shouted as they met him; then the Spirit of the Lord came mightily on him, and the ropes became as flax burnt with fire and fell off his hands; he found a fresh donkey’s jawbone and with it killed 1,000. He then said that Heaps on Heaps by a Donkey’s Jawbone I killed 1,000 men; then he threw the jawbone away; the place was called Ramath-Lehi. He was very thirsty and called on the Lord who gave His servant great deliverance, not to let him now die of thirst, and captured by the uncircumcised. God split the hollow place at Lehi, and water flowed; he drank and his spirit revived; the place was called En-Hakkore to this day. Samson thus judged Israel in the days of the Philistines for 20 years.
Samson went to Gaza to a harlot; the Gazites surrounded the place, waiting quietly all night to kill him at daybreak; but at midnight he took the doors of the city gate by its two posts, pulling them out bar and all, and carried them on his shoulders to the top of the mount before Hebron. Later, he loved a woman named Delilah in the Valley of Sorek. The Lords of the Philistines persuaded her to entice him and discover the secret of his great strength, and how to prevail against him; to bind and afflict him; and they promised each one to give her 1,100 silver-pieces. Delilah asked him to tell her the secret of his strength, and how he may be bound and afflicted. He told her if he is bound with 7 green withes or vines never dried, he would be weak as other men; the Lords of the Philistines gave her the 7 green withes undried; she bound him; while an ambush waited hid in the inner chamber. She told him that the Philistines are on him; he broke the withes as if a string of tow when burnt. The secret of his strength still unknown, Delilah complained to him for mocking and telling her lies; she demanded the secret. He told her to use new ropes never used, and he will be another man. She did as before; but he awoke and broke them as thread. She complained of his trick and mockery and lies; and demanded the truth; he replied that if his hair is weaved into 7 locks with a web; she did and fastened it with the pin; she alerted him, and he awoke and plucked the pin and beam and the web. She complained that he didn’t love her since he has mocked and tricked her 3 times, and she persisted daily with words till he was vexed to death. He revealed his heart and the truth that he was a Nazirite to God from his mother’s pregnancy and no razor has ever cut his hair; if shaven he will be weak as an ordinary man. Delilah told the Philistines to return this once, for he has told his heart and the secret; they came with the money in hand. She let him sleep on her knees or lap, and then had a man shave his 7 locks of hair, and his strength was gone. She alerted him, and he awoke to shake himself as before, but knew not the Lord had departed. The Philistines took him and put out his eyes, brought him to Gaza bound with brass fetters or chains, and made him grind grain in the prison house. But his hair began to grow again; and the Philistines gathered to offer a great sacrifice to their god or idol Dagon with joy; for their god has delivered Samson to them; they saw him and praised their god for his capture who had wasted their country and killed many of them. In their festive celebration they called for Samson to entertain them, setting him between the two pillars; Samson asked the youth that led him to rest on the pillars of the house. The house was filled with men and women, along with the 5 Lords of the Philistines, and some 3,000 guests on the roof; watching as he entertained them. Samson prayed to the Lord Jehovah, God, to remember and strengthen him this last time to avenge the Philistines for his two eyes. He took hold of the two middle pillars, and said: let me die with the Philistines, and bowed himself with all his might, and the house collapsed on the Lords and the people in it. He killed more in his death than he did in his life. His relatives and took him and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the burial place of Manoah his father. He judged Israel 20 years.
Now Micah was an Ephraimite of the hill-country, he told his mother that the money (1,100 silver-pieces) that she uttered a curse and told him was stolen by him; his mother blessed him in the Lord. He restored the money; his mother said she had dedicated the money to the Lord to make of it a graven and molten image; she gave it back to him. After he restored the money, she took 200 silver-pieces and gave to the founder to make a molten and graven idol; and it was in Micah’s house. Micah had a House of Gods, with an Ephod, and Teraphim, and he consecrated one of his sons to be his Priest. (In those days there was no King in Israel; every man did what was right in his own eyes.) Now a young man, a Levite from Beth-Lehem-Judah in Judah’s family, travelled from that city to find another place, and he came to the hill-country of Ephraim to Micah’s house. Micah asked from where he came and to where he was going, and he told him. Micah asked him to stay with him and become a Father and Priest to him; for which he would give 10 silver-pieces yearly, a suit of apparel, and victuals. The Levite was content to stay with him; who was as one of his sons; and Micah consecrated the young Priest in his house. Micah said the Lord will do me good since I have a Levite as Priest.
(In those days there was no King in Israel). At that time the Danites were seeking a place of inheritance, for yet they had not possessed their inheritance in Israel. The Danites sent 5 brave men from Zorah and Eshtaol to spy and survey the land. They came to the hill-country of Ephraim and lodged at Micah’s house; and the recognized the young Levite; and they asked how he got here and what he was doing and what he had; and he said Micah hired him to be Priest. They asked him to inquire from God as to their mission’s success; he told them to go in peace for the Lord goes with them. The 5 Danites came to Laish and saw the people dwelt securely like the Sidonians, safe and quiet, without authority to shame or stop them; far from the Sidonians in isolation. They returned to Zorah and Eshtaol and reported to make a quick assault and possess the land; for the people are secure, and the land large and abundant and God has given it to you. The Danites sent 600 men armed for war; they came and camped behind Kiriath-Jearim in Judah (the place is called Mahaneh-Dan to this day); thence passed through the hill-country of Ephraim to Micah’s house. The 5 spies related about Micah’s houses and his Ephod and Teraphim and idols; so they turned to the house and asked the young Priest his welfare; then they secured the entrance of the city-gate; the 5 spies went and took the idols, Ephod, and Teraphim; and the Priest asked what were they doing; they replied for him to keep silent, and to go with them to be a Father and Priest to a tribe in Israel instead of one man; the Priest was glad and went with them in the midst with the Ephod, Teraphim, and idols. They departed with the little ones, and cattle and goods in front. After while Micah and his neighbors overtook the Danites, and shouted at them; the Danites turned around and ask what was there problem to come with such a company? Micah replied that they have stolen his gods and his Priest, what is left; and you say what is my problem? The Danites retorted to keep quiet before some angry fellows fall upon you and you lose your lives. The Danites continued toward home; Micah returned home seeing that they were too strong for him to stop. They continued to Laish and killed the citizens and burned the city; there was no deliverer or savior, being far from Sidon and secluded in the Valley by Beth-Rehob; and they built a city and called it Dan, their father the son of Israel; but its original name was Laish. The Danites set up their idols, and Jonathan ben-Gershom ben-Moses (Moses’ grandson; some 100 years from the Entrance to Canaan) ((the variant Manasseh, with the altered Nun (N) saves Moses honor, but does not explain the genealogy)) and his sons were Priests to the tribe of Dan till the day of the Captivity of the Land (some 700 years later); the House of God then was in Shiloh.
(In those days there was no King in Israel.) Now there was a certain Levite traveling on the outskirt of the hill-country of Ephraim, who took a second-wife or concubine from Beth-Lehem-Judah; and she played the harlot against him and returned to her father’s house in Beth-Lehem-Judah and stayed 4 months. Her husband went to get her with kind words, with his servant and donkeys. She brought him to her father and he was glad to see him; and his father-in-law retained him for 3 days and nights entertained with food and drink and lodging. On the 4th day he tried to leave early but his father-in-law said to stay awhile to eat then go. But when he later tried to go he begged him to stay the night; he did. Early the 5th day the damsel’s father again insisted that he stay the day till sunset; he did. The Levite rose to depart with his concubine and servant; his father-in-law tried to persuade him to stay another night; but he refused and departed toward Jebus (Jerusalem); his servant suggested they turn to lodge in Jebus of the Jebusites; but the Levite answered that we will not stay in a city of foreigners but in a city of Israel like Gibeah or Ramah. They came to Gibeah of Benjamin and entered to lodge there and waited in the street for hospitality. Now at even an old man came from work in the fields, he was of the hill-country of Ephraim and settled in Gibeah of the Benjamites. The old man asked the visitors why they were there, whence they came and wither they went; the Levite told him from Beth-Lehem-Judah near the hill-country of Ephraim but now are going to the House of the Lord; but no one has invited us to lodge, although we have our own provisions; the old man in peace invited him to not stay in the street but to lodge with him and let him provide for all their needs. They lodged with the old man, who fed the donkeys, washed their feet, and fed them; while their hearts made merry some degenerate men of the city surrounded the house, beating the door, and demanded to the old man to hand over the visitor that they may know them (sexually). The master of the house, the old man, went out to appeal to them as brothers not to do this evil thing; and he offered his daughter and the man’s concubine to satisfy their sexual lusts. The locals rejected the offer; and the Levite grabbed his concubine and thrust her out to them; and they sexually abused her all night till morning and let her go. The woman at daybreak reached the door of the man’s house where her lord was lodging and collapsed at the doorway with her hands on the threshold. Her master, her husband the Levite, told her to get up and let us go; but she answered not; he put her on the donkey and returned home. In his house he took a knife and dismembered his concubine dead body, limb by limb, into 12 pieces; and sent each a piece to all the tribes and borders of Israel. All were shocked that such a deed which had never been done in Israel from the Exodus from Egypt to the present; and they took counsel to act.
All the congregation of Israel assembled as one man, from Dan to Beer-Sheba, with the Land of Gilead, to the Lord at Mizpah. The tribal Princes presented themselves in the Assembly of God’s People, 400,000 foot-soldiers with swords. The Benjamites heard that the Israelites mustered in Mizpah; The Israelites asked the Levite how this wickedness came about; and the murdered woman’s husband told them the details of what they did and what he did. The Israelites vowed to not return home till this is judged. They cast lot to determine how to go against Gibeah; they enlisted 10 men of 100, 100 of 1,000, and 1,000 of 10,000, to get food supply for the fighters against Gibeah of Benjamin, and the folly done in Israel. Israel united against Benjamin and demanded what is this wickedness that was committed. They demanded the degenerates to be handed over to be put to death to remove the evil from Israel. But the Benjamites refused but mustered from all their cities to fight the Israelites; some 26,000, not counting the 700 Gibeahites. Now of the Benjamites were 700 left-handed stone slingers, able to hit a mark at a hair-breath. Israel forces numbered 400,000 swordsmen; and they inquired counsel from God at Bethel for the first to lead against Benjamin; the Lord designated Judah. Israel early in the morn encamped against Gibeah; they engaged in battle; and the Benjaminites slaughtered of the Israelites that day 22,000. The next day the Israelites were encouraged to array themselves in battle again; they wept before the Lord and asked should they go to war, and the Lord said to go. The 2nd day Israel battled Benjamin at Gibeah; and Benjamin destroyed of Israel some 18,000 swordsmen. Israel then went to Beth-El and wept and sat before the Lord and fasted that day till even; and they offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings. The Israelites asked of the Lord (for the Ark of the Covenant of God was then there, and Phineas ben-Eleazar ben-Aaron stood before it) if they continue to war against Benjamin or cease; the Lord said go up, for tomorrow they will be defeated. Israel set an ambush around against Gibeah; on the 3rd day the Benjaminites went to war outside the city, wounding and killing about 30 of Israel along the highways towards Beth-El; saying, they are smitten before us as before; but the Israelites had agreed to flee to lure Benjamin from the city to the highways and the ambush. The Israelites rose to battle at Baal-Tamar, and those in ambush went forth at Maareh-Geba. The Israelites, some 10,000 strong, came against Gibeah in battle; and Gibeah did not know their end was near. The Lord struck Benjamin before Israel; and some 25,100 swordsmen were slaughtered. The Benjaminites saw they were smitten before Israel, trusting in their ambush against Gibeah. So those in ambush rushed on Gibeah and struck the city with the sword. The Israelites had agreed that after attacking the city that they burn it, to cause smoke to ascend; when the cloud arose as a pillar of smoke; the Benjaminites saw behind them that their city was in smoke; then Israel turned around against the dismayed and doomed Benjaminites. They turned in flight from the Israelites towards the desert; but the battle pursued them; but those from the city joined the pursuit trapping the Benjaminites in the middle. Israel enclosed the Benjaminites, routed them, chassed and trod them in their resting-place as far as Gibeah toward sunrise east. Some 18,000 brave Benjaminites died; the rest turned and fled toward the desert, to the Rock of Rimmon; gleaning some 5,000 more along the highways; in hot pursuit to Gidom; and killed another 2,000. So that day some 25,000 brave fighters of Benjamin died in battle. Now some 600 men fled to the desert near the Rock of Rimmon and hid there in the rocks for 4 months. Israel turned against the Benjaminites killing everyone in the city, the cattle, and whatever they found, and they set the city on fire.
Now the Israelites swore in Mizpah that they would not give to Benjamin any of their daughters in marriage. The People came to Beth-El and sat before God, lifting their voices and crying greatly. They prayed: Lord God of Israel why has all this happened, that one tribe has been lost in Israel. Next day, early in the morn, they built an Altar to the Lord, and offered burnt and peace offerings. They asked which tribe was not represented in the Assembly to the Lord; since they swore that those who did not come to the Lord at Mizpah must dye. The Israelites repented and regretted for Benjamin being cut off; how shall we get wives for the survivors? No one came from the camp of Jabesh-Gilead to the Assembly, from the census that was taken. The Congregation sent 12,000 valiant men to kill the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead, men, women, and children; but to spare the virgin girls; and they found some 400 young virgins, which brought to the camp at Shiloh in Canaan. The entire Congregation sent and told the Benjaminites at the Rock of Rimmon in peace’ Benjamin returned, and they gave them the spared women of Jabesh-Gilead; but they still were short of wives. The People grieved still for the breach in Israel; and the Elders consulted and sought to preserve the tribe from extinction; but could not allow their daughters to marry the Benjaminites for the curse of the oath sworn. They suggested, that at the Lord’s Feast at Shiloh, north of Beth-El, east side of the highway leaving Beth-El to Shechem, and south of Lebonah: that they go and hide in the vineyards; and when the Daughters of Shiloh come out to dance, then catch each one a wife and go to the land of Benjamin. And when their fathers come to complain, we will ask them to be gracious in this, since we did not reserve any wives in battle, lest we incur guilt; and they did. The Benjaminites took their new dancing wives and returned to their inheritance, built the cities, and settled in them. (In those days there was no King in Israel: every man did what was right in his own eyes.)

Judges in the Book of Judges: 12 + 1:
1. Othniel: ben-Kenaz, achi-Caleb, wife Achsah bath-Caleb from Debir of Judah: defeated King Cushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia; ends 8 yrs servitude: years judged unknown: 40 years of rest.
2. Ehud: ben-Gera, left-handed Benjamite from Gilgal of Manasseh: defeats King Eglon of Moab with Ammon & Amalek; ends 18 yrs servitude: 80 yrs rest.
3. Shamgar: ben-Anath [of Naphtali?]: defeated the Philistines.
4. Deborah & Barak: Prophetess, Lappidoth’s wife; from Bethel in Ephraim; & ben-Abinoam of Kedesh-Naphtali: defeated King Jabin of Canaan in Hazor, with Jael, the Kenite Heber’s wife, ends 20 yrs oppression: 40 yrs rest.
5. Gideon: ben-Joash the Abiezrite from Ophrah of Issachar-Manasseh, Jerubbaal: defeated & subdued Midian, killed the Princes, Oreb & Zeeb, and Kings, Zebah & Zalmunna; ends 7 yrs servitude: 40 yrs rest.
6. ((Abimelech: ben-Jerubbaal (Gideon), made King by Schechemites after they murdered Gideon’s 70 sons; ruled 3 yrs; killed by a woman throwing down a millstone on his head from the Tower of Shechemites of Thebez.))
7. Tolah: ben-Puah ben Dodo from Shamir of Manasseh-Issachar-Ephraim; judged for 23 yrs.
8. Jair: the Gileadite from Kamon of Trans-Jordan of Manasseh; judged 22 yrs.
9. Jepthah: the Gileadite, ben-Gilead, from Ramoth-Gilead of Trans-Jordan Manasseh; of a harlot mother by Gilead, and rejected by his brothers of Gilead wife; defeated the Philistines & Ammonites; ends 18 yrs of oppression; judged 6 yrs.
10. Ibzan: of Bethlehem of Judah; judged 7 yrs.
11. Elon: the Zebulunite; judged 10 yrs
12. Abdon: ben-Hillel the Pirathonite of Manasseh-Ephraim; judged 8 yrs.
13. Samson: ben-Manoah of Zorah of Dan-Judah; fought the Philistines; judged for 20 yrs; killed thousands of Philistines in life and more in death.
((The years of Rest were about 200, the years of Servitude or Oppression were about 70, 3 years of usurpation rule of a local King (Abimelech ben-Gideon of Shechem via his mother the harlot-concubine); and the years of Judges rule were about 100.))

Judges resumes the Divine History from Joshua’s death, in the Conquest of Canaan, to complete the occupation and conversion of Palestine to Israel, the transformation of the old land to the new. The nation is tested by each tribe dealing with the challenges as they arise in each adversary and resistance of the natives. Judah and Simeon first strike the Canaanites and the Perizzites in Southern Judah (Hebron and Debir, formerly Kiriath-Arba and -Sepher, and the Negeb from the Dead Sea to the Great Sea coasts: Ashkelon-Ashdod, Gaza, Ekron, Debir, Gerar, Beersheba, Zephath, Hormah, Zoar, etc.), and Judah will increasingly become the power of Israel against the Canaanites and the Philistines. Benjamin and Dan and Simeon becoming dependent on the house of Judah. Some natives were too difficult to drive out, like the Jebusites of Jebus or Jerusalem, and a compromise or mutual toleration developed. It was so with each tribe in their failure to displace the native Gentiles in Canaan and Trans-Jordan. Canaan was never ever completely transformed into Israel from Joshua to David to Messiah. At times Israel would dominate, in a certain locality, but often the natives controlled and subjugated the country. Instead Israel intermarried and shared the customs and cultures of the natives, in violation to the Mosaic laws and the covenant they had with the Lord their God. They became idolatress in every way and place, and God would charge them with harlotry as a nation and a people. Their religious peculiarity and purity would be negated, defiled, and confused as an unfaithful wife to her spouse. The generations would undergo constant changes from good to bad and from evil to repentance and reform. God would deal with Israel according to their obedience or disobedience, their faithfulness or their disloyalty, and countless manners and ways possible. We see in Judges how the Lord relates to His people, and by extension, how God moves with the nations and the world, that is, how the Creator interacts with His creation. Israel would sin, the Lord would be enraged and punish them in different degrees, they would regret and repent, He would raise up deliverers, saviors, judges, and prophets as they needed, but only on temporary bases, avoiding the permanent system of kingship for some 400 years. The Lord would use the natives and the nations to chastise Israel, and when required even the land, the animals, and the earth and heavens as His rod and whip. The natives which were not displaced completely were the Philistines, the Canaanites (the Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, and the Jebusites), the Sidonians, and the Hivites; these intermarried with the Israelites, who turned to idolatry to the offence of the Lord; Who in turn sold them into servitude to the King of Mesopotamia. The testimony of God to Israel in responding to their cries and prayers, their distress and repentance was to serve the nation of His faithfulness in His righteousness and holiness; and to bear witness to the Gentiles of His character and attribute of justice and grace. Each generation would undergo the same trial and training in the wisdom of God, and His patience or endurance with Israel would find its limits. In the Judges as deliverers and saviors, as teachers and rulers, we see the condition of the Israel in the varied aspects and states. Israel was increasing in population into the tens and hundreds of millions and the military force was easily mustered into hundreds of thousands and into millions. In like manner with all the nations far and near, warfare soon numbered into millions with those nations which grew into kingdoms and empires; and the human sufferings were unspeakable, and deaths innumerable. War became the most common way of population control for the local populace, and for the distant peoples as subjects to a foreign power. Self-defense was essential to ward off the invaders both small and great. The means of warfare in the offense or defense came in surprising features or instances such as with the women Deborah the Prophetess-Judge, the wife of Lappidoth; and Jael the wife of the Kenite Heber, related to Moses by his wife Zipporah bath-Hobab (or -Jethro) ben-Reuel the Midianite. When Israel became unfamiliar to war they were reluctant to fight and oppose the Gentile influences, and they easily compromised and reverted to idolatry. The Book of Judges as with the Five Books of Moses and the Book of Joshua, is concerned with the spiritual state of the People, their relations to the Lord God of Israel. It traces those events of the history and the generations which reveal that state and condition. The progression of the judgeship into kingship is shown in various instance’s, and polygamy of the leader-ruler proliferated. Gideon had many wives who generated some 70 sons not counting the daughters and other illegitimate offspring. As with the older generations since the Great Flood, all through the patriarchal generations from Abraham to Jacob, polygamy, and inbreeding was the way of mankind; first of necessity, then of immorality. The Law would in time expose and eradicate this evil in the nations conscience and experience. The place of women, children, and servants and slaves was often lower than the value and status of animals. The example of those in power and anointed crowned, and enthroned was at best hypocrisy and depravity, and the exceptions became few and far between. Cities grew to comprise thousands and tens of thousands of citizens and would continue to enlarge into the millions as it is to this day. In Abimelech ben-Gideon the Gentile influence and practice of a King surfaced and did not disappear till they got themselves a King like the nations about them. The distant foreign powers continued to spread their hands to dominate other countries and people, and Israel would be oppressed by mighty nations from Meopotamia, Egypt, Syria, and what we call Europe, along with the Arabs, India and Armenia, and all around their borders. Israel in Canaan-Palestine was situated as a vital way and passage for many nations in their imperial quests. The depravity and insanity of Jephthah’s sacrificing his daughter to the Lord as a burnt-offering based on an illegal and foolish vow, easily atoned for by an animal sacrifice for such guilt. In the same way we judge that yielding to depraved men who wish to commit unspeakable immorality and sexual vice on men and guests, that they may use and abuse a servant-girl, or a slave-maiden, or a concubine or mistress, and even a man’s own daughter reveals the depth and total depravity of human nature both among the Gentiles and in Israel. In Samson (the Nazirite) many of these things as just recounted find display and examples; and the dominance of the Philistines’ shown. After Samson the last judge of Judges, the history focuses on the Priesthood and the Tribes of Israel dealing with Dan and Benjamin. 4 times the expression will occurred in these last chapters: “In those days there was no King in Israel.”
In Micah an Ephraimite of Joseph and Joshua we see idolatry at work within Israel, the Levite easily compromised the sacred priesthood to subserve Micah, and this in service and worship to the Lord. The Danites share in this idolatry and violation of the divine ritual, and Moses grandson or great-grandson, Jonathan, (the Masoretic variant to salvage Moses’ honor by reading ‘Manasseh’, doesn’t help) and his sons became Priests to the Danites. Another example of the depravity of the priesthood is seen in the Levite of Ephraim and a second marriage to a concubine of Bethlehem-Judah who committed harlotry and adultery and ran away. He sought to win her back and travelling back home to the hill-country of Ephraim via Gibeah of Benjamin; where taking hospitality from a local, an old man, was threatened with rape from men of the city; and instead the old man offered his daughter and the Levite’s concubine-wife to their vile intent and lust. The Levite forced his concubine out the house and locked the door behind her; and they gang raped her all through the night till morning, to the brink of death. She walked back to the house and collapsed and the doorstep; the Levite in the morning seeing she was dead, loaded her body on the donkey, went home, dissected her body in 12 parts and sent them throughout Israel. The Assembly of Israel discovered the depravity of the Benjaminites and demand justice executed on the rapists and murderers; Benjamin refused, war ensued, at last the Tribe of Benjamin, known for their many left-handed slingers, were destroyed and annihilated; and to remedy the total extinction of the tribe the allowed young virgins of Shiloh to be kidnapped to become wives to the few hundred Benjaminites that survived the massacre. And from this decimated and exterminated tribe came the house of Kish and Saul.

RUTH: 4 Chapters: Kinsman Redeemer during Judges: Generations of Perez to Boaz to David:

RUTH: In the days of the judging Judges (shephot hash-shophetim) during the famine in the Land; a man of Bethlehem-Judah moved to the country of Moab with his wife and two sons. Their names were Elimelech, his wife Naomi, and his sons Mahlon (Machlon) and Chilion (Chilyon, Kilyon); Ephrathaites of Bethlehem-Judah. Naomi’s husband died; and her sons married Moabite women, Orpah and Ruth; and they stayed 10 years. Mahlon and Chilion both died; Naomi got ready to return home, since she heard the Lord visited His people with bread. She and her two daughters-in-law started back to Judah; but Naomi bid them to return to their mother’s house; and that the Lord deal kindly with them as they dealt with the dead and to her; that the Lord grant them rest in the house of a husband. She kissed them; but they cried, and desired to go with her; but she insisted that they go back, since she cannot bear sons for them to marry; for she was too old; and if she did, would they wait till they grew up to marry them; and she grieved for them that the Lord was against her. They cried again; Oprah kissed Naomi and returned; both Ruth refused and clung to Naomi. She said to Ruth to follow her sister-in-law who has returned to her people and her god. Ruth begged her not to send her back; but she will go and lodge with her, and her people and God will be hers also; that nothing but death may sever them. Naomi yielded to her persistence; they both came to Bethlehem; and the city gathered around them, and asked: is this Naomi? but she told them not to call her Naomi (Sweet, Pleasant, Delight) but Mara (Bitter, Sad, Grief); since Shaddai (Almighty-Nourisher, Nurse) has treated me bitterly; for I left full, but the Lord brought me back empty; so do not call me Naomi for He has witnessed against me, and Shaddai has afflicted me. Naomi and Ruth came to Bethlehem at the beginning of barley harvest (in the spring).
Naomi’s husband Elimelech’s near kin was Boaz, a wealthy man. Ruth asked Naomi to permit her to glean in the fields of any who might favor her; and Ruth by chance gleaned after the reapers of the field in the lot of Boaz. Boaz came from Bethlehem, and blessed them in the Lord, and they him. He asked the reapers about the young woman, and the foreman said she was a Moabite returned with Naomi, who requested to glean the sheaves after the reapers; and she has continued from morn till now, except a little time in the house. Boaz told Ruth, my daughter glean only in this field and stay near my maidens; watch and glean the field they reap; and I have warned the young men not to touch you; and when you thirst drink from the vessels that they filled. She fell to the ground, asking why he was so kind to her as a foreigner; and he told her that it was reported how she has treated her mother-in-law as a widow; and that you left your family and country and people; the Lord God of Israel repay and reward your work for taking refuge under His Wings. She replied: lord (master), may I find favor and comfort in the kind words spoken to one not like your handmaidens. At meal-time Boaz told her to share bread and vinegar with them, and she was also given parched grain, with leftovers. When she began to glean Boaz commanded his young men to let her glean even of the sheaves without reproach and pull out some from the bundle for her to glean without rebuke. She gleaned till even, and then beat it out, amounting to an ephah of barley. She returned with the gleanings to her mother-in-law; and gave her leftovers she had saved. She asked where she gleaned and worked; blessed be the one that noticed you; and Ruth said his name was Boaz; Naomi said, blessed be the Lord for His continued kindness to the living and dead; and that the man is very close kin. Ruth added that he also instructed her to stay with his young men till the harvest ends. Naomi agreed that Ruth stay with his maidens in his field. She stayed with them till the barley and wheat harvests ended (in autumn), living with her mother-in-law.
Naomi said to her: my daughter what rest may I find for your good? Boaz is a close kinsman, and you are with his maidens, and he winnows barley tonight in the threshing-floor; wash yourself, anoint yourself, get dressed, and go down to the threshing-floor; but do not make yourself known to him, till he has finished eating and drinking; then when he lay down at the end of the heap of grain, to mark the place he slept; then uncover his feet and lay down; he will tell you what to do. She came quietly and uncovered his feet, she lay down. At midnight he was afraid and turned himself to find a woman at his feet; and asked who she was; and she said: I am Ruth your handmaid, spread your skirt over me, for you are a near kinsman. He blessed her in the Lord for her kindness at the end, greater than at the start; that she did not follow young men, rich or poor; but fear not, I will do as you ask, for all know that you are a worthy woman. It is true I am a near kinsman, but there is one still nearer; stay the night here till morn; and if he will perform the Kinsman part then so be it, if not, then I will do so as the Lord lives. She arose early before being detected; for he said let it not be known that a woman came to the threshing-floor. He asked her to hold her mantle (robe), and he filled it with 6 barley-measures; then he went into the city. She came to her mother-in-law; and she told her the man’s decision; and his gift of 6 barley-measures for her mother-in-law. Naomi told Ruth to wait, for he will finish the matter this day.
Boaz went and sat at the city-gate till the other near Kinsman came; and said to him to, turn and sit; and Boaz, along with 10 City Elders sitting, told them: Naomi has returned from the country of Moab, and is selling the parcel of land of our brother Elimelech. I disclose it to yu to buy it in the presence of these Elders, to Redeem it, but if yu will not Redeem it then tell me; for the right to Redeem is yurs as the nearest Kinsman and I am after yu. He said he would Redeem it; Boaz replied in the day yu Redeem it yu must also do so from Ruth the Moabite, the widow (wife) of the deceased, to raise up the name of the dead on his inheritance; he replied that he cannot Redeem it lest he mar his own inheritance; that Boaz should take the Right of Redemption. Now the custom in Israel in Redeeming and Exchanging property and persons, to confirm all things, was a man removed his shoe (sandal) and gave it to his neighbor, as witness in Israel of the transaction; and he did. Boaz said to the Elders that they were witnesses of his purchase of the property of Elimelech’s sons Chilion and Mahlon from Naomi; also, the purchase of Ruth the Moabite, the widowed-wife of Mahlon, to become my wife, to raise up the name of the deceased on his inheritance, for a memorial here. The people and the Elders replied: We are witnesses; and the Lord make this woman and wife like Rachel and Leah, who both built the house of Israel; and may you do worthily in Ephrathah, and be famous in Bethlehem; and may your house be like the house of Perez, whom Tamar birthed to Judah, from the seed or offspring which the Lord shall give you of this woman. Boaz took Ruth as wife, and went in to her, and she became pregnant and gave birth to a son. The women blessed Naomi in the Lord, Who gave her this near Kinsman; may he be famous in Israel. For he (the child) shall be a Restorer and Nourisher of thine old age, because your daughter-in-law who loves you and is better to you than 7 sons, gave him birth. Naomi took and laid the child in her bosom and nursed him; and the neighborhood women said, Naomi has a baby boy; and they called him Obed; he became the father of Jesse the father of David (abi-Yishai abi-Dawid). These are the Generations of Perez: abi-Hezron; abi-Ram; abi-Amminadab; abi-Nahshon; abi-Salmon; abi-Boaz; abi-Obed; abi-Jesse; and abi-David. (8 Generations, not counting Perez and Judah.)
In the Book of Ruth, we are given a window into the times of the Judges of Israel during the days and years of Gideon (the 5th Judge), and perhaps during the 40 years the land rested, which is ascertained in that Salmon was David’s great great-grandfather and thus about 100 years before David, and according to Jephthah (the 9th (8th) Judge), 300 years transpired from Joshua to Jephthah. Those who place Ruth during the times of Samson are not clear. The picture is beautiful and simple. The Kinsman Redeemer is the Mediator between God and man; a Relative or Near-Kin Who can stand before God on our behalf; Who takes us up and in, sharing all He is and has with us. It is a lovely portrait of redemption and salvation. In David’s line we have Tamar and Ruth, Gentiles brought into the family of God. We see sin, ruin, lost, and the need for divine help; and Boaz shines in the dark background of the period of the Judges. The Law was not entirely forgotten, but it was not carefully observed. The Trans-Jordanians Israelites of the tribes of Reuben and Gad, dwelling within and alongside of Moab and Ammon, reveals the mixed condition of Israel’s occupation and the prevalence of the Gentiles in the people’s history, and daily experience. In Ruth we see the Goel, the Kinsman Redeemer, as He is seen in Job 19 and 23, where God is approachable as a man and friend and brother. This is Messiah in all that is meant to our hope and life. But in David will be the fulfillment of this hope and longing, and David is the seed that Ruth produced in her birth of a son to Boaz. And from David the Seed of Woman would come forth in due time in Jesus the Christ, the Messiah of Israel, and the Savior of the world.
We continue in the Scriptures in the Books of Samuel which is in the Hebrew Bible, in the traditional Masoretic Text is one Book called Samuel, but the Greeks and the Latins named them Kings 1st & 2nd, which they name Kings 1st & 2nd Kings 3rd & 4th. The history concludes the dispensation of the Judges, and the generations are seen in light of the Book of the Law as made known in Deuteronomy. The People or the Nation of Israel is governed by the Book, administered and maintained by the Priesthood of Aaron and the Levites. Judges exposed the defect and deterioration of both the Law and the Priesthood as displayed in the People. We read and understood that the People were the Kingdom of the Lord their King and Savior. Yet they lived in opposition to His Headship, and the Kingdom became an anarchy without a Monarch. Israel craved the visible Monarchy as they saw with the Gentiles, and they demanded to have a King, as seen in Abimelech ben-Gideon. Samuel enters the ‘divine drama of redemption’ to reveal a change in the Covenant and the Dispensation, that is the Divine in Economy in its Administration from Judgeship to Kingship, from local Heads to the Federal and National Headship. The failure of Israel to eradicate the local Gentiles, and to fully occupy their inheritance, and their violation of both their covenant relation to the Lord and their obligation to produce a future for their children and grandchildren in testimony to the nations compelled the Lord to interpose a new way to accomplish His long-term goals and Messianic preparations. Ruth has the Seed of the King of the Lord’s Kingdom, but Samuel must be created by God to have the Lord’s man in a new generation which, like in Ruth, must begin with a woman and wife. The Dispensation from Exodus to Malachi, is in three parts, the 1st is Moses and Aaron, from Exodus – Deuteronomy; the 2nd is Joshua and the Judges from Joshua to Samuel, and the 3rd is the Kings, from David & Solomon to Zerubbabel and the Captivity. As in previous dispensations the great dispensation is divided into three parts, it is a Dispensation of Israel as Jehovah’s Kingdom on earth, and it begins United by the Mosaic Law and Covenant supported by the Aaronic and Levitical Priesthood; then it undergoes tests and failure in Israel’s troubles and experience, with the added helps of the Judges and the Prophets; at last the Kingdom is altered in its visible headship and transferred by delegation and anointing to the Kings of Israel and Judah, and then to the Gentile Monarch’s in Israel’s Captivity and Exile. It is the 5th great Dispensation o0f the Historical and Generational Lampstand and corresponds or complements or answer to the 3rd Great Dispensation of the Sons of Noah as the Nations or Gentiles.
As with Joshua the Divine direct speaking continues to fade and is rare; it first occurs in Judges 1:2: “Judah shall go up: I have delivered the land into his hand.” Then later recalls the Exodus and warns about their duties concerning taking the land, and their disobedience; then at last of Samson the Nazarite against the Philistines; and concludes with these few words in chapter 20 against the Benjaminites: “Judah first” “Go up against him.” “Go up; for tomorrow I will deliver them into your hand.” He is silent in Ruth.

We give Bullinger’s ‘Summary of Principal Events’ Appendix 50.viii, from B.C. 1431 to A.D. 69.
Judges: Years of Servitude & Years of Rule
1431 First servitude. Mesopotamia 8 yrs
1423 Othniel. 40yrs [rest]
1393-1392 First Jubilee year (Anno Dei reckoning).
1383 Second servitude. Moab 18 yrs
1365 Ehud. 80 yrs [rest]
1285 Third servitude. Canaan 20 yrs
1265 Barak. 40 yrs
1225 Fourth servitude. Midian 7 yrs
1218 Gideon. 40 yrs
1178 Tola. 23 yrs
1155 Jair. 4 yrs
1151 Jephthah. 6 yrs (300 years from the entry into the Land. See note on chart 50. IV.)
1145 Ibzan. 7 yrs
1138 Elon. 10 yrs
1128 Abdon. 8 yrs
1120 Fifth servitude. Philistine. 40 yrs
[Total years of Rest and Rule: 258; and Total years of Servitude: 93.]

1808 Eli, 40 years.
1040 Samuel, 40 years.
1020 The “Reformation”. 1Sam. 7.
1000 Ends the 45 years of Acts 13:20, and 490 years from the year they should have entered into the Land.
1000 THE KINGDOM. Saul, 40 years.
990 David b.
974 David’s first anointing (16).
960 David, 40 years. Second anointing (30).
953 David’s third anointing (37).
920 Solomon, 40 years.
917 The Temple begun. 573 years after the Exodus. (Cp. Acts 13:20-23).
910 The Temple finished.
897 At the end of twenty years, the “two houses” finished (1Kings 9:10).
880 The Disruption. Rehoboam, 17 years.
863 Abijam, 3 years.
860 Asa, 41 years.
819 Jehoshaphat, 25 years.
796 Jehoram’s accession.
794 Jehoshaphat d.
789 Ahaziah’s accession.
788 Ahaziah slain by Jehu.
788-782 Gap, 6 years. Athaliah’s usurpation.
782 Jehoash, 41 years.
743 Amaziah, 29 years.
714 Amaziah ends.
714-701 Gap, 13 years.
701 Uzziah, 52 years.
687 Hosea’s prophecies begin?
649 Gap. One year between Uzziah’s death and Jotham’s accession.
647 Jotham, 16 years.
634 Micah’s prophecies begin?
632 Ahaz, 16 years.
617 Hezekiah’s accession.
616 Ahaz d.
615 Hosea ends?
613 Siege of Samaria begun.
611 Samaria taken and Israel ends.
603 Sennacherib invades Judah in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah (2Kings 18:13).
588 Manasseh, 55 years.
584 Isaiah killed? (Cp. Isa. 7:6).
533 Amon, 2 years.
531 Josiah, 31 years.
530 Zephaniah?
518 Jeremiah’s prophecies begin in Josiah’s thirteenth year.
513 The Book “found” and the Passover in Josiah’s eighteenth year.
500 Jehoahaz, 3 months.
499 Jehoiakim, 11 years.
497 Nebuchadnezzar’s first siege of Jerusalem.
496 Jehoiakim’s fourth year, Nebuchadnezzar’s first. Daniel taken to Babylon.
495 Jehoiakim burns the roll.
494 Nebuchadnezzar’s second year. His dream of the Great Image. Daniel interprets.
489 Jehoiachin, 3 months. Captivity begins in Nebuchadnezzar’s eighth year (second siege).
488 Zedekiah, 11 years.
484 Ezekiel’s prophecies begin.
478 Nebuchadnezzar’s third siege of Jerusalem begins.
477 Jerusalem taken, and Temple destroyed, in Nebuchadnezzar’s nineteenth year. Jeremiah ends.
473 Punishment for the murder of Gedaliah (Jer. 52:30).
462 Ezekiel’s last dated prophecy.
461-454 Nebuchadnezzar’s seven years of “madness”.
454 Twentieth year of Asteiages (Artaxerxes). The commandment to rebuild Jerusalem. (See 50. VI, VII. 5, 12.) Nehemiah’s first visit to Jerusalem.
452 Nebuchadnezzar d. after forty-four years’ reign.
452 Evil-Merodach. Jehoiachin’s captivity ends.
446 Nabonidus.
429 Belshazzar, 3 years.
426 Belshazzar slain. “Darius the Median” (Asteiages) takes the kingdom. Cyrus (Asteiages’ son) issues the Decree to rebuild the Temple. Daniel’s vision of the “seventy sevens”. The “seven sevens” begin. Foundations of the Temple laid. Nehemiah’s second visit to Jerusalem.
421 Cyrus ends.
418 Cambyses makes Nehemiah governor. Nehemiah’s third visit to Jerusalem.
411 Darius Hystaspis re-enacts the decree of Cyrus.
410 Haggai and Zechariah begin. The temple superstructure commenced and carried on to completion, from the second to the sixth year of Darius.
408 Zechariah’s last date.
405 The Temple finished and dedicated. The “seven sevens” end, and the “sixty-two sevens” commence.
404 The Passover.
403 Ezra’s last date: 1st of Nisan.
375? Darius Hystaspis d. (according to Herodotus, 63 years old).
4 The Nativity.
0 The Common Era of A.D.
29 The “sixty-nine sevens” end with the “cutting off of the Messiah”, 483 years from the “going forth of the commandment to build Jerusalem” in 454 B.C.
69 Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.13

(Here are pages 229 – 241. The PDF which includes Joshua to Esther will not be created till this section or digit is completed, which should be during this month of April. mjm.)

JOSHUA – ESTHER: Historical Books of the Early Prophets:
JOSHUA: 24 Chapters:
Moses death initiates the period of the Judges commencing with Joshua and terminates with Samuel, who in turn initiates the Monarchy or the period of the Kings. We will follow God as He moves both visibly and hidden during some 400 years of moving in His People to test and save them. As with the Creation, then with Adam, and with Noah and his three Sons, then with the three Patriarchs with the House of Jacob-Israel, so with Moses and Israel God continues to work out His eternal purpose and the counsels of His own heart. The Covenant by Abraham and Moses, in the tokens of Circumcision with Promises, and the Ten Commandments or the Law with Conditions (as the tokens of Two Trees in the Garden, and the Rainbow after the Flood) are now to be tested and judged to redeem and establish a new people. The Lord must needs extend and enlarge the lessons and pictures of His glorious redemptive work of His People. We have moved from the books of the Bible or the Old Testament and First Covenant to a new Division of the Book which we call the Historical Books, but the Jews call them the Prophetical Books, composed of the Early and the Later Books, and the Major and Minor Prophets. No doubt it is due to the Writers of these Books being Prophets, Joshua and Samuel, that this designation has come about. We repeat again that God is concerned with the Land or the Place, and with the People or the Man, and with the Book or the Word; and these three things and thematic doctrines must continue to unfold. Our Reflections will follow the Bible Divisions as they have come down to us in English or the Latin and the Greek, but admitting the Hebrew order has its own peculiar and special place, both for Israel and Christians. As with the Five Books of Moses we will survey in a synoptical way these Books as we find them in their order. Our object and goal are to reach the Psalms of David in the Poetical Books, as the next step of our manual-symbol of the Hands of God. The Legal Books of Genesis and Deuteronomy will reach the high point or the highest place in the Psalms, which then will advance to the Prophetical Books proper, with Isaiah and Daniel concluding the Old Testament, taking with them all the other Books. The Historical Books tell us a Story, ours and His, both are witnesses to each other, or as we say, the lesser reflects the greater, or the image mirrows the real. As we read the Divine and Inspired History we see the greater and truer Story of the Lord God in His creation and world and are nurtured by Him as the Shaddai of the Patriarchs, till we mature as a creation of mankind to value Him in a new and better relations. In one sense He moves from a Garden to a Tent and then to a House, but it is one and the same: God dwells with man. We have said as a principle that there are countless types and shadows in hidden mysteries in the words of Scripture, and the Text embodies the soul as the soul the spirit.

JOSHUA opens with the death of Moses the Lord’s Servant, and the Lord speaks to Joshua ben-Nun, Moses’ Minister to lead Israel across the Jordan River into Canaan, their new Home. The Land of Promise and Oath, the sworn word of God, must be taken by their feet and swords in conquest of war. The Land or Country is some 100 miles wide and 200 miles long from the South to the North and from the East to the West or from Southern Deserts to Northern Mountains of Lebanon and from the Eastern Euphrates River (bordering the Land of the Hittites) to the Western Great Mediterranean Sea. The Jordan divides the Land, with the two smaller seas, Galilee and Dead Sea, irrigating the land. The War and the Conquest is of the Lord Who goes with Joshua and Israel to fulfill His Word of settling them in Canaan. As Moses represented the People to God as the collective man, the greater man, the corporate man or company, so here and now Joshua stands as the Man and the People. The conquest and the success of possessing the inheritance must be faithful obedience to His Word commanded in the Law of Moses; in which Joshua must daily read and speak, meditate and reflect, to observe all things written. It is to the faithful and fearless obedience to words of God, that the Lord God promises to be with Joshua in this mission. The Elders and Officers of the People are delegated to prepare the People in three days for the invasion. The 2 ½ tribes are admonished to leave their families to stay in their new country in Trans-Jordan, but the fighters must march with the other 9 ½ tribes to war, till Canaan is conquered, then they may return home. They agree to obey with oath, and they warn against refusal to obey Joshua means death. They exhort him to be strong and brave that Lord may be with him as He was with Moses. Joshua, at Shittim west of the Jordan, here commissioned two spies to gain intelligence of the Land and of Jericho. They came and hid in the house of Rahab the harlot or prostitute, and she lied to the King of Jericho as to the two spies having left the city in the dark. She then concealed them on the rooftop under straws till safe; she told the spies that she believed the Lord has handed the city over to Israel; and that all Jericho were in fear and despair; having heard that the Lord dried up the Red Sea for Israel in the Exodus from Egypt; and that Israel utterly destroyed the two Kings of the Amorites, Sihon and Og; for the Lord the God of Israel is the true and only God. She made them pledge by Him to show her and her family kindness in return and to give a token or sign for salvation from death. They agreed mutually by oath; and she let them down from her house on the rooftop by a cord down the wall; and they instructed her to tie this scarlet thread or rope to the window, and to gather all her family inside the house, or the oath will be voided; and if she keep her promise to not disclose their business; and she agreed; and spies safely escaped, hiding in the mountains for three days. They returned to Joshua and reported all the matter. Joshua led Israel to the Jordan from Shittim to cross over, the Officers and Captains after three days they ordered the People to set out marching following the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant, at distance 2,000 cubits or 3,000 feet or 3/5th a mile. They must not come too close to the Ark leading them in a new way. The People must sanctify themselves, for the next day the Lord will work wonders. The Priests are to carry the Ark of Covenant and cross ahead of the People; and so did they. The Lord magnified Joshua to Israel that He will be with him as with Moses. The Priests must stand carrying the Ark of the Covenant at the brink in the Jordan; and Joshua must tell Israel the words of the Lord God; that they may know that He is among them, and He will drive out the 7 Nations in Canaan. The Ark of the Covenant of the Lord of all the earth passes over before them into the Jordan; and 12 men, one man for each tribe, after the Priests with the Ark step into the Jordan’s waters, and the running waters stop as one heap (although Jordan overflows all it banks during harvest season), and the People leave their tents and cross the Jordan on dry ground, and the dammed waters from distant city Adam near Zarethan, and the waters flowing toward the Sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, were cut off , that the People pass over across from Jericho on dry ground, and the Priests with the Ark standing on dry ground till all the Nation crossed over; the 12 men took 12 Stones near the Priest’s feet in Jordan, and carried them out on their shoulder to the lodging-place of the Camp. This was a sign and a witness for a perpetual memorial to future generations in Israel, that the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant. Israel, along with the 2 ½ tribes, some 40,000, armed men of war, for the Lord’s battle, came to the plains of Jericho. The Lord magnified Joshua to Israel, that they might fear Joshua as they did Moses, all his life. The Jordan waters again flowed as before and overflowed its banks. This was on the 10th day of the 1st month (Abib), and encamped at Gilgal east of Jericho west of the Jordan. Joshua set up the 12 Stones of the Jordan at Gilgal; and instructed Israel to tell their children that Israel crossed the Jordan on dry ground, when the Lord God dried up the waters for them, as He did to the Red Sea (Yam Suf); that the peoples of the earth may know the Lord’s mighty Hand; and Israel to fear the Lord God for ever.
When the Kings of the Amorites west in Trans-Jordan, and the Kings of the Canaanites by the Sea, heard the news of all this their heart melted, and their spirit vanished. The Lord told Joshua to make sharp flint knives and circumcise Israel a 2nd time; at the Hill of Foreskins (Gibhath-ha-Araloth) he did so; because the generation of the adult male fighters of the Exodus died circumcised, as sworn, within the 40 years of wandering, for disobedience; but the new generation of the Desert were uncircumcised. They stayed in camp till they healed; thus, the Lord rolled-away the reproach of Egypt: and they named the place Gilgal to this day. On the 14th of Abib they kept the Passover in the plains of Jericho; the next day they ate of the produce of the land, with unleavened cakes and parched grain; the next day the manna ceased in Canaan. While Joshua was near Jericho a man appeared with drawn sword in hand opposite him, and he asked him if he was a friend or foe; he replied, neither, but he came as Prince of the Lord’s armies; Joshua fell prostrate and worshipped, asking what the Lord says to His servant. The Prince of the Lord’s host demanded the removal of his shoe or sandal for the ground is holy. Jericho was secure against Israel. The Lord told Joshua that He has handed over Jericho and its King and warriors; and the fighters must circle the city once a day for 6 days. The 7 Priests with 7 Trumpets of Ram’s Horns before the Ark; and on the 7th day to circle the city 7 times, then the Priests must blow the Trumpets; at the sound of the trumpets all the People must shout: and the wall of the city will collapse, and the People will go straight in. Joshua had 7 Priests with 7 Trumpets carry the Ark of Covenant following the People and the armed men ahead of the Lord’s Ark; they did as they were instructed for 6 days, and on the 7th day after the 7th time the wall of Jericho collapsed. The city of Jericho must be devoted to destruction, banned and condemned, entirely to the Lord; only Rahab and her family to be spared for helping the spies or messengers. Nothing of the devoted or banned things must be taken or Israel will be accursed and troubled. The silver, gold, and vessels of brass and iron are holy to the Lord and must be put into His Treasury. They destroyed Jericho and killing everything; but spared Rahab and her family (who resides in Israel to Samuel’s time); and burnt the city and put the dedicated metals in the Treasury. Joshua at that time charged Israel with an oath and curse: may the man be cursed who rebuilds Jericho, to lose his first-born in its foundations and to lose his youngest son in setting up its gates. The Lord was with Joshua, and his fame spread in all the Land.
Israel trespassed in the devoted thing by Achan ben-Carmi ben-Zabdi ben-Zerah of Judah taking of it and angered the Lord against them. Joshua sent spies to Ai near Beth-aven east of Bethel; the spies return and recommend only a few thousand (3,000) men to attack Ai; but in the battle 36 Israelites died, and Israel fled in terror from Ai, from the city-gate to Shebarim’s descent. Joshua and the Elders mourn and complain to the Lord, that He betrayed them to the Amorites, and regretting crossing the Jordan. The Lord tells him to get up, for Israel has sinned in the contraband, and transgressed His Covenant; Israel will fall before their foes as accursed without His help till the devoted thing is destroyed. Joshua calls Israel to surrender the devoted thing for destruction: Israel comes by tribe, and Judah is taken; by family, and the Zerahites taken; by man, and Zabdi taken; by his household and Achan is taken. Achan confesses his sin of coveting and stealing spoils: a Babylonian mantle of Shinar, 200 silver shekels, a gold wedge weighing 50 shekels; and hiding them in his tent. Joshua retrieves the contraband; then takes Achan (the trouble-maker) and the stuff and his possessions to the Valley of Achor, and troubles him by stoning and burning him to death, along with all his belongings. A heap of stones was piled up, and the place called Achor’s Valley. Then the Lord’s wrath was appeased and deflected. Now the Lord orders Joshua to attack and destroy Ai as they did to Jericho, for He has given them to Israel to conquer. Joshua ambush Ai by a clever maneuver (between Beth-el and Ai on the west) and the men of Ai is drawn away from the city, the city is burnt in accord with the Lord’s word. Early next morning Joshua and the Elders mustered the people, and they went to Ai on the north side, a valley between. 5,000 fighters ambush Ai on the north, the others were hiding in ambush on the west. Joshua enters the Valley, the King of Ai rose early to pursue Israel as before; Joshua retreats to entice them out into the Arabah desert, leaving Ai and Beth-el defenseless. The Lord tells Joshua to extend his javelin towards the city, and then those hidden rushed into the city and captured it, torching it. The men of Ai turned around to see Ai on fire, and they were immobilized; Israel turned from their retreat to pursue the men of Ai, and those of Israel in the city returned to pursue the men of Ai, now trapped between two divisions of Israel. Israel destroyed all of them, in the field, the desert, and the city, total 12,000 men and women. Joshua withdrew his extended javelin after Ai was destroyed. Israel took for themselves only the cattle as spoil. The King of Ai they hanged on a tree till sunset, then threw his body outside the gate, and piled a heap of stones on it. Joshua erected an Altar of unhewn stones to the Lord at Mount Ebal as Moses commanded in the Book of the Law (Deuteronomy); and offered sacrifices to Him. He wrote on the Stones a copy of the Law of Moses (Deuteronomy) in the sight of Israel. Israel and the leaders and rulers and all non-Israelis in two companies stood on opposite sides of the Ark of Covenant before the Levitical Priests; 1/2 at Mount Gerizim and 1/2 at Mount Ebal as Moses commanded. He read all the words of the Law, the blessings and curses, all the words to every Israeli and non-Israeli.
The Kings of the 6 nations in Canaan from all directions united to fight Joshua and Israel. Gibeonites heard of conquest of Jericho and Ai, in fear and wit presented themselves as strangers from a distant country to seek a covenant or treaty with Israel at Gilgal; for we, they said, heard what the Lord did to the Egyptians, and to the Amorites’ kings, Sihon of Heshbon and Og of Bashan at Ashtaroth, so we were delegated to seek an alliance. Joshua with the rulers of the people covenanted a peace pact by oath with the Gibeonites, without seeking the Lord’s counsel. 3 days later they discovered the Gibeonites were locals and neighbors. Israel continued to advance in the Conquest and arrived at the cities of Gibeonites (Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth, & Kiriath-jearim); and did not destroy them in keeping with the oath, of which the Israelites complained; Joshua made the Gebeonites wood-choppers and water-carriers for Israel, and for the Lord’s Altar at His chosen place. King Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem united a confederacy of 4 Kings: Hoham of Hebron, Piram of Jarmuth, Japhia of Lachish, and Debir of Eglon, to attack Gibeon (a great city) for alliance with Joshua and Israel. These 5 Amorite Kings and their forces besieged Gibeon; the Gibeonites sent to Joshua at Gilgal for help against the Amorite Kings. Joshua and the warriors went out for war; the Lord promised victory to Israel by Joshua. The Lord discomfited them before Israel, and they slaughtered them at Gibeon; chased and slew them to the ascent of Beth-horon, to Azekah, to Makkedah; and those who escaped to the descent of Beth-horon; the Lord rained great hailstones on them destroying some more than Israel slew by sword. During the battle against the Amorites Joshua commanded that the Lord to halt the Sun over Gibeon, and the Moon over the Valley of Aijalon; and He did it, for an entire day; never or since, was it heard, that the Lord obeyed the voice of a man. Joshua returned to Gilgal, and the 5 Kings had fled and hid themselves in the Cave of Makkedah; Joshua sealed it with a great stone and set a watch till the war was over; leaving only a terrified remnant secured in the fortified cities. Joshua returned to the Cave of Makkedah, and had the 5 Kings brought before him, and ordered the chief warriors to put their feet on their necks; he then put them to death, and hung them on 5 trees till sunset, and then took them down and threw them in the Cave Makkedah and sealed it. Joshua took and destroyed Makkedah, as he did to Jericho, leaving none alive. Thence they passed from Libnah to Lachish, and the Lord delivered it for destruction by Israel; the second day they destroyed it utterly as at Libnah. King Horam of Gezer came to help Lachish, but Joshua destroyed him and his people. From Lachish they passed on to Eglon and they destroyed it completely as with Lachish. From Eglon to Hebron and destroyed it. Thence returned to Debir and destroyed it as with Hebron and Libnah. Joshua smote and destroyed all the land, the hill-country, the South, the lowland, the slopes, with all their kings as the Lord God commanded. Joshua conquered them from Kadesh-barnea to Gaza, to Goshen, to Gibeon, with all their kings and land; for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel; then Joshua and Israel returned to the Camp at Gilgal.
King Jabin of Hazor allied with 3 Kings, Jobab of Maon, of Shimron, and of Achshaph, along with the Kings in the north, in the Arabah south of Chinneroth, in the lowland, and in the heights of Dor on the west; and with the Canaanite on the east and west, and the Amorite, Hittite, Perizzite, Jebusite in the hill-country, and the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpah. All these as a mighty army without number with many horses and chariots gathered and encamped for battle at Merom against Israel. The Lord promised victory to Israel for the next day, and that their horses will be hocked, and their chariots burnt. Joshua and his warriors surprised the encamped hosts by the waters of Merom and routed them, chasing them to great Sidon, to Misrephoth-maim, through the Valley of Mizpeh eastward; destroying them, hocking their horses and burning their chariots as the Lord commanded. Joshua turned back to Hazor (which was the head of all those kingdoms) and destroyed them and burnt the city. He destroyed all the cities of those kings as Moses the Lord’s servant commanded. The fortified mound cities he did not burn except for Hazor; and Israel took all the livestock as spoil and prey, but killed all the men, as the Lord commanded Moses, and Moses commanded Joshua. Joshua conquered and captured all the land: the hill-country, the South (Negev), Goshen, the lowland (Shephelah), the Arabah (Desert), the hill country of Israel and its lowland, from Mount Halak towards Seir, to Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon under Mount Hermon; with all their kings he put to death. He warred a long time against those kings, making no peace treaty with any of them, except the Hivites of Gibeon; conquering all the others. The Lord hardened the hearts of those nations to destroy them, as He commanded Moses. Joshua cut off the Anakim from the hill-country, Hebron, Debir, Anab, and from the hill-country of Judah and Israel; destroying their cities; leaving no Anakim except those remaining in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. Joshua conquered the whole country as the Lord spoke to Moses, and he gave it to Israel as inheritance by their tribal divisions. And the Land had rest from war.
The two Kings of Canaan were already defeated and conquered east of the Jordan, and Israel took possession of their lands as an inheritance; from Trans-Jordan eastward toward the sunrise, from the Valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon, and Arabah eastward: Sihon of the Amorites, with all their lands from Heshbon and Aroer, edge of the Valley of Arnon to half of Gilead, to Jabbok River, the border of Ammonites; the Arabah to the Sea of Chinneroth (Galilee) eastward, to the Sea of Arabah (Dead Sea, Salt Sea) eastward towards Beth-jeshimoth, and the south under the slopes of Pisgah; and Og of Bashan of the Rephaim, at Ashtaroth and Edrei, in Mount Hermon, in Salecah, Bashan, border of Geshurites and Maaccathites, half of Gilead, the border of Sihon of Heshbon. Moses had conquered and allotted their lands to the 2 1/2 tribes as inheritance. The Kings of the land west of the Jordan that were defeated and conquered, and the lands partitioned to the tribes of Israel by Joshua were from Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon to Mount Halak, to Seir; the hill-country, lowland, Arabah, the slopes and desert, in the South. 6 Nations: Hittite, Amorite, Canaanite, Perizzite, Hivite, and Jebusite; 31 Kings in 31 Cities: Jericho, Ai, Bethel, Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, Eglon, Gezer, Debir, Gedir, Hormah, Arad, Libnah, Adullam, Makkedah, Beth-el, Tappuah, Hepher, Aphek, Lassharon, Madon, Hazor, Shimron-meron, Achshaph, Taanach, Megiddo, Kedesh, Jokneam in Carmel, Dor in height of Dor, Goiim in Gilgal, and Tirzah.
Now Joshua was old (over 100) in years; the Lord tells him that there still remains much land to be possessed: the regions of the Philistines, the Geshurites; from Sihor near Egypt to Ekron northward, reckoned to the Canaanites; the 5 Lords of the Philistines, the Gazites, Ashdodites, Ashkelonites, Gittites, Ekronites, and Avvim, in the south; the land of Canaanites, Mearah of the Sidonians, to Aphek, to the border of the Amorites; the land of Gebalites, of Lebanon, towards sunrise-east, from Baal-gad under Mount Hermon to entrance of Hamath; all the inhabitants of the hill-country, from Lebanon to Misrephoth-maim, all the Sidonians; these he allotted to Israel as commanded. The 9 1/2 tribes were allotted lands on the west of the Jordan, the 2 1/2 tribes on the east of the Jordan; from Aroer next to Arnon through the Valley and Plain of Medeba to Dibon in Trans-Jordan, captured from Sihon and Og. But the Geshurites and the Maachathites remained. The Levites received no tribal lot as commanded. The 2 1/2 tribes in Trans-Jordan with all the cities in the plain and 12 other cities: the 5 Princes or Chiefs of the Midian Sihon, which Moses killed: Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba; and the soothsayer Balaam ben-Beor, who Israel slew with them. Israel settled in all those regions from Jordan to Jazer to Gilead to Aroer to Heshbon to Ramath-mizpeh & Betonim to Mahanaim to Debir to Beth-haram & Beth-nimrah, Succoth, Zaphon to Jordan to the Sea of Chinnereth eastward; to Mahanaim, Bashan, with 60 Cities, to Gilead & Ashtaroth, and. Edrei. All these Moses distributed as inheritance to the 2 1/2 tribes in the Plains of Moab; but Levi was the Lord God’s inheritance.
The 9 1/2 tribes inherited in Canaan from Eleazer the Priest and Joshua ben-Nun and the tribal Princes by lot, as the Lord commanded Moses. Joseph’s two sons received each an inheritance; but Levi received only cities and suburbs to live and have substance; and the land was divided by lot. Judah’s lot and borders: Caleb the Kenizzite (now 85) reminded Joshua that Moses the Man of God promised them in Kadesh-Barnea (2 years after the Exodus) when he was 40 years old when he spied out the land and returned with a good report against the 10 spies with a bad report; Moses promised that the land he would tread he could inherit forever, now 45 years later, still strong and brave as he was earlier, desires the hill-country of the Anakims, with its great and fortified cities; for with the Lord’s help, I will drive them out. Joshua blessed him with Hebron, formerly called Kiriath-Arba the Great of the Anakim. Then the Land rested from war.
Judah’s Partition: 1st: south lot, portion, border, and division was from Edom to the Desert of Zin southward, to further south; to upper Salt Sea and southward to the ascent of Akrabbim through Zin to south of Kadesh-Barnea near Hezron to Addar to Karka to Azmon, to the brook of Egypt to the seacoast. The east border was the Salt Sea to Jordan River. The north quarter was the bay of the Sea at the end of Jordan, up to Beth-Hoglah, along north Beth-Arabah, to the Stone of Bohan ben-Reuben; up to Debir from Valley of Achor, north to Gilgal across the Ascent of Adummim, south side of the River, along the Waters of En-Shemesh to En-Rogel, up by the Valley of Ben-Hinnom near the Jebusite southward (Yeru-Shalom, Jerusalem), up to the top of the Mountain near the Valley of Hinnom westward, the uttermost part of the Vale of Rephaim northward; thence to fountain of the Waters of Nephtoah, to the cities of Mount Ephron, on to Baalah (Kiriath-Jearim), thence westward to Mount Seir, on to the side of Mount Jearim on the north (Chesalon), down to Beth-Shemesh, along Timnah; thence beside Ekron northward, thence to Shikkeron, along Mount Baalah to Jabneel, on to the Sea; west to the Great Sea coast. Caleb drove out the 3 sons of Anak: Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai; thence against Debir (Kiriath-Sepher); he promised his daughter Achsah in marriage to one who took the city; Othniel ben-Kenaz, Caleb’s brother, took it and married her. She desired a blessing of springs of water also, so Caleb gave her the upper and lower springs. Judah’s Inheritance in their outermost cities South border to Edom: 29 Cities and villages: Kabzeel, Eder, Jagur, Kinah, Dimonah, Adadah, Kedesh, Hazor, Ithnan, Ziph, Telem, Bealoth, Hazor-Hadattah, Kerioth-Hezron (Hazor), Amam, Shema, Moladah, Hazar-Gaddah, Heshmon, Beth-Pelet; Hazar-Shual, Beer-Sheba, Biziothiah, Baalah, Iim, Ezem, Eltolad, Chesil, Hormah, Ziklag, Madmannah, Sansannah, Lebaoth, Shilhim, Ain, and Rimmon. In the lowland were 14 Cities and villages: Eshtaol, Zorah, Ashnah, Zanoah, En-Gannim, Tappoah, Enam, Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoh, Azekah, Shaaraim, Adithaim, Gederah, and Gederothaim. Again 16 Cities and villages: Zenan, Hadashah, Migdal-Gad, Dilean, Mizpeh, Joktheel, Lachish, Bozkath, Eglon, Cabbon, Lahmam, Chitlish, Gederoth, Beth-Dagon, Naamah, and Makkedah. Again 9 Cities and villages: Libnah, Ether, Ashan, Iphtah, Ashnah, Nezib, Keilah, Achzib, and Mareshah. In addition to these were other Cities with their towns and villages: Ekron, Ashdod, Gaza, to the Brook of Egypt and the Great Sea. In the hill-country 11 Cities and villages: Shamir, Jattir, Socoh, Dannah, Kiriath-Sannah (Debir), Anab, Eshtemoth, Anim, Goshen, Holon, and Giloh. And 9 Cities and villages: Arab, Dumah, Eshan, Janim, Beth-Tappuah, Aphekah, Humtah, Kiriath-Arba (Hebron), and Zior. And 10 Cities and villages: Maon, Carmel, Ziph, Jutah, Jezreel, Jokdeam, Zanoah, Kain, Gibeah, and Timnah. And 6 Cities and villages: Halhul, Beth-Zur, Gedor, Maarath, Beth-Anoth, and Eltekon. And 2 Cities and villages: Kiriath-Baal (Kiriath-Jearim), and Rabbah. In the wilderness desert 6 Cities and villages: Beth-Arabah, Middin, Secacah, Nibshan, City of Salt (Ir-hamMelach), and En-Gedi. The Jebusites remained in Judah at Jerusalem till now (Samuel’s day), because they could not be driven out. ((110 plus Cities in all))
Joseph’s Partition (Manasseh & Ephraim: 2nd and 3rd: From Jordan River to the waters of Jericho (east of Jericho but west of Jordan) in the desert up to hill-country of Beth-El to Luz, along border of Archites to Ataroth, down west to the Japhletites, to Beth-Horon the nether, to Gezer, and along the coasts of the Sea. Ephraim’s borders: eastward at Ataroth-Addar to Beth-Horon the upper, westward at Michmethath on the North, eastward to Taanaqth-Shiloh, along east of Janoah, down to Ataroth, to Naarah, to Jericho to the Jordan; from Tappuah westward along Brook of Kanah, and to the Sea; besides the Cities and villages of Manasseh designated for Ephraim. They drove out the Canaanites at Gezer, but elsewhere in Ephraim the Canaanites continued to this date (Samuel’s day), serving as laborers.
Manasseh’s lot, Joseph’s firstborn, in Machir Manasseh’s firstborn, Gilead’s father, a man of war and had Gilead and Bashan. The other sons of Manasseh: Abiezer, Helek, Asriel, Shechem, Hepher, Shemida; Hepher’s 5 daughters claimed from Eleazar, Joshua, and the Elders 5 parts of the inheritance as promised by Moses. Manasseh had in all 10 parts not counting the lot of the 1/2 tribe in Trans-Jordan. The borders were from Asher to Michmethath, before Shechem, along the right hand to En-Tappuah (Tappuah of Manasseh, but its border belonged to Ephraim); and down to Brook of Kanah, and south of the brook; sharing borders and cities, out to the Sea: Ephraim south, and Manasseh north; from the Sea to north to Asher, and east to Issachar and Asher Beth-Shean with its towns, also Ibleam, Dor, En-Dor, Taanach, Megiddo, and the three heights. They could not drive out these Canaanites; instead, later when they were able they made them task workers. The children of Joseph complained that their lot was too small, and the Canaanites have iron-chariots in Beth-Shean and its towns, and in Valley of Jezreel. Joshua bid them to take the hill country, cut down its forests, and drive out the strong Canaanites.
The Assembly of Israel set up the Tent of Meeting at Shiloh: and Canaan was subdued but partly conquered; but 7 tribes had yet no inheritance. Joshua reproved Israel for delay to conquer the rest of Canaan. He sent 3 men from Shiloh from each tribe to survey the unconquered land to the north, and describe it in a book, partitioned into 7 Partitions to be parted by cast of lots; they did and returned to Shiloh. (The Levites being excluded as the Lord’s Inheritance); Judah and Joseph excluded, also the 2 1/2 tribes in Trans-Jordan having received their inheritance. At Shiloh Joshua cast lots and partitioned thus: 1st Lot: Benjamin (4th) were to be between Judah and Joseph: north from Jordan beside Jericho thru the hill-country west, thru the Desert of Beth-Aven; thence along to Luz (Beth-El), south, to Ataroth-Addar, near the mountain south of Beth-Horon the nether; thence west and south, from the mountain before Beth-Horon south, out to Kiriath-Baal (Kiriath-Jearim) of Judah; thence its south border went west to the Waters of Nephtoah; down to uttermost part of the mountain before the Valley ben-Hinnom, being the Vale of Rephaim north, thence beside the Jebusite south, down to En-Rogel; north to En-Shemesh, to Geliloth, against the ascent of Adummim, down to Stone of Bohan ben-Reuben; along against Arabah north into Arabah, alongside of Beth-Hoglah north, to Salt Sea at south Jordan, its east quarter. Their 12 Cities and villages: Jericho, Beth-Hoglah, Emek-Keziz, Beth-Arabah, Zemaraim, Beth-El, Avvim, Parah, Ophrah, Chephar-Ammoni, Ophni, and Geba. Also 14 Cities and villages: Gibeon, Ramah, Beeroth, Mizpeh, Chephirah, Mozah, Rekem, Irpeel, Taralah, Zelah, Eleph, the Jebusite (Jerusalem), Gibeah, and Kiriath.
2nd Lot: Simeon (5th): Their inheritance was in Judah (which had a large territory) : 13 Cities and villages: Beer-Sheba (Sheba), Moladah, Hazar-Shual, Balah, Ezem, Eltolad, Bethul, Hormah, Ziklag, Beth-Marcaboth, Hazar-Zusah, Beth-lebaoth, and Sharuhen, Also 4 Cities and villages: Ain, Rimmon, Ether, and Ashan; all around them to Baalath-Beer, and Ramah of the South (Negev). 3rd Lot: Zebulun (6th): 12 Cities and villages: Sarid west to Maralah to Dabbesheth to the brook before Jokneam; from Sarid east to Chisloth-Tabor, to Daberath, to Japhia, thence east to Gath-Hepher, to Eth-Kazin, out to Rimmon out to Neah; turning north to Hannathon, out to Valley of Iphtah-El, Kattath, Nahalal, Shimron, Idalah, and Bethlehem, 4th Lot: Issachar (7th): 16 Cities and villages: Jezreel, Chesulloth, Shunem, Hapharaim, Shion, Anaharath, Rabbith, Kishion, Ebez, Remeth, Engannim, En-Haddah, and Beth-Pazzez; bordering to Tabor, Shahazumah, Beth-Shemesh, out to Jordan. 5th Lot: Asher (8th): 22 Cities and villages: Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, Allammelech, Amad, Mishal, to Carmel west, to Shihor-Libnath, down to sunrising to Beth-Dagon, Zebulun, Iphtah-El north to Beth-Emek, and Neiel; out to Cabul on the left hand, Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, to great Sidon, turning to Ramah, and the fortified City of Tyre; out to Sea by Achzib, Ummah, Aphek, and Rehob. 6th Lot: Naphtali (9th): 19 Cities and villages: From Heleph, from the Oak in Zaanannim, Adaminekeb, Jabneel, Lakkum, out at Jordan; west to Aznoth-Tabor, thence to Hukkok, to Zebulun on the south, to Asher on the west, and to Judah toward the sunrising. The fortified Cities were Zidim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath, Chinnereth, Adamah, Ramah, Hazor, Kedesh, Edrei, En-Hazor, Iron, Migdal-El, Horem, Beth-Anath, and Beth-Shemesh. 7th Lot: Dan (10th): From Zoar, Eshtaol, Ir-Shemesh, Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, Elon, Timnah, Ekron, Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, Jehud, Bene-Berak, Gath-Rimmon, Me-Jarkon, Rakkon, opposite Joppa; their borders went out further, they fought Leshem and captured it and exterminated them, and settled in their place, and calling it Dan. Thus, Israel partitioned the rest of Canaan to the 7 tribes. They gave Joshua his inheritance, according to the Lord’s command, in Timnath-Serah, which he asked for, in the hill-country of Ephraim; and he built the City and lived there. (Eleazar the Priest, Joshua ben-Nun, and the tribal heads at Shiloh partitioned the land by lottery.) ((In all there were 100 plus Cities, in addition to the 110 Cities of the 3 tribes, making some 200 plus Cities; not counting the 60 Cities of the 2 1/2 tribes: in all some 260 Cities and villages.))
Then the Lord tells Joshua to tell Israel to assign or designate the Cities of Refuge as He commanded Moses, for those who cause unintentional death, to seek refuge and protection from the blood-avenger; exactly as Moses had written. They set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill-country of Naphtali; Shechem in hill-country of Ephraim; Kiriath-Arba (Hebron) in the hill-country of Judah; in Trans-Jordan opposite Jericho eastward they appointed Bezer in the desert in the plain of Reuben; Ramoth in Gilead in Gad; and Golan in Bashan in Manasseh. (6 Cities of Refuge in all.)
In like manner the leading Levites petitioned them at Shiloh for their Cities and suburbs promised by the Lord by Moses, to live in and for their livestock. Israel gave them by lot: 1st Lot: Kohathites of Aaron: Cities combined in Judah, the Simeonites, and Benjamin: Kiriath-Arba Abi-haAnak (Hebron) with suburbs in the hill country, because Caleb inherited the fields and villages of the City belonged to Caleb ben-Jephunneh. Merarites had 12 Cities in Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun. The Aaronic priests got 9 Cities from 2 tribes: Hebron, suburbs, and City of Refuge; Libnah and suburbs, same with Holon, Debir, Ain, Juttah, Beth-Shemesh. From Benjamin, they got 4 Cities with suburbs: Gibeon, Geba, Anathoth, and Almon: (13 Cities and suburbs in all). The other Kohathites got Cities by lot in Ephraim, 4 Cities and suburbs: Shechem, City of Refuge, Gezer, Kibzaim, and Beth-Horon. 4 Cities and suburbs in Dan: Elteke, Gibbethon, Aijalon, Gath-Rimmon. 2 Cities and suburbs in Manasseh: Taanach, and Gath-Rimmon. (10 Cities and suburbs in all) The Gershonites got 2 Cities with suburbs in Manasseh: a City of Refuge and Be-Eshterah. From Issachar 4 Cities with suburbs: Kision, Daberah, Jarmuth, and En-Gannim. From Asher 4 Cities with suburbs: Mishal, Abdon, Helkath, and Rehob. From Naphtali 3 Cities with suburbs: Kedesh in Galilee, City of Refuge, and Kartan: (13 Cities with suburbs in all.) The Merarites got from Zebulun 4 Cities with suburbs: Jokneam, Kartah, Dimnah, and Nahalal. From Reuben 4 Cities with suburbs: Bezer, Jahaz, Kedemoth, and Mephaath, From Gad 4 Cities with suburbs: Ramoth-Gilead, City of Refuge, Mahanaim, Heshbon, and Jazer: (12 Cities with suburbs in all.) (All the Levitical Cities with suburbs in Israel were 48 in all.) The Lord thus gave to Israel all the land of Canaan He promised; He gave them rest and subdued all their enemies.
Joshua praised the 2 1/2 tribes for their obedience in helping the 9 1/2 tribes conquer Canaan. He then dismissed them to return to their possession in Trans-Jordan; warning them to obey the commandment and law of Moses the Lord’s Servant, to love the Lord God, walk in His ways, keep His commandments, cling to Him, and serve Him with all their heart and soul. Joshua blessed them and sent them away; with wealth, livestock, silver, gold, brass, iron, and much raiment from the spoil of their enemies. They departed from Shiloh in Canaan and returned to Gilead. But the 2 1/2 tribes built a great altar near the Jordan in the Land of Canaan. Israel heard and gathered at Shiloh to wage an attack on the Trans-Jordanians, and they sent Phinehas ben-Eleazar the Priest and 10 tribal Princes to know why they have trespassed against God and turned away from the Lord in rebellion, as in the iniquity of Peor still defiling Israel; the Lord will now be enraged against Israel; if the land in Trans-Jordan is unclean, then pass over to the Lord’s Possession, His Tabernacle dwelling-place; do not setup another altar against the Altar of the Lord God; don’t forget Achan ben-Zerah in his trespass against the devoted things and many perished. The 2 1/2 tribes strongly replied that the Mighty-God, God, the Lord (El, Elohim Yehowah) knows and Israel will know, and spare us not, if we built an altar for offerings and sacrifices may He require it. Rather it is a Witness (Ed) to prevent in future generations that the Israelites on west of the Jordan not to disown the Israelites on the east of the Jordan, saying the Jordan River is a border between us and you. On hearing this Phineas, the Priest and the Princes were pleased and blessed them; and they returned averting war.
Now the Lord gave Israel rest from war; and In time Joshua became very old and he summoned all Israel with their tribal elders and heads or princes, judges, and officers, and exhorted them that the Lord has left the remaining nations or Gentiles as Israel’s inheritance, from the Jordan to Great Sea in the west; and He will drive them out also that you might possess their land; and to take courage to obey all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Deuteronomy), not to intermix with these nations, or mention the name of their gods, or to serve and worship them; but to cling to Him; but if you intermarry with them and they with you, He will no longer drive out these Gentiles, but they shall be a snare and a trap to you, a scourge in your sides, and thorn in your eyes; till ye perish from this good land He gave you, for transgressing His Covenant, to commit idolatry, thus igniting His anger against you unto quick destruction.
Joshua then gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, with all their leaders and rulers, and he said to them: Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: your fathers long ago dwelt beyond the River (Euphrates, in the east , in Mesopotamia), Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, and they served other gods; and I took Abraham thence and brought him to Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac; and I gave to Isaac Jacob and Esau; I gave Esau Mount Seir to possess; but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt; I sent Moses and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt as I did, and brought you out. I brought your fathers out of Egypt unto the Sea (Yam), the Egyptians pursued your fathers with chariots and horsemen to the Red Sea (Yam Suph); and they cried out to the Lord, and He put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea to cover and bury them; ye saw it, and ye dwelt in the desert many days (40 years). I brought you to the land of the Amorites in Trans-Jordan, and he fought with you; I delivered them into your hand, and ye possessed their land; I destroyed them before you. Then Balak ben-Zippor, King of Moab, waged war against Israel, and sent for Balaam ben-Beor to curse you; but I refused to listen to Balaam, therefore he blessed you still, and I delivered you from his hand. Ye went over the Jordan and came to Jericho, and they fought against you: the Amorite, Perizzite, Canaanite, Hittite, Girgashite, Hivite, and Jebusite (7 Nations, Gentiles), and I delivered them into your hand; I sent the hornet before you to drive them out, the 2 kings of the Amorites; not by thy sword or bow; and I gave you a land you did not cultivate, cities ye built not, to dwell in them; vineyards and oliveyards ye planted not, to eat of them. Therefore fear the Lord, serve Him in sincerity and truth; remove or abolish the gods or idols your fathers served beyond the River (Euphrates), and serve Him; and if it is evil to serve Him, then chose today whom ye will serve, the gods of Mesopotamia, or the gods of the Amorites, where you dwell; but as for me and my house we will serve the Lord. They answered that they would not forsake the Lord to serve other gods; for He brought us from Egypt the house of bondage by great signs and preserved us along the way, He drove out the Amorites; therefore, we will serve the Lord our God. Joshua said they could not serve Him, for He is a holy God, and a jealous God; He will not forgive your transgression or your sins. If ye forsake Him to serve foreign gods; then He will turn on you to consume you. They replied no, they will serve the Lord. Joshua said ye are witnesses against yourselves that you have chosen to serve Him; they said they are witnesses. Remove then the foreign gods among you and incline your heart to the Lord the God of Israel. They said to Joshua we will serve Him and listen to His Voice. Joshua made a Covenant with the People that day; and set them a statute and an ordinance in Shechem. Joshua wrote these words in the Book of the Law of God, and took a great stone, and set it up under the oak-tree near the Lord’s Sanctuary, as a witness against Israel; for it has heard all the Words of the Lord which He spoke as a witness; less ye deny your God. Joshua sent the People away to their inheritance. Joshua died being 110 years old; they buried him near his inheritance in Timnathserah, in the hill-country of Ephraim, on the north of the mountain of Gaash. Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and the elders that outlived him, who knew the Lord’s work for Israel. The bones of Joseph which Israel brought out of Egypt they buried in Shechem, in the parcel Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for 100 pieces of money; and they became the inheritance of the children of Joseph. Eleazar the son of Aaron died and was buried in the hill of Phinehas his son, which was in the hill-country of Ephraim.
Before we continue our reading and come to Judges, we will reflect on Joshua in some matters. The Lord’s words directly spoken and expressed will continue to become less frequent, the Book of the Law must become the Revelation and Inspiration for Israel. The first words in red are these: Joshua 1:2-9: “Moses My servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel… Only be strong and very courageous, to observe to do according to all the law, which Moses My servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest have good success whithersoever thou goest. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate thereon day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success. Have not I commanded thee? Be strong and of good courage; be not affrighted, neither be thou dismayed: for Jehovah thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest. Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, to you have I given it, as I spake unto Moses.” Here we see and learn that a new relation has come about between the Lord and Israel and Joshua. As Moses was the Prophet and Leader by whom God would accomplish His purpose with the People for the Land by the Book, so too Joshua is the new Prophet for the same end. In these words (verses 2, and 5-9), and the charge, to Joshua the Lord is speaking to him personally as the corporate and national head, the you and your is the yu and yur, or the archaic thou and thee and thine, and not the plural you or ye of the people proper (which is used in verses 3-4). The standard of measurement and judgment for both Joshua and Israel is the Torah Moses or the Sepher, the Book; for the Book is now enlarging and soon will contain the history and generation of Joshua and the Judges and the Kings, along with the Priests and Prophets and the People, individually and nationally. It will lead to the content of the Psalms and other poetic books of the Old Testament. It is essential and requisite that we understand the Book as related to the Land and the People. The promised land was not yet possessed by the people, the man was not yet planted in the land, though the patriarchs walked up and down and all around in it. The river was there but the people did not live by it, but rather it was a border that must pass over, and through, to the good land. The land on the other side of the Jordan was possessed and dominated by nations or Gentiles opposed to the Lord and His word contained in the Book. They must be dispossessed by warfare, by driving them out and destroying them in every way they ruled, used, and defiled the land. The words of the Book of Joshua are the details and history of that warfare of conquest from Gilgal to Shiloh to Shechem, from the capture of Jericho to the death of Joshua, and many things relative to the land. The circumcision of Israel of the new generation born in the wilderness after the exodus from Egypt, corporate or national guilt and sin as in Achan, treaty with the Gibeonites, the wars and conquests of southern and northern Canaan, the partition of the land to the 12 tribes, their cities and suburbs, with villages and pastoral lands, and many more things. About 50 years transpire in Joshua, after all the tribes were assigned their lands and borders on both sides of the Jordan, after warning them and instructing them, and at the end, before he dies, Joshua in his final words to the people cites the Lord’s words in red, chapter 24: 2-13 in His review of their history and His involvement from Abraham and the idolatry of beyond the flood to Canaan to Egypt to the Desert to the Promised Land; then he renews the Covenant between Israel and the Lord. The Land is still far from conquered or occupied which leads to the Book of Judges for 400 years of history of the struggles and conflicts of subjugation of Canaan or the Land of the Canaanites, and the transformation to Israel, the land of Israel, Eretz Israel, and not Palestine or the Land of the Philistines.
The Book of Joshua, Sepher Yehoshua, is divided into two divisions: chapters 1-12 and 13-24, first part concerns the conquest of Canaan and to things relating to the past, and the second part concerns the partition and allotment of Canaan to the tribes of Israel, and those matters relating to its conquest and division for the future. There are some 200 hundred cities involved in the Book, and there were 31 Kings and their cities that were conquered on the west of the Jordan River, and 2 Kings on the East of the Jordan or Trans-Jordan. The conquest was never complete, and Israel was to continue till complete and full dominion was attained, which is the Book of Judges with its account of the history and state of the nation.
The typical significance of Joshua as the Savior Lord is clear and strong, of Canaan as the heavenly home, of the spiritual warfare of this life and of the world, are abundant. The recurrent themes as with Moses is followed and extended in Joshua. Shiloh was prophesied of by Israel in his dying blessings on his sons with its Messianic significance, but it must first develop in Israel as a nation in the Land as its first center of conquest, in chapter 18-22, and we follow it as the center in Judges and 1st Samuel till it was captured by the Philistines, then had temporary residence in Israel for more than 20 years till David (2nd Samuel) brings it into Jerusalem, the city of David. The principles by which God acted in the removal of the evil nations of Canaan, and of the use of war and violence to accomplish the possession of Canaan and Palestine, are both profound and perplexing. That Israel must drive out the Gentiles of Canaan by armed force, and even complete extermination of people and animals alarms us with fear and dread. We cannot soften or sanitize the record of these wars; and we cannot ignore the human execution of the Divine will, that God intended to pass judgment and sentence upon wickedness. The land is defiled by shed blood, whether murder, violence, rape, or abortion, the land is polluted and becomes sick and unhealthy. The earth is God’s creation, He owns every speck of sand, and every drop of water, but He has given it to man to care for in His stead, and in a manner honorable to Him. Man was made of the earth to elevate nature to a higher and better level, and in the perfection of the noble dirt, make it holy ground. For the larger context of the historical-prophetical books I cite Keil-Delitzsch commentary on Joshua:
“The thorah, or five books of Moses, which contains an account of the founding of the Old Testament kingdom of God, and the laws which were given through Moses, is followed in the Hebrew canon by the writings of the “earlier prophets,” „YNŠJR „YJYBN, (nbiim r’shim), prophetae priores. This collective name is given to the four historical books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, which trace, in the light of divine revelations, and of the gradual unfolding of the plan of salvation, the historical development of this kingdom of God from the death of Moses, the mediator of the old covenant, or from the entrance of the people of Israel into the land of Canaan promised to their fathers, till the dissolution of the kingdom of Judah, and the Babylonian captivity; the whole embracing a period of nearly nine hundred years. The names given to these books are taken from the men whom the God-king of Israel called and appointed at different times as the leaders and rulers of His people and kingdom, and indicate, very suitably on the whole, the historical periods to which the books refer. The book of Joshua describes the introduction of the people of Israel into the promised land of Canaan, through the conquest effected by Joshua, and the division of the land among the tribes of Israel. As Joshua only completed what Moses had commenced but had not been permitted to carry out, on account of his sin at the water of strife (Num. 20:12); and as he had not only been called by the Lord, and consecrated by the laying on of the hands of Moses, to accomplish this work, but had also been favoured with direct revelations from God, and with His miraculous help in the execution of it; the book which is named after him, and contains the account of what he did in the power of the Lord, is more closely related to the Pentateuch, both in its form and contents, than any other book of the Old Testament. In this respect, therefore, it might be regarded as an appendix, although it was never actually joined to it so as to form part of the same work, but was from the very first a separate writing, and simply stood in the same dependent relation to the writings of Moses, as that in which Joshua stood to Moses himself, of whom he was both the servant and successor….These four historical writings have been very justly called prophetical books of history: not, however, because they all, but more especially the books of Samuel and the Kings, give very full accounts of the labours of the prophets in Israel; nor merely because, according to the early Jewish tradition, they were written by prophets; but rather because they describe the history of the Old Testament covenant nation and kingdom of God in the light of the divine plan of salvation, setting forth the divine revelation, as it was accomplished in the historical development of Israel, or showing how the Almighty God and Lord of the whole earth continued as King of Israel uninterruptedly to fulfil the covenant of grace which He had concluded with the fathers and had set up at Sinai, and built up His kingdom, by leading the people whom He had chosen as His own possession, notwithstanding all the opposition of their sinful nature, further and further onwards towards the goal of their divine calling, and thus preparing the way for the salvation of the whole world. These books, therefore, do not contain a general history of the natural development of the Israelitish nation from a political point of view, but trace the history of the people of God, or Israel, in its theocratic development as a covenant nation, and as the channel of that salvation which was to be manifested to all nations in the fulness of time. Their authors, therefore, by virtue of prophetic illumination, have simply selected and described such events and circumstances from among the rich and plentiful variety contained in the accounts handed down by tradition, whether relating to families, tribes, or the nation as a whole, as were of importance to the history of the kingdom of God; that is to say, in addition to the divine revelations in word and deed, the wonders wrought by God, and the prophetic declarations of His counsel and will, they have recorded chiefly such points in the life and conduct of the nation and its more prominent members as affected advantageously or otherwise the development of the divine kingdom in Israel. Whatever had no inward connection with this higher aim and peculiar calling of Israel, was, as a rule, passed over altogether, or, at all events, was only touched upon and mentioned so far as it served to exhibit the attitude of the nation generally, or of its rulers and leaders, towards the Lord and His kingdom. This will help to explain not only the apparent inequality in the treatment of the history, or the fact that here and there we have long periods merely referred to in a few general remarks, whereas, on the other hand, the adventures and acts of particular individuals are depicted with biographical minuteness, but also another distinctive peculiarity, viz., that the natural causes of the events which occurred, and the subjective motives which determined the conduct of historical personages, are for the most part left unnoticed, or only briefly and cursorily alluded to, whilst the divine interpositions and influence are constantly brought into prominence, and, so far as they were manifested in an extraordinary manner, are carefully and circumstantially described.”

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Christian Biblical Reflections.12

(Here are pages 198-229, Deuteronomy. See PDF for the Book proper. mjm)



DEUTERONOMY : Chapters 1-34 : Moses V:

Deuteronomy consists of 34 chapters, and its subdivisions not easily marked, yet two sections may be readily seen, chapters 1-11 and 12-34 (31-34 are also distinct); it is rightly called the Second-Law from its subject or content; but its Hebrew name is Debbarim or Words, which in Greek is Logoi; thus together it is the Book of the Words of the Second Law. The Book continues from Numbers in the place and time in the final month of Israel’s 40 days in the Desert. (A note as to the Red Letter words in the Books of Moses: In Exodus chapter 3 God calls Moses by name: ‘Moses, Moses’ and the Lord frequently chapter after chapter, page after page, then at Sinai the direct speaking is dominant red, chapters 20-35; in Leviticus 1-7 is red, 11-27 is all red; in Numbers it is about half and half throughout, the direct speaking balanced to His peoples experience, need, and actions; here in Deuteronomy like Genesis, the direct speaking is lessened, and Moses speaking for God becomes dominate; the last words in red is Deut. 34:4: And Jehovah said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.) In Genesis the writer and speaker is hidden, Moses nowhere occurs; in Exodus the Lord soon appears and communicates to Moses then by Moses and Aaron to Israel; in Leviticus it is the Lord speaking to and by Moses and Aaron throughout; in Numbers it is the Lord speaking to Moses with Aaron and then with Eleazar; and now it is Moses speaking and rehearsing and reminding Israel of their history in the wilderness; and if we may say, Moses’s reflections. The encampment was in east trans-Jordan in the desert and plain across the Yam Suph between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is 11 days walk from Horeb by way of mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea. Then in 40th year in the 11th month on 1st day of the month Moses spoke to the children of Israel in accordance with the Lord’s commandment to them (over the past 40 years), and after Moses had smitten Sihon and the Amorites in Heshbon, and Og of Bashan in Ashtaroth at Edrei. In Trans-Jordan of Moab Moses commenced to declare or rehearse or restate this Law, the Torah, and a Second Law, Deuteronomy.
Moses recalls to Israel the time they camped at mount Horeb or Sinai and God directed them to turn to the hill-country of the Amorites and the Arabah and the Negev, and all the country and lowlands nearby, all the way to Great Sea and all Canaan and Lebanon, all the way to the Great River Euphrates in the north (above Syria, to Haran). Moses begins to speak in 1st person as the divine Lawgiver, in whom all the Lord’s words and thoughts have found a settled place, and the human vessel is transformed over the 40 years to speak as God to Israel, even as the Lord promised when He called him. He has brought them to the entrance of the Promised Land and he commands them to enter and possess, just as the Lord had also done. Moses reminds them that at Horeb he was unable to handle the task of caring for the entire nation, as made so numerous by the Lord, and he prays that the Lord increase them a 1000 time more with blessings as promised; nor to tolerate their problems and burdens and strife. He reminded them that he directed them to designate qualified men of wisdom and understanding and well-known, and he made for them tribal heads and captains and officers, to be delegated judges on his behalf to the people; telling them not to be corrupt and partial, bias or taking bribes, but to be fair and honest without fear of man, since it was God’s judgment they were giving; and that the most difficult cases must be brought to him. He reminded them that he had commanded them all the things they needed to do; and how they journeyed from Horeb passing through great desert and terrible wilderness nearby the Amorites, as the Lord God had commanded, and came to Kadesh-barnea, near to the hill-country of the Amorites, the country which the Lord God has given. He reminded them that the Lord the God of their fathers has set the land before them to conquer and occupy, and not to fear or be dismayed. He reminded them that they requested from him to send out spies and scouts to search and assess the land and return with a strategic report of how and where to invade. Moses said he was pleased with their request and chose and sent 12 spies, which went up to the hill-country and to the valley of Eshcol, returning with fruit and a good report that the land was good as the Lord God said and gave. He reminded them they rebelled and refused to invade, complaining in their tents in accusations against the Lord God’s motive; saying that most of the spies disheartened them with news of the Amorites were big and tall, with very fortified cities, and even had the Anakims there. And he said he tried to encourage them not to be so afraid, for the Lord their God fights for them, and will protect and defend and care for them as a Father of a little child does, and as He showed in Egypt and in the Desert. He reminded them of their unbelief in the Lord their God Who provided a place in the desert for them to camp, guiding in fire by night and the cloud by day. And that the Lord heard them and was enraged and swore that that evil generation will never see the good land, except for faithful Caleb. He also reminded them that the Lord was angry with him because of them, and said he too would not enter, but Joshua his attendant will lead Israel into Canaan, and he was to be encouraged. Moses further reminded them that the Lord would allow their little ones and children, for which they were so concerned of becoming a prey, to enter; but they must turn back towards Yam Suph. He reminded them that they admitted their sin against the Lord, and then desired to invade and attack, girding on weapons of war, and were forward and presumptuous to attack the Amorites, but the Lord by him tried to stop them but they refused to listen and rebelled again in presumptuousness; so the Amorites, their enemies, engaged in battle and chased them as bees do, and defeated them at Seir to Hormah; and that afterwards they repented and returned in tears, but the Lord refused to listen or respond. So, he said, they remained in Kadesh a long time.
Moses continues his rehearsal of Israel’s history in the desert near Yam Suph and around mount Seir, till the Lord indicated that it was time to move on northward, passing through the border of Esau their brethren in Seir, and though they are afraid they must not be attacked, because the Lord has given that land to Esau as his inheritance; they were to buy food and water, for the Lord their God has blest them these 40 years that they lacked nothing. He recalled to them that they bypassed their kin Esau in Seir along the way of Arabah, Elath, and Ezion-geber; and bypassing the desert of Moab. At that time, he said, the Lord told him not to vex Moab for He has given the children of Lot that country as their property. (There previously dwelt the Emim, a people great and tall as the Anakim, regarded as Rephaim, but called Emim by the Moabites. The Horites lived in Seir before the children of Esau succeeded by destroying them; just as Israel in time did in Canaan.) (This is an example as in other places that the Scriptures were edited at times to clarify certain details for any number of reasons. The emendation or amendment is no less Scripture than what is edited. The Holy Spirit is not limited to Moses or Aaron, or to Joshua and Eleazar, or to the Levites or prophets or others. The scribal transmission of the Sacred Text is not a dilution of inspiration, nor detracts from authenticity of authorship.)
Thence they crossed over the brook Zered, which now was 38 years after they had left Kadesh-barnea, after all generation of the militia died off as the Lord swore; for He was determined to terminate them in the desert. So, Moses continued, after they were all dead the Lord told them to pass over Ar, Moab’s border, near to the Ammonites; but they were not to vex Ammon, for He had given that land to Lot’s descendants as their property. (This also belonged to Rephaim before the Ammonites, who called them Zamzummim; a people like the famed Anakim, who the Lord destroyed for Ammon, and as He did for Esau in Seir of the Horites; even unto the Avvim in the villages of Gaza, and the Caphtorim of Caphtor.) He said the Lord would terrify all the nations who will hear of this invasion. Moses sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth seeking peace and passage from Sihon king of Heshbon as he had solicited to Esau of Seir and the Moabites in Ar; Sihon refused because the Lord hardened his spirit and his heart obstinate, so to destroy them. So Sihon fought with Israel at Jahaz, and defeated by the Lord’s help, capturing and destroying all of them and their cities and families, leaving none alive; and took all their cattle and things from their cities. Israel by the Lord God’s help destroyed and every city from Aroer bordering the valley of Arnon, and all about, to Gilead. But the land and people forbidden by the Lord God was not invaded, as the Ammonites, and all the side of the river Jabbok.
Then Moses reminded them that they then turned north to the way of Bashan and its king Og warred with them at the battle of Edrei; and the Lord assured him that they and theirs would be done as done with the Amorites, completely annihilated. Some 60 cities were captured in the region of Argob and the kingdom Og in Bashan; all fortified with high walls, gates, and bars; not counting many unwalled towns; all utterly destroyed and spoiled. Also, the land of the two kings of the Amorites we captured in trans-Jordan from Arnon to Mount Hermon of Syria, which the Sidonians called Mount Sirion and the Amorites call Senir; along with the plains and Gilead and all Bashan, up to Salecah and Edrei the cities of Og in Bashan. (Og the king of Bashan was the last of the remnant of Rephaim, with an iron bed-frame of 9×4 standard cubits (12×6 feet) and is in Rabbah of the Ammonites.) Israel occupied all that area and was ceded to the 21/2 tribes as their property; the area of Arnon and Gilead to the Reubenites and Gadites; and the area of north Gilead and all Bashan and Argob to the ½ tribe of Manasseh. (Now Bashan was before Rephaim but was captured along with Argob and the Geshurites and the Maacathites by Jair who renamed it Havvoth-Jair to the present day (the time of Samuel).) He reminded them that he granted and partitioned the trans-Jordan area to the 21/2 tribes from Gilead to Arnon to Jabbok, and to Arabah to Jordan to Chinnereth to the Sea of the Arabah (Dead Sea) to Pisgah eastward. At that time Moses commanded them and reminded them that the Lord their God has given them Trans-Jordan as their possession; but they must pass over armed to assist the rest of the tribes in the conquest of Canaan. Their families may settle in the land till they return after the conquest. Also, at that time he reminded them that he commanded Joshua of what the Lord their God did to the two kings, and so will He do all the kingdoms in Canaan; that he (Joshua) must not be afraid of them, for the Lord their God fights for them. He recalls to them that he petitioned the Lord, Who has shown His servant greatness and power, for no other god in heaven or earth can do such works and acts; to permit him to see and enter the good land across the Jordan and the goodly mountain, and Lebanon. But the Lord was angry at him because of them and refused his request; but told him to ascend to the top of Pisgah and look in all 4 directions and see the land which he will not enter with Israel. So, they stayed in the valley opposite Beth-peor.
Moses concludes the introduction of the rehearsal of Israel’s history in the wilderness with the reiteration and repetition and additional instruction of statutes and ordinances, which they must obey to live and possess the land of promise, granted by the Lord the God of their fathers. They must not add or subtract from the word commanded by him, so that they might obey all the commandments of the Lord their God. They saw how the Lord destroyed the followers of Baal-peor, and that He preserved them; that he has instructed them in the Lord God’s commandments to observe in Canaan. Their obedience is wisdom and understanding to all peoples that will hear of these statutes; and they will say that this great nation is wise and understanding; that no other great nation has a god so near as the Lord God is to Israel; and none have laws as righteous as these now given. They must take heed not to forget these things, in soul and heart, teaching them to their children and grandchildren; to remember when they stood before the Lord God in Horeb, when He said to assemble before Him to hear His words that they might fear Him always, and to live on earth, and teach their kids. Israel approached the burning mountain with flames, darkness, cloud, and dark smoke; and the Lord spoke to them from the midst of the fire, and they heard the voice of words but saw no form. He declared His covenant and commanded obedience to the Ten Words, the 10 Commandments, which He wrote down or inscribed on two tables of stone. At that time the Lord commanded that they should be taught the laws to be practiced in Canaan; and that they note well they did not see any form or likeness on that day when the Lord spoke to them from Horeb out of fire; that they not be corrupted with idolatry of any form, male or female, beast or bird, or reptiles or fishes; lest they look into the skies and worship and serve the heavenly bodies, things that the Lord has allotted to other peoples and nations. But the Lord delivered Israel from Egypt that iron furnace to become His inheritance; He was angry with Moses because of Israel and denied him to enter the good land, but instead to die in the desert of Trans-Jordan. They must take heed against forgetting the covenant and committing forbidden idolatry; since the Lord God is a devouring Fire and Jealous God. Then after their children and grandchildren, after many generations in Canaan, they defile themselves in idolatry of all sorts, and anger the Lord their God; then heaven and earth is witness today against Israel, and they will perish from Canaan and be destroyed; and He will disperse them among the peoples, till they are few among the nations of their exile. They will serve various man-made gods of wood and stone, idols blind and deaf, cannot eat or smell. But they will return and find the Lord their God in searching for Him with all heart and soul; in tribulation in later times will return and obey; for He is a merciful God, unfailing, non-destroying, and never-forgetful of His promised and sworn covenant. For ask of old, from God’s creation of Adam on earth, from the anywhere under heaven, if any such thing was seen or heard; that people heard the voice of God from the fire and still live. Or, that God attempted to take a nation from out of another nation by trials, signs, wonders, war, by a mighty hand, by outstretched arm, and by great terrors, as He did for them in Egypt. He showed all this to be known as the only God to Israel, by His voice and fire. Because He loved their fathers He has chosen their descendants and rescued them from Egypt; and to drive out of their inheritance greater and mightier nations before them. Therefore, since He is Jehovah Elohim forever obey and enforce all His commandments of the laws now given for life and peace.
Moses then designated the 3 cities (Bezer, Ramoth Gilead, and Golan Bashan) in Trans-Jordan, as refuge for one who causes death accidentally or without intention or premeditation. This concludes the Law or Torah of Moses for Israel, in testimonies, statutes, and judgments after the Exodus in Trans-Jordan near Beth-peor of the Amorites, which Israel conquered and settled all that territory. We hereby discern that we have come to a transition to a new section, which some have labeled the Second Discourse. The writer clearly makes a distinction between what Moses taught from the history and geography related to Moses and Israel and the nations.

Moses called Israel to hear the Law and Doctrine to learn and practice; for the Lord God made this covenant with Israel and not with their fathers, when He spoke to them face to face from the fire in Horeb (when Moses interceded for Israel in their fear of the fire, and to reveal to them the Word of the Lord): saying to them: the Lord God saved them from Egypt the house of bondage: 1. Do not have other gods in place of the Lord. 2. Do not make idols of anything or person in any form, to worship or serve them; for the Lord is a jealous God, avenging wickedness for many generations on His enemies; but compassionate towards His friends. 3. Do not profane the Name of the Lord God; for He will hold him guilty. 4. Observe the Sabbath as holy as He commanded; 6 days to work and rest on the 7th day, this applies to every person and every animal in Israel; and remember the Exodus and Egyptian slavery. 5. Honor to parents, father and mother as He commanded for long life and blessing in Israel. 6. Do not kill or murder. 7. Do not commit adultery. 8. Do not steal or rob. 9. Do not bear false witness or lie or slander against another. 10. Do not covet or desire or lust anything or any person that belongs to another. These are the Words which the Lord uttered by a great Voice to Israel from the mount; and He added nothing more; and He wrote them on Two Tablets of Stone, and He gave them to Moses for Israel. And Israel was terrified at the sight and sound from the mount, and at the Voice of God speaking to man and no one died. Israel’s leaders ask Moses to mediate between God and them, lest they be consumed by His fire, for nothing like this has ever happened. Moses was to hear from and speak to God and relate to Israel the Lord’s words and for their observance. The Lord responded to their request and wished that Israel would ever and always have such a heart in godly fear and obedience for all generations and for blessings. He sent Israel back to their tents but demanded Moses to stand in His Presence to hear the Law and Doctrine of the Lord God to Israel to practice in Canaan.
Now these are His Doctrines and Laws, His Words, in detail, for Israel in Canaan, to fear and obey Him always: Israel must hear and observe His words and law for blessing and increase and prosperity as He promised. Israel heard that the Lord God is one YHWH, one Lord, and one Jehovah: He must be loved with all of the heart, soul, and strength. These words of Moses to Israel from the Lord must ever be in the heart and must always be taught to Israel in every generation in every family; in their talk and walk, in their homes and bedrooms, in the morning and at night; and must be bound on as a sign or mark on the hand, and as frontlets on the forehead between the eyes. They are to be written on the door posts of their houses and gates of the cities. He warns them to beware after the Lord God has settled them in Canaan, the promised Land, to inherit good things, cities, cisterns, vineyards, and olive-trees, all which was not theirs; that they then forget their Deliverer from slavery; rather they must fear and serve Him and make oaths by His Name alone. Israel must not seek the gods of the nations to provoke His jealously and burning hot anger, so that He would destroy them from the land. They must not tempt Him as in Massah; but must enact and enforce all His words and laws, doing what is good and right in His sight, for their blessings and prosperity in Canaan, as He swore long ago; to evict the heathens of Canaan. They must tell their offspring concerning the Lord’s words and laws, and of the Exodus and the Wilderness; that His Word and Law, Dabar and Torah, may bless and preserve their lives, be their righteousness in obedience as He promised.
When the Lord God brings Israel to Canaan, and evicts and exile and destroy the 7 nations of Canaan, greater and powerful, superior in number and strength, and He defeats them, Israel must completely destroy them, make no covenant or league with them, show no mercy to them, and not to intermarry with them; for they will be seduced to commit idolatry with their gods and to serve idols, and the Lord’s hot anger will quickly destroy Israel. Therefore, they must be thoroughly destroyed and annihilated, demolishing their idols, relics, altars, pillars, Asherim, statutes, images, temples, groves, and such things, and they must be burnt in the fire. For Israel is to be His holy people, His chosen possession, and His peculiar and special and prized inheritance; loved and chosen not because they were numerous, for they were the smallest of the peoples, but He loved them because of His word and oath of promise to their fathers to redeem and deliver them from Egypt. They must know and realize that He is God and is faithful and true, a covenant or promise keeper, merciful and kind to His friends and lovers and keepers of His Commandments, even to 1,000 generations; but repaying and avenging His enemies and haters to their faces, to destroy them. Israel must implement and execute all His Word and Law so that He might fulfill and accomplish His Covenant and Mercies and His Oath to the Patriarchs; and to love and bless, to multiply and increase, to prosper in everything and every way to Israel in Canaan. That Israel be blessed above all peoples, that they and their cattle be fertile, that He remove all sicknesses and prevent the known diseases of Egypt, which He will put on their enemies. But those peoples must be consumed without pity, lest they serve their gods and be snared. Israel must not be afraid to dispossess those nations but recall the Exodus and the Lord God’s salvation of Israel by power and signs and wonders. The Lord God will send the hornet after them, and they will hide and perish; they must not be afraid, for He is great and awesome; and He will eject those nations little by little, lest the wild animals increase and out populate Israel. He will deliver the nations to Israel to rout and destroy, to ruin and discomfit, and to terminate their kings in all of Canaan; and burn up their carved images and idols; and must not covet their silver and gold things and decorations, to be snared by the detestable things to the Lord God. Israel must not house an abomination, to become devoted to destruction, but must utterly detest and abhor it as devoted or banned and condemned.
All these commandments must be observed in Canaan, remembering the 40 years desert wanderings or drifting to humble, to prove, to know the heart, if they will be obedient. He humbled them with hunger and fed them with manna, to show them that man does not live by bread only but live by the words from the Lord’s mouth. Their clothes did not get old; their feet did not swell for 40 years. Israel must consider that He disciplined them as a son; that they obey and fear Him. The Lord God brings Israel to the good land with brooks of water, fountains and wells, and springs of valleys and hills; of wheat, barley, grape vines, fig trees, and pomegranates; of oil, olive, and honey; without lack of bread or things; with great natural resources of iron and gold. So after Israel have settled and feasted to the full, and blessed the Lord God for the good land; they must not forget Him and His words and laws after they have become satisfied and prosperous in food, houses, herds, flocks, silver, gold, and such things in abundance, that they in pride disregard Him Who saved them from Egypt, and led them in the desert filled with poisonous serpents and scorpions, without water; and Who supplied water from the rock of flint, and provided manna; all to humble and test them and to see their final condition, if they would boast in their hearts of their own power and might to become wealthy; and also to establish His sworn ancient covenant. Israel must always remember the Lord God grants power and wealth for His covenant’s sake. So, if Israel forsakes Him to follow and serve and worship idols, they will absolutely perish as the other nations of Canaan; because Israel rejected His voice and warnings.
Israel must listen up, for they are about to invade and conquer Canaan across the Jordan, to conquer superior nations in numbers and power, with great fortified cities, with great and tall people as the notorious Anakim. Israel must know it is He Who goes ahead of them as a Devouring Fire to destroy the heathens and subjugate them to them, so they might easily and quickly destroy them. But after their conquest and subjugation, they must not boast as if their own righteousness defeated those nations; and not rather that the wickedness of these nations caused Him to drive them out and defeated them and to establish His word of promise to the 3 Patriarchs. It is the Lord God Who gave to Israel the good land despite their unrighteous stubbornness; and to remember that they enraged and provoked Him from the Exodus to the Invasion, as a rebellious people. Also, the provocation and wrath at Horeb that the Lord’s anger would destroy Israel, when He gave the tables of stone of His covenant with Israel, during the first 40 days and nights without bread or water. The stone tablets were written by the finger of God with the same words He uttered to Israel from the mount from fire to the assembly. During that time, they corrupted themselves, and sent Moses down quickly to his apostate idolatrous people; and He said of this stiff-necked people that He would utterly destroy them and make of him a stronger and greater nation. Moses continued to remind them that he descended the mount with the two tables; and when he saw their sin and idolatry against the Lord God, he threw down and broke the tables; then he fell down and stayed another 40 days and nights just as the 1st because of Israel’s sinful provocation; for He was determined to destroy Aaron; but he prayed for him, and took the sin calf and melted it and stamped and ground it to dust; then he threw it in the brook flowing down the mount. Israel provoked the Lord at Taberah, Massah, and at Kibroth-hattaavah; and then at Kadesh-barnea they enraged Him when He sent them to invade and conquer and occupy Canaan; they rebelled against His commandment, disbelieved and refused to listen to Him; for they have been rebellious against the Lord from the day Moses came to them. So Moses reminded them how he fell face down to ground before Him during the 2nd 40 days and nights, that he would not destroy His people and inheritance redeemed by His greatness from Egypt; and to remember His servants the Patriarchs; and to overlook Israel’s stubbornness and wickedness and sin; that the heathens might not criticize the Lord as impotent to save those He delivered, and unable to fulfill His promise, so to say that, He destroyed them in hate in the desert. But Moses continued to intercede for Israel as God’s people and portion, His redeemed.
So the Lord, Moses reminded them, had him carve the two tablets of stone the 2nd time, just like the first, ant be brought to Him in the mount so He may again write the exact words as the former that Moses broke; and it must be placed in a ark or box or chest, made of acacia wood; and He wrote on them the 10 Words or Ten Commandments; which he gave to Moses for Israel; and he returned to the assembly and deposited the tables in the ark, which still exist to this day, 38 years later. (Israel journeyed from Beeroth Benejaakan to Moserah; there Aaron died and was buried, and his son Eleazar ministered in the priest’s office in his place. Thence they journeyed to Gudgodah, then to Jotbathah, a land of water brooks; at that time the Lord selected and set apart the Levites to carry the Ark of the Covenant, and to stand before and minister to and bless in His Name, to this day (38 years later). Levi has no portion or inheritance with his brethren, for the Lord is His inheritance as He designated.) Moses again the 2nd (it appears a 3rd time is meant, but it really goes back to the 2nd , which is under consideration) time as in the 1st occasion, stayed another 40 days and nights, and the Lord listened to his plead not to destroy them. Then the Lord told Moses it’s now time to lead the people to enter Canaan.
Moses instructs Israel of the Lord God’s requirement to fear Him, to walk in all His ways, to love and serve Him with all of the heart and soul, both as a nation and as individuals; to fulfill all His words and laws of commandments, statutes, ordinances, charges, and judgments, from this day forward, in the desert and in Canaan. All the heavens and the earth belong to Him, yet He loved and chose the Patriarchs and their descendants above all other peoples. Israel must circumcise the foreskin of the heart, and no longer be stiff-necked; for He is the God of gods and the Lord of lords, He is mighty and awesome, and takes no reward or bribe. He vindicates the orphans and widows, loves the sojourner and immigrant as Israel once was in Egypt; He is to be feared, served, and clung to, and to make oaths only in His Name; He is Israel’s Praise and God, great and wonderful in acts and works. The patriarchs migrated to Egypt numbering 70 souls and are about to enter Canaan as a multitude as the stars of heaven of some 3 million in all. He is to be loved and his words and laws obeyed always. This adult generation, (not the next generation of their children unfamiliar with the Lord God’s discipline and works and signs and power and greatness in the Exodus from Egypt, and at the Red Sea (Yam Suph), and in the desert till present, and how He dealt with the rebels of Reuben) must know and see clearly His great work; to obey His command that Israel might be strong to conquer and possess Canaan, and to enjoy the good and fertile and blessed land, ever favored by the Lord God. If Israel is faithful and obedient and loyal to Him with all heart and soul, then He will bless and prosper with rain and growth, with grains and animals, with wine and oil, to eat to the full and satisfied. Israel must be on guard of turning away from Him to serve and worship idols, and so anger Him against Israel to withhold rain and crops, to destroy them in the land. But Moses words and doctrines, the Law or Torah to Israel must be in the heart and soul, bound as a sign on the hand and frontlets on the foreheads; to be taught to the children, talked about in their homes and travels, from morn to eve; and to be written on door-posts and city walls; that their lives be prolonged with future generations enduring forever as the heavens and the earth. And if Israel is faithful and obedient to the Mosaic Law to love and follow and cling to the Lord God, then He will defeat and eject the great and mighty heathens from Canaan. Israel will then occupy from the wilderness to Lebanon, from the Euphrates River (in Syria and southern Turkey), and from Jordan to the farthest Sea (the Great Mediterranean Sea); without any people or nation to challenge or oppose them, but their enemies will be terrified by the Lord God.
Moses then set before Israel the Blessing and the Curse (Berachah u-Qelalah): their blessing if obedient to Law of Moses of the Lord God’s commandments; and the curse if disobedient and apostate and commit idolatry. When Israel enters Canaan they must set the Blessing on Mount Gerizim and the Curse on Mount Ebal, mountains on western territory across the Jordan River in the land of the Canaanites who reside in the Arabah or Plains opposite Gilgal near the Oaks of Moreh; for Israel is to occupy the country; and there to observe the Law of Moses. In Canaan Israel must implement all the statues and ordinances, and to destroy and burn all the places and things of idolatry whether mountains, hills, groves, altars, pillars, Asherim, images, or any such thing. Israel must not be like them towards the Lord God; but must seek and visit His chosen place of habitation, to bring their sacrifices and offerings, and to celebrate His feasts, both the nation and the families and individual. Israel must no longer do whatever each man desires or thinks right, but after entering Canaan, and settled and resting in the good land free from enemies and at peace; that they must resort only to the Dwelling-Place of His Name to sacrifice and offer and vow to Him; and one and all rejoice before Him, including the Levite in the city gates. Israel must not offer sacrifices in any other place but what has been chosen and designated by the Lord. Israel may kill and eat of the animals as food in any place they desire, but must not partake of its blood, but to pour it out on the ground. Also, this applies to the tithes and vows made to the Lord, for these must be presented to Him in His Place or House, to be feasted and shared and enjoyed along with the Levites. The Levite must not be ignored or neglected. And when He has enlarged Israel’s borders, and flesh is desired to eat, but the Place of His Name is too far away, then the flesh of animals may be eaten in their cities and gates, without the blood of its life, enjoying and satisfied with these meals in the Lord’s eyes. But the holy things and the vows must be presented to Him at His Place; to offer the sacrifices and offerings on the Altar, and to pour out the blood near the Altar. These words of Moses must be carefully observed, to do the good and right thing in His sight. And after the conquest of Canaan and Israel fully settled in their new land, they must not be ensnared by the idolatry of these nations of Canaan, such as their gods and idols and how they serve them. Israel must not do like these idolatrous nations which commit every abomination to the Lord God which He hates and abhors, detest and despises, like when they offer their sons and daughters to be burnt in the fire to their gods.
Moses added that Israel must not add to nor subtract from this Law he has given them. If there is a prophet or dreamer of dreams or seer predicting a sign and wonder to allure or seduce the people to go after foreign gods to serve them, they must not regard their words or utterances because the Lord God is testing Israel’s love for Him; for He alone must be feared, obeyed, served, and attached. But such revealers must be put to death for inciting rebellion against the Lord God, Who delivered Israel from Egypt; thus is this evil put away. Anyone secretly enticing the people to idolatry or apostasy in any form of relatives or friends must be put to death without hearing, or mercy, or pity, or protection; and he who is solicited must first put his hands to him, then that of all the people. The seducer must be stoned to death, so that Israel may hear and fear to permit any such wickedness. If a city in Israel is seduced to commit such idolatry, near or far, very careful inquiry is to be made of the fact and truth of such abomination done, and then the citizens or residents of that city must be slain by the sword, utterly destroyed of man and beast. The very goods of that city shall be collected as a heap and then burnt up; and that city must not be rebuilt; and nothing of that city must be found with anyone, so that the Lord’s fierce anger might not consume His people, but instead show them mercy and compassion, and multiply them as promised long ago, that in obedience He will bless them.
Moses continued that Israel as the People of the Lord God must not mark their bodies, by cuttings and tattoos, or shave their foreheads for the dead, since they are His holy and chosen people different than all the nations. They must not eat any detestable thing, but only the designated clean and allowable animals; such with hoofs parted in two or chews the cud and regurgitate. Some animals which only have one of these characteristics must not be eaten, for they are unclean and not permitted, and their carcasses must not be touched. Likewise the fishes in the waters and seas, those with fins and scales are eatable, but not if they do not, for those are unclean. Clean birds are edible, but not those designated as unclean as the predators and scavengers. All insects with wings are unclean and are not edible. Not edible is anything which dies of itself for Israel, but the foreigner may eat it. The goat’s kid must not be boiled in its mother’s milk. All increase and harvest must be tithed yearly and presented to the Lord at the Place of His Name; and if it is too far a distance then the tithed must be converted to money, and it be taken to His City and House, and the money used to purchase the sacrifices or offerings as desired or needed; and to feast and rejoice in His Place. And the Levite must not be forsaken or neglected as he is without tribal property. Every 3 years must all the tithed of increase and stored inside the city gates; that the Levite, the immigrant, the orphans, and the widows may eat from it and be satisfied; so that the Lord God may bless your labors.
Every seven years must be declared a year of release for all those in debt by loans and sales, the creditors must release or forgive the debt to his neighbor or brother or fellow citizen. The debt may be exacted from the foreigners or immigrants but not an Israelite; for the poor will not exist in Israel if the Lord God bless and prosper His people; if they diligently obey His voice and Moses’ laws. He will bless Israel as promised so