Christian Biblical Reflections.29

(Christian Biblical Reflections.29. Here is submission or part 29 of CBR, pages 271-320 , of the Book of Ezekiel. mjmselim. Dec. 2019.)
Here is the Link in my OneDrive to the Adobe, Word 635, & WordPad files of the completed Major Prophets Chapter IV. These files will show the original format of the work, which is not able to be replicated in WordPress. I have also put the two files, pdf & word of volume 1 in the folder. In Ezekiel of have used the colored texts more frequent than in Isaiah or Jeremiah, as very helpful to follow the prophetic word of the Son of Man. I have again gone through the chapter to correct errors. I had circulated a few weeks ago a Chronological Chart of 100 years to answer I question sent to me; that chart I fond later had many errors, and some of a serious kind; they are corrected in this completed work. I encourage those who I sent the chart to replace it with what is in this work.
I tried to complete the work by December 7th, my 50th year in Christ. I expect to finish Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets (Chapter V, the last chapter of the Old Testament Books) within 3 months. If my health permits in the will & grace of God I would like to finish the entire New Testament within 6 months after chapter 5. I have again altered my style in Ezekiel as a necessity. I have tried to limit any speculative comments or views from this Book.

CBR files in PDF & Word:
https://1drv.ms/u/s!AgcwUEJ0moRUg_Ua3IHBwOxi9NWARA?e=2b3BsD

Here is the link to my Internet Archive.org library page for those interested:
https://archive.org/details/@mikemjm

 

Reflections on the Book of EZEKIEL & Summary of the Three Major Prophets:

It’s been a long journey to complete the Book of Ezekiel in our Reflections. I almost doubted if I would complete this 4th Chapter of Isaiah with Jeremiah & Ezekiel. I again found myself adapting to this new style of prophecy in Ezekiel, as I had to yield to that of Jeremiah, and Isaiah before him. I would be pleased if I am allowed to live to complete the Old Testament as the 5th Chapter of Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets, this completing one of the two Divine Hands of the Bible, namely the Old Testament, or the Hebrew Covenant, the TaNaKh. I almost feared the fate of Calvin & Grant (see the Selections) who both died leaving their work on the Book of Ezekiel unfinished. It is no longer certain if I might see the completion of the 3rd volume of Christian Biblical Reflections of the New Testament, the Christian Covenant, the 2nd Divine Hand of the Bible with focus on the 5 Key Books. But I do rejoice that on the 7th of this month I reached my 50th year in Christ, to Whom & for whom we owe all.
Ezekiel is dependent on Jeremiah and those before him; Jeremiah was contingent on Isaiah; Isaiah continued from the Poetical Books, especially David’s Psalms which King Hezekiah with Isaiah’s ministry completed in the form we now have. The 3 Major Prophets advanced from the Poetical & Historical Books; Isaiah on the Psalms & Deuteronomy. Genesis is the historical foundation for the God’s work in man, and as such the Law of Moses is built on that Foundation of God’s creation, His judgments, and His salvation of humanity, and of focus on His chosen & called people, the Israelites. We have from Genesis to Jeremiah drawn attention to these matters for the reader & believer, so we will not linger on those things at this moment. The Major Prophets are preparatory to Daniel & the Minor Prophets as the consummation & conclusion to the old dispensation, and the inauguration of the new economy & testament. The Intertestamental period, books, & history are transitional from the old to the new, and are of secondary but essential importance or value. The Major Prophets present a triple picture of the same thing; in like manner as the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew – Mark – Luke), being distinct from John’s Gospel; and so Daniel if added to the Major Prophets, is distinct from them. The names Isaiah & Jeremiah is related to Jehovah or Yah, whereas Ezekiel & Daniel is with Elohim or El. They all deal with the same message & vision, namely of God’s creation, judgment & salvation in relations to Israel & the Gentiles. We need to examine the Book of Ezekiel based on our previous digest & paraphrase, our targum, of the Text as presented above. The reader is encouraged to read & reflect on the Selections that we have added to the Reflections.

The Prophet-Priest Ezekiel, who will be introduced to us the Son of Man throughout the entire Book, which is a unique designation of his prophetic ministry, with important Messianic meaning. Though a Priest he is called to be a Prophet as a significant indicator of Israel’s state. Though Jeremiah was also of the priest family & tribe, he is no-where called a priest, but repeatedly ‘the Prophet’; whereas Ezekiel is called both Priest & Prophet, and as we said a moment ago, Son of Man. When he was about 25 years of age he was taken to Babylon, in the 11th year of Judah’s King Jehoiakim’s reign, which was the 8th year of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Daniel & his Hebrew companions had been now 7 years in Babylon. It’s important for us to note that Ezekiel & Daniel were contemporaries in the Captivity (with some overlapping of Jeremiah with them, since Jeremiah was some 45 years old when they were born, and his prophetic ministry lasted till the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity when they were in their twenties), unlike Jeremiah & Isaiah, who were separated by 4 generations (80 years). He is married at his calling & the 1st Vision; but no children are mentioned, as in Isaiah. King Jehoiachin was enthroned at the death of Jehoiakim in his 11th year, now five years later, Ezekiel is shown the Visions of God’s Glory.
The Vision of the 4 Living Creatures as 1 Living Creature with a Human form composed of Animals, or the Human-like Creature with the 4 faces of creatures of the creation, of man, lion, ox, & eagle. The details, the description, the appearance is a unique picture of a composite creature not seen before or after. Their movement is unique, energized by the Spirit of Life; their 16 faces & 16 wings defies our imagination; their wings & wheels & eyes are mysterious. But above the Living Creatures’ heads was a vision of a Man in splendor of fiery brightness & rainbow effulgence. This vision is said: “This was the appearance of the likeness of the Glory of Jehovah”. We must note that the Living Creatures are not here called Cherubim or Cherubs, later in chapter 10 Ezekiel will tell us they are Cherubim, or if you wish, Cherubims. If we wonder what this Vision is & what it means we must read on & look back, for it is all connected. After being shocked at the Vision, he hears the Lord’s Voice, and surely this is the Man enthroned above the Living Creatures or Cherubim. The Voice reveals to Ezekiel that the Nation of Israel, the Lord’s People, are a Rebellious House, and have continued in rebellion for generations. The Lord will attempt another time to recall them to Himself in obedience through the prophetic ministry of the Prophet Ezekiel as the Son of Man. To do this Ezekiel has the Spirit within to strengthen him, but he needs the food for that energy to operate; so he is given the Book or Scroll to eat, which will become his prophetic message of lamentations, mourning, & woe from the Lord to His People, though the word was sweet as honey in his mouth, but bitter in his stomach. The Book will continue to unfold as the third essential development of the Divine Purpose & Desire: as we have said: the Land, the Man, & the Book.
The Lord had reached a point with Israel that He was almost certain that the nation would not heed this call of repentance, even in their Captivity. In fact He stated that the Gentiles, of a strange speech, would more readily hear & heed the message than the Jews; as in the case of Nineveh or Persia. In the Exile & Captivity in Babylon, scattered throughout the empire, the Jews were to learn from their punishment the full meaning of their disobedience & violations against the Lord and His Covenant, as it was described in Deuteronomy, the which was only a generation ago re-discovered & re-covenanted in the 18th year of Judah’s King Josiah. Yet by the time King Josiah died in battle, in the middle of Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry the nation was reverting back to their perpetual rebellion. Now 10 years later Ezekiel is sent to reason with them, as did Isaiah; or plead with them, as did Jeremiah; but to no avail. So the Lord, in Ezekiel as the Watchman to the House of Israel, attempts anew with the prophetic call to His People in their Captivity, to preserve them till the judgment was finished, and the time came for their restoration. A dispensational responsibility was committed to Ezekiel as the Son of Man in order that the Divine Testimony to the world in the Gentiles might be made sure & clear, of which Daniel would take up in a fuller way. The Prophet would encounter rejection like the prophets before him, he would be persecuted; in this suffering he must seek to faithful to the Lord, as well as to stay alive. The nation in their leaders from kings, princes, nobles, priests, prophets, scribes, & scholars, all contributed to the Rebellious House, for which the Jews were now in Exile & Captivity.
To illustrate the pending doom, and the state leading to it, the Prophet, as Son of Man, must a Sign & living Parable to the nation. Jerusalem will be besieged & destroyed as retributive justice in order that some might be rehabilitated. The Prophet must lay on one side for 390 days, then on the other side for 40 days, he is to enact symbolically the siege of Jerusalem, he is not to turn from side to side, and must prepare his own limited bread and provide a limited amount of water for the entire 390 days, which he is told represents 390 years, and the 40 days is 40 years. He must cook it in an unclean manner, to which as a priest he objected, so cow’s dung was allowed in place of human dung (feces, shit). The 390 days of years is the period from the Divided Kingdom of King Jeroboam the 1st of Israel’s 10 tribes, who rebelled against the House of David over excessive taxes; and King Rehoboam of Judah, with Benjamin and the Tribe of Levi, who was an unwise son of Solomon, in his refusal to address the grievance of the people. The 40 days of years is the remaining years of the Captivity before the restoration. The limited bread & water is the experience of suffering for the Jews in Exile & Captivity. Another sign is given to them in Ezekiel, as Son of Man, shaving off his hair & beard, dividing it into 3 parts and in 3 acts of burning, striking, & scattering, to show & testify of the Divine Retribution for their abominable crimes against the Lord, against His Covenant, & His Sanctuary. But His justice & righteousness is fair, and seasoned with mercy, ready to change His Heart & Mind at the least sign of genuine repentance.
The Prophet continues in warning the People as a faithful Watchman. The Land of Israel & Judah will not be spared in the invasion of the coming power. The idolatry & immorality committed everywhere & in every form will be abolished. Though a Remnant will survive, it will be in fear, shame, & hiding. The Lord at any time could & would reverse or alter or mitigate the disaster soon to occur; but His People refuse; so in turn He must vindicate Himself, His Name, His Word, His Promises, and all that He involved Himself in with Israel & Judah. Ezekiel was called in King Jehoiachin’s 5th year of Captivity, the next date recorded is the 6th year, which we must believe to follow from the 5th year, so understand this is the 6th year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity in Babylon, still regarded by God & man as the rightful heir to the Throne of Judah & Jerusalem. God was still dealing with Israel in relations to its headship, despite the vassal King appointed by the Babylonian King to sit on the Throne in Jerusalem, namely Jehoiachin’s uncle Mattaniah, renamed by the Babylonian King, Zedekiah. Once King Zedekiah was killed, Jehoiachin continued to be the rightful regal heir to David’s Throne, a King in exile, the Davidic Kingdom in suspension or abeyance. The lawful or rightful King from Zedekiah to the present has never succeeded (and that includes John Hyrcanus the Maccabean (Priest-King) or King Herod 1st, the Great, the Idumean, client-king of Rome), since Judah & Israel have become Lo-Ammi, a non-people to the Lord. Nor is the Kingdom or the Throne abolished by God, put all is pending a dispensational change yet to be manifest & realized.

Ezekiel was at home, visiting him were Judah’s Elders, the Lord also decides to visit him. The Prophet’s Vision was of that Effulgent & Radiant Man of Burning Splendor enthroned above the Living Creatures that he saw in the Plain near the River Chebar. Here the Lord of Glory appears to judge the Elders & Leaders, the Priesthood & Monarchy. He was in spirit, in the ‘visions of God’, by the Lord transported to Jerusalem, while the Elders in his home was sitting there wondering. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, look toward the north and see at the entrance of the gate of the Altar this Image of Jealousy. Again, Son of Man, see their deeds; the great abominations Israel’s House do, that I should desert My Sanctuary?’ The Lord leads the Son of Man through Jerusalem’s Temple & City, showing him the abominations, idolatry, & violence in offence & insult to the Lord for which reason He must destroy them, and abandoned His House. The Lord must go deeper. He turns the Prophet’s attention to a slaughter of the Jews at the Altar, led by a Man clothed in white linen, with a writer’s inkhorn, a scribal pen at His side. The Glory of the God of Israel moved from above the Cherub to the House’s doorway. The Lord instructed the Man with the inkhorn to go through Jerusalem and mark those who are visibly repentant, the other men who carried weapons of slaughter were told to follow Him in Jerusalem, beginning at God’s Sanctuary, and slaughter anyone & everyone without pity who are not marked as repentant; and defile Jerusalem with the corpses. Ezekiel shocked at the massacre, prostrate pleaded to the Lord; the Lord tells him that the nation, both Israel & Judah, have done this very thing in the Land in defiance to the Lord, and He must punish them with their own ways & deeds. This was a horrific visual vision for the Prophet to see & relate to Leaders & Elders of Judah. We are being trained by the Word to understand the nature of prophetic visions & divine prophecy, both as to what the prophet saw & heard & experienced in spirit & mind. The Spirit of God operating in such a way to bring Ezekiel into spiritual things of a spiritual world. All prophecy is of such nature, though the methods & messages may change. False prophecy seeks to imitate this in a poor & bizarre way.
The Prophet sees another Vision of the Throne above the Cherubim, from which the linen clothed Man to retrieve from below the Cherub burning-coals in His Hands to sprinkle over the City of Jerusalem. Ezekiel continued to see in visions a spectacular picture revealed to Him of God’s Glory & His Movements, which we will also be awestruck in contemplating what is written. The sound of the Cherubs’ wings was as the Voice of God, Shaddai, when He speaks. In the describing the 4 faces of the Cherub, three are repeated as in the 1st Vision, human, lion, & eagle; but the Ox is not named, but instead it says: ‘1st was of Cherub (ox-shaped, calf-like, bull-form)’This informs us that the distinct (I was about to write ‘natural’) face of a Cherub is ox-like, which is often overlooked by so many for so long. The entire Vision of the Cherubim or Living Creatures is that of Creation as it pertains to Judgment & Salvation. The Spirit then transported the Prophet in spirit to East Gate of Jehovah’s House, showing him the Remnant who refuse the Words of Jeremiah as to submission to & cooperation with the King of Babylon, but they are determined to save themselves in the sins & disobedience. So the Lord must reduce the Remnant to a smaller Remnant in His judgment on the nation. The City is a large Kettle and they are the meat being boiled. Again in shock at the vision he prostrates pleading with the Lord concerning the Remnant. The Lord’s Word to him was that the Remnant will survive even after full judgment, that they will be restored & renewed after their repentance, that they will live with God in a New Covenant. At that point: ‘The Cherubim raised their wings, the wheels beside them; and God’s Glory was above them. Jehovah’s Glory moved out of the City and stood on the mountain east of the City’. ‘The Spirit raised him, transported him in the Vision by God’s Spirit to the Captivity Remnant in Chaldea. The Vision vanished. Ezekiel related to the Captivity Remnant Jehovah’s Visions’.
The Son of Man lives in a House of Rebels, estranged from God. The Lord instructs him to act out a scene of the departing exiles, with a few stuff, trying to escape by the night. This signifies & illustrates the Prince in Jerusalem (King Zedekiah), and the Remnant of the Jews with him will be exiled in shame & confusion, taken to Babylon to be killed. The nearby nations in their small bands that helped the Jews will likewise be punished in their resistance to Babylon. Yet the Lord will spare a Remnant to survive unto Himself & and a testimony to the Gentiles concerning their crimes. The end is a desolate Land of her people. The word & vision is sure, and it will now quickly be executed to its fulfillment.
The false prophets are a primary cause for the state of things with the Jewish Remnant, telling them the Lord says everything is OK, that it will soon be over, that peace is at hand. They are like builders who cheapen their work by untempered mortar, by falsification of the quality of their material. These daubers are deceiving the Lord’s People, destroying the Jews, and encouraging the Remnant to persist in their sins of idolatry, wickedness, and immorality. But soon they will be shut up for good.
The Lord then opens the eyes of the Son of Man, in the 7th year of Jehoiakim’s Captivity, to see the Elders of Judah seeking from the Prophet what he’s seen & heard from the Lord, yet in their heart set in idolatry & deceit. The Lord will treat them with priority of judgment & condemnation. The idolater & deceiver will both be led to complete ruin, and cut off from the Lord’s People. The House of Israel will soon be purged to return to the Lord, never again to stray or betray. In the day of Divine Retribution only the righteous like Noah, Daniel, & Job will barely escape judgment or destruction. The severe punishment on Jerusalem will not exterminate or annihilate the Remnant in Exile & Captivity. The nation has become a useless fruitless vine-tree, not even good fire-wood; but they must be consumed in divine wrath. The Son of Man is shown the history of Jerusalem with the Lord. She was an unclean child from birth in Canaan, having an Amorite father & a Hittite mother; she was abandoned as an abortion, whose navel-cord was left uncut; she laid as a babe in blood, alone in the field to die (in Egypt). The Lord came by and had pity on the child, and commanded her to live. She grew in her care, she became beautiful, an attractive young virgin; her breasts were developed, her hair was long; yet she still was naked without clothes. Again, the Lord noticed her, and He pitied her; He saw she was now an appealing beauty; he proposed to her with His robe to cover her, and He espoused her to Himself in covenant & vow, bathing her, clothing her, anointing her, adorning her with fineries, jewels, costly & imported items; He made her astonishingly beautiful in a royal estate. Her fame spread far and wide among the Gentiles, she was desired as a most beautiful perfect woman. She was so self-absorbed she played the Harlot with her fame & shame, treated as a sexual object with every visitor that wanted her. She revealed as a popular prostitute for the lovers of her beauty & her body; she perfected the art of prostitution, inventing her own craft as a one-of-kind whore. She had used & abused her Husband’s gold, silver, & jewels; His clothes, food, & His children, who she sacrificed to idols. She forgot her past, and His mercy & kindness; but continued in or shameless fame to teach others her ways; her brothels were everywhere. She was insatiable: the huge Egyptians did not satisfy her, nor the Assyrians, nor the Chaldeans. She no longer needed their gifts & money in payment for her prostitution & immorality, but she continued in her disgusting sexuality by paying her lovers. But the Lord, as a jealous vindictive Husband will cause her lovers to turn on her as her haters, despising her whoredom, disgusted with her immorality; they will destroy her, strip her, and cast her out. She is just like her mother, just as her sisters in her adultery, but desired to reach greater fame in becoming worse than them, in fact more shameless & defiling than any other woman. The Lord will cure her of this disease and restore her to a former purity & health, re-establish His Covenant with her, make her forever ashamed of her past, her sisters, and herself. With this vision of Israel before the eyes of the Son of Man, the Prophet’s mind & spirit would be traumatized into a paralyzing silence.
The Lord must now turn from Israel as an Unfaithful Wife to the nation among the Gentiles. So the Prophet is given a Riddle & Parable in Vision concerning the Two Great Eagles & the Cedar Trees & the Vine: The King of Babylon as the Great Eagle came to Jerusalem (the Cedar Tree) and took the King & the princes, (the Twigs) with many other captives to Babylon to reduce Jerusalem to a lowly kingdom as vassal to Babylon; he took of the Royal Seed (the Twig) in covenant & oath replanted it in Babylon by the rivers; it grew & flourished in the city of commerce, it was seeded & planted in a good soil, to grow as a Willow Tree. It grew into a spreading Vine rooted & leaning towards the King of Babylon. But Jerusalem’s King rebelled against the King of Babylon, breaking covenant; as a well-watered Vine its roots spread towards a 2nd Great Eagle (Egypt) to be watered thereby & to be valued by it, and be supplied with weapons & warriors, to resist & escape the King of Babylon. But it will not prosper, the Lord will make the King of Babylon destroy both Jerusalem & Egypt. King Zedikiah & the Jewish Remnant will be destroyed by Babylon; but a Remnant will be replanted in Israel to prosper & grow to a fine cedar tree among all the trees of the field, never again to be over exalted or under abased: ‘The trees of the field will know Jehovah cut down the tall tree, exalted the low tree, dried the green tree, and made the dry tree flourish’.
Another prophetic lesson concerns the parable of the ‘fathers sour grapes, setting the children’s teeth on edge’. This is wrong; the father’s sins must not be paid by his children, nor the children’s crimes paid by the parents. Every sinner who sins in any evil thing of any violation of the Mosaic Law or God’s Covenant must pay for their own personal sins & crimes. If the parents are sinners like the children, or the children sinners like the parents, only then they must all pay. But Israel objects to the Lord’s judgment that the one shares the guilt & price of the other. The Lord responds that that is wrong; the righteous must be treated as righteous, the wicked as wicked. So he deals with His People; and He pleads for them to repent & live, for ‘He takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked’.
Another prophetic lesson is in a Lamentation for the Princes of Israel concerning Mother Israel as a Lioness & a Vine. As a Lioness she made one of her cubs to be a terrifying Young Lion, till the Gentiles heard about him, and caught him in their pit, and with hooks dragged him to Egypt. So she took another cub to become another terrifying Young Lion; but again the Gentiles heard, snared him, and dragged him to Babylon, and caged him, never again to roar in Judah. Mother Israel as a Vine well-watered & very fruitful , desirable rods for the Gentiles’ scepters, she was exalted; but they turned against her, uprooted her, tossed her to the ground, she withered dry, her rods broken and thrown in the fire; she was replanted in a waterless place, she is destined to the fire, her fruit devoured, they will no longer desire her rods for their scepters: “This is a Lamentation of Lamentations .”

In King Jehoiachin’s 7th year of Captivity, some of Israel’s Elders were sitting with Ezekiel to seek info from the Lord. The Son of Man is told to judge the Leaders of Israel as unfit to inquire of the Lord because of all their sins, crimes, & abominations. The Lord rehearses Israel’s history from the Exodus to Wilderness to the Promised Land, that He demanded of them to forsake their idolatry, but they refused. He had covenanted with them, given them His Law & His Sabbaths to preserve His Name & Testimony among the Gentiles. Israel was uncooperative, ungrateful, & unconcerned with His Holiness. Their ways enraged Him to destroy them, to exile them to captivity among the Gentiles. They became so vile & cruel that they sacrificed babies to their idols; they polluted themselves & others with their whorish ways; they said: ‘We’ll be as the Gentiles, as the families of the countries nearby, to serve wood & stone.’ He will regather them for judgment, to rid them of adultery & idolatry; He will consume them in His fire. But to all this the House of Israel & the Jews of Jerusalem said: ‘Is he not a speaker of parables’? The prophecies continue in the Son of Man’s prophecy against Jerusalem’s Sanctuaries with an unsheathed sword for their state. The sword of slaughter & vengeance is determined & sent upon the wicked & the righteous, the People will not be spared till the Lord’s Wrath is exhausted. The sword of Babylon may come by two ways, one to Rabbah of the Ammonites, the other to Judah’s fortified Jerusalem. All the crimes, violations, iniquities & sins are remembered; no one will escape except to death or captivity. The Prince of Israel in Jerusalem must be dethroned & abased; the Monarchy & Covenant or Dispensation must be overturned, until the Rightful One comes. As with Israel, so with Ammon in judgment.
The prophetic word against the murderous City is given in details of her sins & abominations: murder, idolatry, dishonor to parents, oppression of strangers; mistreatment & neglect of orphans & widows; profanation of Holy Things & the Sabbaths; slander, immorality, filthiness, impurity; sexual perversity & vice, adultery & fornication, rapes; bribery, usury, racketeering, dishonesty, and much more. For which reason the Lord turns against them, and scatters them among the Gentiles. The House of Israel is Dross to the Lord of the residue from the melting of the metals in the furnace. Jerusalem is the furnace, the Jews are the melting metals, only a remnant or dross survives. The fire of the Lord’s Wrath, Anger & Rage is poured out on His People. Likewise is she an uncleansed Land, dry for judgment. Her prophets devour her, they rape, conspire & prey, confiscate valuables & impoverish widows. Her priests distort the Law & pollute Holy Things, they’re hypocrites & deceivers, they confuse & profane sacred things. Her people oppress the Land, rob, vex the poor & needy, mistreat the strangers & immigrants. The Lord said: ‘I sought a man among them to build the wall, stand in the gap before Me for the Land, that I do not destroy it, but found none. I poured out My Indignation on them, I consumed them with the fire of My Wrath: I repaid them with their own way .’
The Son of Man is given another prophetic word concerning Israel as Two Daughters, Egyptian Harlots, named Oholah & Oholibah. They were young virgins given to teasing & pleasing the Egyptians when they Lord took them to Himself, they birthed to Him children. Oholah was Samaria the older sister; Oholibah was Jerusalem the younger sister. Oholah was an adulteress harlot wife with her lovers the Assyrians, who she desired as fine young men, big & strong; she prostituted herself with the best of them; even as she had done in Egypt. He rejected & deserted her to her Assyrian lovers, who turned against her, using & abusing her till she was nothing. Oholibah knew all this, yet she too solicited the Assyrians, those desirable & satisfying youths, and she became more perverse & immoral than her older sister, She lusted after the Chaldeans of Babylon, she offered herself easily & freely to her lovers; made herself a sex-object; she was insanely insatiable with sex, she stripped as a whore & played as a slut; she perfected her craft that learned in the days in Egypt; her lovers where like donkeys & horses to her. But they too will turn against her to destroy her, enslave her, use & abuse het till she is nothing. She will be tossed among the Gentiles to take her & then toss her; as her sister was destroyed as a shameless harlot, so too will Judah & Jerusalem & the Jews come to the same tragic end by the Gentiles because they forgot & forsook the Lord in adultery & idolatry. They must be judged for their countless crimes, violations, travesty, treachery, against Lord, His House, Sanctuary, Sabbaths, and more. They must ‘bear the sins of their idols’.

In the 9th year the prophetic word the day that the siege of Jerusalem began by the Babylonian King, namely the 10th day of the 10th month. The word is in a parable of the Rebellious House of a rusty old Caldron of water with various butchered meat to boil. The meat is boiled to a broth then removed, but the Caldron remains on the fire till it melts. So is Israel the fire of judgment. The judgment continues in Ezekiel’s wife dying, but he must not mourn for with any outward signs. He tells the People this is the Sign of the Sanctuary being profaned by Babylon, that the People are slaughtered, that they are captured, exiled, & imprisoned. All will be doomed.
The Son of Man is told to face toward the Ammonites & prophesy against them. In their mockery of the Sanctuary profaned, the Land made desolate, and the Jews going into Captivity, they will be invaded by the Children of the East (Easterners), they’ll be destroyed & be spoil for the nations. As the Easterners did to the Ammonites so they are forgotten among the nations, so will they do to Edom & Seir for how they mistreated Israel. So also is the Lord’s judgment on the Philistines.

In the 11th year the prophetic word was concerning Tyre who spoke revenge against Jerusalem. The nations will come against Tyre to destroy its walls, city, & people. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, the King of Kings from the north, with a great army, will invade & destroy Tyre completely to be a perpetual ruin. They’ll lament Tyre with a lamentation concerning her greatness, her commerce, her influence, her power, her city & her people. Another prophetic lamentation is given concerning Tyre. The great coastal City boasts: ‘I’m perfect in beauty .’ Her importance as a global or international commercial center is well-known by the nations. She traded with the major powers of the day; her fame was wide-spread; they talked of her army, or ships, or products, her skill craftsmen, her wise men & scholars, her technology & innovation, and much more. But the hew song & lamentation will be: ‘Who is like Tyre, brought to silence in the sea .’ So too is the prophetic word against Tyre’s Prince who boasts: “I’m God, I sit in God’s Seat, in the midst of the seas .’ He is man not God, though he is wiser than Daniel, he understands mysteries, wise, wealthy, and boasts a god; yet he’ll be destroyed with a shameful death.
The prophetic word continues against the King of Tyre with a lamentation: He is perfect, wise, beautiful; he dwelt in Eden, God’s Garden, adorned with precious stones & gems; the Anointed Cherub appointed by God on His Holy Mountain. In short, he was unique, majestic, talented, charming, powerful, & exalted. But his beauty & wisdom ruined him; he changed from light to darkness, from servant to god. His boast will be exposed & deflated; he will come to a shocking end to wonder to all, never again to be a terror. Likewise the prophetic word is against Sidon in her judgment & destruction, shamed & brought to nothing, when the Lord gets His Honor & Holiness in her judgment.

In the 10th year, in the 12th month, the prophetic word is set against King Pharaoh of Egypt: He is the Great River Monster who boasts: ‘My river is mine alone, I’ve made for myself.’ The Lord will hook & drag him, with all the fishes of his rivers, into the desert to die, and become food for the wild animals & birds. Egypt’s boast will end in destruction, and 40 years of desolation; they’ll be exiled & captives among the nations & countries. The Lord will restore them to their land after the 40 years have ended; but never again will they be exalted to rule over the nations, but will be a lowly kingdom; Israel never again turn to Egypt for safety. They all will know I am Jehovah.

In the 27th year the prophetic word was concerning King Nebuchadnezzar’s campaign against Tyre; his army needed food supply, the Lord surrendered Egypt to feed his army. Another prophetic word concerning the coming Day of the Lord, a time for the Gentiles. Egypt & Ethiopia & their neighbors & allies are slaughtered; the Lord will put an end of the idols of Egypt by the sword of Babylon.

In the 11th year the prophetic word was concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: The Lord broke his arm, it was not bandaged or treated; the Egyptians will be scattered among nations & countries by Babylon.

Again in the 11th year the prophetic word was against King Pharaoh of Egypt & the Egyptians: He is incomparable in greatness among the nations, but not as great as the Assyrian King who was a Cedar-Tree in Lebanon with large branches, spreading far & wide & deep & high; he was well-watered; the birds nested above, the wild-animals rested below to birth their young. The cedars in God’s Garden could not compare to it in beauty, they envied it. But Pharaoh is exalted & inflated above the other trees. But the King of Babylon will deal with him; the Lord drove him out for wickedness, he’s cut off, deserted; the birds & beasts feast on him, he’s abased; he descends to hell, he rests with the dead; he is mourned & despised, his companions descend with him. The incomparable Cedar-Tree in glory & greatness among Eden’s trees, is tossed into hell with despised & slaughtered dead. This is Pharaoh & his people.

In the 12th year the prophetic word is another Lamentation concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: Pharaoh is compared to a Young Lion among the nations, a Sea Monster; he made his rivers flood, he stirred & dirtied the rivers, The Lord will catch him in His Net by many bands he’ll be dragged to shore, tossed in the field, the birds will rest on him, the beasts will feast on him, his remains will be everywhere. The sun & moon will be hidden, darkness is over the Land. Nations will hear of Pharaoh’s ruin; they’ll be shocked & confused; terror from the sword; Egypt’s pride is vanquished; his people destroyed. The rivers will again be clear, the land empty, the people gone. This is their lamentation with the daughters of the nations over Egypt & her people.

In the 12th year the prophetic word again is against the Egyptians: Wail for the daughters of great Egypt, toss her down to the lowest hell, she the most beautiful. There are those slain with sword, her helpers in war, the uncircumcised, the terror in the land of the living; there are her allies in shame, dishonor in the cemetery of the uncircumcised. The Son of Man’s prophetic word from the Lord to the Israelites & Jews: The Watchman of a City or People must warn the people of the approaching enemy; if he warns and they heed not he’s blameless; if he neglects to warn and the enemy captures anyone, then the Lord will deal with that guilty Watchman. So its is with Ezekiel as the Son of Man, the Prophet to Israel & Judah. He is to tell those way say: ‘ Our transgressions & our sins are on us, we pine away in them; how can we live’? The Lord takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked, rather He desires them to repent & live. The righteous will not escape in the day of their crimes; the wicked must not ignored in his repentance. The righteous who commits crime must die; the wicked who repents, does right, he must not die. But the Lord’s People say: ‘the Lord’s Way is unfair’. But the Lord will judge the House of Israel, each one for his ways.

In the 12th year of our Captivity, a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: ’The City is smitten’. The prophetic word in response to the news: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s inhabitants of the wastelands say: ‘Abraham was one, and he inherited the Land: we are many; the Land is our inheritance’. Tell them for Me: You eat with blood, you lift your eyes to idols, you shed blood: will you possess the Land? You stand with yur sword, you work abomination, you defile another’s wife: will you possess the Land? Tell them for Me: Those in the wastelands will fall by sword; I’ll give the one in the open field to the wild animals to be devoured; those in strongholds & caves will die by pestilence. I’ll make the Land desolation & astonishment; her proud power will cease; Israel’s mountains be desolate; none will pass through. They’ll know I’m Jehovah when I’ve made the Land desolation & astonishment for their abominations practiced. Son of Man, the children of thy people talk about yu at the walls & doors of the houses, talking one brother to another to ‘please listen to what Jehovah says’. They come to yu as a seeking people, they sit with yu as My People, they hear yur words, but refuse to obey; with their mouth they show much love, but their heart goes after gain. Yu are to them a lovely song of a pleasing singer, who plays an instrument well; they her yur words but do nothing. When these things come about, they’ll know a Prophet was among them’.
Another prophetic word against the Shepherds of Israel: They feed themselves and neglect the Lord’s sheep, those who are hungry, sick, injured, persecuted, lost; instead rule them with force & severity. They were scattered and became food for the wild-animals, because they had no shepherd. The Lord will require His sheep from the shepherds, He’ll deliver them from these useless shepherds, He’ll never again let them shepherd His sheep. The Lord will seek His lost sheep & scattered flock; He’ll deliver them from the Gentiles, near & far, He’ll regather & restore them to their Land of Israel. He’ll judge between His sheep & His flock; between sheep & sheep, between goats & goats. He’ll judge those who eat & drink well, then trample the pastures with their feet, muddy the waters after they drink. He’ll judge between those who are fat & the lean; those who push with their horns and scatter the flock. The Lord as the Good Shepherd will save His sheep from death, from false shepherds, from persecution. He will appoint One Good Shepherd over them, David, His Beloved, His Servant, to feed & lead them. The Lord will be their God, David, His Beloved, will be their Prince; He’ll make a New Peace Covenant with them, free their Land of wild beasts, from evil men; they will live securely, rest safely; with blessings & they’ll flourish. Their enemies will be broken, the Gentiles beasts will never again prey on them or enslave them; they’ll never again bear the shame of the Gentiles: ‘They’ll know I, Jehovah, their God am with them, and Israel’s House are My People. You are My Sheep, the Sheep of My Pasture, I’m your God’.
Another prophetic word against Mount Seir: The Lord will desolate Mount Seir’s cities, because of their perpetual enmity against Israel, allowing the sword to bring calamity to them, refusing to help in war because they hate bloodshed. The Lord will prepare their bloodshed by her pursuers; Seir will become a perpetual desolation, with her mountains filled with her slain. She boasted: ‘These two nations & two countries will be mine, I’ll possess it’. The Lord will respond to Seir’s hatred to Israel and to their words: ‘They’re laid desolate, they’re given us to devour’. All of Mount Seir & Edom will be desolate.
The Son of Man’s prophecy against Israel’s Mountains: The enemy (Edom) has said: ‘The ancient places are our possessions’; because Israel was desolated on all sides, to be possessed by the other Gentiles, because she was the talk of the nearby countries, the Lord says to Land & People of Israel: Because Israel & the Jews have been desolated, derided, bearing Gentiles’ shame; the Lord will make them bear their own shame. He will restore the Land & the People according to His Word in the Book; the Land will flourish & be productive; the People & animals will multiply, Never again will they say: ‘Yu are a devourer of men, a bereaver of yur nation’. ‘Never again will yu (the Land) devour men, or bereave yur nation; I’ll never again let yu hear the shame of the Gentiles, or the reproach of the peoples, or cause yur nation to stumble’. Another prophetic word concerning the House of Israel: The House of Israel formerly dwelt in their own Land. They defiled the Land with their ways & deeds; they became as an unclean woman in her impurity. In My Wrath I repaid their bloodshed, their defiling idolatry; He scattered & dispersed them among the Gentiles. Still they profaned His Holy Name among the Gentiles, who said: ‘These are Jehovah’s People exiled from His Land’. The Lord must act to preserve & sanctify His Holy Name among the Gentiles despite Israel’s profanation & poor testimony. The Lord will regather them from all the countries of the Gentiles of their exile, return them to the Land of Israel, restore them, cleanse them, give them a new heart & spirit that they may walk in His Covenant in the Law of Moses according to Deuteronomy. He will bless them, multiply them, prosper them; never again will they forget their evil ways, their sins & crimes; He’ll renew & refresh them in the restitution of a new relationship. The desolate Land will become a Garden of Eden; the Gentiles will know it’s the Lord’s doings. ‘As the flock for sacrifice, as Jerusalem’s flock in her appointed feasts, the waste cities be filled with flocks of men; they’ll know that I’m Jehovah’.
The Lord’s Hand was on Ezekiel: He brought him out in the Lord’s Spirit, set him down in the valley, full of dry bones. He led him by them all around, there were many in the open valley; they were very dry. The prophetic was concerning the Dy Bones, if they can live: Ezekiel was told to prophesy to the Dry Bones to live: ‘Ezekiel prophesied as commanded: as he prophesied there was a noise & an earthquake; the Bones came together, bone to bone; with sinews, flesh, skin; but no breath in them. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Prophesy to the Wind, Son of Man: Come from the four Winds, Breath, and breathe on these slain to live’. He prophesied as commanded, the breath came, they lived, stood on their feet, a great army. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, these Bones are the House of Israel: they say, ‘Our bones are dried up, our hope lost; we’re cut off’. Prophesy: I’ll open your graves, cause you to come out of your graves, My People, I’ll lead you to Israel’s Land. You’ll know I’m Jehovah after I’ve opened your graves, caused you to come out of your graves, My People. I’ll put My Spirit in you, you’ll live, I’ll place you in your own Land: you’ll know I, Jehovah, spoke it & performed it’.’ Again, the prophetic word concerning Two Sticks become One: ‘Son of Man, take one Stick, write on it for Judah & for his Companions the Children of Israel; take another Stick, write on it for Joseph, the Stick of Ephraim, & for his Companions the House of Israel: join the Two Sticks as One to be One in your hands. When the children of yur People ask, ‘Tell us what this means’? tell them for Me: I’ll take the Stick of Joseph, in the hand of Ephraim, & his Companions, the Tribes of Israel; I’ll join it to the Stick of Judah to make One Stick, to be One in My Hand. The Sticks yu wrote on, will be in yur hand in their sight. Tell them for Me: I’ll take Israel’s Children from among the Gentiles, in their diaspora, regather them, and return them to their own Land: I’ll make them One Nation in the Land, on Israel’s mountains; One King will be King over them; never again be Two Nations, never again be divided into Two Kingdoms; never again to defile themselves with their idols & detestable things & their crimes; I’ll save them from their dwelling-places, where they sinned, and will cleanse them: they’ll be My People, and I’ll be their God. My Servant David (the Beloved) will be King over them; they’ll have One Shepherd: they’ll walk in My Ordinances, observe My Statutes, to practice them. They’ll dwell in the Land I’ve given to My Servant Jacob, in which their fathers dwelt; there they’ll dwell forever with their children, and grandchildren: My Servant David (the Beloved) will forever be their Prince. Also, I’ll make a Covenant of Peace with them; it will be an Eternal Covenant with them; I’ll resettle them & multiply them, I’ll set My Sanctuary forever in their midst. My Tabernacle will be with them; I’ll be their God; they’ll be My People. The Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah Who sanctifies Israel, My Sanctuary will be always be in their midst’.
The prophetic word against Gog (uncertain), of the Land of Magog (Japhetic, Scythians), the Prince of Rosh (chief, first, head), Meshech (Japhetic), & Tubal (Japhetic). ‘Prophesy against him: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll surround yu, put hooks in yur jaws, I’ll drag yu out, with yur army, horses & horsemen, clothed in full armor, a great company with buckler & shield, handling swords; with them Persia, Cush (Hamitic), & Put (Hamitic), with shield & helmet; Gomer (Japhetic) with his hordes; the House of Togarmah (Japhetic) in outskirts of the north & his hordes; many peoples with yu. Be prepared with yur companies gathered to yu, be guard to them. After many days yu’ll be visited: in the later days yu’ll invade the Land that is restored from the Sword, gathered out of many peoples, on the mountains of Israel, which has been a continual waste; but delivered from the peoples, they’ll dwell safely. Yu’ll ascend, yu’ll come like a storm, like a cloud to cover the Land, yu, & yur hordes, with many peoples. On that day, things will come to yur mind, yu’ll devise an evil device: yu’ll say, I’ll ascend to the Land of unwalled villages; I’ll go to them at rest, dwelling securely, without walls, neither bars or gates; to take spoil & prey; to turn yur hand against the wastelands reinhabited, against the people regathered from the Gentiles, having cattle & goods, dwelling in the Land (eretz, dry-land, ground, earth). Sheba & Dedan (Shemitic, Semitic, Arabia), & Tarshish’s (Spain or Cilicia) merchants, with their young lions, & ask yu: ‘Have yu come to take spoil’? Son of Man, prophesy, tell Gog for Me: In the day that My People dwell securely, will yu know it? Yu’ll invade from yur place in the furthest North, yu, and many peoples with yu, riding on horses, a great company & mighty army; yu’ll come against My People Israel, as a cloud to cover the Land: in the later days I’ll lead yu against My Land, that the Gentiles know Me, when I’ll be sanctified in yu, Gog, in their sight. Are yu the one I spoke of in earlier time by My Servants the Prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for years that I would lead yu against them? In that day, when Gog will come against the Land of Israel, My Wrath will come up into his nose. In My Jealousy & the fire of My Wrath I spoke, In that day there be a great shaking in the Land of Israel; the fishes of the sea, the birds of the skies, the wild-animals of the field, creeping things on the earth, and men on the earth, will shake at My Presence, the mountains will be thrown down, steep places will fall, every wall will fall to the ground. I’ll call a sword against him to the mountains: each man’s sword against his brother. I’ll enter judgment with him with pestilence & blood; I’ll rain on him, on his horses, on the many peoples who are with, an overflowing shower, and great hailstones, fire, & brimstone. I’ll magnify Myself, & sanctify Myself, I’ll make Myself known in the eyes of many Gentiles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.
‘Son of Man, prophesy against Gog: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll turn yu around, I’ll lead yu on, I’ll cause yu to ascend from the furthest North; I’ll lead yu on Israel’s mountains; I’ll strike yur bow out of yur left hand, I’ll cause yur arrows to fall out of yur right hand. Yu’ll fall on Israel’s mountains, yu, & yur hordes, & yur peoples: I’ll give yu to the ravenous birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field to be devoured. Yu’ll fall on the open field; I’ve spoken it. I’ll send a fire on Magog, on those dwelling securely in the isles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. My Holy Name I’ll make known in My People Israel; I’ll never again permit My Holy Name to be profaned: the Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah, the Holy One in Israel. It’s coming, it will be done; this is the day of which I’ve spoken. The dwellers in the cities of Israel will go forth, they’ll make fires of the weapons & burn them, both shields & bucklers, bows & arrows, hand slaves, spears, they’ll make fires of them 7 years; so that they’ll take no wood from the field, neither out of the forests; they’ll burn weapons; they’ll plunder those that plundered them, rob those who robbed them. In that day, I’ll give Gog a burial place in Israel, the valley of travelers on the east of the sea; it will prevent travelers: there they’ll bury Gog & his multitude; they’ll call it the Valley of Hamon-Gog. 7 months Israel’s House will be burying them to cleanse the Land. The people of the Land will bury them; it’ll be to them renown in the day I’ll be glorified. They’ll employ workers full time to search for those to bury who remain unburied on the Land to cleanse it: after 7 months they’ll search. The travelers will travel; when anyone sees a man’s bone, he’ll set up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in the Valley of Hamon-Gog. Hamonah will be the City’s Name. The name of the city is Hamonah. They’ll cleanse the Land. Son of Man speak to the Birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field: Assemble yourselves, come gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice on Israel’s mountains to eat flesh & drink blood. You’ll eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, lambs, goats, bullocks, of fatlings of Bashan. You’ll eat the fat till you are full, and drink the blood till you are drunk, of My Sacrifice which I’ve sacrificed for you. You’ll be filled at My Table with horses & chariots, mighty men & men of war. I’ll set My Glory among the Gentiles; the Gentiles will see My Judgment I’ve executed, and My Hand I’ve laid on them. Israel’s House will know I’m Jehovah their God, from that day & forward. The Gentiles will know that Israel’s House went into Captivity for their iniquity; they trespassed against Me, I hid My Face from them: I gave them into the hand of their adversaries, they fell by the sword. According to their uncleanness & transgressions I treated them; I hid My Face from them. I’ll reverse Jacob’s Captivity, have mercy on the whole House of Israel; I’ll be jealous for My Holy Name. They’ll bear their shame & trespasses they did against Me; they’ll dwell safely in their Land unafraid; when I’ve restored them from the peoples, and regathered them from their enemies’ lands, and I’m sanctified in them in the Gentiles’ sight. They’ll know I’m Jehovah their God, Who caused them to go into Captivity among the Gentiles, and regathered them to their own Land; I’ll never again abandon them there; never again will I hide My Face from them; for I’ve poured out My Spirit on the House of Israel’.

In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day, Jehovah’s Hand was on Ezekiel, and He transported him to there. In the Visions of God, He transported him to the Land of Israel, and set him down on a high mountain, on which was as if the frame (form, structure) of a city on the south. He transported him there; there was a Man, Whose Appearance was like the appearance of brass, with a line of flax in His Hand, and a measuring read; He stood at the gate. The Man said: ‘Son of Man, see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears, set yur heart on all that I’ll show yu; for this reason yu were brought here, that I may show to yu: declare all that yu see to Israel’s House’. A Wall was outside of the House all around it; in the Man’s Hand a measuring reed 6 cubits long, equal to 1 cubit & 1 handbreadth each cubit (cubit= 18″ or 1 1/2 feet; handbreadth= 4” wide; total reed-cubit= 22″ or 21″ plus or minus; measuring-reed= 6×22″= 132″ or 12 feet; if we make the sacred or great or angelic cubit 24″ then conversion to feet is simple: 2×12″= 24″= 2′; if we make the sacred or great or angelic handbreadth 6″ then it equals 1/2 foot; we then have the sacred reed= 6×24’= 144″ or 12 feet): The chapters from 40-48 give a detail description of the House of God and those things, persons, and places which pertains to it, its structure, form, dimensions, compartments, walls, gates, courts, posts, chambers, cherubims, palm-trees; its order, furnishings, altars, table, Sanctuary; its order, priesthood, charges, feasts; the land, location, divisions, order; the city, offerings, sacrifices, entrances, exits, doors, windows, borders, lots, tribes, etc.
We have already examined in great detail the Text, and have given a digest & summary of all its details recorded; here we will only cite those words & verses which explain very important matters of the House as the Sanctuary, Dwelling Place, Building, Temple, Tabernacle of the Lord God, Jehovah-Elohim. We have already explained the measurement of the cubit & reed, and later that of the ephah, homer, etc. We will number theses selections for the reader:

1. The Man & His Hand Who measures, leads, speaks, etc.
2. He told Ezekiel: ‘This chamber, facing southward, is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the House; the chamber facing northward is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the Altar: these are the sons of Zadok (BeniZadok), who are from the sons of Levi (BeniLevi) who approach Jehovah to minister to (serving) Him’.
3. He said to him: This is the Most Holy Place.
4. He said told Ezekiel: ‘The north & south chambers, before the separate place, are the Holy Chambers, where the Priests near to Jehovah eat the Most Holy Things: they’ll lay the Most Holy Things, the meal-offering, sin-offering, & trespass-offering; for its a Holy Place. When the Priests enter, they must not leave the Holy Place to enter the Outer Court, they must lay there their ministering clothes, for they are holy: they must change to other clothes, to approach to what pertains to the People’.
5. He led Ezekiel to the Gate facing eastward. The Glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: His Voice was like the sound of many waters; and the earth (Land) shined with His Glory. It was like the appearance of the vision which he saw, according to the vision he saw when he (He) came to destroy (the destruction of) the city; the visions were like the vision he saw by the River Chebar; & Ezekiel fell prostrate. Jehovah’s Glory came into the House by the way of the Gate facing eastward. The Spirit lifted Ezekiel, transporting him into the Inner Court; & Jehovah’s Glory filled the House. Ezekiel heard One speaking to him from the House; a Man stood near him: He told him: ‘Son of Man, the Place of My Throne, & the Place of the Soles of My Feet, where I’ll dwell amidst the Children of Israel forever. The House of Israel will never again defile My Holy Name, neither they, nor their kings, by their whoredom, and by the corpses of their kings (in, and) their High Places; in their placing their doorway next to My Doorway, their door-posts next to My Door-posts, with only a wall between Me & them; they defiled My Holy Name with their abominations they practiced: so I’ve consumed them in My Anger. Let them put far away from Me their whoredom, the corpses of their kings; and I’ll dwell amidst them forever. Son of Man show the House to Israel’s House, that they be ashamed of their iniquities; let them measure the pattern. If they be ashamed of all they’ve done, reveal to them the form of the House, & its fashion, its egresses, its entrances, its structures, its ordinances, its forms, and its laws; write it in their sight; that they may keep all its form, and all its ordinances, to do them.
6. This is the Law of the House: on the top of the mountain the its whole area enclosed will be holy: this is the Law of the House.
7. He told Ezekiel, ‘Son of Man, Jehovah says: These are the ordinances of the Altar in the day they offer burnt-offerings on it, to sprinkle blood on it. You must give to the Priests the Levites from the seed of Zadok, who approach Me, to minister to Me, a young bullock for a sin-offering. Yu must take of its blood, put it on its 4 horns, on the 4 corners of the ledge, & on the border around it: thus, yu’ll cleanse & atone for it. Yu must take the bullock of the sin-offering, and it shall be burnt in the appointed place of the house, outside the Sanctuary. The 2nd day yu must offer a male-goat without blemish for a sin-offering; they’ll cleanse the Altar, as they cleansed it with the bullock. After yu’ve cleansed it, yu must offer a young bullock without blemish, and a ram from the flock without blemish. Yu must bring them near before Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them up for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. Yu must bring them near to Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. 7 days yu must atone for the Altar & purify it; so, must they consecrate it. When they’ve accomplished the days, on the 8th day, & forward, the Priests must make your burnt-offerings on the Altar, and your peace-offerings; and I’ll accept you’.
8. He led Ezekiel by the way of the Outer Gate of the Sanctuary, facing eastward; it was shut. Jehovah said to him: ‘This Gate must be shut; it must not be opened, neither must any man enter it; for Jehovah, the God of Israel, entered in by it; it must be shut. The Prince must sit in it as Prince to eat bread before Jehovah; he must enter by way of the porch of the Gate and exit by the same way’.
9. Jehovah told Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, mark & see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears what I tell yu concerning the ordinances of Jehovah’s House and its Laws; make note of the House’s entrance, and the Sanctuary’s egress. Tell the Rebellious House of Israel for Me: House of Israel, be content with yur abominations, in bringing in foreigners, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, to be in My Sanctuary, to profane it, My House, offering to yur abominations My Bread, the fat & blood, breaking My Covenant. You haven’t kept the charge of My Holy Things; you’ve set keepers of My Charge in My Sanctuary for yourselves. No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, must ever enter My Sanctuary, of any foreigners among the Children of Israel. The Levites who deserted Me, when Israel went astray from Me after their idols, they must pay for their crime. Yet they must be ministers in My Sanctuary, having oversight at the Gates of the House, and ministering in the House: they must slaughter the burnt-offering & sacrifice for the People, they must stand before them to minister to them. Because they ministered to them before their idols, becoming a stumbling block of iniquity to Israel’s House; I lifted My Hand against them, they’ll pay for their crime. They must not approach Me, to execute the office of priest to Me, nor approach My Holy Things, to the Most Holy Things, they must bear their shame, their abominations they’ve committed. But I’ll make them keepers of the charge of the House, for its service, for what is done in it. The Levitical Priests, Zadok’s Sons, who kept the charge of My Sanctuary when the Children of Israel deserted Me, they must approach Me to minister to Me; they must stand before Me to offer to Me the fat & blood. They’ll enter My Sanctuary, they’ll approach My Table, to minister to Me, they’ll keep My Charge. When they enter in at the Gates of the Inner Court, they’ll be clothed with linen garments; no wool must be on them, while they minister in the Gates of the Inner Court, and inside. They must wear linen turbans on their heads, they must have linen breeches on their loins; they must not gird themselves with anything causing sweat. When they go out into the Outer Court of the People, they must remove their clothes in which they minister, lay them in the Holy Chambers; they must put on other clothes, that they don’t sanctify the People with their clothes. They must not shave their heads, nor let their locks to grow long; they must only have hair-cuts. The Priests must drink no wine when they enter the Inner Court. They must not marry a widow for wives or divorcee; they must marry virgins of the seed of Israel’s House, or a Priest’s widow. They’ll teach My People the difference between the holy & the common and help them to discern between the unclean & the clean. In a controversy they’ll stand to judge; according to My Ordinances they must judge, they must keep My Laws & Statutes in all My appointed Feasts; they must sanctify My Sabbaths. They must not go near a dead person to defile themselves; they may defile themselves for father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or an unmarried sister. After he is cleansed, they’ll reckon to him 7 days. The day he enters the Sanctuary, into the Inner Court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he must offer his sin-offering. They’ll have no inheritance: I’m their inheritance; you’ll give him no possession in Israel; I’m their possession. They’ll eat the meal-offering, the sin-offering, & the trespass-offering; and every devoted in Israel will be theirs. The first of the first-fruits of everything, and every oblation of everything, of all your oblations, will be the Priest’s: you’ll also give to the Priests the first of your dough, to cause a blessing to rest on your house. The Priests must not eat anything that dies of itself, or is torn, whether of bird or beast’.
10. When you divide the Land by lot for inheritance, you shall offer an oblation to Jehovah, a Holy Portion of the Land; the length must be 25,000 (perhaps reed, then x 12′ = 3000,000′ = c.60 miles) long, the width 10,000 (if reed, x 12′ = 120,000′ = 24 miles): it’ll be holy in all its border around. From this must be the Holy Place 500 by 500, square around; 50 cubits (100′) for its suburbs around. From this measure yu must measure a length of 25,000 by 10,000 wide: in it shall be the Sanctuary, which is Most Holy. It is a Holy Portion of the Land: it must be for the Priests, the Sanctuary’s ministers, that approach to minister to Jehovah; it must be a place for their houses, a Holy Place for the Sanctuary. 25,000 long by 10,000 wide, for the Levites, the House’s ministers, for a possession to themselves: 20 chambers. You must allot the City’s possession 5,000 wide by 25,000 long, side by side with the oblation of the Holy Portion: it’ll be for all the House of Israel. For the Prince: on both sides of the holy oblation and of the possession of the City, in front of the holy oblation & in front of the possession of the City, on both westside westward & eastside eastward; in length corresponding to the portions, from west border to east border. In the Land it will be to him for a possession in Israel: My Princes will never again oppress My People; but they’ll give the Land to the House of Israel according to their tribes. Thus says the Lord Jehovah: Let it be enough for you, Princes of Israel: remove violence & spoil, execute justice & righteousness; take away your exactions from My People. You must have just balances, just ephah (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer), & just bath (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer). The ephah & the bath (quarts & gallons) shall be one measure, the bath contains 1/10th a homer, the ephah 1/10th a homer: its measure is after the homer (10 times the ephah & bath). The shekel equals 20 gerahs (ounces or pounds); 20, 25, & 15 shekels will be your maneh (50 shekels). This is the oblation you must offer: 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of wheat; you must give 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of barley; the set portion of oil, of the bath of oil, 1/10th of a bath out of a cor (equals homer, 10 times the ephah or bath): 10 baths or ephah (10 baths equals an homer); 1 lamb from every 200 of the flock, from the well-watered pastures of Israel: for a meal-offering, burnt-offering, peace-offerings, to atone for them. The People of the Land must contribute to this oblation for the Prince in Israel. It will be the Prince’s part to give the burnt-offerings, meal-offerings, & drink-offerings, in the feasts, on the new moons, & on the sabbaths, in all the appointed feasts of Israel’s House’.
11. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘In the 1st, on the 1st of the month, you must take a young bullock without defect to cleanse the Sanctuary. The Priest must take the blood of the sin-offering, put it on the door-posts of the House, and on the 4 corners of the ledge of the Altar, and on the posts of the Gate of the Inner Court. Thus you must do on the 7th of the month for those who err, and for the simple: so you’ll atone for the House. In the 1st, on the 14th day of the month, you’ll have the Passover, 7 days feast; unleavened bread must be eaten; on that day the Prince must prepare for himself & for the People of the Land a bullock for a sin-offering. The 7 days of the feast he must prepare a burnt-offering to Jehovah, 7 bullocks & 7 rams without defect daily 7 days; a male-goat daily for a sin-offering. He must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, and a hin (2 gallon or 8 quarts) of oil to an ephah. In the 7th , on the 15th day of the month, in the feast, he must do like in the 7 days; according to the sin-offering, burnt-offering, meal-offering, according to the oil’.
12. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘The Gate of the Inner Court facing eastward must be shut the 6 working days; on the sabbath day it must be opened, on the day of the new moon it must be opened. The Prince must enter by the way of the porch of the Gate outside, and must stand by the post of the Gate; the Priests must prepare his burnt-offering & his peace-offerings, & he’ll worship at the entrance of the Gate: he shall exit; but the Gate must remain open till evening. The People of the Land must worship at the door of that Gate before Jehovah on the sabbaths & new moons. The burnt-offering that the Prince must offer to Jehovah must be on the sabbath day: 6 lambs & 1 ram without defect; the meal-offering must be an ephah for the ram, and the meal-offering for the lambs as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah. On the day of the new moon it must be an ephah for the bullock without defect, 6 lambs & 1 ram, without defect: he must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for the bullock, an ephah for the ram, and for the lambs as he’s able, an hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince enters, he must go by way of the porch of the Gate, and go out by its way. When the People of the Land approach Jehovah in the appointed feasts, he who enters by the way of the North Gate to worship must exit by way of the South Gate; he must not return by the Gate he entered, but he must continue straight ahead. The Prince, when they enter, must enter in their midst, when they exit, they exit. In the feasts and solemnities the meal-offering must be an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, for lambs as he is able, & a hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince prepares a freewill-offering, a burnt-offering or peace offerings as a freewill-offering to Jehovah, someone must open for him the Gate facing eastward; he must prepare his burnt-offering & peace offerings, as he does on the sabbath day: then he must exit; and after his exit someone must shut the gate. Yu must prepare a lamb a year old without defect for a burnt-offering to Jehovah daily: every morning yu must prepare it. Yu must prepare a meal-offering with it every morning, 1/6th of an ephah, 1/3rd of a hin oil, to moisten the fine flour; a meal-offering to Jehovah continually by a perpetual ordinance. They must prepare the lamb, the meal-offering, & the oil, every morning, for a continual burnt-offering. If the Prince give a gift to his sons, it is his inheritance, it belongs to his sons; it is their possession by inheritance. If he give of his inheritance a gift to his servants, it is his inheritance to the year of jubilee; then it returns to the Prince; but his inheritance must be for his sons. The Prince must not confiscate the People’s inheritance, to force them from their possession; he must give inheritance to his sons from his own possession, that My People are not scattered from his own possession’.
13. He led Ezekiel through the entrance at the side of the Gate, into the Holy Chambers for the Priests, facing northward: there was a place in the back westward. He said to Ezekiel: ‘This is the place where the Priests must boil the trespass-offering & the sin-offering, where they must bake the meal-offering; that they don’t bring them out into the Outer Court, to sanctify the People. He led him out to the Outer Court, causing him to pass by the 4 corners of the Court, at every corner of the Court was a Court. In the 4 corners of the Court were enclosed Courts, 40 long by 30 wide: these 4 in the corners were of one measure. There was a Wall around in them, around the 4, and boiling-places were made under the Walls around’. He said to him: ‘These are the boiling-houses, where the ministers of the House must boil the sacrifice of the People’.
14. He led Ezekiel back to the door of the House; waters issued out from under the doorway of the House eastward;…. When the Man went forth eastward with a line in His Hand,… He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, have yu seen this’? He caused him to return to the river’s bank, where on the river’s bank were many trees on both sides. He told him: ‘These waters flow toward the eastern region, flowing into the Arabah (desert, wilderness, south of the Dead Sea); flowing toward the sea which issued forth from it; healing waters. Every living creature which swarms, wherever the rivers flow, will live; there will be a great multitude of fish; for these waters flow there to heal, everything will live wherever the river flows. The fishers will stand near: from En-gedi (near the Dead Sea) to En-eglaim (perhaps continuing south in the Arabah towards the Gulf of Aqabah; if northward, then perhaps to the Sea of Galilee) will be a place for the spreading of nets; their catch will be fishes of every kind, as the fish of the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), so many. But its wetlands & marshes will not be healed; they’ll be given to salt. By its riverbank, on both sides, will grow every tree for food, whose leaf will not whither, neither its fruit fail: it will produce new fruit every month, because its waters flow from the Sanctuary; its fruit will be for food, its leaf for healing.
15. The border to divide the Land for inheritance according to the 12 Tribes of Israel: Joseph’s portions: You will inherit it, one each; for I swore to give it to your fathers: this Land will fall to you for inheritance. The border of the Land: On the North side, from the Great Sea, by the way of Hethlon, to the entrance of Zedad; Hamoth, Berothah, Sibraim, between the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauran’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazer-enon at the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauron’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazar-enon at Damascus’ border; on the north northward is Hamoth’s border. This the North side. The East side, between Hauran & Gilead, and the Land of Israel, will be the Jordan; from the border to the East Sea (Dead Sea) you’ll measure. This is the East side. The South side southward be for Tamar to the waters of Meriboth-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the South side southward. The West side will be the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), from the border to the entrance of Hamath. This the West side. So you’ll divide this Land to you according to the Tribes of Israel. You must divide it by lot for an inheritance to you & to the strangers who reside among you, who birth children among you; they must be the same as the native Children of Israel; they must have inheritance with you among the Tribes of Israel. In wherever Tribe the stranger resides, there you must give him his inheritance, says the Lord Jehovah’.
16. These are the names of the Tribes: From the North end, by the way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, Hazar-enan at the border of Damascus, northward beside Hamath, (having both sides of east & west), Dan: 1.
Bordering Dan: east side to west side, Asher: 1.
Bordering Asher: east side to west side, Naphtali: 1
Bordering Naphtali: east side to west side, Manasseh: 1.
Bordering Manasseh: east side to west side, Ephraim: 1.
Bordering Ephraim: east side to west side, Reuben: 1.
Bordering Reuben: east side to west side, Judah: 1
Bordering Judah: east side to west side, will be the oblation which you must offer, 25,000 wide, and in length as one of the portions, from east side to west side: the Sanctuary will be in its center.

17. The oblation you’ll offer to Jehovah must be 20,000 in length, 10,000 in width. These for the Priests will be the Holy Oblation: northward: 25,000 in length; westward: 10,000 in width; eastward: 10,000 wide; southward: 25,000 long: the Sanctuary is in the middle. It’s for the sanctified Priests of Zadok’s sons, who kept My Charge not straying when the Children of Israel strayed, as the Levites went astray. It’s their oblation from the oblation of the Land, a thing Most Holy, by the border of the Levites. Corresponding to the Priests’ border, the Levites must have 25,000 in length, and 10,000 in width. They must not sell a part of it, nor exchange it, nor must the first-fruits of the Land be alienated; for its Holy to Jehovah. The 5,000 remaining of the width, in front of the 25,000, must be for common use, for the City, for welling & for suburbs; the City is centered in it. These are its measurements: the North side, the South side, the East side, & the West side must be 4,500 each. The City must have suburbs: northward, southward, eastward, & westward must be 250 each. The remnant in the length, matching to the Holy Oblation, must be 10,000 eastward& 10,000 westward; it must be matching to the Holy Oblation; and the surplus must be for food for the City workers. The City laborers from the Israel’s Tribes must till it. The oblation must be 25,000 by 25,000: you must offer the Holy Oblation four-square (25,000 x 4 = 100,000), with the City’s possession. The remnant must be for the Prince, on both sides of the Holy Oblation & the City’s possession; in front of the 25,000 of the oblation toward the East border, and westward in front of the 25,000 toward the West border, matching to the portions, it must be for the Prince: and the Holy Oblation & the Sanctuary of the House must be in its center.
Also, from the possession of the Levites, and from the City’s possession, being in the center of what belongs to the Prince, between the border of Judah & the border of Benjamin, it must be for the Prince. As for the rest of the Tribes: east side to west side, Benjamin: 1.
Bordering Benjamin: east side to west side, Simeon: 1.
Bordering Issachar: east side to west side, Zebulon: 1.
` Bordering Zebulon: east side to west side, Gad: 1.
Bordering Gad: at the south side southward, the border must be from Tamar to the waters of Meribah-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the Land which you must divide by lot to the Tribes of Israel for inheritance, these are their individual portions, says the Lord Jehovah. These are the egresses of the City: On the north side: 4,500 by measurement; the Gates of the City must be after the names of the Tribes of Israel:
3 Gates northward: Reuben’s Gate: 1; Judah’s Gate: 1; Levi’s Gate: 1.
East side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Joseph’s Gate: 1; Benjamin’s Gate: 1; Dan’s Gate: 1.
South side: 4,500 by measure: 3 Gates: Simeon’s Gate: 1; Issachar’s Gate: 1; Zebulun’s Gate: 1.
West side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Gad’s Gate: 1; Asher’s Gate: 1; Naphtali’s Gate: 1. It must be 18,000 around:

18. ‘the Name of the City from that day will be: Jehovah Shammah (The Lord is There)’.
Conclusions & Further Reflections on Ezekiel & the Major Prophets:

The Book of Ezekiel is divided by its dates, 14 dates of the years of Ezekiel’s prophetic word or message. These 14 dates are:
1. In the [his, my] 30th year, 4th month, 5th day,…
2. In the 5th of the month of the 5th year of King Jehoiachin’s Captivity (& coincides with Nebuchadnezzar’s 9th Regal Years, and the 9th Year of the 70 Years Captivity (the two always matching).
3. In the 6th year, in the 6th, on the 5th of the month
4. In the 7th year, 5th month, 10th day
5. Again, in the 9th year, the 10th month, the 10th of the month
6. In the 11th year, the 1st of the month
7. In the 10th year, on the 10th, in the 12th of the month
8. In the 27th year, in the 1st, on the 1st of the month
9. In the 11th year, in the 1st, on the 7th of the month
10. In the 11th year, in the 3rd, on the 1st of the month
11. In the 12th year, in the 12th month, on the 1st of the month,
12. In the 12th year, on the 15th of the month
13. In the 12th year of our Captivity, in the 10th, on the 10th of the month, that a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: The City is smitten.
14. In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day,

There are several ways to divide the Book as to its contents, such as in the Selections we have given below. But the recorded dates are the intended divisions of Ezekiel’s prophecies. A careful & reading of the Text will easily convince the reader that there is reason & relation to the messages to the dates. We have divided the content of the Book by any other method than the 14 dates. The undated messages of Ezekiel’s prophetic word are given as a sub-division to the dated ones. It is seen in the first two & the last dated messages: numbers 1 & 2 includes chapters 1-7; number 14 includes chapters 40-48. Whether Ezekiel structured these messages or divisions as we know them, in their various order in various versions or manuscripts or copies, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin & other ancient languages, is not our concern in understanding the Text as it is commonly received. As we have said elsewhere that the order of the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, the Old Testament is arranged different than our Bibles, and the Latin Vulgate & the Greek Septuagint (LXX) adds the Apocryphal Books. Our interest is to discover what the Text reveals to our understanding of the Divine Word handed down to us. As with other divisions of the Sacred Scriptures, there our various types of divisions, such as the Generations of Genesis, as the 5 Books of Moses (the Pentateuch, the Chumash Torah); or the Bible, in Old Testament, divided into the Historical Books, Poetical, and Prophetic. These divisions may or not be helpful or accurate in some details, but are all instructive aspects of the Inspired Text.
In each Book of the Bible there is a peculiar property of its own, of which we labor to see & know. In the Books of the Three Major Prophets, are also distinct similarities & differences. Isaiah & Jeremiah are never called ‘the Son of Man’, but Ezekiel is called Son of Man some 90 times. The poetic style differs in each, Isaiah the most, then Jeremiah (excluding his Lamentations), then Ezekiel. But in all three the Parallelism as seen in the Poetic Books of Psalms – Solomon’s Songs is distinctly used as essential to Hebrew poetry. To understand the prophetic word of the prophets, we must notice & understand the poetic words & lines & verses. In contrast Isaiah & Jeremiah, the Messianic types & figures are more concealed, Ezekiel by his prophetic name prefigures the Christ as the Son of Man. The predictive aspect of his prophecies are fewer than the former two prophets. As with the former two the historical elements of the prophetic word in this Book continues as theirs. Ezekiel like Daniel deals with the Babylonian power as a dispensational change of divine government. The Assyrian power still continued, but God was involved with Babylon because it was the power used to judge the Monarchy of Judah in the Davidic Throne. As Babylon expanded its imperial arm, first against Assyria then Egypt, it swallowed up Israel & Judah, along with all the bordering countries. God was not impeding this nation, but on the contrary had predicted Babylon’s King to be His Servant upon all the Gentiles & His People. The entire global ministry of the Gentiles subjugation of the Jews was only retributive punishment of deserved justice & judgment.
To illustrate & compare the dimensions of cubits or reeds I’ve made this Chart or Table:

Chart: Cubic or Reeds: (Cubic = 2 Feet; Reed = 12 Feet) Each: . = cubit or reed; : = 5 cubits or reeds.

[In WordPress this chart is not properly reproduced; the reader must go the the PDF or Word to see it displayed properly, as well as the colors, etc.]
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We must here consider in our Reflection the Gentile Times & Power in a larger manner, as it is revealed in the Major Prophets. The trine nature of the divine purpose in God’s interest in humanity is intrinsic to His original creation of man (Adam). It is again taken up in the Three Sons of Noah as the Gentiles or Nations. The Covenant made, as we have often said, was a new dispensation that would continue to the end of the Bible, although undergoing changes. The trine humanity in the world developed slowly, with countless variety of shapes, colors, sizes, forms, abilities, etc. The world was a Gentile world spread everywhere. The Hebrews descending from Abraham, descendant of Shem of Noah of Adam of God. He choose Abram of Ur of the Chaldees; through him by union with a Hagar the Egyptian (his wife’s maid or slave); with Sarah is wife & half-sister; with Keturah his concubine after Sarah’s death, the descendants of this union were the Arab tribes. The Middle-East is the Semitic & Hebrew center of the earth. The ancient or earliest Mesopotamians in Shinar, the ancient Egyptians & their neighbors; and other ancient centers of people from whom the present nations, races, peoples, and such, are derived. Likewise the global languages starting as on simple communication from a primal tongue or speech, became branches innumerable with certain clear recognizable relations & history.
From Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob (Israel) came the Israelites in 12 Tribes led by Moses out of Egypt. This people & nation were chosen by God (Jehovah Elohim) to be His special children, and constituted by miracles, laws, customs & traditions, to be a theocratic society governed by visible written word, as a code of laws & the like. The original institution of the Tabernacle, priesthood, the Ten Commandments, the Mosaic laws & requirements would also undergo changes in the Old Testament, and continue through the New Testament. The Temple as God’s House, His Sanctuary & Dwelling place, was an enlargement of the Tabernacle, with many changes. In the return exiles from their Babylonian Captivity rebuilt a Temple that was inferior to King Solomon’s great Temple (the Jews say in at least 5 points: Ark of the Covenant, Shechinah, Urim & Thummim, Holy Fire upon the Altar, & Spirit of Prophecy.); this 2nd Temple is called Zerubbabel’s Temple, finished at the close of the Old Testament, whose later history is uncertain many ways, till we get to the so-called 3rd Temple of Herod the Great, the Idumean as we encounter in the New Testament. It was not a new Temple but a rebuilt one, with many changes, some superior to the 2nd Temple, but inferior in other ways, lacking more items of Solomon’s Temple. But in Ezekiel in chapters 40-48 is revealed a New Temple, the Third Temple with distinct designs & new features. This 3rd Temple has never been built, not even attempted. The conditions to build such a Great & Holy Temple were never ever met by Israel. It was ever an Ideal Temple to shame the Jews of ways that led to the destruction of Solomon’s Temple. There are those who sigh to build such a Temple, but it is a useless sigh & expectation. It was Plan & Pattern never used or constructed. To say more of this at this point of our Reflections is unwise.
The prophetic word concerning & against Gog of Magog, & his allies or companions is of similar instance; predictive features must be balanced by the responsive rule of the relations to Lord & to Israel. The northern alliance to the distant north first northern Syria, then Turkey, then Russia; the land & people of ancient Turkey (Anatolia or Asia Minor & Thrace); and the land of Syria or Assyria have been the primary northern powers against Israel for several hundred years. The slow but steady southern migration of the northern tribes & people were always a pending threat, in time they descended as a power as with the Assyrians. The geography was the regions south of the Black Sea, spreading east & west as they migrated down or invaded. Those who see Russia as the Northern Power have much to explain both historically & biblically. The Medes & Persians were the newest power that dominated the Middle East at the close of the Old Testament. The primary message was directed against Israel & Judah, & her neighbors near & far. At any time the doom cold be averted by Divine Intervention, and that was the ministry of the Major Prophets in fuller manner than some of the earlier Minor Prophets.

A few final words as to the Major Prophets preparatory to the close of the Old Testament in laying the foundation of Daniel & the later of the Minor Prophets. Daniel being the last of the Old Testament prophets ‘Son of Man.’; and only once. Ezekiel had already signaled out Daniel in his Book; as also the Lord Jesus would in the Gospels. But it was the Gentiles’ place that the Major Prophets revealed in relations to Daniel International & Global concerns. I have no intention to write a commentary, degerming for the reader the meaning of the Text; rather a desire to share my results of the 50 years in reflections, meditations, study, research, & reading of the Bible. I am thankful to have reached this far in Old Testament Books. We are now ready to conclude the Old Testament in the Book of Daniel and the Books of the Minor Prophets.
Selections relevant to the Reflections on the Book of Ezekiel:
Ezekiel Selections (13): Calvin, Greenhill, Lowth, Fairbairn, Hengstenberg, Keil, Wordsworth, Lange, Redpath, Gaebelein, Bennett, Sulley, Smith, & Grant.
(1)
Commentary & Lectures on Book of Prophet Ezekiel, Chapters 1-20, Lectures 1-65. Volume 1 & 2. Jean (John) Calvin. 1st Translated from Original Latin, Collated with French Version, Thomas Myers, Vicar of Sheriff-Hutton, Yorkshire. (1560.1849.1850.2010). gs.as.ccel.org & bibletruthforum.com

{{“Translator’s Preface: “An Interest of no ordinary kind is excited in the mind of the Biblical Student by the mention of ”Calvin’s Lectures On Ezekiel.” The last Work which a great man leaves unfinished, because arrested by the hand of death, becomes at once an heirloom to posterity. After the lapse of nearly three hundred years, we read this affecting sentence with a tear and a sigh: (“After finishing this last Lecture (65th, Chapter 20), that most illustrious man, John Calvin, the Divine, who had previously been sick, then began to be so much weaker that he was compelled to recline on a couch, and could no longer proceed with the explanation of Ezekiel. This accounts for his stopping at the close of the Twentieth Chapter, and not finishing the work so auspiciously begun. Nothing remains, kind Reader, but that you receive most favorably and graciously what is now sent forth to the world.”) “….”As to the Genuineness Of Ezekiel’s Writings, it has never been seriously called in question by the learned, either Jew or Christian. Some self-sufficient Critics have impugned the last nine chapters: Their valueless arguments will be found, by those who wish to search for such unsatisfactory materials, in Rosenmuller, while their refutation is completed by Jahn, in his Introduction to the Sacred Books of the Old Testament, and is rendered accessible to the mere English reader by Hartwell Horne. So little weight, however, is attached to such opinions, that even Gesenius allows a “oneness of tone” to be so conspicuous throughout Ezekiel’s Prophecies, as to forbid the suspicion that any portions of them are not genuine. This Book formed part of the Canon in the Catalogues of Melito and Origen, of Jerome and of the Talmud. Josephus, indeed, refers to two Books of Ezekiel, probably dividing his ‘prophecies’ into two parts. His language has necessarily given rise to some discussion, which Eichhorn has set at rest as satisfactorily as the data will allow. The Arrangement Of The Various Predictions has been the subject of a variety of opinions. Some have supposed that Chronological Order has been interfered with, and that different collections of the separate Prophecies might be made with advantage. But Havernick, in his valuable Commentary, published as late as 1843, maintains that the present arrangement is correct. It proceeds, he asserts, in the order of time, and connects, as it ought to do, the Prophecies against foreign nations with those against Israel and Judah. Hence he divides the Book into the following nine Sections: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Call to Prophetic Office. (1-3:15).
2. Symbolical Representations Foretelling Destruction of Judah & Jerusalem. (4:16-7).
3. Series of Visions, Year & 2 Months Later than Former: Temple Polluted by Worship of Adonis, Consequent Vengeance on Priests & People, & Prospect of Happier Times & Purer Worship. (8-11).
4. Series of Reproofs & Warnings Against Prevailing Sins & Prejudices of his Day. (12-19).
5. Another Series of Warnings, One Year Later, still Announcing Coming Judgments. (20-23).
6. Predictions, 2 Years & 5 Months Later, Announcing Very Day of Siege of Jerusalem, & Assuring Captives of its Complete Overthrow. (24.)
7. Predictions Against Foreign Nations. (25-32.)
8. After Destruction of City, Future Triumph of Kingdom of God on Earth. (33-39).
9. Symbolic Representations of Times of Messiah, & Prosperity of Kingdom of God. (40-48).
There is a negative merit in Calvin’s Lectures, which has not been imitated by some later Commentators. He never makes those observations on Ezekiel’s Style & Diction which would reduce him to the level of a merely human writer. Grotius & Eichhorn, Lowth & Michaelis dwell on his erudition & genius, and assign him the same rank among the Hebrews which Aeschylus holds among the Greeks. They praise his knowledge of architecture, and his skill in oratory. They call him bold, vehement, tragical; “in his sentiments elevated, wars, bitter, indignant; in his images fertile, magnificent, harsh, and sometimes almost deformed; in his diction grand, weighty, austere, rough, and sometimes uncultivated; abounding in repetition, not for the sake of ornament & gracefulness, but through indignation & violence.” Such language as this clearly implies a very different view of the Prophet’s character & mission from that taken by Calvin. He looked upon him as a grand instrument in the hands of the Most High, and would have instinctively felt it to be profane thus to reduce him to the level of the Poets & Seers of heathenism. In this feeling we ought to concur. The modern method of criticizing the style & matter of the Hebrew Prophets deserves our warmest reprobation. They are too often treated as if their thoughts & their language were only of human origin. Their visions, their metaphors, & their parables, are submitted to the crucible of a worldly alchemy, in entire forgetfulness that these men were the special messengers of God.”…… “Comparing the Interpretations of Calvin with those of modern Continental Divines, we have no reason to conclude that the views of the great Reformer have been superseded. The progress of Biblical Criticism during the last 800 years has indeed been accompanied with some clearer views of the details, but the fundamental principles of these ‘Lectures on Ezekiel’ have never been successfully impugned. The Miracles of the Old Testament have been boldly assailed, both at home & abroad, and no slight outpouring of infidel wrath has fallen upon the Calvin interpretation of those of Ezekiel. Germany, the birthplace of the Reformation, has been also the seed-bed of spurious Rationalism. The novelty of any opinion on Biblical subjects has now become a sufficient atonement for its absurdity, and he receives the greatest applause from the many, who casts farthest from him whatsoever has commanded the veneration of ages. The direct interposition of Jehovah’s power in the affairs of men, as related in the writings of the Hebrews, has lately exercised the ingenuity of German skeptics to an almost incredible extent. The mysticism of the School of Schelling has rivaled the extravagancies of the theory of accommodation proposed by the celebrated Semler.”” ……}}

Lecture: Commentary:
{{Ezekiel 1:1-2: “We see that the Prophet was called to the office of a Teacher in the fifth (5th) year after Jehoiachin had voluntarily surrendered himself to the king of Babylon, (2nd Kings 24:15); and had been dragged into exile, together with his mother: for it was, says he, “in the thirtieth (30th) year.” The greater part of the Commentators follow the Chaldee Paraphrast, and understand him to date from the finding of the Book of the Law. It is quite clear, that this year was the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah; but in my computation, I do not subscribe to the opinion of those who adopt this date. For this phrase –“the thirtieth year (30th),” would then appear too obscure and forced. We nowhere read that succeeding writers adopted this date as a standard. Besides, there is no doubt that the usual method among the Jews was to begin to reckon from a Jubilee. For this was a point of starting for the future. I therefore do not doubt that this thirtieth (30th) year is reckoned from the Jubilee. Nor is my opinion a new one; for Jerome makes mention of it, although he altogether rejects it, through being deceived by an opposite opinion. But since it is certain that the Jews used this method of computation, and made a beginning from ‘Jobel’, that is, the Jubilee, this best explains the thirtieth (30th) year. If anyone should object, that we do not read that this eighteenth (18th) year of king Josiah was the usual year in which everyone returned to his own lands, (Leviticus 25) and liberty was given to the slaves, and the entire restoration of the whole people took place, yet the answer is easy, although we cannot ascertain in what year the ‘Jobel’ fell, it is sufficient for us to assign the Jubilee to this year, because the Jews followed the custom of numbering their years from this institution. As, then, the Greeks had their Olympiads, the Romans their Consuls, and thence their computation of annals; so also the Hebrews were accustomed to begin from the year ‘Jobel’, when they counted their years on to the next restoration, which I have just mentioned. It is therefore probable that this was a Jubilee year –it is probable, then, that this was the Jubilee. For it is said that Josiah celebrated the Passover with such magnificent pomp and splendor, that there had been nothing like it since the time of Samuel (2nd Chronicles 35:18). The conjecture which best explains this is, not that he celebrated the Passover even with such magnificence, but that he was induced to do so by the peculiar occasion, when the people were restored and returned to their possessions, and the slaves were set free. Since, then, this was the Jubilee, the pious king was induced to celebrate the Passover with far greater splendor than was usual –nay, even to surpass David and Solomon. Again, although he reigned thirteen (13) years afterwards, we do not read that he celebrated any Passover with remarkable splendor. We do not doubt as to his yearly celebration; for this was customary (2nd Kings 23:23). From this we conclude that the celebration before us was extraordinary, and that the year was ‘Jobel’. But though it is not expressed in Scripture, it is sufficient for us that the Prophet reckoned the years according to the accustomed manner of the people. For he says that this was “the fifth (5th) year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity:” who is called also Jehoiakim; for Jehoiakim succeeded Josiah, and reigned eleven years. The thirteen (13) years which remain of Josiah’s reign and these eleven (11), make twenty-four (24) (2nd Kings 23:36). Now, “his successor,” Jehoiachin, passed immediately into the hands of king Nebuchadnezzar, and was taken captive at the beginning of his reign, and reigned only three or four months (2nd Kings 24:8). After that, the last king, Zedekiah, was set up by the will of the king of Babylon. We see, therefore, that nine (9) years are made up: add the space of the reign of Jehoiachin: so it is no longer doubtful as to the reckoning of “the thirtieth (30th) year” from the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah. It is true that the Law of God was found during this year, (2nd Chronicles 34:14,) but the Prophet here accommodates himself to the received rule and custom.”……”Before I proceed any farther, I will briefly touch on the subjects which Ezekiel treats. He has all things in common with Jeremiah, as I have said, with this peculiarity, that he denounces the last slaughter against the people, because they ceased not to heap iniquity upon iniquity, and thereby inflamed still more and more the vengeance of God. He threatens them, therefore, and that not once only, because such was the hard-heartedness of the people, that it was not enough to utter the threatenings of God three or four times, unless he should continually impress them. But, at the same time, he shows the causes why God determined to treat his people so severely; namely, because they were contaminated with many superstitions, because they were perfidious, avaricious, cruel, and full of rapine, given up to luxury and depraved by lust: all these things are united by our Prophet, that he may show that the vengeance of God is not too severe, since the people had arrived at the very last pitch of impiety and all wickedness. At the same time, he gives them, here and there, some taste of the mercy of God. For all threats are vain, unless some promise of favor is held out. Nay, the vengeance of God, as soon as it is displayed, drives men to despair, and despair casts them headlong into madness: for as soon as anyone apprehends the anger of God, he is necessarily agitated, and then, like a raging beast, he wages war with God Himself. For this reason, I said, that all threats are vain without a taste of the mercy of God. The Prophets always argue with men with no other intention than that of stirring them up to penitence, which they could never effect unless God could be reconciled to those who had been alienated from Him. This then is the reason why our Prophet, as well as Jeremiah, when they reprove the people, temper their asperity by the interposition of promises. He also prophesies against heathen nations, like Jeremiah, especially against the children of Ammon, the Moabites, the Tyrians, the Egyptians, and the Assyrians (Jeremiah 26-29). But from the fortieth (40th) chapter he treats more fully and copiously concerning the restoration of the Temple and the city. He there professedly announces, that a new state of the people would arise, in which both the royal dignity would flourish again, and the priesthood would recover its ancient excellence, and, to the end of the book, he unfolds the singular benefits of God, which were to be hoped for after the close of the seventy (70) years. Here it is useful to remember what we observed in the case of Jeremiah: (Jeremiah 28) while the false Prophets were promising the people a return after three or five years, the true Prophets were predicting what would really happen, that the people might submit themselves patiently to God, and that length of time might not interrupt their calm submission to his just corrections. As we now understand what our Prophet is treating, and the tendency as well as the substance of his teaching, I will proceed with the context.” ……}}

Notes & Comments by Editor: Promised Contribution: Complete Apparatus Criticus Arranged (See Translator’s Preface, Volume 1): Sections:
1-3: Indexes: End of Vol. 4-7: Follow One Another. Vol. 8: Is Preceded By Its Own “List of Contents.”
Complete Synopsis of Contents of Whole of Ezekiel’s Prophecies: 1. Prophet’s Commission.
2. Prophet’s Utterances. 3. Prophet’s Consolations.

Ezekiel: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Prophet’s Commission: (1-3):
Section 1. Its Allegoric Character: Whirlwinds; Four Living Creatures; Wheels; Firmaments; Throne & Human Appearance Seated Thereon, (1).
Section 2. Address: Roll; Abounding Lamentation, (2).
Section 3. Rebellion of People; Motion of Living Creatures; Charge as Watchman; Hand of Jehovah by River Chebar, (3).
2. Prophet’s Utterances: (4-32):
A. Against Jews: (4-24): Utterances Against Jews are Divisible into those Against Jerusalem: Mountain & Land of Israel; King; False Prophets; Elders of People, & Various Repetitions, & Different Images.
Section 1. Emblem of Siege upon Tile, (4:1-3): Lying on Right & Left Side, (4:4-8); Taking Food by Measure, (4:9-12); Explanation, (4:13-17).
Section 2. Emblem of Razor, (4:1-4); Explanation, (5:5-17).
Section 3. Against Mountains of Israel, (6:1-15).
Section 4. Against Land of Israel, (7:1-27).
Section 5. Vision of Image of Jealousy, (8:1-11); Chamber of Imagery, (8:12-16); Explanation, (8:17,18).
Section 6. Vision of Man with Slaughter Weapon, (9:1-11).
Section 7. Vision of Cherubim: Description & Motions, (10:1-22).
Section 8. Emblems of Caldron & Flesh: Application to Jerusalem, (11:1-25).
Section 9. Emblem of Prophet’s Removing his Goods, & its Interpretation, (12:1-16).
Section 10. Flattering Proverb of Israel rebuked, (12:1 7-28).
Section 11. Utterance Against False Prophets, Male & Female, (13:1-23).
Section 12. Against Elders of People, (14:1-23).
Section 13. Emblem of Vine used for Fuel, (15:1-8).
Section 14. Emblem of Israel as Outcast Infant Nurtured by Almighty, (16:1-14); Married, yet Committing Adultery, (16:15-34). This Wickedness Denounced & Punished, (16:35-59). Almighty’s Merciful Relenting, (16:60-63).
Section 15. Emblem of Eagle & Cedar, (17:1-10); Explanation, Referring to Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, &
Pharaoh, (17:11-24).
Section 16. Vindication of Divine Justice, & Confutation of Israel’s Proverb, (18:1-32).
Section 17. Emblem of Lioness & her Whelps, (19:1-9).
Section 18. Emblem of Vine Plucked Up & Consumed, (19:10-14).
Section 19. Elders of Israel Rebuked for Their Sins, (20:1-32).
Section 20. Divine Promises of Restoration, (20:33-44).
Section 21. Word Dropped toward South, (20:45-49).
Section 22. Prophet’s Face Set toward Jerusalem, (21:1-7).
Section 23. Sharp Sword & Great Slaughter, (21:8-27).
Section 24. Sword Drawn Against Ammonites, (21:98-32).
Section 25. Sins of Jerusalem & God’s Vengeance, (22:1-22).
Section 26. Woes Uttered Against False Prophets, (22:23-31).
Section 27. Adulteries of People, (23:1-49).
Section 28. Parable of Boiling Pot, (24:1-14); Prophet’s Severe Affliction, (24:15-27).
B. Utterances Against Gentiles: (25-32):
Section 1. Against Ammonites, (25:1-7).
Section 2. Against Moabites, (25:8-11).
Section 3. Against the Edomites, (25:12-14).
Section 4. Against Philistines, (25:15-17).
Section 5. Against Tyre, through (26-28:19).
Section 6. Against Zidon, Ezekiel (28:20-26).
Section 7. Against Pharaoh, (29:1-7).
Section 8. Against Egypt, (29:8-21).
Section 9. Against Ethiopia, (30:1-5).
Section 10. Against Upholders of Egypt, (30:6-19).
Section 11. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel (30:20-26).
Section 12. Assyria as Cedar of Lebanon, (31:1-9).
Section 13. Its Fall & Destruction, (31:10-18).
Section 14. Bitter Lamentation over Egypt, (32:1-21).
Section 15. Bitter Lamentation over Assyria. (32:22,23).
Section 16. Bitter Lamentation over Elam, (32:24,25).
Section 17. Bitter Lamentation over Meshech & Tubal, (32:26-28).
Section 18. Bitter Lamentation over Edom, (32:29-32).
(These Utterances are all most vividly and graphically portrayed. Allegories, Metaphors, &
Parables are most appropriately interspersed with fiery Denunciations & awful Threatenings in
consequence of gross iniquities.)
3. Prophet’s Consolations: (33-48): Series of Exhortations & Promises of Deliverance under Cyrus, Description of Temple, & View of Future Divisions of Land under Prosperous Reign of Messiah.
Section 1. Prophet’s Duty as Watchman, (33:1-16).
Section 2. Vindication of God’s Equity, (33:17-33).
Section 3. Reproof to Shepherds of People, (34:1-10).
Section 4. Almighty Good Shepherd, (34:11-31).
Section 5. Desolation of Mount Seir, (35:1-15).
Section 6. Destruction of Heathen, (36:1-7).
Section 7. Blessings on Israel, (36:8-38).
Section 8. Vision of Dry Bones, (37:1-14).
Section 9. Rods of Judea & Ephraim, (37:15-20).
Section 10. Future Reign of David King, (37:21-28).
Section 11. Prophecies Against Gog & Magog, (38:1-23).
Section 12. Judgments upon Gog, (39:1-16).
Section 13. Great Sacrifice on Mountains, (39:17-20).
Section 14. Israel Restored from Captivity, (39:21-29).
Section 15. Vision of Measuring the Temple, (40:1-49).
Section 16. Measures & Ornaments, (41:1-26).
Section 17. Priests’ Chambers & Outer Court, (42:1-20).
Section 18. Returning Glory of Jehovah, (43:1-9).
Section 19. Whole Fashion of House, (43:10-12).
Section 20. Measurement of Altar, (43:13-17).
Section 21. The Sacrifices on Altar, (43:8-27).
Section 22. Various Ordinances for Priests, (44:1-31).
Section 23. Apportionment of Land, (45:1-8).
Section 24. Duties of Priests, (45:9-25).
Section 25. Duties of Prince & of People, (46:1-25).
Section 26. Vision of Rising Waters, (47:1-12).
Section 27. Divisions & Limits of Land, (47:13-23).
Section 28. Portions for Tribes & Priests, (48:1-29).
Section 29. Various Gates of City, (48:30-35).
(These closing Visions & Consolations are singularly striking, and afford scope for copious illustration; but as our Commentator did not live to expound them, it would not become his Translator to obtrude on the reader his own research into these deep things of the Spirit of God. A minute description of the Temple Scenery has been attempted by a learned Jew, Soloman Bennett, R.A. of Berlin, (Edit. London, 1834.) His work contains a most elaborate account of every interesting particular. Ezekiel 40, Ezekiel 41, and Ezekiel 42 are explained verse by verse; and a ground-plan and bird’s-eye view are subjoined. These chapters are also explained by Fry on the Second Advent, volume 1. Section 13.)” }}

(2) Exposition of Prophet Ezekiel & Useful Observations. Delivered in Several Lectures in London, (1650-1654-1662). William Greenhill, Rector of Stepney, & Chaplain to Dukes of York & Gloucester, & Lady Henrietta Maria. Revised & Corrected, James Sherman, Minister of Surrey Chapel. (1839). gs.pdf

{{ “Advertisement: The Rev. William Greenhill, the learned and pious author of the following Exposition, was born in the year 1581, of humble parents residing in Oxfordshire. As early as the age of thirteen he entered a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the condition of Servitor, and when he had completed his twenty-first year, took his degree of Master of Arts. In 1643 he acted as one of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, and about the same time was made afternoon lecturer at Stepney church. Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs preached there in the morning at seven o’clock, and Mr. Greenhill in the afternoon at three, and were hence styled “the Morning Star” and “the Evening Star” of Stepney. He was chosen to be chaplain to the dukes of York and Gloucester, and the Lady Henrietta Maria, and in the year 1656 had the living of Stepney presented to him. Calamy says, “He was a worthy man, and much valued for his great learning and unwearied labours.” Howe styles him “that eminent servant of God, Mr. Greenhill, whose praise is still in the churches.” His Exposition of the Prophecy of Ezekiel was delivered in Lectures in the city of London, which were attended by many of the chief personages of his day, and have been long and deservedly valued. They were originally printed a volume at a time, as the lectures on a few chapters were concluded, till five small quarto volumes completed the Exposition. Happy that biblical student thought himself who could obtain a perfect copy, although it has been sold at the enormous price of from seven to ten pounds. The last volume is rarely to be obtained; and is supposed to have been destroyed in the calamitous fire of London. No pains or expense have been spared to render this edition complete. It could hardly be expected that in a work of this magnitude no errors should inadvertently have been overlooked, but, from the most careful examination, it is confidently expected they will scarcely be found. Believing that the reader of Greenhill would not thank any editor who might attempt to beautify his style, the reviser has been anxious that he might appear again in his own garb of 1650, and not in the more polite dress of 1837. His style is abrupt, not always chaste, often imperfect, and full of singularities; yet searching, bold, striking, and effective. An attempt to improve it would most likely enfeeble it, and shear it of its point and power……As a practical expositor of Ezekiel, whose prophecy contains many things “hard to be understood,” Greenhill will ever rank deservedly high. He fully explains the meaning of the prophet, and then applies the truth to the consciences of his auditory by many most pertinent and heart-searching observations. It is impossible that a prayerful mind can read this exposition, without growing “in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.” J. Sherman. ‘Surrey Chapel’,
‘January’ 26’th’, 1837.”}}

{{“Epistles Dedicatory: [Prefixed, Original Edition, Part Containing Chap. 1-5.]

“To the Excellent Princess, & Most Hopeful Lady, the Princess Elizabeth, Her Highness. May it Please Your Highness,…..Doubtless God’s eye is upon your Highness, for that good which is found in you in these your tender years, and is well pleased that your sweetness of nature and choiceness of wit are joined with desire to know him, with love to his worship, affection to the godly, and delight in such sentences as these are, viz.: “Chairete en Kuriö pavtote, palin erö, Chairete.” “Deus meus et omnia”. “La mia Grandezza dal Eccelso”.
All which, with these precious speeches of yours, “I had rather be a beggar here than not go to heaven,” and, “How shall I be sure to go to heaven?” are acceptable to the Highest, and make strong impressions upon us inferiors. Your desire to know the original tongues, that you may understand the Scripture the better; your resolution to write them out with your own princely hand, and to come to the perfect knowledge of them, breed in us hopes that you will exceed all of your sex, and be without equal in Europe; as Drusius said of his son, who at five years learned Hebrew, and at twelve wrote it ‘extempore’, both in prose and verse. Encouraging instances your own sex will afford. Eustochium profited so much in the Latin, Hebrew, and Greek, that in her time she was called the wonder of the world. Istrina, queen of the Scythians, so excelled in Greek, that she taught her sons the Greek tongue. Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrenians, was skilled in the Latin, Egyptian, and Greek tongues; she read the Roman story in Greek, abridged the Alexandrian and all the oriental histories. Politian hath an epistle to Cassandra, a Venetian maid, whom he calls the glory of Italy. Her delight was not in wool, but books; not in the spindle or needle, but in the pen; not in paint, but in ink: she wrote epistles and orations to admiration; she excelled in logic and philosophy, and had such perfections, as caused the learned to admire, if not adore her. Queen Elizabeth was so learned, that she read every author in the original, and answered ambassadors of most nations in their own language: she went twice to Oxford, and once to Cambridge, purposely to hear the learned academical disputations, where herself made Latin orations: she translated Sallust, and wrote a century of sentences: she set apart some hours daily to read, or hear others read to her : she so excelled in learning and wisdom, that her teachers rather learned of her than brought learning to her. Your Highness seems to aim at all the excellences in the prementioned; for your writing out the Lord’s Prayer in Greek, some texts of Scripture in Hebrew, your endeavour after the exact knowledge of those holy tongues, with other languages and learned accomplishments, your diligent hearing of the word, careful noting of sermons, understanding answers at the catechising, and frequent questioning about holy things, do promise great matters from you. If the harvest be answerable to the spring, your Highness will be the wonder of the learned, and glory of the godly. It is my unhappiness that I cannot be sufficiently adjuvant to such princely beginnings; yet because this following treatise is an exposition of Scripture, I take the boldness to present it to your Highness, and shall continue to pray to him who is All, and able to give all, that he would preserve your royal person, bless your hopeful endeavours, fill you with all divine perfections, make you a chief praise in Israel, and fit you for an eternal weight of glory. Your Highness’s most humble servant, William Greenhill.”}}

{{“To All Well-Willers of Truth; Especially to the Authors Fautors of the Expository Lectures in this City: …..”Robert Stephen mentions one, and that a Sarbonist, who had lived above fifty years, and knew not what the New Testament meant: and have not sundry persons among us lived their fifty years, and not known what Ezekiel meant P hath he not been a book clasped and sealed unto them? If this hieroglyphical prophet have been a wonder to all for his visions, yet he hath been known to few, by reason of the abstruseness of his visions, which have kept off great rabbies from employing their talents to open them. If weakness and error be found in these poor labours of mine, I entreat you to remember, I have been among prophetical deeps and difficulties, which may plead for him who, knowing his own insufficiencies, came invita Minerva to this task. If any light appear for the better understanding of these enigmatical things, I must say with Daniel, there is a God in heaven which revealeth mysteries, to him be all the glory, Dan. ii. 28. My prayers shall be to him who enlighteneth every man which cometh into the world, that he would anoint your eyes with eye-salve, whereby you may daily see more into the great and glorious truths of God, and those things which may strongly make for your eternal peace and comfort. So prayeth Your friend and servant in the Lord, W. G.}}

1:5: “What these living creatures are, is the great dispute among expositors. Some make them to be the four covenants of God: 1. That with Adam. 2. That with Noah. 3. That with Moses. 4. That with the apostles. Some make them to be all the creatures. Some, the four cardinal virtues, justice, wisdom, fortitude, temperance. Some, the four faculties in the soul; the rational, irascible, concupiscible, and conscience. Some, the four chief passions; joy, grief, hope, and fear. Some, the four monarchies; Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman. Some, the twelve tribes of Israel, in their stations, east, west, north, south, when in the wilderness. Some, the four elements, of which man’s body doth consist. Some, the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; and this being the opinion of Jerome and Gregory the great, prevailed much, but now is deserted. Others understand by these four creatures, those who are complete and more perfect in the church. Others expound them to be Christ; but Christ is brought in, in the latter end of the chapter, sitting upon the throne: these creatures are some distinct ones from Him, and inferior to Him. By them then we are to understand the angels, which have a great part under God in the government of the world. The word (chaiyoth) living creatures, doth not only signify a creature that is corporeal, living, and sensible; but it denotes any living being or substance, whether corporeal or spiritual: and so Tully calls ‘intelligentias animales’, living intelligences, in Quest. Acad. l. 4. The best interpreters go this way, and understand by the living creatures, ‘exercitus invisibiles’, principalities and powers, and we need not fetch light from men, where the Scripture gives interpretation itself. Ezek. 10, there you have frequent mention of cherubims, which were these living creatures; for ver. 8, it is said, “There appeared the form of a man’s hand under their wings.” They had the same faces, one excepted, and as many, ver. 14, and Ezekiel saith, ver. 15, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar.” And more plain yet in ver. 20, “This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar, and I knew that they were the cherubims.” Although he called it before the living creature, in the singular number, yet here he changeth the number, and saith, they were the cherubims. We may trust Ezekiel’s judgment, he was guided by the Spirit, and his cherubims do hold forth the same parties to us, that Isaiah’s seraphims did to him. The word cherub notes generally any figure of man or beast, say the Hebrews, but especially the figure of a young man or a child, with wings stretched out, Exod. 25. Such were the two cherubims before the ark. The Chaldeans call a little child, ‘rabi’; or ‘rabia’; whence some derive the word cherubim, ‘quasi cherabia’, as a little child; others fetch it from ‘caph’, which notes likeness, and ‘rob’ or ‘rab’, which words signify, as, in general, quality and quantity, so multitude and magnitude; so that cherubims etymologized are ‘tanquam multi et magni’, as it were many and great. The word cherub notes not only angels, but angels as they appeared and were figured with any external form of man or beast, and such figures were hieroglyphical, as here in this vision. The prophet saw not these cherubims, or angels, or living creatures, but the likeness of them. For the nature of spirits is invisible; no soul, no angel, neither God himself, can be seen. How then is their likeness presented to the prophet? (They are (aölos [a-holoi (incomplete) = asömatos (bodiless)], incorporeal, without flesh and bones, Luke 24:39. They are pure as God is, ‘actus purissimus’.) It is no bodily likeness, but a likeness in life, quality, and motion. But the text saith, “They had the likeness of a man,” that is, not in his nature and essence, but in some qualities; they had the face, hands, thighs, and legs of a man, all which set out some choice qualities in the angels. They had also something of the beast and bird. And if they were in nature like the living creatures, angels were strange monsters, and not spirits in compound. By their likeness unto man is laid before us the rationality, knowledge, and understanding of angels. They are not ignorant creatures, but ‘ipsae intelligentiae’, the most understanding creatures in heaven or earth. 2nd Sam. 15:20, the widow of Tekoah told David, he was wise according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth; that is, he was very wise, as the angels are, to search out, understand, and discover things. Therefore Jerome thinks they are called cherubims from their much knowledge. (A multitudine scientiae; Cherubim quasi cherabbim.) Cherubims, as it were, rabbies, doctors, teachers of others; and this office some angels have had. Dan. 8:16, “Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision;” and chap. 10:14, “I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days.” They have prophetical knowledge in them, and a treasury of things that are past and done long since. Rev. 4:6, 8, there is mention of four beasts or living creatures, (the same with these in Ezekiel,) full of eyes before and behind, because they see and know what is past, and what is before them; their natural knowledge is great, being such excellent spirits.” ……}}
(3) Commentary upon Larger & Lesser Prophets: being a Continuation Bishop Patrick, by William Lowth, B.D. Prebendary of Winchester. 4th Edition. (1739).

Dedication to the Right Honourable & Right Reverend Father in God, Jonathan, Lord Bishop of Winchester, & Prelate of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
{{ “My Lord, The chief Design of the following Work, which I humbly offer to Your Lordship, is to assert the Ancient and Catholick Sense of several Texts of the Prophet, whom I undertake to explain, and vindicate them from some Novel Expositions, which tend to deprive the Christian Religion of the Benefit of so considerable a Testimony: And I humbly beg Leave to present to Your Lordship this small Acknowledgment of my Duty and Observance, as a Member of Your ‘Cathedral’, and Minister of a ‘Parish Church’ of Your ‘Diocese’ and ‘Patronage’, and to which Your Lordship hath been pleased to be a ‘Benefactor’, when it lately suffered under a great Calamity. How mean soever the Performance may be, I hope the Design of it may in some Measure recommend it to Your Lordship’s Patronage, which is to illustrate this Evangelical Prophet, who, by the general Consent of former Ages, hath been placed at the Head of that Noble Order: A Person, whose Supernatural Gift of Prophecy added a new Lustre to the Greatness of his Birth, and whose liberal Education furnished him with a Noble Eloquence, and suitable to the Dignity of his Argument. The same Holy Spirit, who sometimes spake to the World by Shepherds and Fishermen, that the Excellency of the Truths delivered by them might appear to be of God, and not of themselves, at other Times made Choice of the Pen of a David, a Solomon, and an Isaiah, to instruct us, that the outward Accomplishments of Birth and Fortune may be sanctified to higher Purposes, and made instrumental in advancing the Glory of God, and the Interests of Religion. That Your Lordship may continue to employ the Advantages of Your great Station and Quality to God’s Honour, and the Service of His Church, is the hearty Prayer of, My Lord, Your Lordship’s most Dutiful and Obedient Servant, William Lowth.” }}
Preface: (Prophetical Books):
{{ “There is no Part of the Holy Scriptures that more deserves the thoughts of inquisitive Men, than the Writings of the Prophets. ‘God’ in His Word hath offered suitable Matter for the several Capacities of Men. The ‘Historical’ Books instruct us in the Methods of Providence, and afford an agreeable Entertainment to inquisitive Minds, as they contain the most ancient Records that are in the World, and relate the most remarkable Occurrences that ever happened in it. Persons of ordinary Understandings may find all necessary Truths plainly delivered, and often repeated in the New Testament Writings, and in the ‘Practical’ Books of the Old: Those of higher Endowments may find sufficient Employment in unfolding the Types and Figures of the ‘Jewish OEconomy’, and in searching into the Depths of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions. We may indeed find some Prophecies plainly delivered with great Exactness of Time, and Particularity in Circumstances (those especially which relate to the Coming of the ‘Messias’) that when the Events came to pass, they might appear to be the Effects of ‘God’s’ determinate Counsel and Foreknowledge. But the far greater Part of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions are couched in ‘Symbols’ and Sacred ‘Hieroglyphicks’ (a way of conveying the abstruser Parts of Knowledge, much used in the Eastern Countries:) As it were on purpose to excite the Curiosity of the Ingenious, and reward the Diligence of the industrious Searchers after Divine Truth. To which we may add, that the ‘Metaphorical’ Stile of the Prophets, is very proper to inspire the Minds of attentive Readers with noble Ideas of ‘God’s’ Wisdom and Providence, and to affect will the most lively Image of the Glorious Kingdom of ‘God’ and ‘Christ’, the Happiness of those that shall have a Share in the Triumphs of it, and the Terribleness of those Punishments which are denounced against such as will not have him to reign over them. And to encourage Men in the Searches of this Kind, they will find face an Harmony and Correspondence between the Figures and Emblems, whereby the Prophets point out Things to come, that the careful comparing of them with each other, will afford the best Clue to guide the attentive Reader through the most difficult Parts of their Writings, and is likewise a surprizing Proof that they all wrote by the Direction of one and the selfsame ‘Spirit’.
This hath been in some Measure attempted in the ensuing Work, where the Author hath used his utmost Diligence, to compare the Text with such parallel Places both of the Old and New Testament, which might any way conduce to the clearing up its Sense: And he is willing to believe that if be hath given any new Light to the obscure and difficult Passages of this Prophet, it is chiefly by comparing the Phrase and Idiom of the Text with other parallel Places more exactly than hath been hitherto done by any Commentator upon this Prophet that he hath seen: And be desires the Reader, that when he finds a more than ordinary Difficulty, he would carefully consider the parallel Text there referred to, which to have set down at Length, would have enlarged this Work beyond its due Bounds. The Writings of the Prophets unfold the Methods of Providence in many remarkable Instances: Such as are, ‘God’s’ Disposal of Kingdoms and Governments, and making use of wicked Princes and Nations to be the Instruments of his Justice in punishing others as bad or worse: The gradual Discovery of the Coming of the Messias, and the several Steps and Advancements by which ‘God’ introduced His Kingdom into the World,, and will carry it on till the Consummation of all Things. These Speculations must needs afford great Entertainment to Men of curious and inquisitive Tempers, and be Matter of Delight as well as instruction.
These Reasons, as they should encourage those to the Study of the Prophetical Writings, who have any
Talents for such an Employment, especially those whose Profession engages them to ‘search the Scriptures’; So they should recommend any Attempt that is made toward the further explaining of so considerable a Part of the Holy Scriptures. For after all the Pains that bath been taken in clearing up the Sense of these Sacred Books, by Persons excellently qualified for such an Undertaking, still there is Room left for further Endeavours in that Kind. For there is a Treasure of Heavenly Wisdom contained in them, that can never be exhausted: And as it is highly reasonable to believe, that some Parts of the ‘Old Testament’ Prophecies reach to the End of the World, so it is as reasonable to expect that in every Age Providence should open some new Scene, which wilt give further lnsight into the Meaning of those Sacred Writings. I confess, I can by no means approve of the Opinion of some learned Men, who are for cramping the Sense of the Prophets, and confining it within a narrow a Compass as they can, and will needs maintain that the Prophets scarce foresaw any Thing but what was to come to pass in or near their own Time. I must own my self-puzzled to assign a Reason why ‘God’ should appoint a Succession of Prophets to foretel what should come to pass within the Compass of about three hundred Years (for within that Time most of those Prophets lived, whose Writings make up that Part of the Scripture Canon which is called by that Name) and take no notice of any other Occurrences which should happen in succeeding Times; whereas to extend the Prophetick Views to the End of the World, seems much more agreeable to that Description of ‘God’s’ Prescience which the Holy Writers give us, That He declares the End from the Beginning, and His Wisdom reaches from one ‘End’ [of the World] to the other mightily, and sweetly does it order all Things: So that even when the whole ‘Mystery of God’s Dispensations’ shall be finished, it will appear that nothing is contained in them, but what God bath formerly declared to His Servants the Prophets, as it is expressly affirmed, Revel. 10:7.
For a further Proof of this Assertion, I desire it may be considered, that the Prophecies which foretel the Visibility and Universality of ‘Christ’s Church’, accompanied with perfect Peace, Prosperity and Holiness, cannot with any Probability be said to have as yet received their Accomplishment, as neither have those Predictions which foretel the flourishing State of the ‘Jewish’ Church and Nation in the latter Times. And to suppose those Prophecies to have already received their utmost Completion, is, in my Judgment, to give too great an Advantage to the Jews, and in Effect to acknowledge that they never were, nor will be fulfilled in their natural and obvious Sense. Whereas on the other Side, to assert that many Prophecies relating to the Messias, are already fulfilled in our ‘Lord Jesus Christ’, a Truth that can be made out beyond all Contradiction; and withal to maintain that several others concerning the same Subject, relate to His ‘Second Coming’, and their Accomplishment shall usher in or accompany that His Glorious Appearance: I say, the observing this Distinction between the different Times, wherein the several Prophecies relating to the Coming of Christ shall be fulfilled, effectually answers all the Arguments which the ‘Jews’ make use of to support themselves in their incredulity; it discovers a perfect Harmony and Correspondence between the Prophecies of the Old and New Testament, and it gives us an agreeable View of a more flourishing State of the Church, than the World hath yet been blessed with; and thereby engages us to use our best Endeavours to restore the Church to its primitive Purity, where-ever we find it defective.
These Considerations at first engaged me to attempt a Commentary upon the Prophet ‘Isaiah’; who as he is the first and principal of the Prophets in order; so he hath had the Honour of being stiled the ‘Evangelical Prophet’ by the Christian Church, because he foretold the Coming and Kingdom of the Messias with greater Clearness than any of the rest. But he will have but little Pretence to that Title, if we follow some Men’s Notions, which have been lately renewed, and zealously maintained by Mr. ‘Samuel White’, in his ‘Commentary’ upon this Prophet; where he all along supposes, that the far greatest Part of this Prophecy relates only to the Times in which the Prophet lived, and those that succeeded till the Return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity. Indeed he is willing to allow the ‘(53rd) Chapter’ of ‘Isaiah’, to have been fulfilled only in our Saviour; but according to his ‘Hypothesis’, that Prophecy must come in very abruptly, without any Connexion upon what went before, or what follows. To do him all the Justice I can, I must own, that in his Preface be asserts a double Meaning of many Prophecies: One more immediately relating to the present Circumstances of Things in or near the Prophet’s own Time; the others having more distant Views upon the State of the Gospel-Times. But his general Design in his ‘Arguments’ to the Chapters, and in his ‘Notes’, whenever an Occasion is offered, is to run down and ridicule the ‘Spiritual’ and ‘Mystical’ Sense of particular Texts or Prophecies, and to accuse the Commentators who have asserted it, as ‘making a Note of Wax’ of the Scriptures, and forcing the Words to an unnatural and improper Signification. Now these Assertions are a direct Contradiction to the Manner of interpreting the Old Testament Prophecies, made use of by ‘Christ’ and His ‘Apostles’ in the New; where we find our ‘Saviour’ applies several of the Ancient Prophecies to Himself; and the Apostles frequently assert, that ‘all Things happened to the’ Jews ‘in Figures’, that their Ordinances were ‘Parables’ or Allegories with respect to the Times of the Gospel; that the Christian Church is the ‘True Israel of God’, and all the Privileges appropriated to the ‘Jewish’ Nation in the Old Testament as ‘God’s Segullah’, or ‘peculiar People’, do in a more eminent Manner appertain to the Church of ‘Christ’, which is that true Kingdom of ‘God’, the ‘Jerusalem coming down from Heaven’, of which the earthly ‘Jerusalem’, and the Temple there, was only a Type and Figure.
These Rules for interpreting the ancient Prophecies laid down by the Apostles, ought to be a Standard for all Christians to square their Interpretations by, as being delivered by those who had the (Gnösis), or that especial ‘Gift of the Spirit’, which enabled them to explain the ‘Prophecies’ of the Old Testament, and apply them to the Times of the New. This is that ‘Publick’, or Authentick ‘Interpretation’ of the Scripture Prophecies, which St. ‘Peter’ opposes to a ‘Private Interpretation’, 2nd Pet. 1:19, that is, to such an Interpretation as is wholly owing to human Wit or Invention, or relates to private Persons and Translations. Whereas this publick Interpretation is taken from the ‘common Analogy of Faith’, Rom. 12;6, and arises from ‘comparing spiritual Things with spiritual’, 1st Cor. 2:13, i.e. the spiritual Sense of the Old Testament Writings with that of the New, and with one another. In which Particular I cannot but look upon Mr. ‘White’s Exposition’ as very deficient, in that he scarce ever compares the Phraseology of ‘Isaiah’ with that of the other Prophets, or with parallel Texts of the New Testament; which one would think every Christian Commentator should have a particular Regard to, in explaining the Sense of the ancient Prophecies. The ancient ‘Jews’ never contested this Point with the ‘Christians’, but always acknowledged that the chief Design of the Prophets was to foretel the Times of the ‘Messias’. And when Christ and His Apostles explained the Prophecies in a ‘Spiritual’ or ‘Mystical’ Sense, they interpreted them according to the received Notions of the Synagogue, and are never taxed, that we can find, for misapplying the particular Texts they alledged, as if they did not belong to the Times of the ‘Messias’. The Words of St. ‘Peter’ do in some Measure inform us, from whence the ‘Jews’ might receive these Notions, 1st Pet. 1:11,12, where he tells us, ‘That the Prophets who searched diligently what, and what manner of Time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, did signify, when it testified beforehand the Sufferings of Christ, and the Glory which should follow, had it revealed unto them, that not unto themselves, but to us they did minister the Things’ which the Apostles preached. No doubt, but they studied their own Prophecies, and the Spirit of God so far assisted them, and enlightened their Minds, as to enable them to leave this Key for the interpreting their own Writings, and letting succeeding Ages into the true Meaning of them. And thus a traditionary Explication of the Old Testament Prophecies was carried down from the very Time of the Prophets to After-Ages.
Several Arguments may be alledged to prove, that these Notions were generally received among the ‘Jews’ long before ‘Christ’s’ Time: In the first Place, we may argue from their admitting the ‘Song’ of ‘Solomon’ into their Canon, which could have no Pretence for being placed among the Sacred Writings, but only as it was supposed figuratively to set forth the ‘Spiritual Marriage of Christ and His Church’. The same Point may further be proved from their ancient ‘Targums’ and ‘Paraphrases’ upon the Scripture, from the ‘Misna’, and those Mystical Expositions of several Texts, which we read in the ‘Epistle’ of ‘Barnabas’, and which it is probable were taken out of some ‘Midrash’, or Authentick Exposition of the Scripture Texts, as hath been observed by Bishop ‘Fell’, and other Learned ‘Commentators’ upon that Epistle. And tho’ it should be granted, that some of those Writings are not so old as the Time of Christ and His Apostles; yet this doth not invalidate the Force of the Argument, because those Writings consist of traditionary Explications of Scripture, which the Compilers took from the Writings of former Ages, just as in After-times the ‘Greek Catenæ’ upon the Scriptures were compiled out of the Writings of the ancient Fathers by Authors of a later Date.
It does not appear, that this mystical Way of applying the Scripture-Prophecies to the Times of the ‘Messias’, was ever called in question, till the ‘Jews’ came to engage in Disputes with the Christians; and then to avoid the Force of their Arguments, they found it necessary to reject the Opinions of their Ancestors. It was this Consideration made Aquila and Theodotion, Apostates from Christianity to Judaism, to undertake a New Translation of the Old Testament into Greek, because they thought the Interpretation of the Septuagint too favourable to the Christians, having been framed according to the traditionary Explication of the Sense of the Prophets, which bad been received among the ‘Jews’ Time out of Mind. This Christian Interpretation about the Prophecies is called the ‘Mystical Sense’, because it helps to unfold the Mysteries of the Gospel, not as if it were always opposed to a literal Sense. For in many Cases what we call the Mystical Sense, more exactly answers the natural and genuine Import of the Words, than any other Interpretation that can be given of them. To instance in that famous Prophecy, Isa. 7:14. Behold a ‘Virgin’ shall conceive, &c. Supposing, but not granting, that this Prophecy can be applied in a lower Sense to ‘Isaiah’s’ Son, or any other Person but ‘Christ’; yet it is plain at first Sight, that the Historical Sense, which is commonly given of the Words, to denote ‘One that is now a Virgin, but should afterward marry and bear a Son’, comes infinitely short of the true Force and Meaning of them, and contains nothing in it that can deserve to be called a ‘Sign’ or ‘Wonder’. This seems to have been a Maxim in interpreting Prophecies, received among the Jews before Christ’s Time, That where-ever they observed an imperfect Completion of a Prophecy in the Historical Event, which no way answered the lofty Expressions, and extensive Promises, which the natural Sense of the Text imported, there they supposed the Times of the ‘Messias’ to be ultimately intended, ‘in whom all the Promises of God are Yea, and Amen’. To prevent any Misunderstanding, it may be proper likewise to take Notice, that this ‘Mystical Sense’ of the Prophecies, is now and then, but not so fitly, called a ‘Secondary Sense’; not as if it were lest principally intended by the Prophets, but rather with respect to the Time, because it is the last or ultimate Completion of their Predictions.
That many of the Prophecies are not limited to one single Event, but may have different Views, and be capable of being fulfilled by several Steps and Degrees, is what I have all along supposed in the following Commentary, and therefore here it will be proper to assign the Reasons of such a Supposition. This Subject hath been handled by several Learned Men, and of late by Dr. ‘Nich. Clagett’. [My Lord ‘Bacon’ has made an Observation upon this Subject, which deserves to be taken Notice of; in his Advancement of Learning, Book II. Chap. 11, “In the Interpretation of Prophecies, that Latitude must be allowed, which is proper and familiar to Divine Prophecies, that their Accomplishments may be both perpetual and punctual. For they resemble the Nature of their Author, ‘To whom one Day is as a thousand Years, and a thousand Years as one Day’. And though the Fulness and Height of their Complement be many Times assigned to some certain Age or Point of Time, yet they have nevertheless certain Stairs or Scales of Accomplishment throughout divers Ages of the World.”] l shall not repeat what hath been said already upon this Argument, but only lay down some General Reasons of this Assertion. I have already observed that this Opinion is agreeable to the Sentiments of the ‘Jews’: The only Point in which they differ from us, is, whether the Messias, to whom the Prophecies relate, be already come, or be yet to come. Therefore I shall not any longer insist upon that Argument, but proceed to observe, that under the Old Testament, all the most considerable Persons and Translations there mentioned, were ‘Typical’, and prefigured the State of Things under the ‘Messias’. Thus the New Testament informs us, that by ‘Sarah’ and ‘Hagar’ were allegorically represented the ‘Two Covenants’: By the preferring of ‘Jacob’ before ‘Esau’, the Rejection of the ‘Jews’, and the Calling of the ‘Gentiles’: By the Deliverance from the ‘Egyptian’ Bondage, the Redemption of Mankind by ‘Christ’, the ‘True Passover’ sacrificed for us: That the ‘Israelites’ passing through the Red-Sea, did typify the Sacrament of ‘Baptism’; and their Sojourning in the ‘Wilderness’, in their Way to the Promised Land, was designed to signify that we are but ‘Strangers and Pilgrims’ in this World, and must look upon Heaven as the only true Place of ‘Rest which remains for the People of ‘God’.’
“In the Characters the Scriptures give us of ‘Adam’ and ‘Melchisedeck’, of ‘Isaac’ and ‘Joseph’, of ‘Moses’ and ‘Joshua’, of ‘David’ and ‘Solomon’, of ‘Eliakim’ and ‘Jonah’, of ‘Cyrus’ and ‘Zerubbabel’, they plainly describe them as Figures of Christ: That several Circumstances of their Lives did foreshew the most remarkable Passages of his, and the Deliverances some of them wrought for God’s People, were Earnests of a greater Redemption to be accomplished by the Messias. Several of the Psalms, particularly the 18th, and the 118th, were writ upon particular Occasions, relating to some remarkable Circumstances of David’s Life, as appears both by their ‘Titles’ (which to be sure are as ancient as the Compiling the Old Testament Canon) and by the General Subject handled in them: And yet several Passages out of these ‘Psalms’ are applied in the New Testament to ‘Christ’ and the ‘Gospel’, as more eminently fulfilled in them. From these Principles we may conclude, that there is a Resemblance, or ‘Correspondence’ between many of the Transactions mentioned in the Old Testament, and those which should come to pass under the New: And consequently, that the Prophets, when they spake of some Events near their own Times, probably had more distant Views, which might reach even to the latter Ages of the World.
This Assertion, as it shews that ‘Fulness of Sense’ contained in the Scriptures, which ‘Tertullian’ faith, he did so much reverence and adore, so it introduces Christ into the World, with a great deal of Pomp and Solemnity; whilst it makes the whole Contrivance of the Jewish Dispensation, and all the Eminent Persons of former Times, as so many Harbingers to prepare the Way for His Coming, and thereby raises in our Mind, a just Veneration for the Gospel-State, as the Master-Piece of Divine Providence, that Point wherein all the Lines of ‘God’s manifold Wisdom’ do meet as in their Center; from whence it is evidently demonstrated, that ‘Christ was ordained by God, before the Foundation of the World’, though in His wise Disposal He did not appear till the latter Times of it. These ‘Providential Congruities’ between the Times of the Old and New Testament, do very much confirm the Authority of both Testaments; for they plainly shew, that they were written by the Direction of one and the same Spirit, who hath therein discovered to us one entire Scene of Providence, which reaches from one End of the World to the other.
The Apostles justify this Way of interpreting Scripture-Prophecies, by the Interpretations they give us both of the antient Prophecies, and of our Saviour’s own Predictions; of each of these shall give a remarkable Instance. That Prophecy of ‘Isaiah’, chap. 53:4. ‘He hath borne our Griefs, and carried our Sorrows’, without question is principally to be understood of Christ’s undergoing the Punishment due to our Sins; but yet St. ‘Matthew’ applies it to the Pains which He took in healing Men of their bodily Infirmities, and his rendering His own Life uneasy by the Care and Trouble He underwent to give Ease to others, ‘Matth’. 8:18. In like manner, that Expression of our Saviour, ‘John’ 17:12. ‘Those whom Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost’, was chiefly meant of Christ’s Care to preserve His Disciples in a firm Belief of, and Adherence to, those Truths which He taught them; yet we find St. ‘John’ applies the Words to the Care that Christ took of their Safety, when he yielded Himself up to those that came to apprehend Him, chap. 18:9. From hence it appears, that the Holy Writers themselves suppose, that the Expressions of inspired Persons may have several Senses couched under the Words. The same may be affirmed of that Prophecy of Christ, concerning the ‘Destruction of Jerusalem, and the End of the World’, Matth. 24 in which it is hard to determine, where our Saviour makes a Transition from one Subject to the other; this makes it probable, that He had both these Events in His Eye together, and that several of His Expressions were partly verified at the Time of the Destruction of ‘Jerusalem’, but were more fully to be accomplished at the ‘General Judgment’, of which that particular judgment was an Earnest and Fore-runner.
The Prophet Isaiah is certainly one of the most difficult of all the Prophets, though perhaps few are sensible of it, but they that try to explain him: Besides the Want of antient Records to clear up some Historical Passages of his Prophecy, a Difficulty common to him with the rest of the Prophets; there are some Difficulties, which do in a particular Manner attend his Writings. The Profoundness of his Thoughts, the Loftiness of his Expressions, and the Extent of his Prophecy, have made the ‘Commentaries’ hitherto written upon him, fall short of a full Explication of his Book; and he that will undertake to fathom the Depths of this Prophecy, is in great Danger of going out of his own. This Prophet seems to have been favoured with an entire View of the Gospel-State, from the very ‘Birth’ of the ‘Messias’, to that glorious Period, when the ‘Kingdoms of the World shall become the Kingdoms of the LORD, and of His Christ’. Upon these Accounts, as he deservedly holds the first Rank in that Noble Order of Prophets; so it may be hoped, the Candid Reader will favourably receive any Attempt that is made, to give some farther Light to this Prophecy, how imperfect soever. And particularly, I would make one Request to him, with which I shall conclude this Preface, viz. That, in those Parts of this Exposition, where there is any Mention made of the ‘Jews’ being to be ‘restored to their own Land’ upon their Conversion, and some other Particulars relating to that glorious State of the Church, which we may from Prophetical Grounds of Scripture expect to come to pass in the ‘latter Times’ of the World, there he would not judge of what is said upon these obscure Subjects as so many positive Assertions, but only as probable Conjectures, and such as the Words of the Text may fairly be supposed to favour. For in these and such-like abstruse Matters, which at present lie hid in their Causes, and in the Abyss of Providence, a modest Man should not pretend to be ‘Wise’ above that which is plainly and expresly ‘written’.” }}

{{ Commentary on Ezekiel’s Prophecy: Chap. I: Argument: The first Chapter contains a Description of God’s Appearing in a glorious manner to ‘Ezekiel’, in order to the giving him a Commission to execute the Prophetical Office.
Ver. 1. ‘Now it came to pass’.] The ‘Hebrew’ Text reads, ‘And it came to pass’; but it is usual in that Language to begin a Discourse or Book with the Particle ‘Vau’, or ‘and’: See ‘Jonah’ 1:1 and the beginning of most of the Historical Books of the Old Testament; which Particle is very properly translated in those Places, Now it came to pass: So that there is no ground for the Fancy of ‘Spinoza’, who would conclude, from hence, that this Book of ‘Ezekiel’ is but a Fragment of a larger Book, and contained several Prophecies, now lost, which were in Order of Time before those set down in these and the following Chapters. Ibid. ‘In the ‘Thirtieth (30th) year’.] It is a great Question from whence this Computation of Time commences. The most probable Answers are; first, that of ‘Scaliger’, who supposes this Thirtieth (30th) Year to be meant of the Years of Nebupolassar’s Reign; who, as he tells us from ‘Berosus’ quoted by Josephus, (l. I. contr. App.) reigned twenty-nine (29) Years complete: So the Thirtieth (30th) Year, here mentioned, was the last Year of his Reign and Life: And is likewise the thirteenth (13th) Year current of his Son Nebuchadnezzar’s Reign, who reigned so many Years together with his Father: (See Scaliger’s Canon Isagog. p. 281, 294. his Prolegom. ad. Lib. de emend. Temporum; and his Notes on the Greek Fragments, at the end of those Books.) But there is one considerable Objection against this Opinion of Scaliger, that according to Berosus’s Account, as his Works are quoted in another Place of ‘Josephus’, (Antiq. l. x. c. ii.) Nebupolassar reigned only Twenty-one (21) Years, the Greek Text reading, by a little Variation, (‘eichosi hen’ for ‘eichosi ennea’ .) Which is the same Number of Years assigned to ‘Nebupolassar’ in the ‘Aera Nabonassari’, and agrees better with ‘Berosus’s’ own Story, ‘viz’. that when he had committed the Command of the Army to his Son, and sent him on an Expedition to Syria and Phaenicia, he died in a short Time after. ‘Villalpandus’ in like manner makes his Computation to commence from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign: See his Commentary upon Ezek. 40:1. He allows nineteen (19) Years for his Reign, distinct from that of his Son, and supposes ‘Nebuchadnezzar’ to reign two (2) Years with his Father; which indeed agrees with the Scripture Computation: See the Note on Jer. 25:1. But, according to that very Account, the fifth (5th) Year of ‘Jehoiachin’s’ Captivity will be coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For the nineteenth (19th) Year of the same Reign is assigned for the Destrućtion of ‘Jerusalem’, ‘Jer’. 52:12., which was about six (6) Years afterwards. So this Computation will make Jehoiachin’s Captivity to have happened not in the thirtieth (30th), but in the thirty-second (32nd) Year, reckoning from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign. A more probable Answer to this Difficulty is that which the Chaldee Paraphrast, Archbishop Usher, A. M. 3409. Dr. ‘Prideaux ad an. A. C.’ 594, and other learned Men follow, ‘viz’. that these thirty (30) Years are to be reckoned from the Time when ‘Josiah’ and all the People of ‘Judah’ entered into that solemn Covenant mentioned 2nd Kings 22:3. which was in the eighteenth (18th) Year of ‘Josiah, ibid’. from which Time the same Learned Writers compute the forty (40) Years of ‘Judah’s’ Transgression, mentioned chap. iv. 4:6. Ibid. ‘As I was among the Captives by the River Chebar’.] Those which were carried away with ‘Jehoiachin’, King of ‘Judah’: See the next Verse. These were placed in Towns or Villages that lay upon the River Chebar in Mesopotamia, called by ‘Ptolemy’ and ‘Strabo’, ‘Chaboras’ or ‘Aboras’, and by ‘Pliny’, Lib. 1. c. 26 ‘Cobaris’.
Ver. 2. ‘Which was in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity’.] This was coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For ‘Jehoiachin’ was carried Captive in the eighth (8th) Year of his Reign : See 2nd Kings 24:12. The ‘Hebrew’ Writers use several Computations of the Beginning of the ‘Babylonish’ Captivity : See the Note upon ‘Jer.’ 25:1. That under ‘Jehoiachin’, wherein ‘Ezekiel’ was made a Captive, is the Computation he always follows in the succeeding Parts of his Prophecy: See ‘chap’. 8:1; 20:1; 29:1, 17; 31:1; 33:1. 40:1. }}

(4) Ezekiel & Book of His Prophecy: Exposition. Patrick Fairbairn, DD. Principle of Free Church College, Glasgow; Author of “Typology of Scripture”. (1850,1855,1863)

Contents: Introduction: Chapters & Verses:
1: Time & Manner of Ezekiel’s Entering on the Prophetical Office.
2-3:1-11: CaIl to Prophetical Office.
3:12-27: Ezekiel’s Entrance on his Mission, & 1st Message imparted to Him.
4: Vision of Siege & Iniquity-Bearing.
5-6: Vision of Shorn Hair, & its Foreshadowing Desolations.
7: Lamentation over Guilt & Fall of Israel.
8: Vision of Image of Jealousy, & other Abomination at Jerusalem.
9: Vision of Sealing.
10: Vision of Coals of Fire.
11: Destruction of Corrupt Priesthood, & Promise of Grace & Blessing to Believing Remnant among Exiles.
12: Vision of Ezekiel’s Typical Removing as Exile, & accompanying Instructions.
13: False in Prophecy, its Character & Doom.
14: Hypocritical Inquirers after God —their wickedness Discovered and Rebuked.
15: Guilt & Condemnation of Israel Parabolically Represented.
16: Story of Israel’s Guilt and Punishment.
17: Parable of Two Great Eagles, & Cropping of Cedar of Lebanon.
18: Retributive Righteousness of God.
19: Lamentation Over Fall of Royal House.
20:1-44: Display of People‘s Long-continued Sinfulness, & Lord’s Long-Suffering-Mercy & Goodness.
20:45-49 & 21: Vision of Lord’s Fire & Sword.
22: Lord’s Judgment upon All-Pervading Sinfulness of Jerusalem.
23: Story of Israel’s Sin & Punishment Parabolically Exhibited under Names of Aholah & Aholibah.
24: Vision of Boiling Caldron, & of Death of Ezekiel’s Wife.
25: Judgment of Israel’s Immediate Neighbours & Rivals: Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines.
26: Judgment of Tyre.
27: Lamentation upon Tyre, & Account of Her Former Greatness & Prosperity.
28:1-19: Criminatory Address to King of Tyre, & Lamentation Over His Coming Downfall.
28:20-26. Judgment of Sidon, & Ultimate Peace of Israel.
29: Judgment of Egypt, its Desolation for 40 Years & Subsequent Degradation: 1st Instrument of Chastisement, Nebuchadnezzar.
30: Continuation of Egypt’s Judgment.
31: Certainty of Pharaoh’s Doom Confirmed: Parabolical Relation of Assyria’s Greatness & Destruction.
32: Songs of Lamentation Over Fall of Pharaoh & Kingdom, . . . . . . . .
33: Renewal of Ezekiel’s Commission, his Office as Watchman,
34: Promise of True Shepherd, after False Shepherds have been Punished & Removed.
35: Judgment of Edom.
36: Israel Revenged & Comforted: New Heart & Blissful Heritage.
37: Vision of Dry Bones Restored to Life again, as Symbolical of Israel’s Death & Resurrection.
38-39: Assault of Gog & His Destruction.
40-48: Preliminary Remarks on Vision in Chap. 40-48, with Respect to Principles on which it ought to be interpreted.
40:1-48. Position, Walls, Gates, & Courts of Temple,
40:48,49, -41: Temple Itself.
42: Chambers of Temple & its Boundary Walls.
43: Lord’s Return to Temple.
44: Ordinances for the Prince & Priesthood.
45: Sacred Allotments in Land & Gifts.
46: Additional Ordinances for Prince & People.
47:1-12. Vision of Temple-Waters .
47:13-23 -48: Boundaries & Re-Distribution of Land, Israel Parabolically Represented.

{{ Introduction: I: ….”Yet this must not be understood of his connection with the whole band of exiles, nor probably of the later period of his public ministry nearly so much as of the earlier. For, amid the prevailing iniquity, there are not wanting occasional indications of a better spirit among the captives (chap. 11:16, Jer. 24); and, at a period not very distant from the close of his ministrations, a very marked and general amendment had undoubtedly taken place among them. It could not greatly, if it did at all, exceed thirty (30) years from the cessation of his active labours, when the decree was issued for the return of the captives; and notwithstanding the corruptions which still lingered among them, and which soon began to appear in the infant colony, there was a general repudiation of idolatry, and an adherence to the law of Moses, very different from what had existed at the era of the captivity, or for a considerable time previous to it. Nor can there be any doubt, that among the agencies which contributed to effect this beneficial change, a prominent place must be ascribed to the ministry of Ezekiel. Thus by the results that appeared, decisive evidence was borne to the fact, that a prophet had been among them, who had not laboured in vain; and we can scarcely doubt, from the whole circumstances of the case, that the satisfaction was afforded our prophet —a satisfaction which was denied to his great contemporary Jeremiah— of witnessing the commencement of the spiritual renovation for which he so earnestly laboured.”…..IV. The order and classification of his prophecies next demands some notice. And here it ought, first of all, to be borne in mind, that whatever arrangement may be made respecting them as to their subjects, an order and progression belongs to them as a whole, as well as a homogeneousness of nature, which fits them for mutually throwing light on each other; and, in particular, one large portion of them (chap. 1-32), which is mainly conversant with sin and judgment, in a great degree supplies the key, by which the later announcements —more cheering in their tone, but more remote in their objects— are to be interpreted. There is in this respect a unity in the character of the book, which calls for an orderly and progressive perusal of its contents. And should anyone, heedless of this characteristic, overleap all the earlier portions of the prophecy, and proceed at once to grapple with some of the later and more peculiar visions, he would only take the course most likely to involve himself in perplexity or disappointment. A general classification of the contents of the book, as has just been noticed, may be made into those, which have respect predominantly to sin and judgment, and those which are more peculiarly appropriated to the revelation of grace and mercy. We can only, however, speak of prevailing, not by any means of exclusive, characteristics of this sort. For, in the one-part mercy is often found intermingling with the judgment, as in the other judgment occasionally alternates with the mercy. The more specific, and at the same time quite natural divisions, are commonly indicated by the prophet himself, in the several dates which he has, at certain intervals, placed as superscriptions to the messages he successively received. These are altogether eight.
1. The first is introductory, containing a description of the first vision, and in connection with it of the call of the prophet—(chap. 1-3:15). 2. The next portion, embracing the remaining verses in chap. 3, and reaching to the close of chap. 7, is occupied chiefly with a more explicit announcement of the prophet’s commission and charge, and his entrance on the work it devolved upon him, by setting forth the enormous guilt of the people, the certainty of the coming destruction of Jerusalem, with still subsequent calamities, and the prostrate condition of the whole affairs of the kingdom. 3. The next section embraces chap. 8-19, but falls into two parts. The first, including chap. 8-11, contains still farther revelations of the people’s sinfulness, especially as connected with the profanation of the temple, and the corruption of the priesthood —the determination of God, in consequence, to forsake His sanctuary, with severe executions of vengeance on the wicked, though not without gracious interpositions for the safety of the few who remained faithful— and then, the twofold work of destruction and preservation being (symbolically) done, His actual departure from the temple-mount, that He might go and reveal Himself in tenderness and power to an inquiring and afflicted people in exile. In the second part of this division, which includes chap. 12-19, the prophet prosecutes in detail his exposure of the sins, which were bringing down such inflictions of judgment, and shows how all classes, as well as the priests —prophets, princes, and the people generally, had corrupted their ways, and should severally share in the destruction that was impending. 4. In chap. 20-23, the same subject is continued, though, as the time of judgment had approached nearer, there is an increased keenness and severity in the prophet’s tone; he sits, as it were, in judgment upon the people, brings out in full form the Divine indictment against them, and with awful distinctness and frequent reiteration, announces both their consummate guilt and its appropriate judgment. 5. Then comes, in chap. 24, the actual announcement of the end, as regards Jerusalem and its guilty people, with a representation of the behaviour suitable for such as survived the calamity; the prophet himself being required to share in the confusion and silence, which were proper at such a time. 6. Chap. 25-32 form a group by themselves, containing the announcements respecting sin and judgment, which, during the interval of the prophet’s silence towards his own people, he was commanded to utter against the surrounding nations. The great object of them was to show, that if judgment had begun at the house of God, it would assuredly embrace, and visit with still more overwhelming calamities, the ungodly world. There are various headings in this section; and some of the revelations were given at periods considerably later than others; but they began to be uttered immediately after the doom of Jerusalem, and all manifestly relate to one great theme. 7. In chap. 32-39, we have a series of predictions given to the prophet in the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, after the appearance in Chaldea of the remnant that had escaped from Jerusalem (chap. 23:21); a series which points more particularly to the better times in prospect, and unfolds, with considerable fulness and variety, the revival of God’s cause among the covenant-people, the re-establishment of the Divine kingdom, and its sure and final victory over all the sources of evil, which had prevailed so much against it in the past. 8. Then, after an interval of thirteen (13) years, comes the closing vision, in chap. 40-48, disclosing, under the symbolical representation of a new temple, city, and commonwealth, the restored condition, with the perfect order and beauty, of the people and kingdom of God.
(In section 5 Fairbairn on Ezekiel Literature in his days: England has produced almost nothing exegetically of substantial value by 1850; the Puritan writers were anthologies of sayings & sermons. Archbishop Newcome of 1788 being exception, save filled with textual emendations as solutions & interpretations; but carried on still by textual critics as Ewald & Hitzig, seeking to correct the Hebrew text by the Septuagint. The elaborate work of 1596 by Rome’s Spanish Jesuits, Pradus & Villapandus is commended for patristic citations & Temple opinions. Rosenmuller’s & Maurer’s commentaries are useful, especially grammar; Ewald cautiously instructive; but Havernick of 1843 is by far the best; less so Hitzig of 1847. Rationalism is rash, superficial, & spiritually impoverished. Hengstenberg helpfull when he interprets the text.)

(5) Prophecies of the Prophet Ezekiel Elucidated; by E.W. Hengstenberg, D.D., Professor of Theology, Berlin. Translated by A.C. & J.G. Murphy. Edinburgh. 1869.gs

Contents: 1st Cycle (Chap, 1-7); 2nd Cycle (Chap, 8-19); 3rd Cycle (Chap. 20-23); 4th Cycle (Chap, 24)
Foreign Nations (Chap, 25-32): Ammonites, Moab, Edom, Philistines, Tyre & Sidon, Egypt.
Conclusion to Chap, 1-32, (Chap, 33:1-20); Words of Comfort (Chap, 33:21–39); Restoration (Chap, 40-48).

{{ “Retrospect: Ezekiel, carried into exile in the captivity of Jehoiachin, seven (7) years after the beginning of the Chaldean bondage, eleven (11) years before the destruction of the city, appeared there as prophet in the fifth (5th) year after his captivity, in the thirtieth (30th) year of his life (ch. 1:1). The latest date which we find in the superscriptions of his prophecies is the twenty-seventh (27th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (ch. 29:17), so that the historically ascertained period of the prophet’s activity embraced twenty-two (22) years. It was shown that the prophet had precisely in that period a definite occasion for the collection of his prophecies. The prophecies contained in the present collection, like those of the contemporary Daniel, are all provided with chronological superscriptions. These are in all twelve, of which six belong to native prophecies, and six to prophecies against foreign nations,—(26:1; 29:1; 29:17; 31:1; 32:1; 32:17). The collection falls into two main parts,—prophecies before and prophecies after the destruction of Jerusalem. That we may not, with some, make the prophecies against foreign nations in ch. 25-32 a special main part, that they are rather to be considered an appendix to the prophecies before the destruction, is manifest: 1. Because the beginning of these predictions in ch. 25 is connected with the last native prophecy before the destruction in one chronologically determined section; 2. Because the section ch. 33:1-20 forms the literary close to ch. 1-32; and with special reference to the main portion, ch. 1-24, gives some nota benes concerning the whole previous literary activity of Ezekiel. The essential character of the first part is threatening; that of the second, promise. The starting-point of the first main part is a great anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the danger connected with it of the people failing to discern the signs of the times. The first main part contains four groups of native prophecies —(ch. 1-7; 8-19; 20-23; & 24)— in regular chronological sequence. The first dates from the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin, a time when the formation of the coalition began to fill men’s minds with joyful hopes; the last from the tenth day of the tenth month in the ninth (9th) year of Jehoiachin, —the fatal day of the opening of the siege of Jerusalem, which put an end to the hopes founded on the coalition. The mission of the prophet in these four groups is to make clear to the people the import of the great Chaldean catastrophe, and to bring them to understand the day of their visitation, and escape the miserable fate of those who are severely afflicted, without gaining the peaceable fruit of righteousness. To the book of the works no less than to the book of the words of God we may apply the saying, “Understandest thou what thou readest?” It was the great privilege of the people of God, that such an interpretation always went along with the doings of God. The prophet leads the people to discover in the coming event a long reckoning of God, —the visitation of a guilt that goes back to the very origin of the people. He makes every effort to bring the people to acknowledge the depth of their corruption, which alone could account for their sufferings, and thus not send them far from their God, but connect them closely with Him. The destined event, thus recognised in its necessity, had to be represented as inevitable. The prophet is inexhaustible in the denunciation of the foolish hopes of the people, before whose eyes he portrays the future calamity as if it were already present, as indeed the roots of it in reality were; inexhaustible also in the destruction of the false views concerning the source of the approaching suffering, and the beating down of the craftiness of the natural man, who in the deep indwelling antipathy to repentance makes every effort to cast the blame on God. He deals annihilating blows to those who led the people away from the way of repentance, and flattered them with foolish hopes. The radiant point in these discourses is the grand survey of the whole past development of Israel in ch. 23, which places before our eyes the figure of a people such as they ought not to be, and the result of which is, that the judgment is inevitable. Few sections of Scripture call so powerfully as these for earnest self-examination.
At the close of ch. 24 the prophet announces that native predictions will now be silent, until with the execution of the judgment a new beginning for the prophetic activity be given. The servant is silent in the beginning of the practical discourse of the Master Himself, for the understanding of which sufficient provision has been made. But with the previous ending of native prophecy is connected the beginning of the prophet’s activity in regard to foreign nations. This connection is shown by this, that the beginning of this activity is included in the same section with the closing prophecy concerning Judah. The prophecies against foreign nations have the special aim to shed a fuller light on the judgment on Judah announced in the native prophecies, and already beginning its course. They give the answer to the natural question, Lord, but what of these? (John 21:21) They are all directed against the nations of the anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the executors of the judgments are in them all the Chaldean monarchy. Judah was first to drink the cup (ch. 21:18 f.). God sanctified Himself first on those who were near Him (Lev. 10:3) ; the judgment began at the house of God. It appeared as if the people of the covenant must alone suffer among all the members of the coalition. The scorn of these confederates themselves was poured out on the people of Jehovah (ch. 25:3, 6; 26:2); indeed, they made common cause in part with the Chaldeans, and sought to derive advantage from the misfortune of Judah (ch. 35:10). The prophet portrays before the eyes the judgment which in his time will fall upon them. He turns the heart of the people to their God when he points out that for the heathen the judgment has an annihilating character; whereas Israel rises from it to a more glorious state. Thus these predictions against foreign nations appear as the transition from the first part to the second —the comforting and promising part.
Of the foreign nations there are seven, divided into four and three —four neighbouring nations and three world-powers, the last Egypt, which had formed the centre of the coalition; so that there is thus a progress from the less to the greater. On this side and on that side of the prophecies against foreign nations the arrangement is strictly chronological. There occurs no prophecy which is not chronologically determined; and all prophecies so determined stand in regular order. In the external predictions also the chronological prevails. But a certain deviation must be allowed, otherwise things intimately connected must have been separated. The prophecies are here arranged according to the nations, so that, for ex., all those referring to Egypt come together. Among the prophecies referring to Egypt, that in ch. 29:17 goes before the one in ch. 31:1, which belongs to an earlier period, because it stands in a close relation with the foregoing (ch. 29:1), and resumes it at a time when its fulfilment was close at hand. Although the main body of the external prophecies belong to the time before the term, given in ch. 33:21, of the recommencement of the home prophecies, yet the date of some external prophecies precedes that in ch. 33:21 (ch. 32:1, 17), because the external prophecies forming a connected cycle should not be separated from one another, and because the following cycle of home prophecies also should meet with no interruption.
The first part contains in all a decade of prophecies —four native and six foreign. At the close of the first part in ch. 33:1-20 follows, in vers. 21, 22, the historical introduction to the discourses of the second period; in vers. 23-33, the warning and admonishing preparation for the new message, —the mediation, as it were, between it and the first part. With ch. 34 begins the communication of the comforting message. From this forward the prophet is as inexhaustible in comforting as he was before in threatening. The dangerous foe was now despair, as it was before false confidence. Common to the comforting and to the threatening discourses is the pictorial character; the viewing of that which is not as if it were, a result of dependence on God, in whose nature salvation as well as judgment is founded. The comfort is in this first group unfolded in seven paragraphs. In the first discourse (ch. 34) the prophet meets in a soothing manner the grief for the loss of civil government, and places before the eyes of his hearers and readers the bright form of the glorified David, in whom the civil government of the future will culminate. In the second (ch. 35) he portrays the desolation of Seir. The light of Israel is relieved by the shade of Edom, who here represents the nations, who, in their hatred of the kingdom of God, are not fit for it, but are ripe for destruction. The third discourse (ch. 36:1-15) relieves the pain occasioned by the desolation of the holy land. The fourth (ch. 36:16-38) lays down the name of God as the pledge of salvation. The fifth announces the restoration of Israel as a covenant people (ch. 37:1-14); the sixth, as a brotherly people (vers. 15-28). The seventh (ch. 38-39) represents the renovated people as victorious in every conflict.
The second principal part has only two dates (ch. 33:21 and ch. 40:1), and thus presents only two sections, which increase the ten of the first part to twelve. In the great closing picture in ch. 40-48 the prophet portrays in detail the recovery of all that was lost, in fulfilment of the words of the psalmist, “He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken;” and points in the midst of it, in ch. 47:1-12, to the great progress of the kingdom of God in the future.
In the picture of the future drawn by the prophet, the following are the principal traits. Vain is every attempt of the people to avert the threatening misfortune. They must drain to the bottom the cup of the divine wrath (ch. 21:26). Egypt, the power on which their hopes chiefly rest, proves a broken reed: the time of its political importance is for ever gone. But what earth denies, heaven will grant in its own time. After the people have attained to repentance, wrath is followed by grace; all that is lost —the temple, with its priests and worship, the city, the land— is restored. Yet not this alone: the future brings an enhancement of salvation. The people receive a rich treasure of forgiveness of sins (ch. 36:25; 37:23); the Lord takes away the heart of stone, and gives them a heart of flesh (41:19); He awakens them by His quickening breath from spiritual death (ch. 37). The centre of all graces is an exalted descendant of David, who will spring from His family when reduced and wholly deprived of the sovereignty, and connect the high-priestly with the kingly office (ch. 21:27; 34:11-31). The blessing is so potent that it extends also to the heathen, who will join themselves to Israel in the time of salvation. According to ch. 34:26, “the environs of his hill” will be partakers of it with Israel; according to ch. 17:22-24, the descendant of David, at first small and inconsiderable, is raised to the sovereignty of the world ; according to ch. 47:1-12, the waters of the Dead Sea of the world are healed by the stream from the sanctuary. This great revolution of things, however, will give the old covenant people no cause for self-exaltation; it will rather tend to their deep humiliation. They find salvation only through the redeeming mercy of God in common with the heathen world, sunk deep in sin, to whom they are become like, as in sin, so in punishment (ch. 16:53-63). And then in the future, along with grace, which is only for the willing, comes also judgment. The prophet announces in ch. 5:4 a second annihilating judgment, which after the Chaldean will come upon the people restored by the grace of God, —a fire which will devour the people as such, and leave only an election of them which participates in the blessings of salvation.
The name of the prophet denotes one in relation to whom God is strong (p. 5), who speaks not out of his own heart, but is moved and determined by a supernatural power. The verification of this name we have in the prophecies before us. That which the Lord said to Peter applies to him, “Flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but the Father in heaven.” None of His words have fallen to the ground. The whole course of history has verified His word in ch. 33:33 : “They shall know that a prophet was in the midst of them.”” }}

{{ “Appendix: Cherubim: What Christian should not feel a desire to know the nature of the cherubim? When we sing the Ambrosian anthem, we dwell with special emotion of heart on the words: “The cherubim and seraphim, and all angels, serve Him. “As long as the nature of the cherubim is concealed from us, a whole series of scriptural passages is inaccessible to us. The cherubim occur in the Old Testament no less than eighty-five times. They meet us in the very first pages of revelation: the cherubim and the flame of the blazing sword repel the parents of our race from the tree of life. In the tabernacle and in the temple of Solomon the cherubim receive an important place. The grand visions of Ezekiel in ch. 1 and 10, even on a superficial examination, awakening the anticipation of a glorious meaning, and presenting a fulness of earnest warning and comfort, are sealed to us, if we have not learned the nature of the cherubim. In the Psalms God appears enthroned on the cherubim, as the firm ground for the confidence of His people; and whosoever will be a partaker of this confidence, must before all know what the cherubim are to signify. Even in the New Testament the holy enigma of the cherubim meets us. John, in the Revelation, sees in the midst of the throne, and about the throne, four beasts full of eyes before and behind, that had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty. The right knowledge of the cherubim, however, has a special interest for our own times…. The merit of having first fully established this view belongs to Bahr in the ‘Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship’, and in the treatise on the temple of Solomon. “The beings of whom the cherub is composed,” says he, “belong to those creatures of the visible world that form the upmost and highest of its three kingdoms —the kingdom of organic life; and in this kingdom, again, they belong to the highest class, to that which has warm blood, and therefore the highest physical life; and in this class they are again the highest. The cherub is far from being a figure of God Himself; on the contrary, its essential character is to be a creature: it is a figure of the creature in its highest stage —an ideal creature. The living powers distributed in the visible creation to the highest creatures are combined and idealized in it.” “The whole creation is combined in it as in a point in one being; it represents in so far also the whole creation, and stands naturally of all the creatures nearest to God: only God is above it. The cherub, as creation individualized, is at the same time the being in which the glory of God manifests itself. Hence it appears as the throne of God itself, or in the closest connection with the throne: where Jehovah in His majesty and glory reveals Himself, there the cherub also appears.” This view in the main is alone correct; only it is to be remarked, that the cherubim represent first not the creature in general, but only the animated creation on the earth. Yet this is regarded as the apex of all created things on earth, so that the remainder is in some measure represented by it, and is appended to the animated creation as an accessory, and all the more because it has been created for its sake. But we must not include the heavenly creature: He that sits on the cherubim, and the God of hosts, are co-ordinate expressions; by the hosts are meant the heavenly creatures. The cherubim never occur alone —always in connection with God. The formation of the symbol has arisen not from the motive of the consideration of nature as such, but from the motive of piety. In the consideration of the multitude of visible creatures the mind may easily distract itself, and dwell on the individual —now on this, now on that. “Whilst they move and search among the works of God, they are caught by the sight, because that which is seen is beautiful,” says the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (ch. 13:7). The pious mind, therefore, protesting against such distraction and such service of the creature (Rom. 1:15), comprehends all visible multiplicity in an ideal unity, and places this unity absolutely under God, who by His creative Spirit is the foundation of this unity. This representation has for piety a profound significance. If we look to God, who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with adoring reverence for Him, who is so wonderful in His works, with the heartfelt desire to do the will of this God, whose is the earth and the fulness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein (Ps. 24:1), with the dread of calling down upon us the wrath of the God of the spirits of all flesh, with joyful courage in the face of the world, with an absolute refusal to make concessions to it, with a holy contempt for its foolish pursuits, with invincible strength under its persecutions, with the consciousness that it cannot move hand or foot without the influence of God; that in the last resort we have to do, not with it, but with God; that it concerns us to come to terms, not with it, but with God by true repentance; that He visits us through it ; and that an endless fulness of means are at His command to help us, when His visitation has attained its end.
If we consider attentively the God who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with deep contempt, holy wrath, and strong pity at the sight of the theory, now so wide-spread, of a degraded, half-brutalized generation. “No power without matter,” so runs the theory; “no matter without power. A power ruling over matter is a senseless thought. Power is the property of matter, and inseparable from it. The idea of an absolute creative power, which is distinct from matter, creates it, regulates it according to certain absolute laws, is a pure abstraction. “We know, on the contrary, that power is the original principle; that the Spirit, who proceeds from Him who sits above the cherubim, gives to everything its existence; that in Him it lives, and moves, and is Sabaoth and cherubim —that is our watchword in the face of such error. The original generation of men with its cherubim, however, not merely raises a protest against the false science of our day, but turns with friendly consent to that which is found in it of true science. There are here two important points of agreement. First, that the living creature, as it is represented by the cherubim, forms a distinct department of the terrestrial creation. And next, that exactly in this department the creative power of God displays itself most gloriously; that of it in a special manner the word of the apostle holds good, “The invisible things of God, His eternal power and Godhead, we see and know in His works.” Janet says in regard to this: “Let us hold by the chief facts, which hitherto have supported a distinction not to be effaced between dead or inorganic and living matter. The first and weightiest of these facts is the harmonious unity of the living and organic being; it is, to make use of an expression of Kant, the correlation of the parts to the whole.” “Organic bodies,” says the great physiologist Muller (Joh. Muller, ‘Physiol.’, v.1. p.17), “not only differ from inorganic in the mode in which their elements are combined; but the constant activity which works in the living organic matter, acts according to the laws of a rational plan in conformity with an end, because the parts are adapted to the end of the whole: and this it is exactly that marks the organism.” Kant says: “The reason of the kind of existence in each part of a living body is contained in the whole, whereas in the dead mass each part bears it in itself.” Joh. Muller, quoted by Janet, says further: “The harmony of the members necessary to the whole (in the organism) subsists not ‘without the influence of a power’ (‘the Spirit of the living’ in Ezek. 1:20, 21), ‘that works also through the whole, and depends not on the several members, and this power exists before His harmonious members of the whole are joined together’: they are first formed in the development of the embryo by the power of the germ [seed]. In a piece of mechanism constructed for a given end —for example, a clock— the whole thus adjusted may exhibit an action proceeding from the co-operation of the several parts, which are set in motion by a cause; but organic beings subsist not merely by an accidental combination of these elements, but produce the organs necessary for the whole by their own power out of the organic matter. This productive power, acting in conformity with reason, displays itself in each animal according to strict laws, as the nature of each animal requires: it is already present in the germ [seed], before the later parts of the whole are distinctly present; and it is that which actually produces the members that belong to the idea of the whole…..The remark of Theodoret, “The angels are living creatures no less than men —the latter mortal, the former immortal ;” and likewise that of Keil, “The cherubim, as living creatures, take the highest place in the realm of spirits,”— are contrary to the usage of speech, in which the living always denotes the animated earthly creation, in opposition to the lifeless. But we must not stop at this point. The fact that the designation of the cherubim as living creatures takes exactly the place of the proper name —as in Revelation the name cherubim does not occur, they are only designated as living creatures— shows that by this designation their nature must be fully expressed, that the genus does not exist beyond them, but is completely represented by them. All doubt, however, is removed by this, that the singular designation, “the living creature, alternates with that of the cherubim as living creatures” (Ezek. 1:20,21, “The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels”; 10:15, “And the cherubim were lifted up;” 10:20, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar”). This singular designation shows that in the cherubim the whole genus of the living on earth, man and beast, is represented…….Only when the cherub represents the animal world can we explain also the grouping of it with palms and flowers. According to 1st Kings 6:29, all the walls in the temple of Solomon bore “round about in carved work, cherubim, and palms, and open flowers.” It is clear as light that the cherubim must be placed under the same point of view with the palms and flowers…. There is only one way of explaining the connection of the cherubs with the palms and flowers. The cherubs are first a representation of the living; but at the same time, as the living forms the crown of the whole earthly creation, this also is represented by it……The addition of the palms and flowers serves to indicate this more comprehensive meaning, and to show that the living forms no counterpart to the rest of nature, but rather represents this also. Next to the animal creation, the vegetable kingdom is the most glorious revelation of the creative power of God. In modern science it is connected with the animal kingdom, under the head of the organic creation. But the vegetable kingdom cannot be better represented than by the palms and flowers……That the cherubs represent the living creatures on earth, and in general the terrestrial creation, is borne out by the relation in which they stand in Ezekiel to the “vault.” It is said, Ezek. 1:22, “And there was a likeness over the heads of the living creature as a vault, as the look of the crystal the terrible (the awe-inspiring, imposing, glorious), stretched out over their heads above.” This vault is the place of the throne of God……If it is certain on these grounds that the vault means the heavens, the cherubim under the vault can only represent the terrestrial creation; for heaven and earth are usually joined together in the Old Testament as the two spheres of the glorification of God…..We will conclude with the discussion of the grand vision of the cherubim in Ezekiel. But first, we will take a glance at the passing mention of the cherub in Ezek. 28:14. The prophet, in the prediction against the king of Tyre, here says to him, “Thou art an anointed cherub, that covereth.” As the cherub comprehends the multiplicity of the creatures in a unity, so the king the multiplicity of his people. The nature of the kingly office can scarcely be more aptly designated than by the name cherub…… We now turn to the sublime vision of the cherubim, which opens the prophecies of Ezekiel. The historical starting-point of this vision lies in the false hopes which had at that time seized the minds of those who remained in Jerusalem with Zedekiah at their head. A spirit of infatuation had fallen on the people. They cast the prophecies of Jeremiah to the wind, which announced the approaching completion of the judgment by the Chaldeans. Confiding in the confederacy with the Egyptian power, which must at that time have taken a lofty flight, they hoped soon to be able to free themselves altogether from the Chaldean supremacy. These hopes also were spread among the exiles, as the letter addressed to them by Jeremiah (ch. 29) shows. He therein warns them, “Let not the prophets that are among you deceive you, and hearken not to your dreams, for they prophesy falsely to you in My Name.” Soon, it was thought, will a return to their country be opened up; and to this thought was joined the other—namely, to work together for it. These illusions and excitements, which prevented the people from entering with sincerity on the path of repentance pointed out by God, Ezekiel was to oppose. This opposition was made first by the vision of the cherubim, the real import of which Grotius thus briefly and well defines : “After the long-suffering of God, all tended towards vengeance.” }}…..
(6) Biblical Commentary on Old Testament: Prophecies Ezekiel: Carl Friedrich Keil, D.D., Doctor & Professor of Theology; Translated from the German, by Rev. James Martin, B.A. volumes 1 & 2.(1885)as

Exposition: (Chapters & Verses)
First Half: Prophecies of Judgment: (1-32)
Consecration & Calling of Ezekiel to Office of Prophet: (1-3:21)
Destiny of Jerusalem & its Inhabitants: (3:22-5:17)
Judgment upon Idolatrous Places, & on Idol-worshippers: (6)
Overthrow of Israel: (7)
Vision of Destruction of Jerusalem: (8-11)
Departure of King & People; & Bread of Tears: (12)
Against False Prophets & Prophetesses: (13)
Attitude of God towards Worshippers of Idols, & Certainty of Judgments: (14)
Jerusalem, Useless Wood of Wild Vine: (15)
Ingratitude & Unfaithfulness of Jerusalem. Its Punishment & Shame: (16)
Humiliation & Exaltation of Davidic Family: (17)
Retributive Justice of God: (18)
Lamentation for Princes of Israel: (19)
Past, Present, & Future of Israel: (20)
Prophecy of Burning Forest & Sword of the Lord: (20:45 to 21:32 (Heb. Chap. 21)
Sins of Jerusalem & Israel: (22)
Oholah & Oholibah, Harlots Samaria & Jerusalem: (23)
Prediction of Destruction of Jerusalem both in Parable & by Sign: (24)
Prediction of Judgment upon Heathen Nations: (25-32)
Against Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines: (25)
Against Tyre & Sidon: (26-28)
Fall of Tyre: (26)
Lamentation over Fall of Tyre: (27)
Against Prince of Tyre: (28:1-19)
Prophecy against Sidon, & Promise for Israel: (28:20-26)
Against Egypt: (29-32)
Judgment upon Pharaoh & his People & Land: (29:1-16)
Conquest & Plundering of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar: (29:17-21)
Day of Judgment upon Egypt: (21:1-19)
Destruction of Might of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar: (30:20-26)
Glory & Fall of Asshur, Type of Egypt: (31)
Lamentations over Ruin of Pharaoh & his People: (32)
Second Half: Announcement of Salvation: (33-48)
Calling of Prophet, & his Future Attitude towards People: (33)
Calling of Prophet for Future: (33:1-20)
Preaching of Repentance after Fall of Jerusalem: (33:23-33)
Restoration of Israel, & Destruction of Gog & Magog: (34-39)
Deposition of Bad Shepherds; Collecting & Tending of Flock; & Appointment of One Good Shepherd: (34)
Devastation of Edom, & Restoration of Land of Israel: (35:1-36:15)
Salvation of Israel founded upon its Sanctification: (36:16-38)
Resurrection of Israel & Reunion as one Nation: (37)
Resurrection of Israel to new Life: (37:1-14)
Reunion of Israel as one Nation under future King David: (37:15-28)
Destruction of Gog with his great Army of Nations: (38-39)
New Kingdom of God: (40-48)
New Temple: (40-43:12)
Introduction: (40:1-4)
Outer Court, with Boundary Wall, Gate-Buildings, & Cells: (40:5-27)
Inner Court, with its Gates, Cells, and Slaughtering-Tables: (40:28-47)
Temple-house, with Porch, Side-storeys, & Backbuilding: (40:48-41:26)
Holy Cells in Court, & Extent of Holy Domain around Temple: (42)
Entrance of Glory of the Lord into New Temple: (43:1-12)
New Ordinances of Divine Worship: (43:13-46:24)
Description & Consecration of Altar of Burnt- Offering: (43:13-27)
Position of different Classes of People in relation to New Sanctuary: (44)
Holy Heave of Land & Heave-offerings of People: (45:1-17)
Instructions concerning Festal & Daily Sacrifices: (45:16-46:15)
Sacrifices for Sabbath & New Moon, Freewill-Offerings & Daily Sacrifices: (46:1-15-24)
Blessing of Land of Canaan, & Distribution of it among Tribes of Israel: (47 & 48)
River of Water of Life: (47:1-12)
Boundaries & Division of Holy Land. Description of City of God: (47:13-48:35)

{{ “Introduction: Person of Prophet: Ezekiel, (Yechzeq’el) (1:3; 24:24), ‘i.e.’. (yechazzeq ‘El), ‘God strengthens’, (Iezekiël, Yezekiël (LXX, and Book of Sirach, ch. 49:8), in the Vulgate ‘Ezechiel’, while Luther, after the example of the LXX, writes the name ‘Hesekiel’, was the son of Busi, of priestly descent, and was carried away captive into exile to Babylon in the year 599 B.C., —’i.e.’. in the eleventh (11th) year before the destruction of Jerusalem,— along with King Jehoiachin, the nobles of the kingdom, many priests, and the better class of the population of Jerusalem and of Judah (1:2; 40:1; cf. 2nd Kings 24:14 ff.; Jer. 29:1). He lived there in the northern part of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Chaboras, married, and in his own house, amidst a colony of banished Jews, in a place called Tel-Abib (1:1; 3:15, 24; 8:1; xxiv. 24:18). In the fifth (5th) year of his banishment, ‘i.e.’. 595 B.C., he was called to be a prophet of the Lord, and laboured in this official position, as may be shown, twenty-two (22) years; for the latest of his prophecies is dated in the twenty-seventh (27th) year of his exile, ‘i.e.’. 572 B.C. (29:17)……Times of the Prophet: Ezekiel, like Daniel, is a prophet of the exile, but in a different fashion from the latter, who had been already carried away prisoner before him to Babylon on the first capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of Jehoiakim, and who lived there upwards of seventy (70 ) years at the Babylonian and Medo-Persian court, and who held from time to time very important offices of State. Daniel was placed by God in this high position, which afforded him a view of the formation and evolution of the world-kingdom, in order that from this standpoint he might be enabled to see the development of the world kingdoms in the struggle against the kingdom of God, and to predict the indestructible power and glory of the latter kingdom, which overcomes all the powers of the world. Ezekiel, on the other hand, was appointed a watcher over the exiled nation of Israel, and was in this capacity to continue the work of the earlier prophets, especially that of Jeremiah, with whom he in several ways associates himself in his prophecies; to preach to his contemporaries the judgment and salvation of God, in order to convert them to the Lord their God. —Rightly to understand his work as a prophet, the ripe fruit of which lies before us in his prophetic writings, we must not only keep in view the importance of the exile for the development of the kingdom of God, but also form a clear conception of the relations amidst which Ezekiel carried on his labours. What the Lord had caused to be announced by Moses to the tribes of Israel while they were yet standing on the borders of the Promised Land, and preparing to take possession of it, viz. that if they should persistently transgress His commands, He would not only chastise them with heavy punishments, but would finally drive them out of the land which they were about to occupy, and disperse them among all nations (Lev. 26:14-45; Deut. 28:15-68), —this threatening, repeated by all the prophets after Moses, had been already executed by the Assyrians upon the ten tribes, who had revolted from the house of David, and was now in process of fulfilment by the Chaldeans upon the kingdom of Judah also. In the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, for the first time invaded Judah, captured Jerusalem, made Jehoiakim tributary, and carried away to Babylon a number of Israelitish youths of noble birth and of the blood-royal, amongst whom was Daniel, along with a portion of the vessels of the temple, in order that these youths might be trained up for the service of his court (Dan. 1:1-7). With this invasion of the Chaldeans begin the seventy (70) years of Chaldean servitude and exile in Babylon, predicted by Jeremiah. As Jehoiakim, so early as three (3) years afterwards, revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, the latter, after a lengthened siege, took Jerusalem a second time, in the third month of the reign of Jehoiachin, and carried away into captivity to Babylon, along with the captive monarch and the members of his court, the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem, a great number of priests, warriors, carpenters, and smiths, leaving behind in the land only the meaner portion of the people, over whom he appointed as his vassal King Mattaniah, the uncle of the banished monarch, whose name he changed to Zedekiah (2nd Kings 24:10-17; Jer. 29:2). By this removal of the heart and strength of the nation the power of the kingdom of Judah was broken; and although Nebuchadnezzar did not at that time ‘destroy’ it, but still allowed it to remain as a subject kingdom under his sway, yet its existence could not be of any long duration. Judah had fallen too deeply to recognise in the calamities which she had suffered the chastening hand of her God, and to bow herself repentantly under His mighty arm. Instead of listening to the voice of the prophet Jeremiah, and bearing the Chaldean yoke in patience (2nd Chron. 36:12), both monarch and people placed their trust in the assistance of Egypt, and Zedekiah broke the oath of fealty which he had sworn to the king of Babylon. To punish this perfidy, Nebuchadnezzar again marched against Jerusalem, and by the capture and burning of the city and temple in the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah’s reign put an end to the kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah, who had fled from the beleaguered city, was taken by the Chaldeans, and brought with his sons to Riblah into the presence of King Nebuchadnezzar, who first caused the sons of Zedekiah to be put to death before the eyes of their father; next, Zedekiah himself to be deprived of sight, and then commanded the blind monarch to be conducted in chains to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). Many military officers and priests of rank were also put to death at Riblah; while those who had been taken prisoners at Jerusalem, along with the deserters and a great portion of the rest of the people, were led away into exile to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). By this catastrophe the Old Testament theocracy lost its political existence; the covenant people were now driven out of their own land amongst the heathen, to bear the punishment of their obstinate apostasy from the Lord their God. Nevertheless this dispersion among the heathen was no entire rejection of Israel; it was merely a ‘suspension’, and not an ‘annihilation’, of the covenant of grace. Man’s unfaithfulness cannot destroy the faithfulness of God. “In spite of this terrible judgment, brought down upon them by the heaviest transgressions, Israel was, and remained,” —as Auberlen (The Prophet Daniel, p. 27, 2d ed.) well remarks,— “the chosen people, through whom God was still to carry out; His intentions towards humanity. His gifts and calling may not be repented of ” (Rom. 11:29). Even ‘after’ the Babylonian exile the theocracy was not again restored; the covenant people did not after their return again recover their independence, but remained, with the exception of the short period when under the Maccabees they won for themselves their freedom, in constant dependence upon the heathen world-rulers, until, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, they were completely dispersed among all the nations of the earth. The kingdom of God, however, was not ‘really’ to perish along with the external theocracy; it was only to pass into a new phase of development, which was intended to be the medium of transition towards its renewal and perfection in that kingdom of God which was to be founded by Christ. To pave the way to this end, and at the same time to serve as a witness to the exiles, that Israel, notwithstanding its dispersion among the heathen, still remained God’s people, the Lord raised up in Ezekiel, the son of a priest, a prophet of uncommon power and energy in the midst of the captives, “one who raised his voice aloud, like a trumpet, and showed to Israel its misdeeds, —whose whole manifestation furnished the most powerful testimony that the Lord was still amongst His people; who was himself a temple of the Lord, before whom the visible temple, which yet remained standing for a short time at Jerusalem, sank back into its nothingness; a spiritual Samson, who seized with mighty arm the pillars of the idol temple, and dashed it to the ground; a powerful, gigantic nature, which was fitted by that very qualification to effectually subdue the Babylonian spirit of the time, which delighted in powerful, gigantic, and grotesque forms; standing alone, but equal to a hundred of the sons of the prophets ” (Hengstenberg’s Christol. II. p. 531).”……
“Book of Ezekiel: The collection of the prophecies placed together in this book, as forming a complete unity, falls into two main divisions : —I. Announcements of judgment upon Israel and the heathen nations, ch. 1-32; II. Announcements of salvation for Israel, ch. 33-48. Each of these main divisions is subdivided into two sections. The first, namely, contains the prophecies of judgment (a) upon Jerusalem and Israel, ch. 3:22-24:3; (b) upon the heathen nations, ch. 25-32. The second main division contains (c) the predictions of the redemption and restoration of Israel, and the downfall of the heathen world-power, ch. 33-39; (d) the prophetic picture of the re-formation and exaltation of the kingdom of God, ch. 40-48; and the entire collection opens with the solemn dedication of Ezekiel to the prophetic office, ch. 1:1-3:21. The prophecies of the first, third, and fourth parts are throughout arranged in chronological order; those of the second part —the threatenings predicted against the heathen nations— are disposed according to their actual subject-matter. This is attested by the chronological data in the superscriptions, and confirmed by the contents of the whole of the groups of prophecies in the first three parts. The first part contains the following chronological notices: the fifth (5th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (1:2) as the time of Ezekiel’s call to the office of prophet, and of the first predictions regarding Jerusalem and Israel; then the sixth (6th) (8:1), seventh (7th) (20:1), and ninth (9th) years of the captivity of that monarch (24:1). The second part contains the predictions against seven foreign nations, of which those against Tyre fall in the eleventh (11th) (26:1), those against Egypt in the tenth (10th) (29:1), twenty-seventh (27th) (29:17), eleventh (11th) (30:20 and 31:1), and twelfth (12th) years of the exile. Of the two last parts, each contains only one chronological notice, namely, ch. 33:21, the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, ‘i.e.’. one (1)year after the destruction of Jerusalem; and ch. 40:1, the twenty-fifth (25th) year of the captivity, or the fourteenth (14th) after the destruction of Jerusalem. The remaining prophecies, which bear at their head no note of time, connect themselves closely as to their contents with those which are furnished with chronological data, so that they belong to the same period with those. From this it appears that the prophecies of the first part wholly, those of the second part to a great extent, date before the destruction of Jerusalem; those of the third and fourth parts proceed from the time after this catastrophe. This chronological relationship is in favour of the view that the prophecies against foreign nations, ch. 25-32, are not —as the majority of expositors suppose— to be assigned to the second, but rather to the first half of the book. This view is confirmed, on the one hand, by the contents of the prophecies, inasmuch as these, without an exception, announce only the downfall of the heathen nations and kingdoms, making no reference to the future forgiveness and conversion of the residue of these nations, and through this very peculiarity connect themselves closely with the prophecies of threatening against Israel in the first part; on the other hand, by the resemblance which exists between ch. 30:1-20 and ch. 3:16-21, compared with ch. 18:19-32, and which leaves no doubt upon the point that ch. 33:1-20 marks out to the prophet the task which was to occupy his attention after the destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently forms the introduction to the second half of his prophecies. —For further remarks upon the contents and subdivisions of the book, see the expositions in the introductory observations to the individual sections and chapters.” }}

 

 

 

Selections relevant to the Reflections on the Book of Ezekiel:
Ezekiel Selections (13): Calvin, Greenhill, Lowth, Fairbairn, Hengstenberg, Keil, Wordsworth, Lange, Redpath, Gaebelein, Bennett, Sulley, Smith, & Grant.
(1)
Commentary & Lectures on Book of Prophet Ezekiel, Chapters 1-20, Lectures 1-65. Volume 1 & 2. Jean (John) Calvin. 1st Translated from Original Latin, Collated with French Version, Thomas Myers, Vicar of Sheriff-Hutton, Yorkshire. (1560.1849.1850.2010). gs.as.ccel.org & bibletruthforum.com

{{“Translator’s Preface: “An Interest of no ordinary kind is excited in the mind of the Biblical Student by the mention of ”Calvin’s Lectures On Ezekiel.” The last Work which a great man leaves unfinished, because arrested by the hand of death, becomes at once an heirloom to posterity. After the lapse of nearly three hundred years, we read this affecting sentence with a tear and a sigh: (“After finishing this last Lecture (65th, Chapter 20), that most illustrious man, John Calvin, the Divine, who had previously been sick, then began to be so much weaker that he was compelled to recline on a couch, and could no longer proceed with the explanation of Ezekiel. This accounts for his stopping at the close of the Twentieth Chapter, and not finishing the work so auspiciously begun. Nothing remains, kind Reader, but that you receive most favorably and graciously what is now sent forth to the world.”) “….”As to the Genuineness Of Ezekiel’s Writings, it has never been seriously called in question by the learned, either Jew or Christian. Some self-sufficient Critics have impugned the last nine chapters: Their valueless arguments will be found, by those who wish to search for such unsatisfactory materials, in Rosenmuller, while their refutation is completed by Jahn, in his Introduction to the Sacred Books of the Old Testament, and is rendered accessible to the mere English reader by Hartwell Horne. So little weight, however, is attached to such opinions, that even Gesenius allows a “oneness of tone” to be so conspicuous throughout Ezekiel’s Prophecies, as to forbid the suspicion that any portions of them are not genuine. This Book formed part of the Canon in the Catalogues of Melito and Origen, of Jerome and of the Talmud. Josephus, indeed, refers to two Books of Ezekiel, probably dividing his ‘prophecies’ into two parts. His language has necessarily given rise to some discussion, which Eichhorn has set at rest as satisfactorily as the data will allow. The Arrangement Of The Various Predictions has been the subject of a variety of opinions. Some have supposed that Chronological Order has been interfered with, and that different collections of the separate Prophecies might be made with advantage. But Havernick, in his valuable Commentary, published as late as 1843, maintains that the present arrangement is correct. It proceeds, he asserts, in the order of time, and connects, as it ought to do, the Prophecies against foreign nations with those against Israel and Judah. Hence he divides the Book into the following nine Sections: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Call to Prophetic Office. (1-3:15).
2. Symbolical Representations Foretelling Destruction of Judah & Jerusalem. (4:16-7).
3. Series of Visions, Year & 2 Months Later than Former: Temple Polluted by Worship of Adonis, Consequent Vengeance on Priests & People, & Prospect of Happier Times & Purer Worship. (8-11).
4. Series of Reproofs & Warnings Against Prevailing Sins & Prejudices of his Day. (12-19).
5. Another Series of Warnings, One Year Later, still Announcing Coming Judgments. (20-23).
6. Predictions, 2 Years & 5 Months Later, Announcing Very Day of Siege of Jerusalem, & Assuring Captives of its Complete Overthrow. (24.)
7. Predictions Against Foreign Nations. (25-32.)
8. After Destruction of City, Future Triumph of Kingdom of God on Earth. (33-39).
9. Symbolic Representations of Times of Messiah, & Prosperity of Kingdom of God. (40-48).
There is a negative merit in Calvin’s Lectures, which has not been imitated by some later Commentators. He never makes those observations on Ezekiel’s Style & Diction which would reduce him to the level of a merely human writer. Grotius & Eichhorn, Lowth & Michaelis dwell on his erudition & genius, and assign him the same rank among the Hebrews which Aeschylus holds among the Greeks. They praise his knowledge of architecture, and his skill in oratory. They call him bold, vehement, tragical; “in his sentiments elevated, wars, bitter, indignant; in his images fertile, magnificent, harsh, and sometimes almost deformed; in his diction grand, weighty, austere, rough, and sometimes uncultivated; abounding in repetition, not for the sake of ornament & gracefulness, but through indignation & violence.” Such language as this clearly implies a very different view of the Prophet’s character & mission from that taken by Calvin. He looked upon him as a grand instrument in the hands of the Most High, and would have instinctively felt it to be profane thus to reduce him to the level of the Poets & Seers of heathenism. In this feeling we ought to concur. The modern method of criticizing the style & matter of the Hebrew Prophets deserves our warmest reprobation. They are too often treated as if their thoughts & their language were only of human origin. Their visions, their metaphors, & their parables, are submitted to the crucible of a worldly alchemy, in entire forgetfulness that these men were the special messengers of God.”…… “Comparing the Interpretations of Calvin with those of modern Continental Divines, we have no reason to conclude that the views of the great Reformer have been superseded. The progress of Biblical Criticism during the last 800 years has indeed been accompanied with some clearer views of the details, but the fundamental principles of these ‘Lectures on Ezekiel’ have never been successfully impugned. The Miracles of the Old Testament have been boldly assailed, both at home & abroad, and no slight outpouring of infidel wrath has fallen upon the Calvin interpretation of those of Ezekiel. Germany, the birthplace of the Reformation, has been also the seed-bed of spurious Rationalism. The novelty of any opinion on Biblical subjects has now become a sufficient atonement for its absurdity, and he receives the greatest applause from the many, who casts farthest from him whatsoever has commanded the veneration of ages. The direct interposition of Jehovah’s power in the affairs of men, as related in the writings of the Hebrews, has lately exercised the ingenuity of German skeptics to an almost incredible extent. The mysticism of the School of Schelling has rivaled the extravagancies of the theory of accommodation proposed by the celebrated Semler.”” ……}}

Lecture: Commentary:
{{Ezekiel 1:1-2: “We see that the Prophet was called to the office of a Teacher in the fifth (5th) year after Jehoiachin had voluntarily surrendered himself to the king of Babylon, (2nd Kings 24:15); and had been dragged into exile, together with his mother: for it was, says he, “in the thirtieth (30th) year.” The greater part of the Commentators follow the Chaldee Paraphrast, and understand him to date from the finding of the Book of the Law. It is quite clear, that this year was the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah; but in my computation, I do not subscribe to the opinion of those who adopt this date. For this phrase –“the thirtieth year (30th),” would then appear too obscure and forced. We nowhere read that succeeding writers adopted this date as a standard. Besides, there is no doubt that the usual method among the Jews was to begin to reckon from a Jubilee. For this was a point of starting for the future. I therefore do not doubt that this thirtieth (30th) year is reckoned from the Jubilee. Nor is my opinion a new one; for Jerome makes mention of it, although he altogether rejects it, through being deceived by an opposite opinion. But since it is certain that the Jews used this method of computation, and made a beginning from ‘Jobel’, that is, the Jubilee, this best explains the thirtieth (30th) year. If anyone should object, that we do not read that this eighteenth (18th) year of king Josiah was the usual year in which everyone returned to his own lands, (Leviticus 25) and liberty was given to the slaves, and the entire restoration of the whole people took place, yet the answer is easy, although we cannot ascertain in what year the ‘Jobel’ fell, it is sufficient for us to assign the Jubilee to this year, because the Jews followed the custom of numbering their years from this institution. As, then, the Greeks had their Olympiads, the Romans their Consuls, and thence their computation of annals; so also the Hebrews were accustomed to begin from the year ‘Jobel’, when they counted their years on to the next restoration, which I have just mentioned. It is therefore probable that this was a Jubilee year –it is probable, then, that this was the Jubilee. For it is said that Josiah celebrated the Passover with such magnificent pomp and splendor, that there had been nothing like it since the time of Samuel (2nd Chronicles 35:18). The conjecture which best explains this is, not that he celebrated the Passover even with such magnificence, but that he was induced to do so by the peculiar occasion, when the people were restored and returned to their possessions, and the slaves were set free. Since, then, this was the Jubilee, the pious king was induced to celebrate the Passover with far greater splendor than was usual –nay, even to surpass David and Solomon. Again, although he reigned thirteen (13) years afterwards, we do not read that he celebrated any Passover with remarkable splendor. We do not doubt as to his yearly celebration; for this was customary (2nd Kings 23:23). From this we conclude that the celebration before us was extraordinary, and that the year was ‘Jobel’. But though it is not expressed in Scripture, it is sufficient for us that the Prophet reckoned the years according to the accustomed manner of the people. For he says that this was “the fifth (5th) year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity:” who is called also Jehoiakim; for Jehoiakim succeeded Josiah, and reigned eleven years. The thirteen (13) years which remain of Josiah’s reign and these eleven (11), make twenty-four (24) (2nd Kings 23:36). Now, “his successor,” Jehoiachin, passed immediately into the hands of king Nebuchadnezzar, and was taken captive at the beginning of his reign, and reigned only three or four months (2nd Kings 24:8). After that, the last king, Zedekiah, was set up by the will of the king of Babylon. We see, therefore, that nine (9) years are made up: add the space of the reign of Jehoiachin: so it is no longer doubtful as to the reckoning of “the thirtieth (30th) year” from the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah. It is true that the Law of God was found during this year, (2nd Chronicles 34:14,) but the Prophet here accommodates himself to the received rule and custom.”……”Before I proceed any farther, I will briefly touch on the subjects which Ezekiel treats. He has all things in common with Jeremiah, as I have said, with this peculiarity, that he denounces the last slaughter against the people, because they ceased not to heap iniquity upon iniquity, and thereby inflamed still more and more the vengeance of God. He threatens them, therefore, and that not once only, because such was the hard-heartedness of the people, that it was not enough to utter the threatenings of God three or four times, unless he should continually impress them. But, at the same time, he shows the causes why God determined to treat his people so severely; namely, because they were contaminated with many superstitions, because they were perfidious, avaricious, cruel, and full of rapine, given up to luxury and depraved by lust: all these things are united by our Prophet, that he may show that the vengeance of God is not too severe, since the people had arrived at the very last pitch of impiety and all wickedness. At the same time, he gives them, here and there, some taste of the mercy of God. For all threats are vain, unless some promise of favor is held out. Nay, the vengeance of God, as soon as it is displayed, drives men to despair, and despair casts them headlong into madness: for as soon as anyone apprehends the anger of God, he is necessarily agitated, and then, like a raging beast, he wages war with God Himself. For this reason, I said, that all threats are vain without a taste of the mercy of God. The Prophets always argue with men with no other intention than that of stirring them up to penitence, which they could never effect unless God could be reconciled to those who had been alienated from Him. This then is the reason why our Prophet, as well as Jeremiah, when they reprove the people, temper their asperity by the interposition of promises. He also prophesies against heathen nations, like Jeremiah, especially against the children of Ammon, the Moabites, the Tyrians, the Egyptians, and the Assyrians (Jeremiah 26-29). But from the fortieth (40th) chapter he treats more fully and copiously concerning the restoration of the Temple and the city. He there professedly announces, that a new state of the people would arise, in which both the royal dignity would flourish again, and the priesthood would recover its ancient excellence, and, to the end of the book, he unfolds the singular benefits of God, which were to be hoped for after the close of the seventy (70) years. Here it is useful to remember what we observed in the case of Jeremiah: (Jeremiah 28) while the false Prophets were promising the people a return after three or five years, the true Prophets were predicting what would really happen, that the people might submit themselves patiently to God, and that length of time might not interrupt their calm submission to his just corrections. As we now understand what our Prophet is treating, and the tendency as well as the substance of his teaching, I will proceed with the context.” ……}}

Notes & Comments by Editor: Promised Contribution: Complete Apparatus Criticus Arranged (See Translator’s Preface, Volume 1): Sections:
1-3: Indexes: End of Vol. 4-7: Follow One Another. Vol. 8: Is Preceded By Its Own “List of Contents.”
Complete Synopsis of Contents of Whole of Ezekiel’s Prophecies: 1. Prophet’s Commission.
2. Prophet’s Utterances. 3. Prophet’s Consolations.

Ezekiel: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Prophet’s Commission: (1-3):
Section 1. Its Allegoric Character: Whirlwinds; Four Living Creatures; Wheels; Firmaments; Throne & Human Appearance Seated Thereon, (1).
Section 2. Address: Roll; Abounding Lamentation, (2).
Section 3. Rebellion of People; Motion of Living Creatures; Charge as Watchman; Hand of Jehovah by River Chebar, (3).
2. Prophet’s Utterances: (4-32):
A. Against Jews: (4-24): Utterances Against Jews are Divisible into those Against Jerusalem: Mountain & Land of Israel; King; False Prophets; Elders of People, & Various Repetitions, & Different Images.
Section 1. Emblem of Siege upon Tile, (4:1-3): Lying on Right & Left Side, (4:4-8); Taking Food by Measure, (4:9-12); Explanation, (4:13-17).
Section 2. Emblem of Razor, (4:1-4); Explanation, (5:5-17).
Section 3. Against Mountains of Israel, (6:1-15).
Section 4. Against Land of Israel, (7:1-27).
Section 5. Vision of Image of Jealousy, (8:1-11); Chamber of Imagery, (8:12-16); Explanation, (8:17,18).
Section 6. Vision of Man with Slaughter Weapon, (9:1-11).
Section 7. Vision of Cherubim: Description & Motions, (10:1-22).
Section 8. Emblems of Caldron & Flesh: Application to Jerusalem, (11:1-25).
Section 9. Emblem of Prophet’s Removing his Goods, & its Interpretation, (12:1-16).
Section 10. Flattering Proverb of Israel rebuked, (12:1 7-28).
Section 11. Utterance Against False Prophets, Male & Female, (13:1-23).
Section 12. Against Elders of People, (14:1-23).
Section 13. Emblem of Vine used for Fuel, (15:1-8).
Section 14. Emblem of Israel as Outcast Infant Nurtured by Almighty, (16:1-14); Married, yet Committing Adultery, (16:15-34). This Wickedness Denounced & Punished, (16:35-59). Almighty’s Merciful Relenting, (16:60-63).
Section 15. Emblem of Eagle & Cedar, (17:1-10); Explanation, Referring to Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, &
Pharaoh, (17:11-24).
Section 16. Vindication of Divine Justice, & Confutation of Israel’s Proverb, (18:1-32).
Section 17. Emblem of Lioness & her Whelps, (19:1-9).
Section 18. Emblem of Vine Plucked Up & Consumed, (19:10-14).
Section 19. Elders of Israel Rebuked for Their Sins, (20:1-32).
Section 20. Divine Promises of Restoration, (20:33-44).
Section 21. Word Dropped toward South, (20:45-49).
Section 22. Prophet’s Face Set toward Jerusalem, (21:1-7).
Section 23. Sharp Sword & Great Slaughter, (21:8-27).
Section 24. Sword Drawn Against Ammonites, (21:98-32).
Section 25. Sins of Jerusalem & God’s Vengeance, (22:1-22).
Section 26. Woes Uttered Against False Prophets, (22:23-31).
Section 27. Adulteries of People, (23:1-49).
Section 28. Parable of Boiling Pot, (24:1-14); Prophet’s Severe Affliction, (24:15-27).
B. Utterances Against Gentiles: (25-32):
Section 1. Against Ammonites, (25:1-7).
Section 2. Against Moabites, (25:8-11).
Section 3. Against the Edomites, (25:12-14).
Section 4. Against Philistines, (25:15-17).
Section 5. Against Tyre, through (26-28:19).
Section 6. Against Zidon, Ezekiel (28:20-26).
Section 7. Against Pharaoh, (29:1-7).
Section 8. Against Egypt, (29:8-21).
Section 9. Against Ethiopia, (30:1-5).
Section 10. Against Upholders of Egypt, (30:6-19).
Section 11. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel (30:20-26).
Section 12. Assyria as Cedar of Lebanon, (31:1-9).
Section 13. Its Fall & Destruction, (31:10-18).
Section 14. Bitter Lamentation over Egypt, (32:1-21).
Section 15. Bitter Lamentation over Assyria. (32:22,23).
Section 16. Bitter Lamentation over Elam, (32:24,25).
Section 17. Bitter Lamentation over Meshech & Tubal, (32:26-28).
Section 18. Bitter Lamentation over Edom, (32:29-32).
(These Utterances are all most vividly and graphically portrayed. Allegories, Metaphors, &
Parables are most appropriately interspersed with fiery Denunciations & awful Threatenings in
consequence of gross iniquities.)
3. Prophet’s Consolations: (33-48): Series of Exhortations & Promises of Deliverance under Cyrus, Description of Temple, & View of Future Divisions of Land under Prosperous Reign of Messiah.
Section 1. Prophet’s Duty as Watchman, (33:1-16).
Section 2. Vindication of God’s Equity, (33:17-33).
Section 3. Reproof to Shepherds of People, (34:1-10).
Section 4. Almighty Good Shepherd, (34:11-31).
Section 5. Desolation of Mount Seir, (35:1-15).
Section 6. Destruction of Heathen, (36:1-7).
Section 7. Blessings on Israel, (36:8-38).
Section 8. Vision of Dry Bones, (37:1-14).
Section 9. Rods of Judea & Ephraim, (37:15-20).
Section 10. Future Reign of David King, (37:21-28).
Section 11. Prophecies Against Gog & Magog, (38:1-23).
Section 12. Judgments upon Gog, (39:1-16).
Section 13. Great Sacrifice on Mountains, (39:17-20).
Section 14. Israel Restored from Captivity, (39:21-29).
Section 15. Vision of Measuring the Temple, (40:1-49).
Section 16. Measures & Ornaments, (41:1-26).
Section 17. Priests’ Chambers & Outer Court, (42:1-20).
Section 18. Returning Glory of Jehovah, (43:1-9).
Section 19. Whole Fashion of House, (43:10-12).
Section 20. Measurement of Altar, (43:13-17).
Section 21. The Sacrifices on Altar, (43:8-27).
Section 22. Various Ordinances for Priests, (44:1-31).
Section 23. Apportionment of Land, (45:1-8).
Section 24. Duties of Priests, (45:9-25).
Section 25. Duties of Prince & of People, (46:1-25).
Section 26. Vision of Rising Waters, (47:1-12).
Section 27. Divisions & Limits of Land, (47:13-23).
Section 28. Portions for Tribes & Priests, (48:1-29).
Section 29. Various Gates of City, (48:30-35).
(These closing Visions & Consolations are singularly striking, and afford scope for copious illustration; but as our Commentator did not live to expound them, it would not become his Translator to obtrude on the reader his own research into these deep things of the Spirit of God. A minute description of the Temple Scenery has been attempted by a learned Jew, Soloman Bennett, R.A. of Berlin, (Edit. London, 1834.) His work contains a most elaborate account of every interesting particular. Ezekiel 40, Ezekiel 41, and Ezekiel 42 are explained verse by verse; and a ground-plan and bird’s-eye view are subjoined. These chapters are also explained by Fry on the Second Advent, volume 1. Section 13.)” }}

(2) Exposition of Prophet Ezekiel & Useful Observations. Delivered in Several Lectures in London, (1650-1654-1662). William Greenhill, Rector of Stepney, & Chaplain to Dukes of York & Gloucester, & Lady Henrietta Maria. Revised & Corrected, James Sherman, Minister of Surrey Chapel. (1839). gs.pdf

{{ “Advertisement: The Rev. William Greenhill, the learned and pious author of the following Exposition, was born in the year 1581, of humble parents residing in Oxfordshire. As early as the age of thirteen he entered a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the condition of Servitor, and when he had completed his twenty-first year, took his degree of Master of Arts. In 1643 he acted as one of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, and about the same time was made afternoon lecturer at Stepney church. Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs preached there in the morning at seven o’clock, and Mr. Greenhill in the afternoon at three, and were hence styled “the Morning Star” and “the Evening Star” of Stepney. He was chosen to be chaplain to the dukes of York and Gloucester, and the Lady Henrietta Maria, and in the year 1656 had the living of Stepney presented to him. Calamy says, “He was a worthy man, and much valued for his great learning and unwearied labours.” Howe styles him “that eminent servant of God, Mr. Greenhill, whose praise is still in the churches.” His Exposition of the Prophecy of Ezekiel was delivered in Lectures in the city of London, which were attended by many of the chief personages of his day, and have been long and deservedly valued. They were originally printed a volume at a time, as the lectures on a few chapters were concluded, till five small quarto volumes completed the Exposition. Happy that biblical student thought himself who could obtain a perfect copy, although it has been sold at the enormous price of from seven to ten pounds. The last volume is rarely to be obtained; and is supposed to have been destroyed in the calamitous fire of London. No pains or expense have been spared to render this edition complete. It could hardly be expected that in a work of this magnitude no errors should inadvertently have been overlooked, but, from the most careful examination, it is confidently expected they will scarcely be found. Believing that the reader of Greenhill would not thank any editor who might attempt to beautify his style, the reviser has been anxious that he might appear again in his own garb of 1650, and not in the more polite dress of 1837. His style is abrupt, not always chaste, often imperfect, and full of singularities; yet searching, bold, striking, and effective. An attempt to improve it would most likely enfeeble it, and shear it of its point and power……As a practical expositor of Ezekiel, whose prophecy contains many things “hard to be understood,” Greenhill will ever rank deservedly high. He fully explains the meaning of the prophet, and then applies the truth to the consciences of his auditory by many most pertinent and heart-searching observations. It is impossible that a prayerful mind can read this exposition, without growing “in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.” J. Sherman. ‘Surrey Chapel’,
‘January’ 26’th’, 1837.”}}

{{“Epistles Dedicatory: [Prefixed, Original Edition, Part Containing Chap. 1-5.]

“To the Excellent Princess, & Most Hopeful Lady, the Princess Elizabeth, Her Highness. May it Please Your Highness,…..Doubtless God’s eye is upon your Highness, for that good which is found in you in these your tender years, and is well pleased that your sweetness of nature and choiceness of wit are joined with desire to know him, with love to his worship, affection to the godly, and delight in such sentences as these are, viz.: “Chairete en Kuriö pavtote, palin erö, Chairete.” “Deus meus et omnia”. “La mia Grandezza dal Eccelso”.
All which, with these precious speeches of yours, “I had rather be a beggar here than not go to heaven,” and, “How shall I be sure to go to heaven?” are acceptable to the Highest, and make strong impressions upon us inferiors. Your desire to know the original tongues, that you may understand the Scripture the better; your resolution to write them out with your own princely hand, and to come to the perfect knowledge of them, breed in us hopes that you will exceed all of your sex, and be without equal in Europe; as Drusius said of his son, who at five years learned Hebrew, and at twelve wrote it ‘extempore’, both in prose and verse. Encouraging instances your own sex will afford. Eustochium profited so much in the Latin, Hebrew, and Greek, that in her time she was called the wonder of the world. Istrina, queen of the Scythians, so excelled in Greek, that she taught her sons the Greek tongue. Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrenians, was skilled in the Latin, Egyptian, and Greek tongues; she read the Roman story in Greek, abridged the Alexandrian and all the oriental histories. Politian hath an epistle to Cassandra, a Venetian maid, whom he calls the glory of Italy. Her delight was not in wool, but books; not in the spindle or needle, but in the pen; not in paint, but in ink: she wrote epistles and orations to admiration; she excelled in logic and philosophy, and had such perfections, as caused the learned to admire, if not adore her. Queen Elizabeth was so learned, that she read every author in the original, and answered ambassadors of most nations in their own language: she went twice to Oxford, and once to Cambridge, purposely to hear the learned academical disputations, where herself made Latin orations: she translated Sallust, and wrote a century of sentences: she set apart some hours daily to read, or hear others read to her : she so excelled in learning and wisdom, that her teachers rather learned of her than brought learning to her. Your Highness seems to aim at all the excellences in the prementioned; for your writing out the Lord’s Prayer in Greek, some texts of Scripture in Hebrew, your endeavour after the exact knowledge of those holy tongues, with other languages and learned accomplishments, your diligent hearing of the word, careful noting of sermons, understanding answers at the catechising, and frequent questioning about holy things, do promise great matters from you. If the harvest be answerable to the spring, your Highness will be the wonder of the learned, and glory of the godly. It is my unhappiness that I cannot be sufficiently adjuvant to such princely beginnings; yet because this following treatise is an exposition of Scripture, I take the boldness to present it to your Highness, and shall continue to pray to him who is All, and able to give all, that he would preserve your royal person, bless your hopeful endeavours, fill you with all divine perfections, make you a chief praise in Israel, and fit you for an eternal weight of glory. Your Highness’s most humble servant, William Greenhill.”}}

{{“To All Well-Willers of Truth; Especially to the Authors Fautors of the Expository Lectures in this City: …..”Robert Stephen mentions one, and that a Sarbonist, who had lived above fifty years, and knew not what the New Testament meant: and have not sundry persons among us lived their fifty years, and not known what Ezekiel meant P hath he not been a book clasped and sealed unto them? If this hieroglyphical prophet have been a wonder to all for his visions, yet he hath been known to few, by reason of the abstruseness of his visions, which have kept off great rabbies from employing their talents to open them. If weakness and error be found in these poor labours of mine, I entreat you to remember, I have been among prophetical deeps and difficulties, which may plead for him who, knowing his own insufficiencies, came invita Minerva to this task. If any light appear for the better understanding of these enigmatical things, I must say with Daniel, there is a God in heaven which revealeth mysteries, to him be all the glory, Dan. ii. 28. My prayers shall be to him who enlighteneth every man which cometh into the world, that he would anoint your eyes with eye-salve, whereby you may daily see more into the great and glorious truths of God, and those things which may strongly make for your eternal peace and comfort. So prayeth Your friend and servant in the Lord, W. G.}}

1:5: “What these living creatures are, is the great dispute among expositors. Some make them to be the four covenants of God: 1. That with Adam. 2. That with Noah. 3. That with Moses. 4. That with the apostles. Some make them to be all the creatures. Some, the four cardinal virtues, justice, wisdom, fortitude, temperance. Some, the four faculties in the soul; the rational, irascible, concupiscible, and conscience. Some, the four chief passions; joy, grief, hope, and fear. Some, the four monarchies; Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman. Some, the twelve tribes of Israel, in their stations, east, west, north, south, when in the wilderness. Some, the four elements, of which man’s body doth consist. Some, the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; and this being the opinion of Jerome and Gregory the great, prevailed much, but now is deserted. Others understand by these four creatures, those who are complete and more perfect in the church. Others expound them to be Christ; but Christ is brought in, in the latter end of the chapter, sitting upon the throne: these creatures are some distinct ones from Him, and inferior to Him. By them then we are to understand the angels, which have a great part under God in the government of the world. The word (chaiyoth) living creatures, doth not only signify a creature that is corporeal, living, and sensible; but it denotes any living being or substance, whether corporeal or spiritual: and so Tully calls ‘intelligentias animales’, living intelligences, in Quest. Acad. l. 4. The best interpreters go this way, and understand by the living creatures, ‘exercitus invisibiles’, principalities and powers, and we need not fetch light from men, where the Scripture gives interpretation itself. Ezek. 10, there you have frequent mention of cherubims, which were these living creatures; for ver. 8, it is said, “There appeared the form of a man’s hand under their wings.” They had the same faces, one excepted, and as many, ver. 14, and Ezekiel saith, ver. 15, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar.” And more plain yet in ver. 20, “This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar, and I knew that they were the cherubims.” Although he called it before the living creature, in the singular number, yet here he changeth the number, and saith, they were the cherubims. We may trust Ezekiel’s judgment, he was guided by the Spirit, and his cherubims do hold forth the same parties to us, that Isaiah’s seraphims did to him. The word cherub notes generally any figure of man or beast, say the Hebrews, but especially the figure of a young man or a child, with wings stretched out, Exod. 25. Such were the two cherubims before the ark. The Chaldeans call a little child, ‘rabi’; or ‘rabia’; whence some derive the word cherubim, ‘quasi cherabia’, as a little child; others fetch it from ‘caph’, which notes likeness, and ‘rob’ or ‘rab’, which words signify, as, in general, quality and quantity, so multitude and magnitude; so that cherubims etymologized are ‘tanquam multi et magni’, as it were many and great. The word cherub notes not only angels, but angels as they appeared and were figured with any external form of man or beast, and such figures were hieroglyphical, as here in this vision. The prophet saw not these cherubims, or angels, or living creatures, but the likeness of them. For the nature of spirits is invisible; no soul, no angel, neither God himself, can be seen. How then is their likeness presented to the prophet? (They are (aölos [a-holoi (incomplete) = asömatos (bodiless)], incorporeal, without flesh and bones, Luke 24:39. They are pure as God is, ‘actus purissimus’.) It is no bodily likeness, but a likeness in life, quality, and motion. But the text saith, “They had the likeness of a man,” that is, not in his nature and essence, but in some qualities; they had the face, hands, thighs, and legs of a man, all which set out some choice qualities in the angels. They had also something of the beast and bird. And if they were in nature like the living creatures, angels were strange monsters, and not spirits in compound. By their likeness unto man is laid before us the rationality, knowledge, and understanding of angels. They are not ignorant creatures, but ‘ipsae intelligentiae’, the most understanding creatures in heaven or earth. 2nd Sam. 15:20, the widow of Tekoah told David, he was wise according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth; that is, he was very wise, as the angels are, to search out, understand, and discover things. Therefore Jerome thinks they are called cherubims from their much knowledge. (A multitudine scientiae; Cherubim quasi cherabbim.) Cherubims, as it were, rabbies, doctors, teachers of others; and this office some angels have had. Dan. 8:16, “Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision;” and chap. 10:14, “I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days.” They have prophetical knowledge in them, and a treasury of things that are past and done long since. Rev. 4:6, 8, there is mention of four beasts or living creatures, (the same with these in Ezekiel,) full of eyes before and behind, because they see and know what is past, and what is before them; their natural knowledge is great, being such excellent spirits.” ……}}
(3) Commentary upon Larger & Lesser Prophets: being a Continuation Bishop Patrick, by William Lowth, B.D. Prebendary of Winchester. 4th Edition. (1739).

Dedication to the Right Honourable & Right Reverend Father in God, Jonathan, Lord Bishop of Winchester, & Prelate of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
{{ “My Lord, The chief Design of the following Work, which I humbly offer to Your Lordship, is to assert the Ancient and Catholick Sense of several Texts of the Prophet, whom I undertake to explain, and vindicate them from some Novel Expositions, which tend to deprive the Christian Religion of the Benefit of so considerable a Testimony: And I humbly beg Leave to present to Your Lordship this small Acknowledgment of my Duty and Observance, as a Member of Your ‘Cathedral’, and Minister of a ‘Parish Church’ of Your ‘Diocese’ and ‘Patronage’, and to which Your Lordship hath been pleased to be a ‘Benefactor’, when it lately suffered under a great Calamity. How mean soever the Performance may be, I hope the Design of it may in some Measure recommend it to Your Lordship’s Patronage, which is to illustrate this Evangelical Prophet, who, by the general Consent of former Ages, hath been placed at the Head of that Noble Order: A Person, whose Supernatural Gift of Prophecy added a new Lustre to the Greatness of his Birth, and whose liberal Education furnished him with a Noble Eloquence, and suitable to the Dignity of his Argument. The same Holy Spirit, who sometimes spake to the World by Shepherds and Fishermen, that the Excellency of the Truths delivered by them might appear to be of God, and not of themselves, at other Times made Choice of the Pen of a David, a Solomon, and an Isaiah, to instruct us, that the outward Accomplishments of Birth and Fortune may be sanctified to higher Purposes, and made instrumental in advancing the Glory of God, and the Interests of Religion. That Your Lordship may continue to employ the Advantages of Your great Station and Quality to God’s Honour, and the Service of His Church, is the hearty Prayer of, My Lord, Your Lordship’s most Dutiful and Obedient Servant, William Lowth.” }}
Preface: (Prophetical Books):
{{ “There is no Part of the Holy Scriptures that more deserves the thoughts of inquisitive Men, than the Writings of the Prophets. ‘God’ in His Word hath offered suitable Matter for the several Capacities of Men. The ‘Historical’ Books instruct us in the Methods of Providence, and afford an agreeable Entertainment to inquisitive Minds, as they contain the most ancient Records that are in the World, and relate the most remarkable Occurrences that ever happened in it. Persons of ordinary Understandings may find all necessary Truths plainly delivered, and often repeated in the New Testament Writings, and in the ‘Practical’ Books of the Old: Those of higher Endowments may find sufficient Employment in unfolding the Types and Figures of the ‘Jewish OEconomy’, and in searching into the Depths of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions. We may indeed find some Prophecies plainly delivered with great Exactness of Time, and Particularity in Circumstances (those especially which relate to the Coming of the ‘Messias’) that when the Events came to pass, they might appear to be the Effects of ‘God’s’ determinate Counsel and Foreknowledge. But the far greater Part of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions are couched in ‘Symbols’ and Sacred ‘Hieroglyphicks’ (a way of conveying the abstruser Parts of Knowledge, much used in the Eastern Countries:) As it were on purpose to excite the Curiosity of the Ingenious, and reward the Diligence of the industrious Searchers after Divine Truth. To which we may add, that the ‘Metaphorical’ Stile of the Prophets, is very proper to inspire the Minds of attentive Readers with noble Ideas of ‘God’s’ Wisdom and Providence, and to affect will the most lively Image of the Glorious Kingdom of ‘God’ and ‘Christ’, the Happiness of those that shall have a Share in the Triumphs of it, and the Terribleness of those Punishments which are denounced against such as will not have him to reign over them. And to encourage Men in the Searches of this Kind, they will find face an Harmony and Correspondence between the Figures and Emblems, whereby the Prophets point out Things to come, that the careful comparing of them with each other, will afford the best Clue to guide the attentive Reader through the most difficult Parts of their Writings, and is likewise a surprizing Proof that they all wrote by the Direction of one and the selfsame ‘Spirit’.
This hath been in some Measure attempted in the ensuing Work, where the Author hath used his utmost Diligence, to compare the Text with such parallel Places both of the Old and New Testament, which might any way conduce to the clearing up its Sense: And he is willing to believe that if be hath given any new Light to the obscure and difficult Passages of this Prophet, it is chiefly by comparing the Phrase and Idiom of the Text with other parallel Places more exactly than hath been hitherto done by any Commentator upon this Prophet that he hath seen: And be desires the Reader, that when he finds a more than ordinary Difficulty, he would carefully consider the parallel Text there referred to, which to have set down at Length, would have enlarged this Work beyond its due Bounds. The Writings of the Prophets unfold the Methods of Providence in many remarkable Instances: Such as are, ‘God’s’ Disposal of Kingdoms and Governments, and making use of wicked Princes and Nations to be the Instruments of his Justice in punishing others as bad or worse: The gradual Discovery of the Coming of the Messias, and the several Steps and Advancements by which ‘God’ introduced His Kingdom into the World,, and will carry it on till the Consummation of all Things. These Speculations must needs afford great Entertainment to Men of curious and inquisitive Tempers, and be Matter of Delight as well as instruction.
These Reasons, as they should encourage those to the Study of the Prophetical Writings, who have any
Talents for such an Employment, especially those whose Profession engages them to ‘search the Scriptures’; So they should recommend any Attempt that is made toward the further explaining of so considerable a Part of the Holy Scriptures. For after all the Pains that bath been taken in clearing up the Sense of these Sacred Books, by Persons excellently qualified for such an Undertaking, still there is Room left for further Endeavours in that Kind. For there is a Treasure of Heavenly Wisdom contained in them, that can never be exhausted: And as it is highly reasonable to believe, that some Parts of the ‘Old Testament’ Prophecies reach to the End of the World, so it is as reasonable to expect that in every Age Providence should open some new Scene, which wilt give further lnsight into the Meaning of those Sacred Writings. I confess, I can by no means approve of the Opinion of some learned Men, who are for cramping the Sense of the Prophets, and confining it within a narrow a Compass as they can, and will needs maintain that the Prophets scarce foresaw any Thing but what was to come to pass in or near their own Time. I must own my self-puzzled to assign a Reason why ‘God’ should appoint a Succession of Prophets to foretel what should come to pass within the Compass of about three hundred Years (for within that Time most of those Prophets lived, whose Writings make up that Part of the Scripture Canon which is called by that Name) and take no notice of any other Occurrences which should happen in succeeding Times; whereas to extend the Prophetick Views to the End of the World, seems much more agreeable to that Description of ‘God’s’ Prescience which the Holy Writers give us, That He declares the End from the Beginning, and His Wisdom reaches from one ‘End’ [of the World] to the other mightily, and sweetly does it order all Things: So that even when the whole ‘Mystery of God’s Dispensations’ shall be finished, it will appear that nothing is contained in them, but what God bath formerly declared to His Servants the Prophets, as it is expressly affirmed, Revel. 10:7.
For a further Proof of this Assertion, I desire it may be considered, that the Prophecies which foretel the Visibility and Universality of ‘Christ’s Church’, accompanied with perfect Peace, Prosperity and Holiness, cannot with any Probability be said to have as yet received their Accomplishment, as neither have those Predictions which foretel the flourishing State of the ‘Jewish’ Church and Nation in the latter Times. And to suppose those Prophecies to have already received their utmost Completion, is, in my Judgment, to give too great an Advantage to the Jews, and in Effect to acknowledge that they never were, nor will be fulfilled in their natural and obvious Sense. Whereas on the other Side, to assert that many Prophecies relating to the Messias, are already fulfilled in our ‘Lord Jesus Christ’, a Truth that can be made out beyond all Contradiction; and withal to maintain that several others concerning the same Subject, relate to His ‘Second Coming’, and their Accomplishment shall usher in or accompany that His Glorious Appearance: I say, the observing this Distinction between the different Times, wherein the several Prophecies relating to the Coming of Christ shall be fulfilled, effectually answers all the Arguments which the ‘Jews’ make use of to support themselves in their incredulity; it discovers a perfect Harmony and Correspondence between the Prophecies of the Old and New Testament, and it gives us an agreeable View of a more flourishing State of the Church, than the World hath yet been blessed with; and thereby engages us to use our best Endeavours to restore the Church to its primitive Purity, where-ever we find it defective.
These Considerations at first engaged me to attempt a Commentary upon the Prophet ‘Isaiah’; who as he is the first and principal of the Prophets in order; so he hath had the Honour of being stiled the ‘Evangelical Prophet’ by the Christian Church, because he foretold the Coming and Kingdom of the Messias with greater Clearness than any of the rest. But he will have but little Pretence to that Title, if we follow some Men’s Notions, which have been lately renewed, and zealously maintained by Mr. ‘Samuel White’, in his ‘Commentary’ upon this Prophet; where he all along supposes, that the far greatest Part of this Prophecy relates only to the Times in which the Prophet lived, and those that succeeded till the Return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity. Indeed he is willing to allow the ‘(53rd) Chapter’ of ‘Isaiah’, to have been fulfilled only in our Saviour; but according to his ‘Hypothesis’, that Prophecy must come in very abruptly, without any Connexion upon what went before, or what follows. To do him all the Justice I can, I must own, that in his Preface be asserts a double Meaning of many Prophecies: One more immediately relating to the present Circumstances of Things in or near the Prophet’s own Time; the others having more distant Views upon the State of the Gospel-Times. But his general Design in his ‘Arguments’ to the Chapters, and in his ‘Notes’, whenever an Occasion is offered, is to run down and ridicule the ‘Spiritual’ and ‘Mystical’ Sense of particular Texts or Prophecies, and to accuse the Commentators who have asserted it, as ‘making a Note of Wax’ of the Scriptures, and forcing the Words to an unnatural and improper Signification. Now these Assertions are a direct Contradiction to the Manner of interpreting the Old Testament Prophecies, made use of by ‘Christ’ and His ‘Apostles’ in the New; where we find our ‘Saviour’ applies several of the Ancient Prophecies to Himself; and the Apostles frequently assert, that ‘all Things happened to the’ Jews ‘in Figures’, that their Ordinances were ‘Parables’ or Allegories with respect to the Times of the Gospel; that the Christian Church is the ‘True Israel of God’, and all the Privileges appropriated to the ‘Jewish’ Nation in the Old Testament as ‘God’s Segullah’, or ‘peculiar People’, do in a more eminent Manner appertain to the Church of ‘Christ’, which is that true Kingdom of ‘God’, the ‘Jerusalem coming down from Heaven’, of which the earthly ‘Jerusalem’, and the Temple there, was only a Type and Figure.
These Rules for interpreting the ancient Prophecies laid down by the Apostles, ought to be a Standard for all Christians to square their Interpretations by, as being delivered by those who had the (Gnösis), or that especial ‘Gift of the Spirit’, which enabled them to explain the ‘Prophecies’ of the Old Testament, and apply them to the Times of the New. This is that ‘Publick’, or Authentick ‘Interpretation’ of the Scripture Prophecies, which St. ‘Peter’ opposes to a ‘Private Interpretation’, 2nd Pet. 1:19, that is, to such an Interpretation as is wholly owing to human Wit or Invention, or relates to private Persons and Translations. Whereas this publick Interpretation is taken from the ‘common Analogy of Faith’, Rom. 12;6, and arises from ‘comparing spiritual Things with spiritual’, 1st Cor. 2:13, i.e. the spiritual Sense of the Old Testament Writings with that of the New, and with one another. In which Particular I cannot but look upon Mr. ‘White’s Exposition’ as very deficient, in that he scarce ever compares the Phraseology of ‘Isaiah’ with that of the other Prophets, or with parallel Texts of the New Testament; which one would think every Christian Commentator should have a particular Regard to, in explaining the Sense of the ancient Prophecies. The ancient ‘Jews’ never contested this Point with the ‘Christians’, but always acknowledged that the chief Design of the Prophets was to foretel the Times of the ‘Messias’. And when Christ and His Apostles explained the Prophecies in a ‘Spiritual’ or ‘Mystical’ Sense, they interpreted them according to the received Notions of the Synagogue, and are never taxed, that we can find, for misapplying the particular Texts they alledged, as if they did not belong to the Times of the ‘Messias’. The Words of St. ‘Peter’ do in some Measure inform us, from whence the ‘Jews’ might receive these Notions, 1st Pet. 1:11,12, where he tells us, ‘That the Prophets who searched diligently what, and what manner of Time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, did signify, when it testified beforehand the Sufferings of Christ, and the Glory which should follow, had it revealed unto them, that not unto themselves, but to us they did minister the Things’ which the Apostles preached. No doubt, but they studied their own Prophecies, and the Spirit of God so far assisted them, and enlightened their Minds, as to enable them to leave this Key for the interpreting their own Writings, and letting succeeding Ages into the true Meaning of them. And thus a traditionary Explication of the Old Testament Prophecies was carried down from the very Time of the Prophets to After-Ages.
Several Arguments may be alledged to prove, that these Notions were generally received among the ‘Jews’ long before ‘Christ’s’ Time: In the first Place, we may argue from their admitting the ‘Song’ of ‘Solomon’ into their Canon, which could have no Pretence for being placed among the Sacred Writings, but only as it was supposed figuratively to set forth the ‘Spiritual Marriage of Christ and His Church’. The same Point may further be proved from their ancient ‘Targums’ and ‘Paraphrases’ upon the Scripture, from the ‘Misna’, and those Mystical Expositions of several Texts, which we read in the ‘Epistle’ of ‘Barnabas’, and which it is probable were taken out of some ‘Midrash’, or Authentick Exposition of the Scripture Texts, as hath been observed by Bishop ‘Fell’, and other Learned ‘Commentators’ upon that Epistle. And tho’ it should be granted, that some of those Writings are not so old as the Time of Christ and His Apostles; yet this doth not invalidate the Force of the Argument, because those Writings consist of traditionary Explications of Scripture, which the Compilers took from the Writings of former Ages, just as in After-times the ‘Greek Catenæ’ upon the Scriptures were compiled out of the Writings of the ancient Fathers by Authors of a later Date.
It does not appear, that this mystical Way of applying the Scripture-Prophecies to the Times of the ‘Messias’, was ever called in question, till the ‘Jews’ came to engage in Disputes with the Christians; and then to avoid the Force of their Arguments, they found it necessary to reject the Opinions of their Ancestors. It was this Consideration made Aquila and Theodotion, Apostates from Christianity to Judaism, to undertake a New Translation of the Old Testament into Greek, because they thought the Interpretation of the Septuagint too favourable to the Christians, having been framed according to the traditionary Explication of the Sense of the Prophets, which bad been received among the ‘Jews’ Time out of Mind. This Christian Interpretation about the Prophecies is called the ‘Mystical Sense’, because it helps to unfold the Mysteries of the Gospel, not as if it were always opposed to a literal Sense. For in many Cases what we call the Mystical Sense, more exactly answers the natural and genuine Import of the Words, than any other Interpretation that can be given of them. To instance in that famous Prophecy, Isa. 7:14. Behold a ‘Virgin’ shall conceive, &c. Supposing, but not granting, that this Prophecy can be applied in a lower Sense to ‘Isaiah’s’ Son, or any other Person but ‘Christ’; yet it is plain at first Sight, that the Historical Sense, which is commonly given of the Words, to denote ‘One that is now a Virgin, but should afterward marry and bear a Son’, comes infinitely short of the true Force and Meaning of them, and contains nothing in it that can deserve to be called a ‘Sign’ or ‘Wonder’. This seems to have been a Maxim in interpreting Prophecies, received among the Jews before Christ’s Time, That where-ever they observed an imperfect Completion of a Prophecy in the Historical Event, which no way answered the lofty Expressions, and extensive Promises, which the natural Sense of the Text imported, there they supposed the Times of the ‘Messias’ to be ultimately intended, ‘in whom all the Promises of God are Yea, and Amen’. To prevent any Misunderstanding, it may be proper likewise to take Notice, that this ‘Mystical Sense’ of the Prophecies, is now and then, but not so fitly, called a ‘Secondary Sense’; not as if it were lest principally intended by the Prophets, but rather with respect to the Time, because it is the last or ultimate Completion of their Predictions.
That many of the Prophecies are not limited to one single Event, but may have different Views, and be capable of being fulfilled by several Steps and Degrees, is what I have all along supposed in the following Commentary, and therefore here it will be proper to assign the Reasons of such a Supposition. This Subject hath been handled by several Learned Men, and of late by Dr. ‘Nich. Clagett’. [My Lord ‘Bacon’ has made an Observation upon this Subject, which deserves to be taken Notice of; in his Advancement of Learning, Book II. Chap. 11, “In the Interpretation of Prophecies, that Latitude must be allowed, which is proper and familiar to Divine Prophecies, that their Accomplishments may be both perpetual and punctual. For they resemble the Nature of their Author, ‘To whom one Day is as a thousand Years, and a thousand Years as one Day’. And though the Fulness and Height of their Complement be many Times assigned to some certain Age or Point of Time, yet they have nevertheless certain Stairs or Scales of Accomplishment throughout divers Ages of the World.”] l shall not repeat what hath been said already upon this Argument, but only lay down some General Reasons of this Assertion. I have already observed that this Opinion is agreeable to the Sentiments of the ‘Jews’: The only Point in which they differ from us, is, whether the Messias, to whom the Prophecies relate, be already come, or be yet to come. Therefore I shall not any longer insist upon that Argument, but proceed to observe, that under the Old Testament, all the most considerable Persons and Translations there mentioned, were ‘Typical’, and prefigured the State of Things under the ‘Messias’. Thus the New Testament informs us, that by ‘Sarah’ and ‘Hagar’ were allegorically represented the ‘Two Covenants’: By the preferring of ‘Jacob’ before ‘Esau’, the Rejection of the ‘Jews’, and the Calling of the ‘Gentiles’: By the Deliverance from the ‘Egyptian’ Bondage, the Redemption of Mankind by ‘Christ’, the ‘True Passover’ sacrificed for us: That the ‘Israelites’ passing through the Red-Sea, did typify the Sacrament of ‘Baptism’; and their Sojourning in the ‘Wilderness’, in their Way to the Promised Land, was designed to signify that we are but ‘Strangers and Pilgrims’ in this World, and must look upon Heaven as the only true Place of ‘Rest which remains for the People of ‘God’.’
“In the Characters the Scriptures give us of ‘Adam’ and ‘Melchisedeck’, of ‘Isaac’ and ‘Joseph’, of ‘Moses’ and ‘Joshua’, of ‘David’ and ‘Solomon’, of ‘Eliakim’ and ‘Jonah’, of ‘Cyrus’ and ‘Zerubbabel’, they plainly describe them as Figures of Christ: That several Circumstances of their Lives did foreshew the most remarkable Passages of his, and the Deliverances some of them wrought for God’s People, were Earnests of a greater Redemption to be accomplished by the Messias. Several of the Psalms, particularly the 18th, and the 118th, were writ upon particular Occasions, relating to some remarkable Circumstances of David’s Life, as appears both by their ‘Titles’ (which to be sure are as ancient as the Compiling the Old Testament Canon) and by the General Subject handled in them: And yet several Passages out of these ‘Psalms’ are applied in the New Testament to ‘Christ’ and the ‘Gospel’, as more eminently fulfilled in them. From these Principles we may conclude, that there is a Resemblance, or ‘Correspondence’ between many of the Transactions mentioned in the Old Testament, and those which should come to pass under the New: And consequently, that the Prophets, when they spake of some Events near their own Times, probably had more distant Views, which might reach even to the latter Ages of the World.
This Assertion, as it shews that ‘Fulness of Sense’ contained in the Scriptures, which ‘Tertullian’ faith, he did so much reverence and adore, so it introduces Christ into the World, with a great deal of Pomp and Solemnity; whilst it makes the whole Contrivance of the Jewish Dispensation, and all the Eminent Persons of former Times, as so many Harbingers to prepare the Way for His Coming, and thereby raises in our Mind, a just Veneration for the Gospel-State, as the Master-Piece of Divine Providence, that Point wherein all the Lines of ‘God’s manifold Wisdom’ do meet as in their Center; from whence it is evidently demonstrated, that ‘Christ was ordained by God, before the Foundation of the World’, though in His wise Disposal He did not appear till the latter Times of it. These ‘Providential Congruities’ between the Times of the Old and New Testament, do very much confirm the Authority of both Testaments; for they plainly shew, that they were written by the Direction of one and the same Spirit, who hath therein discovered to us one entire Scene of Providence, which reaches from one End of the World to the other.
The Apostles justify this Way of interpreting Scripture-Prophecies, by the Interpretations they give us both of the antient Prophecies, and of our Saviour’s own Predictions; of each of these shall give a remarkable Instance. That Prophecy of ‘Isaiah’, chap. 53:4. ‘He hath borne our Griefs, and carried our Sorrows’, without question is principally to be understood of Christ’s undergoing the Punishment due to our Sins; but yet St. ‘Matthew’ applies it to the Pains which He took in healing Men of their bodily Infirmities, and his rendering His own Life uneasy by the Care and Trouble He underwent to give Ease to others, ‘Matth’. 8:18. In like manner, that Expression of our Saviour, ‘John’ 17:12. ‘Those whom Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost’, was chiefly meant of Christ’s Care to preserve His Disciples in a firm Belief of, and Adherence to, those Truths which He taught them; yet we find St. ‘John’ applies the Words to the Care that Christ took of their Safety, when he yielded Himself up to those that came to apprehend Him, chap. 18:9. From hence it appears, that the Holy Writers themselves suppose, that the Expressions of inspired Persons may have several Senses couched under the Words. The same may be affirmed of that Prophecy of Christ, concerning the ‘Destruction of Jerusalem, and the End of the World’, Matth. 24 in which it is hard to determine, where our Saviour makes a Transition from one Subject to the other; this makes it probable, that He had both these Events in His Eye together, and that several of His Expressions were partly verified at the Time of the Destruction of ‘Jerusalem’, but were more fully to be accomplished at the ‘General Judgment’, of which that particular judgment was an Earnest and Fore-runner.
The Prophet Isaiah is certainly one of the most difficult of all the Prophets, though perhaps few are sensible of it, but they that try to explain him: Besides the Want of antient Records to clear up some Historical Passages of his Prophecy, a Difficulty common to him with the rest of the Prophets; there are some Difficulties, which do in a particular Manner attend his Writings. The Profoundness of his Thoughts, the Loftiness of his Expressions, and the Extent of his Prophecy, have made the ‘Commentaries’ hitherto written upon him, fall short of a full Explication of his Book; and he that will undertake to fathom the Depths of this Prophecy, is in great Danger of going out of his own. This Prophet seems to have been favoured with an entire View of the Gospel-State, from the very ‘Birth’ of the ‘Messias’, to that glorious Period, when the ‘Kingdoms of the World shall become the Kingdoms of the LORD, and of His Christ’. Upon these Accounts, as he deservedly holds the first Rank in that Noble Order of Prophets; so it may be hoped, the Candid Reader will favourably receive any Attempt that is made, to give some farther Light to this Prophecy, how imperfect soever. And particularly, I would make one Request to him, with which I shall conclude this Preface, viz. That, in those Parts of this Exposition, where there is any Mention made of the ‘Jews’ being to be ‘restored to their own Land’ upon their Conversion, and some other Particulars relating to that glorious State of the Church, which we may from Prophetical Grounds of Scripture expect to come to pass in the ‘latter Times’ of the World, there he would not judge of what is said upon these obscure Subjects as so many positive Assertions, but only as probable Conjectures, and such as the Words of the Text may fairly be supposed to favour. For in these and such-like abstruse Matters, which at present lie hid in their Causes, and in the Abyss of Providence, a modest Man should not pretend to be ‘Wise’ above that which is plainly and expresly ‘written’.” }}

{{ Commentary on Ezekiel’s Prophecy: Chap. I: Argument: The first Chapter contains a Description of God’s Appearing in a glorious manner to ‘Ezekiel’, in order to the giving him a Commission to execute the Prophetical Office.
Ver. 1. ‘Now it came to pass’.] The ‘Hebrew’ Text reads, ‘And it came to pass’; but it is usual in that Language to begin a Discourse or Book with the Particle ‘Vau’, or ‘and’: See ‘Jonah’ 1:1 and the beginning of most of the Historical Books of the Old Testament; which Particle is very properly translated in those Places, Now it came to pass: So that there is no ground for the Fancy of ‘Spinoza’, who would conclude, from hence, that this Book of ‘Ezekiel’ is but a Fragment of a larger Book, and contained several Prophecies, now lost, which were in Order of Time before those set down in these and the following Chapters. Ibid. ‘In the ‘Thirtieth (30th) year’.] It is a great Question from whence this Computation of Time commences. The most probable Answers are; first, that of ‘Scaliger’, who supposes this Thirtieth (30th) Year to be meant of the Years of Nebupolassar’s Reign; who, as he tells us from ‘Berosus’ quoted by Josephus, (l. I. contr. App.) reigned twenty-nine (29) Years complete: So the Thirtieth (30th) Year, here mentioned, was the last Year of his Reign and Life: And is likewise the thirteenth (13th) Year current of his Son Nebuchadnezzar’s Reign, who reigned so many Years together with his Father: (See Scaliger’s Canon Isagog. p. 281, 294. his Prolegom. ad. Lib. de emend. Temporum; and his Notes on the Greek Fragments, at the end of those Books.) But there is one considerable Objection against this Opinion of Scaliger, that according to Berosus’s Account, as his Works are quoted in another Place of ‘Josephus’, (Antiq. l. x. c. ii.) Nebupolassar reigned only Twenty-one (21) Years, the Greek Text reading, by a little Variation, (‘eichosi hen’ for ‘eichosi ennea’ .) Which is the same Number of Years assigned to ‘Nebupolassar’ in the ‘Aera Nabonassari’, and agrees better with ‘Berosus’s’ own Story, ‘viz’. that when he had committed the Command of the Army to his Son, and sent him on an Expedition to Syria and Phaenicia, he died in a short Time after. ‘Villalpandus’ in like manner makes his Computation to commence from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign: See his Commentary upon Ezek. 40:1. He allows nineteen (19) Years for his Reign, distinct from that of his Son, and supposes ‘Nebuchadnezzar’ to reign two (2) Years with his Father; which indeed agrees with the Scripture Computation: See the Note on Jer. 25:1. But, according to that very Account, the fifth (5th) Year of ‘Jehoiachin’s’ Captivity will be coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For the nineteenth (19th) Year of the same Reign is assigned for the Destrućtion of ‘Jerusalem’, ‘Jer’. 52:12., which was about six (6) Years afterwards. So this Computation will make Jehoiachin’s Captivity to have happened not in the thirtieth (30th), but in the thirty-second (32nd) Year, reckoning from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign. A more probable Answer to this Difficulty is that which the Chaldee Paraphrast, Archbishop Usher, A. M. 3409. Dr. ‘Prideaux ad an. A. C.’ 594, and other learned Men follow, ‘viz’. that these thirty (30) Years are to be reckoned from the Time when ‘Josiah’ and all the People of ‘Judah’ entered into that solemn Covenant mentioned 2nd Kings 22:3. which was in the eighteenth (18th) Year of ‘Josiah, ibid’. from which Time the same Learned Writers compute the forty (40) Years of ‘Judah’s’ Transgression, mentioned chap. iv. 4:6. Ibid. ‘As I was among the Captives by the River Chebar’.] Those which were carried away with ‘Jehoiachin’, King of ‘Judah’: See the next Verse. These were placed in Towns or Villages that lay upon the River Chebar in Mesopotamia, called by ‘Ptolemy’ and ‘Strabo’, ‘Chaboras’ or ‘Aboras’, and by ‘Pliny’, Lib. 1. c. 26 ‘Cobaris’.
Ver. 2. ‘Which was in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity’.] This was coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For ‘Jehoiachin’ was carried Captive in the eighth (8th) Year of his Reign : See 2nd Kings 24:12. The ‘Hebrew’ Writers use several Computations of the Beginning of the ‘Babylonish’ Captivity : See the Note upon ‘Jer.’ 25:1. That under ‘Jehoiachin’, wherein ‘Ezekiel’ was made a Captive, is the Computation he always follows in the succeeding Parts of his Prophecy: See ‘chap’. 8:1; 20:1; 29:1, 17; 31:1; 33:1. 40:1. }}

(4) Ezekiel & Book of His Prophecy: Exposition. Patrick Fairbairn, DD. Principle of Free Church College, Glasgow; Author of “Typology of Scripture”. (1850,1855,1863)

Contents: Introduction: Chapters & Verses:
1: Time & Manner of Ezekiel’s Entering on the Prophetical Office.
2-3:1-11: CaIl to Prophetical Office.
3:12-27: Ezekiel’s Entrance on his Mission, & 1st Message imparted to Him.
4: Vision of Siege & Iniquity-Bearing.
5-6: Vision of Shorn Hair, & its Foreshadowing Desolations.
7: Lamentation over Guilt & Fall of Israel.
8: Vision of Image of Jealousy, & other Abomination at Jerusalem.
9: Vision of Sealing.
10: Vision of Coals of Fire.
11: Destruction of Corrupt Priesthood, & Promise of Grace & Blessing to Believing Remnant among Exiles.
12: Vision of Ezekiel’s Typical Removing as Exile, & accompanying Instructions.
13: False in Prophecy, its Character & Doom.
14: Hypocritical Inquirers after God —their wickedness Discovered and Rebuked.
15: Guilt & Condemnation of Israel Parabolically Represented.
16: Story of Israel’s Guilt and Punishment.
17: Parable of Two Great Eagles, & Cropping of Cedar of Lebanon.
18: Retributive Righteousness of God.
19: Lamentation Over Fall of Royal House.
20:1-44: Display of People‘s Long-continued Sinfulness, & Lord’s Long-Suffering-Mercy & Goodness.
20:45-49 & 21: Vision of Lord’s Fire & Sword.
22: Lord’s Judgment upon All-Pervading Sinfulness of Jerusalem.
23: Story of Israel’s Sin & Punishment Parabolically Exhibited under Names of Aholah & Aholibah.
24: Vision of Boiling Caldron, & of Death of Ezekiel’s Wife.
25: Judgment of Israel’s Immediate Neighbours & Rivals: Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines.
26: Judgment of Tyre.
27: Lamentation upon Tyre, & Account of Her Former Greatness & Prosperity.
28:1-19: Criminatory Address to King of Tyre, & Lamentation Over His Coming Downfall.
28:20-26. Judgment of Sidon, & Ultimate Peace of Israel.
29: Judgment of Egypt, its Desolation for 40 Years & Subsequent Degradation: 1st Instrument of Chastisement, Nebuchadnezzar.
30: Continuation of Egypt’s Judgment.
31: Certainty of Pharaoh’s Doom Confirmed: Parabolical Relation of Assyria’s Greatness & Destruction.
32: Songs of Lamentation Over Fall of Pharaoh & Kingdom, . . . . . . . .
33: Renewal of Ezekiel’s Commission, his Office as Watchman,
34: Promise of True Shepherd, after False Shepherds have been Punished & Removed.
35: Judgment of Edom.
36: Israel Revenged & Comforted: New Heart & Blissful Heritage.
37: Vision of Dry Bones Restored to Life again, as Symbolical of Israel’s Death & Resurrection.
38-39: Assault of Gog & His Destruction.
40-48: Preliminary Remarks on Vision in Chap. 40-48, with Respect to Principles on which it ought to be interpreted.
40:1-48. Position, Walls, Gates, & Courts of Temple,
40:48,49, -41: Temple Itself.
42: Chambers of Temple & its Boundary Walls.
43: Lord’s Return to Temple.
44: Ordinances for the Prince & Priesthood.
45: Sacred Allotments in Land & Gifts.
46: Additional Ordinances for Prince & People.
47:1-12. Vision of Temple-Waters .
47:13-23 -48: Boundaries & Re-Distribution of Land, Israel Parabolically Represented.

{{ Introduction: I: ….”Yet this must not be understood of his connection with the whole band of exiles, nor probably of the later period of his public ministry nearly so much as of the earlier. For, amid the prevailing iniquity, there are not wanting occasional indications of a better spirit among the captives (chap. 11:16, Jer. 24); and, at a period not very distant from the close of his ministrations, a very marked and general amendment had undoubtedly taken place among them. It could not greatly, if it did at all, exceed thirty (30) years from the cessation of his active labours, when the decree was issued for the return of the captives; and notwithstanding the corruptions which still lingered among them, and which soon began to appear in the infant colony, there was a general repudiation of idolatry, and an adherence to the law of Moses, very different from what had existed at the era of the captivity, or for a considerable time previous to it. Nor can there be any doubt, that among the agencies which contributed to effect this beneficial change, a prominent place must be ascribed to the ministry of Ezekiel. Thus by the results that appeared, decisive evidence was borne to the fact, that a prophet had been among them, who had not laboured in vain; and we can scarcely doubt, from the whole circumstances of the case, that the satisfaction was afforded our prophet —a satisfaction which was denied to his great contemporary Jeremiah— of witnessing the commencement of the spiritual renovation for which he so earnestly laboured.”…..IV. The order and classification of his prophecies next demands some notice. And here it ought, first of all, to be borne in mind, that whatever arrangement may be made respecting them as to their subjects, an order and progression belongs to them as a whole, as well as a homogeneousness of nature, which fits them for mutually throwing light on each other; and, in particular, one large portion of them (chap. 1-32), which is mainly conversant with sin and judgment, in a great degree supplies the key, by which the later announcements —more cheering in their tone, but more remote in their objects— are to be interpreted. There is in this respect a unity in the character of the book, which calls for an orderly and progressive perusal of its contents. And should anyone, heedless of this characteristic, overleap all the earlier portions of the prophecy, and proceed at once to grapple with some of the later and more peculiar visions, he would only take the course most likely to involve himself in perplexity or disappointment. A general classification of the contents of the book, as has just been noticed, may be made into those, which have respect predominantly to sin and judgment, and those which are more peculiarly appropriated to the revelation of grace and mercy. We can only, however, speak of prevailing, not by any means of exclusive, characteristics of this sort. For, in the one-part mercy is often found intermingling with the judgment, as in the other judgment occasionally alternates with the mercy. The more specific, and at the same time quite natural divisions, are commonly indicated by the prophet himself, in the several dates which he has, at certain intervals, placed as superscriptions to the messages he successively received. These are altogether eight.
1. The first is introductory, containing a description of the first vision, and in connection with it of the call of the prophet—(chap. 1-3:15). 2. The next portion, embracing the remaining verses in chap. 3, and reaching to the close of chap. 7, is occupied chiefly with a more explicit announcement of the prophet’s commission and charge, and his entrance on the work it devolved upon him, by setting forth the enormous guilt of the people, the certainty of the coming destruction of Jerusalem, with still subsequent calamities, and the prostrate condition of the whole affairs of the kingdom. 3. The next section embraces chap. 8-19, but falls into two parts. The first, including chap. 8-11, contains still farther revelations of the people’s sinfulness, especially as connected with the profanation of the temple, and the corruption of the priesthood —the determination of God, in consequence, to forsake His sanctuary, with severe executions of vengeance on the wicked, though not without gracious interpositions for the safety of the few who remained faithful— and then, the twofold work of destruction and preservation being (symbolically) done, His actual departure from the temple-mount, that He might go and reveal Himself in tenderness and power to an inquiring and afflicted people in exile. In the second part of this division, which includes chap. 12-19, the prophet prosecutes in detail his exposure of the sins, which were bringing down such inflictions of judgment, and shows how all classes, as well as the priests —prophets, princes, and the people generally, had corrupted their ways, and should severally share in the destruction that was impending. 4. In chap. 20-23, the same subject is continued, though, as the time of judgment had approached nearer, there is an increased keenness and severity in the prophet’s tone; he sits, as it were, in judgment upon the people, brings out in full form the Divine indictment against them, and with awful distinctness and frequent reiteration, announces both their consummate guilt and its appropriate judgment. 5. Then comes, in chap. 24, the actual announcement of the end, as regards Jerusalem and its guilty people, with a representation of the behaviour suitable for such as survived the calamity; the prophet himself being required to share in the confusion and silence, which were proper at such a time. 6. Chap. 25-32 form a group by themselves, containing the announcements respecting sin and judgment, which, during the interval of the prophet’s silence towards his own people, he was commanded to utter against the surrounding nations. The great object of them was to show, that if judgment had begun at the house of God, it would assuredly embrace, and visit with still more overwhelming calamities, the ungodly world. There are various headings in this section; and some of the revelations were given at periods considerably later than others; but they began to be uttered immediately after the doom of Jerusalem, and all manifestly relate to one great theme. 7. In chap. 32-39, we have a series of predictions given to the prophet in the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, after the appearance in Chaldea of the remnant that had escaped from Jerusalem (chap. 23:21); a series which points more particularly to the better times in prospect, and unfolds, with considerable fulness and variety, the revival of God’s cause among the covenant-people, the re-establishment of the Divine kingdom, and its sure and final victory over all the sources of evil, which had prevailed so much against it in the past. 8. Then, after an interval of thirteen (13) years, comes the closing vision, in chap. 40-48, disclosing, under the symbolical representation of a new temple, city, and commonwealth, the restored condition, with the perfect order and beauty, of the people and kingdom of God.
(In section 5 Fairbairn on Ezekiel Literature in his days: England has produced almost nothing exegetically of substantial value by 1850; the Puritan writers were anthologies of sayings & sermons. Archbishop Newcome of 1788 being exception, save filled with textual emendations as solutions & interpretations; but carried on still by textual critics as Ewald & Hitzig, seeking to correct the Hebrew text by the Septuagint. The elaborate work of 1596 by Rome’s Spanish Jesuits, Pradus & Villapandus is commended for patristic citations & Temple opinions. Rosenmuller’s & Maurer’s commentaries are useful, especially grammar; Ewald cautiously instructive; but Havernick of 1843 is by far the best; less so Hitzig of 1847. Rationalism is rash, superficial, & spiritually impoverished. Hengstenberg helpfull when he interprets the text.)

(5) Prophecies of the Prophet Ezekiel Elucidated; by E.W. Hengstenberg, D.D., Professor of Theology, Berlin. Translated by A.C. & J.G. Murphy. Edinburgh. 1869.gs

Contents: 1st Cycle (Chap, 1-7); 2nd Cycle (Chap, 8-19); 3rd Cycle (Chap. 20-23); 4th Cycle (Chap, 24)
Foreign Nations (Chap, 25-32): Ammonites, Moab, Edom, Philistines, Tyre & Sidon, Egypt.
Conclusion to Chap, 1-32, (Chap, 33:1-20); Words of Comfort (Chap, 33:21–39); Restoration (Chap, 40-48).

{{ “Retrospect: Ezekiel, carried into exile in the captivity of Jehoiachin, seven (7) years after the beginning of the Chaldean bondage, eleven (11) years before the destruction of the city, appeared there as prophet in the fifth (5th) year after his captivity, in the thirtieth (30th) year of his life (ch. 1:1). The latest date which we find in the superscriptions of his prophecies is the twenty-seventh (27th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (ch. 29:17), so that the historically ascertained period of the prophet’s activity embraced twenty-two (22) years. It was shown that the prophet had precisely in that period a definite occasion for the collection of his prophecies. The prophecies contained in the present collection, like those of the contemporary Daniel, are all provided with chronological superscriptions. These are in all twelve, of which six belong to native prophecies, and six to prophecies against foreign nations,—(26:1; 29:1; 29:17; 31:1; 32:1; 32:17). The collection falls into two main parts,—prophecies before and prophecies after the destruction of Jerusalem. That we may not, with some, make the prophecies against foreign nations in ch. 25-32 a special main part, that they are rather to be considered an appendix to the prophecies before the destruction, is manifest: 1. Because the beginning of these predictions in ch. 25 is connected with the last native prophecy before the destruction in one chronologically determined section; 2. Because the section ch. 33:1-20 forms the literary close to ch. 1-32; and with special reference to the main portion, ch. 1-24, gives some nota benes concerning the whole previous literary activity of Ezekiel. The essential character of the first part is threatening; that of the second, promise. The starting-point of the first main part is a great anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the danger connected with it of the people failing to discern the signs of the times. The first main part contains four groups of native prophecies —(ch. 1-7; 8-19; 20-23; & 24)— in regular chronological sequence. The first dates from the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin, a time when the formation of the coalition began to fill men’s minds with joyful hopes; the last from the tenth day of the tenth month in the ninth (9th) year of Jehoiachin, —the fatal day of the opening of the siege of Jerusalem, which put an end to the hopes founded on the coalition. The mission of the prophet in these four groups is to make clear to the people the import of the great Chaldean catastrophe, and to bring them to understand the day of their visitation, and escape the miserable fate of those who are severely afflicted, without gaining the peaceable fruit of righteousness. To the book of the works no less than to the book of the words of God we may apply the saying, “Understandest thou what thou readest?” It was the great privilege of the people of God, that such an interpretation always went along with the doings of God. The prophet leads the people to discover in the coming event a long reckoning of God, —the visitation of a guilt that goes back to the very origin of the people. He makes every effort to bring the people to acknowledge the depth of their corruption, which alone could account for their sufferings, and thus not send them far from their God, but connect them closely with Him. The destined event, thus recognised in its necessity, had to be represented as inevitable. The prophet is inexhaustible in the denunciation of the foolish hopes of the people, before whose eyes he portrays the future calamity as if it were already present, as indeed the roots of it in reality were; inexhaustible also in the destruction of the false views concerning the source of the approaching suffering, and the beating down of the craftiness of the natural man, who in the deep indwelling antipathy to repentance makes every effort to cast the blame on God. He deals annihilating blows to those who led the people away from the way of repentance, and flattered them with foolish hopes. The radiant point in these discourses is the grand survey of the whole past development of Israel in ch. 23, which places before our eyes the figure of a people such as they ought not to be, and the result of which is, that the judgment is inevitable. Few sections of Scripture call so powerfully as these for earnest self-examination.
At the close of ch. 24 the prophet announces that native predictions will now be silent, until with the execution of the judgment a new beginning for the prophetic activity be given. The servant is silent in the beginning of the practical discourse of the Master Himself, for the understanding of which sufficient provision has been made. But with the previous ending of native prophecy is connected the beginning of the prophet’s activity in regard to foreign nations. This connection is shown by this, that the beginning of this activity is included in the same section with the closing prophecy concerning Judah. The prophecies against foreign nations have the special aim to shed a fuller light on the judgment on Judah announced in the native prophecies, and already beginning its course. They give the answer to the natural question, Lord, but what of these? (John 21:21) They are all directed against the nations of the anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the executors of the judgments are in them all the Chaldean monarchy. Judah was first to drink the cup (ch. 21:18 f.). God sanctified Himself first on those who were near Him (Lev. 10:3) ; the judgment began at the house of God. It appeared as if the people of the covenant must alone suffer among all the members of the coalition. The scorn of these confederates themselves was poured out on the people of Jehovah (ch. 25:3, 6; 26:2); indeed, they made common cause in part with the Chaldeans, and sought to derive advantage from the misfortune of Judah (ch. 35:10). The prophet portrays before the eyes the judgment which in his time will fall upon them. He turns the heart of the people to their God when he points out that for the heathen the judgment has an annihilating character; whereas Israel rises from it to a more glorious state. Thus these predictions against foreign nations appear as the transition from the first part to the second —the comforting and promising part.
Of the foreign nations there are seven, divided into four and three —four neighbouring nations and three world-powers, the last Egypt, which had formed the centre of the coalition; so that there is thus a progress from the less to the greater. On this side and on that side of the prophecies against foreign nations the arrangement is strictly chronological. There occurs no prophecy which is not chronologically determined; and all prophecies so determined stand in regular order. In the external predictions also the chronological prevails. But a certain deviation must be allowed, otherwise things intimately connected must have been separated. The prophecies are here arranged according to the nations, so that, for ex., all those referring to Egypt come together. Among the prophecies referring to Egypt, that in ch. 29:17 goes before the one in ch. 31:1, which belongs to an earlier period, because it stands in a close relation with the foregoing (ch. 29:1), and resumes it at a time when its fulfilment was close at hand. Although the main body of the external prophecies belong to the time before the term, given in ch. 33:21, of the recommencement of the home prophecies, yet the date of some external prophecies precedes that in ch. 33:21 (ch. 32:1, 17), because the external prophecies forming a connected cycle should not be separated from one another, and because the following cycle of home prophecies also should meet with no interruption.
The first part contains in all a decade of prophecies —four native and six foreign. At the close of the first part in ch. 33:1-20 follows, in vers. 21, 22, the historical introduction to the discourses of the second period; in vers. 23-33, the warning and admonishing preparation for the new message, —the mediation, as it were, between it and the first part. With ch. 34 begins the communication of the comforting message. From this forward the prophet is as inexhaustible in comforting as he was before in threatening. The dangerous foe was now despair, as it was before false confidence. Common to the comforting and to the threatening discourses is the pictorial character; the viewing of that which is not as if it were, a result of dependence on God, in whose nature salvation as well as judgment is founded. The comfort is in this first group unfolded in seven paragraphs. In the first discourse (ch. 34) the prophet meets in a soothing manner the grief for the loss of civil government, and places before the eyes of his hearers and readers the bright form of the glorified David, in whom the civil government of the future will culminate. In the second (ch. 35) he portrays the desolation of Seir. The light of Israel is relieved by the shade of Edom, who here represents the nations, who, in their hatred of the kingdom of God, are not fit for it, but are ripe for destruction. The third discourse (ch. 36:1-15) relieves the pain occasioned by the desolation of the holy land. The fourth (ch. 36:16-38) lays down the name of God as the pledge of salvation. The fifth announces the restoration of Israel as a covenant people (ch. 37:1-14); the sixth, as a brotherly people (vers. 15-28). The seventh (ch. 38-39) represents the renovated people as victorious in every conflict.
The second principal part has only two dates (ch. 33:21 and ch. 40:1), and thus presents only two sections, which increase the ten of the first part to twelve. In the great closing picture in ch. 40-48 the prophet portrays in detail the recovery of all that was lost, in fulfilment of the words of the psalmist, “He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken;” and points in the midst of it, in ch. 47:1-12, to the great progress of the kingdom of God in the future.
In the picture of the future drawn by the prophet, the following are the principal traits. Vain is every attempt of the people to avert the threatening misfortune. They must drain to the bottom the cup of the divine wrath (ch. 21:26). Egypt, the power on which their hopes chiefly rest, proves a broken reed: the time of its political importance is for ever gone. But what earth denies, heaven will grant in its own time. After the people have attained to repentance, wrath is followed by grace; all that is lost —the temple, with its priests and worship, the city, the land— is restored. Yet not this alone: the future brings an enhancement of salvation. The people receive a rich treasure of forgiveness of sins (ch. 36:25; 37:23); the Lord takes away the heart of stone, and gives them a heart of flesh (41:19); He awakens them by His quickening breath from spiritual death (ch. 37). The centre of all graces is an exalted descendant of David, who will spring from His family when reduced and wholly deprived of the sovereignty, and connect the high-priestly with the kingly office (ch. 21:27; 34:11-31). The blessing is so potent that it extends also to the heathen, who will join themselves to Israel in the time of salvation. According to ch. 34:26, “the environs of his hill” will be partakers of it with Israel; according to ch. 17:22-24, the descendant of David, at first small and inconsiderable, is raised to the sovereignty of the world ; according to ch. 47:1-12, the waters of the Dead Sea of the world are healed by the stream from the sanctuary. This great revolution of things, however, will give the old covenant people no cause for self-exaltation; it will rather tend to their deep humiliation. They find salvation only through the redeeming mercy of God in common with the heathen world, sunk deep in sin, to whom they are become like, as in sin, so in punishment (ch. 16:53-63). And then in the future, along with grace, which is only for the willing, comes also judgment. The prophet announces in ch. 5:4 a second annihilating judgment, which after the Chaldean will come upon the people restored by the grace of God, —a fire which will devour the people as such, and leave only an election of them which participates in the blessings of salvation.
The name of the prophet denotes one in relation to whom God is strong (p. 5), who speaks not out of his own heart, but is moved and determined by a supernatural power. The verification of this name we have in the prophecies before us. That which the Lord said to Peter applies to him, “Flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but the Father in heaven.” None of His words have fallen to the ground. The whole course of history has verified His word in ch. 33:33 : “They shall know that a prophet was in the midst of them.”” }}

{{ “Appendix: Cherubim: What Christian should not feel a desire to know the nature of the cherubim? When we sing the Ambrosian anthem, we dwell with special emotion of heart on the words: “The cherubim and seraphim, and all angels, serve Him. “As long as the nature of the cherubim is concealed from us, a whole series of scriptural passages is inaccessible to us. The cherubim occur in the Old Testament no less than eighty-five times. They meet us in the very first pages of revelation: the cherubim and the flame of the blazing sword repel the parents of our race from the tree of life. In the tabernacle and in the temple of Solomon the cherubim receive an important place. The grand visions of Ezekiel in ch. 1 and 10, even on a superficial examination, awakening the anticipation of a glorious meaning, and presenting a fulness of earnest warning and comfort, are sealed to us, if we have not learned the nature of the cherubim. In the Psalms God appears enthroned on the cherubim, as the firm ground for the confidence of His people; and whosoever will be a partaker of this confidence, must before all know what the cherubim are to signify. Even in the New Testament the holy enigma of the cherubim meets us. John, in the Revelation, sees in the midst of the throne, and about the throne, four beasts full of eyes before and behind, that had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty. The right knowledge of the cherubim, however, has a special interest for our own times…. The merit of having first fully established this view belongs to Bahr in the ‘Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship’, and in the treatise on the temple of Solomon. “The beings of whom the cherub is composed,” says he, “belong to those creatures of the visible world that form the upmost and highest of its three kingdoms —the kingdom of organic life; and in this kingdom, again, they belong to the highest class, to that which has warm blood, and therefore the highest physical life; and in this class they are again the highest. The cherub is far from being a figure of God Himself; on the contrary, its essential character is to be a creature: it is a figure of the creature in its highest stage —an ideal creature. The living powers distributed in the visible creation to the highest creatures are combined and idealized in it.” “The whole creation is combined in it as in a point in one being; it represents in so far also the whole creation, and stands naturally of all the creatures nearest to God: only God is above it. The cherub, as creation individualized, is at the same time the being in which the glory of God manifests itself. Hence it appears as the throne of God itself, or in the closest connection with the throne: where Jehovah in His majesty and glory reveals Himself, there the cherub also appears.” This view in the main is alone correct; only it is to be remarked, that the cherubim represent first not the creature in general, but only the animated creation on the earth. Yet this is regarded as the apex of all created things on earth, so that the remainder is in some measure represented by it, and is appended to the animated creation as an accessory, and all the more because it has been created for its sake. But we must not include the heavenly creature: He that sits on the cherubim, and the God of hosts, are co-ordinate expressions; by the hosts are meant the heavenly creatures. The cherubim never occur alone —always in connection with God. The formation of the symbol has arisen not from the motive of the consideration of nature as such, but from the motive of piety. In the consideration of the multitude of visible creatures the mind may easily distract itself, and dwell on the individual —now on this, now on that. “Whilst they move and search among the works of God, they are caught by the sight, because that which is seen is beautiful,” says the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (ch. 13:7). The pious mind, therefore, protesting against such distraction and such service of the creature (Rom. 1:15), comprehends all visible multiplicity in an ideal unity, and places this unity absolutely under God, who by His creative Spirit is the foundation of this unity. This representation has for piety a profound significance. If we look to God, who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with adoring reverence for Him, who is so wonderful in His works, with the heartfelt desire to do the will of this God, whose is the earth and the fulness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein (Ps. 24:1), with the dread of calling down upon us the wrath of the God of the spirits of all flesh, with joyful courage in the face of the world, with an absolute refusal to make concessions to it, with a holy contempt for its foolish pursuits, with invincible strength under its persecutions, with the consciousness that it cannot move hand or foot without the influence of God; that in the last resort we have to do, not with it, but with God; that it concerns us to come to terms, not with it, but with God by true repentance; that He visits us through it ; and that an endless fulness of means are at His command to help us, when His visitation has attained its end.
If we consider attentively the God who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with deep contempt, holy wrath, and strong pity at the sight of the theory, now so wide-spread, of a degraded, half-brutalized generation. “No power without matter,” so runs the theory; “no matter without power. A power ruling over matter is a senseless thought. Power is the property of matter, and inseparable from it. The idea of an absolute creative power, which is distinct from matter, creates it, regulates it according to certain absolute laws, is a pure abstraction. “We know, on the contrary, that power is the original principle; that the Spirit, who proceeds from Him who sits above the cherubim, gives to everything its existence; that in Him it lives, and moves, and is Sabaoth and cherubim —that is our watchword in the face of such error. The original generation of men with its cherubim, however, not merely raises a protest against the false science of our day, but turns with friendly consent to that which is found in it of true science. There are here two important points of agreement. First, that the living creature, as it is represented by the cherubim, forms a distinct department of the terrestrial creation. And next, that exactly in this department the creative power of God displays itself most gloriously; that of it in a special manner the word of the apostle holds good, “The invisible things of God, His eternal power and Godhead, we see and know in His works.” Janet says in regard to this: “Let us hold by the chief facts, which hitherto have supported a distinction not to be effaced between dead or inorganic and living matter. The first and weightiest of these facts is the harmonious unity of the living and organic being; it is, to make use of an expression of Kant, the correlation of the parts to the whole.” “Organic bodies,” says the great physiologist Muller (Joh. Muller, ‘Physiol.’, v.1. p.17), “not only differ from inorganic in the mode in which their elements are combined; but the constant activity which works in the living organic matter, acts according to the laws of a rational plan in conformity with an end, because the parts are adapted to the end of the whole: and this it is exactly that marks the organism.” Kant says: “The reason of the kind of existence in each part of a living body is contained in the whole, whereas in the dead mass each part bears it in itself.” Joh. Muller, quoted by Janet, says further: “The harmony of the members necessary to the whole (in the organism) subsists not ‘without the influence of a power’ (‘the Spirit of the living’ in Ezek. 1:20, 21), ‘that works also through the whole, and depends not on the several members, and this power exists before His harmonious members of the whole are joined together’: they are first formed in the development of the embryo by the power of the germ [seed]. In a piece of mechanism constructed for a given end —for example, a clock— the whole thus adjusted may exhibit an action proceeding from the co-operation of the several parts, which are set in motion by a cause; but organic beings subsist not merely by an accidental combination of these elements, but produce the organs necessary for the whole by their own power out of the organic matter. This productive power, acting in conformity with reason, displays itself in each animal according to strict laws, as the nature of each animal requires: it is already present in the germ [seed], before the later parts of the whole are distinctly present; and it is that which actually produces the members that belong to the idea of the whole…..The remark of Theodoret, “The angels are living creatures no less than men —the latter mortal, the former immortal ;” and likewise that of Keil, “The cherubim, as living creatures, take the highest place in the realm of spirits,”— are contrary to the usage of speech, in which the living always denotes the animated earthly creation, in opposition to the lifeless. But we must not stop at this point. The fact that the designation of the cherubim as living creatures takes exactly the place of the proper name —as in Revelation the name cherubim does not occur, they are only designated as living creatures— shows that by this designation their nature must be fully expressed, that the genus does not exist beyond them, but is completely represented by them. All doubt, however, is removed by this, that the singular designation, “the living creature, alternates with that of the cherubim as living creatures” (Ezek. 1:20,21, “The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels”; 10:15, “And the cherubim were lifted up;” 10:20, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar”). This singular designation shows that in the cherubim the whole genus of the living on earth, man and beast, is represented…….Only when the cherub represents the animal world can we explain also the grouping of it with palms and flowers. According to 1st Kings 6:29, all the walls in the temple of Solomon bore “round about in carved work, cherubim, and palms, and open flowers.” It is clear as light that the cherubim must be placed under the same point of view with the palms and flowers…. There is only one way of explaining the connection of the cherubs with the palms and flowers. The cherubs are first a representation of the living; but at the same time, as the living forms the crown of the whole earthly creation, this also is represented by it……The addition of the palms and flowers serves to indicate this more comprehensive meaning, and to show that the living forms no counterpart to the rest of nature, but rather represents this also. Next to the animal creation, the vegetable kingdom is the most glorious revelation of the creative power of God. In modern science it is connected with the animal kingdom, under the head of the organic creation. But the vegetable kingdom cannot be better represented than by the palms and flowers……That the cherubs represent the living creatures on earth, and in general the terrestrial creation, is borne out by the relation in which they stand in Ezekiel to the “vault.” It is said, Ezek. 1:22, “And there was a likeness over the heads of the living creature as a vault, as the look of the crystal the terrible (the awe-inspiring, imposing, glorious), stretched out over their heads above.” This vault is the place of the throne of God……If it is certain on these grounds that the vault means the heavens, the cherubim under the vault can only represent the terrestrial creation; for heaven and earth are usually joined together in the Old Testament as the two spheres of the glorification of God…..We will conclude with the discussion of the grand vision of the cherubim in Ezekiel. But first, we will take a glance at the passing mention of the cherub in Ezek. 28:14. The prophet, in the prediction against the king of Tyre, here says to him, “Thou art an anointed cherub, that covereth.” As the cherub comprehends the multiplicity of the creatures in a unity, so the king the multiplicity of his people. The nature of the kingly office can scarcely be more aptly designated than by the name cherub…… We now turn to the sublime vision of the cherubim, which opens the prophecies of Ezekiel. The historical starting-point of this vision lies in the false hopes which had at that time seized the minds of those who remained in Jerusalem with Zedekiah at their head. A spirit of infatuation had fallen on the people. They cast the prophecies of Jeremiah to the wind, which announced the approaching completion of the judgment by the Chaldeans. Confiding in the confederacy with the Egyptian power, which must at that time have taken a lofty flight, they hoped soon to be able to free themselves altogether from the Chaldean supremacy. These hopes also were spread among the exiles, as the letter addressed to them by Jeremiah (ch. 29) shows. He therein warns them, “Let not the prophets that are among you deceive you, and hearken not to your dreams, for they prophesy falsely to you in My Name.” Soon, it was thought, will a return to their country be opened up; and to this thought was joined the other—namely, to work together for it. These illusions and excitements, which prevented the people from entering with sincerity on the path of repentance pointed out by God, Ezekiel was to oppose. This opposition was made first by the vision of the cherubim, the real import of which Grotius thus briefly and well defines : “After the long-suffering of God, all tended towards vengeance.” }}…..
(6) Biblical Commentary on Old Testament: Prophecies Ezekiel: Carl Friedrich Keil, D.D., Doctor & Professor of Theology; Translated from the German, by Rev. James Martin, B.A. volumes 1 & 2.(1885)as

Exposition: (Chapters & Verses)
First Half: Prophecies of Judgment: (1-32)
Consecration & Calling of Ezekiel to Office of Prophet: (1-3:21)
Destiny of Jerusalem & its Inhabitants: (3:22-5:17)
Judgment upon Idolatrous Places, & on Idol-worshippers: (6)
Overthrow of Israel: (7)
Vision of Destruction of Jerusalem: (8-11)
Departure of King & People; & Bread of Tears: (12)
Against False Prophets & Prophetesses: (13)
Attitude of God towards Worshippers of Idols, & Certainty of Judgments: (14)
Jerusalem, Useless Wood of Wild Vine: (15)
Ingratitude & Unfaithfulness of Jerusalem. Its Punishment & Shame: (16)
Humiliation & Exaltation of Davidic Family: (17)
Retributive Justice of God: (18)
Lamentation for Princes of Israel: (19)
Past, Present, & Future of Israel: (20)
Prophecy of Burning Forest & Sword of the Lord: (20:45 to 21:32 (Heb. Chap. 21)
Sins of Jerusalem & Israel: (22)
Oholah & Oholibah, Harlots Samaria & Jerusalem: (23)
Prediction of Destruction of Jerusalem both in Parable & by Sign: (24)
Prediction of Judgment upon Heathen Nations: (25-32)
Against Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines: (25)
Against Tyre & Sidon: (26-28)
Fall of Tyre: (26)
Lamentation over Fall of Tyre: (27)
Against Prince of Tyre: (28:1-19)
Prophecy against Sidon, & Promise for Israel: (28:20-26)
Against Egypt: (29-32)
Judgment upon Pharaoh & his People & Land: (29:1-16)
Conquest & Plundering of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar: (29:17-21)
Day of Judgment upon Egypt: (21:1-19)
Destruction of Might of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar: (30:20-26)
Glory & Fall of Asshur, Type of Egypt: (31)
Lamentations over Ruin of Pharaoh & his People: (32)
Second Half: Announcement of Salvation: (33-48)
Calling of Prophet, & his Future Attitude towards People: (33)
Calling of Prophet for Future: (33:1-20)
Preaching of Repentance after Fall of Jerusalem: (33:23-33)
Restoration of Israel, & Destruction of Gog & Magog: (34-39)
Deposition of Bad Shepherds; Collecting & Tending of Flock; & Appointment of One Good Shepherd: (34)
Devastation of Edom, & Restoration of Land of Israel: (35:1-36:15)
Salvation of Israel founded upon its Sanctification: (36:16-38)
Resurrection of Israel & Reunion as one Nation: (37)
Resurrection of Israel to new Life: (37:1-14)
Reunion of Israel as one Nation under future King David: (37:15-28)
Destruction of Gog with his great Army of Nations: (38-39)
New Kingdom of God: (40-48)
New Temple: (40-43:12)
Introduction: (40:1-4)
Outer Court, with Boundary Wall, Gate-Buildings, & Cells: (40:5-27)
Inner Court, with its Gates, Cells, and Slaughtering-Tables: (40:28-47)
Temple-house, with Porch, Side-storeys, & Backbuilding: (40:48-41:26)
Holy Cells in Court, & Extent of Holy Domain around Temple: (42)
Entrance of Glory of the Lord into New Temple: (43:1-12)
New Ordinances of Divine Worship: (43:13-46:24)
Description & Consecration of Altar of Burnt- Offering: (43:13-27)
Position of different Classes of People in relation to New Sanctuary: (44)
Holy Heave of Land & Heave-offerings of People: (45:1-17)
Instructions concerning Festal & Daily Sacrifices: (45:16-46:15)
Sacrifices for Sabbath & New Moon, Freewill-Offerings & Daily Sacrifices: (46:1-15-24)
Blessing of Land of Canaan, & Distribution of it among Tribes of Israel: (47 & 48)
River of Water of Life: (47:1-12)
Boundaries & Division of Holy Land. Description of City of God: (47:13-48:35)

{{ “Introduction: Person of Prophet: Ezekiel, (Yechzeq’el) (1:3; 24:24), ‘i.e.’. (yechazzeq ‘El), ‘God strengthens’, (Iezekiël, Yezekiël (LXX, and Book of Sirach, ch. 49:8), in the Vulgate ‘Ezechiel’, while Luther, after the example of the LXX, writes the name ‘Hesekiel’, was the son of Busi, of priestly descent, and was carried away captive into exile to Babylon in the year 599 B.C., —’i.e.’. in the eleventh (11th) year before the destruction of Jerusalem,— along with King Jehoiachin, the nobles of the kingdom, many priests, and the better class of the population of Jerusalem and of Judah (1:2; 40:1; cf. 2nd Kings 24:14 ff.; Jer. 29:1). He lived there in the northern part of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Chaboras, married, and in his own house, amidst a colony of banished Jews, in a place called Tel-Abib (1:1; 3:15, 24; 8:1; xxiv. 24:18). In the fifth (5th) year of his banishment, ‘i.e.’. 595 B.C., he was called to be a prophet of the Lord, and laboured in this official position, as may be shown, twenty-two (22) years; for the latest of his prophecies is dated in the twenty-seventh (27th) year of his exile, ‘i.e.’. 572 B.C. (29:17)……Times of the Prophet: Ezekiel, like Daniel, is a prophet of the exile, but in a different fashion from the latter, who had been already carried away prisoner before him to Babylon on the first capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of Jehoiakim, and who lived there upwards of seventy (70 ) years at the Babylonian and Medo-Persian court, and who held from time to time very important offices of State. Daniel was placed by God in this high position, which afforded him a view of the formation and evolution of the world-kingdom, in order that from this standpoint he might be enabled to see the development of the world kingdoms in the struggle against the kingdom of God, and to predict the indestructible power and glory of the latter kingdom, which overcomes all the powers of the world. Ezekiel, on the other hand, was appointed a watcher over the exiled nation of Israel, and was in this capacity to continue the work of the earlier prophets, especially that of Jeremiah, with whom he in several ways associates himself in his prophecies; to preach to his contemporaries the judgment and salvation of God, in order to convert them to the Lord their God. —Rightly to understand his work as a prophet, the ripe fruit of which lies before us in his prophetic writings, we must not only keep in view the importance of the exile for the development of the kingdom of God, but also form a clear conception of the relations amidst which Ezekiel carried on his labours. What the Lord had caused to be announced by Moses to the tribes of Israel while they were yet standing on the borders of the Promised Land, and preparing to take possession of it, viz. that if they should persistently transgress His commands, He would not only chastise them with heavy punishments, but would finally drive them out of the land which they were about to occupy, and disperse them among all nations (Lev. 26:14-45; Deut. 28:15-68), —this threatening, repeated by all the prophets after Moses, had been already executed by the Assyrians upon the ten tribes, who had revolted from the house of David, and was now in process of fulfilment by the Chaldeans upon the kingdom of Judah also. In the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, for the first time invaded Judah, captured Jerusalem, made Jehoiakim tributary, and carried away to Babylon a number of Israelitish youths of noble birth and of the blood-royal, amongst whom was Daniel, along with a portion of the vessels of the temple, in order that these youths might be trained up for the service of his court (Dan. 1:1-7). With this invasion of the Chaldeans begin the seventy (70) years of Chaldean servitude and exile in Babylon, predicted by Jeremiah. As Jehoiakim, so early as three (3) years afterwards, revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, the latter, after a lengthened siege, took Jerusalem a second time, in the third month of the reign of Jehoiachin, and carried away into captivity to Babylon, along with the captive monarch and the members of his court, the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem, a great number of priests, warriors, carpenters, and smiths, leaving behind in the land only the meaner portion of the people, over whom he appointed as his vassal King Mattaniah, the uncle of the banished monarch, whose name he changed to Zedekiah (2nd Kings 24:10-17; Jer. 29:2). By this removal of the heart and strength of the nation the power of the kingdom of Judah was broken; and although Nebuchadnezzar did not at that time ‘destroy’ it, but still allowed it to remain as a subject kingdom under his sway, yet its existence could not be of any long duration. Judah had fallen too deeply to recognise in the calamities which she had suffered the chastening hand of her God, and to bow herself repentantly under His mighty arm. Instead of listening to the voice of the prophet Jeremiah, and bearing the Chaldean yoke in patience (2nd Chron. 36:12), both monarch and people placed their trust in the assistance of Egypt, and Zedekiah broke the oath of fealty which he had sworn to the king of Babylon. To punish this perfidy, Nebuchadnezzar again marched against Jerusalem, and by the capture and burning of the city and temple in the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah’s reign put an end to the kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah, who had fled from the beleaguered city, was taken by the Chaldeans, and brought with his sons to Riblah into the presence of King Nebuchadnezzar, who first caused the sons of Zedekiah to be put to death before the eyes of their father; next, Zedekiah himself to be deprived of sight, and then commanded the blind monarch to be conducted in chains to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). Many military officers and priests of rank were also put to death at Riblah; while those who had been taken prisoners at Jerusalem, along with the deserters and a great portion of the rest of the people, were led away into exile to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). By this catastrophe the Old Testament theocracy lost its political existence; the covenant people were now driven out of their own land amongst the heathen, to bear the punishment of their obstinate apostasy from the Lord their God. Nevertheless this dispersion among the heathen was no entire rejection of Israel; it was merely a ‘suspension’, and not an ‘annihilation’, of the covenant of grace. Man’s unfaithfulness cannot destroy the faithfulness of God. “In spite of this terrible judgment, brought down upon them by the heaviest transgressions, Israel was, and remained,” —as Auberlen (The Prophet Daniel, p. 27, 2d ed.) well remarks,— “the chosen people, through whom God was still to carry out; His intentions towards humanity. His gifts and calling may not be repented of ” (Rom. 11:29). Even ‘after’ the Babylonian exile the theocracy was not again restored; the covenant people did not after their return again recover their independence, but remained, with the exception of the short period when under the Maccabees they won for themselves their freedom, in constant dependence upon the heathen world-rulers, until, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, they were completely dispersed among all the nations of the earth. The kingdom of God, however, was not ‘really’ to perish along with the external theocracy; it was only to pass into a new phase of development, which was intended to be the medium of transition towards its renewal and perfection in that kingdom of God which was to be founded by Christ. To pave the way to this end, and at the same time to serve as a witness to the exiles, that Israel, notwithstanding its dispersion among the heathen, still remained God’s people, the Lord raised up in Ezekiel, the son of a priest, a prophet of uncommon power and energy in the midst of the captives, “one who raised his voice aloud, like a trumpet, and showed to Israel its misdeeds, —whose whole manifestation furnished the most powerful testimony that the Lord was still amongst His people; who was himself a temple of the Lord, before whom the visible temple, which yet remained standing for a short time at Jerusalem, sank back into its nothingness; a spiritual Samson, who seized with mighty arm the pillars of the idol temple, and dashed it to the ground; a powerful, gigantic nature, which was fitted by that very qualification to effectually subdue the Babylonian spirit of the time, which delighted in powerful, gigantic, and grotesque forms; standing alone, but equal to a hundred of the sons of the prophets ” (Hengstenberg’s Christol. II. p. 531).”……
“Book of Ezekiel: The collection of the prophecies placed together in this book, as forming a complete unity, falls into two main divisions : —I. Announcements of judgment upon Israel and the heathen nations, ch. 1-32; II. Announcements of salvation for Israel, ch. 33-48. Each of these main divisions is subdivided into two sections. The first, namely, contains the prophecies of judgment (a) upon Jerusalem and Israel, ch. 3:22-24:3; (b) upon the heathen nations, ch. 25-32. The second main division contains (c) the predictions of the redemption and restoration of Israel, and the downfall of the heathen world-power, ch. 33-39; (d) the prophetic picture of the re-formation and exaltation of the kingdom of God, ch. 40-48; and the entire collection opens with the solemn dedication of Ezekiel to the prophetic office, ch. 1:1-3:21. The prophecies of the first, third, and fourth parts are throughout arranged in chronological order; those of the second part —the threatenings predicted against the heathen nations— are disposed according to their actual subject-matter. This is attested by the chronological data in the superscriptions, and confirmed by the contents of the whole of the groups of prophecies in the first three parts. The first part contains the following chronological notices: the fifth (5th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (1:2) as the time of Ezekiel’s call to the office of prophet, and of the first predictions regarding Jerusalem and Israel; then the sixth (6th) (8:1), seventh (7th) (20:1), and ninth (9th) years of the captivity of that monarch (24:1). The second part contains the predictions against seven foreign nations, of which those against Tyre fall in the eleventh (11th) (26:1), those against Egypt in the tenth (10th) (29:1), twenty-seventh (27th) (29:17), eleventh (11th) (30:20 and 31:1), and twelfth (12th) years of the exile. Of the two last parts, each contains only one chronological notice, namely, ch. 33:21, the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, ‘i.e.’. one (1)year after the destruction of Jerusalem; and ch. 40:1, the twenty-fifth (25th) year of the captivity, or the fourteenth (14th) after the destruction of Jerusalem. The remaining prophecies, which bear at their head no note of time, connect themselves closely as to their contents with those which are furnished with chronological data, so that they belong to the same period with those. From this it appears that the prophecies of the first part wholly, those of the second part to a great extent, date before the destruction of Jerusalem; those of the third and fourth parts proceed from the time after this catastrophe. This chronological relationship is in favour of the view that the prophecies against foreign nations, ch. 25-32, are not —as the majority of expositors suppose— to be assigned to the second, but rather to the first half of the book. This view is confirmed, on the one hand, by the contents of the prophecies, inasmuch as these, without an exception, announce only the downfall of the heathen nations and kingdoms, making no reference to the future forgiveness and conversion of the residue of these nations, and through this very peculiarity connect themselves closely with the prophecies of threatening against Israel in the first part; on the other hand, by the resemblance which exists between ch. 30:1-20 and ch. 3:16-21, compared with ch. 18:19-32, and which leaves no doubt upon the point that ch. 33:1-20 marks out to the prophet the task which was to occupy his attention after the destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently forms the introduction to the second half of his prophecies. —For further remarks upon the contents and subdivisions of the book, see the expositions in the introductory observations to the individual sections and chapters.” }}

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Christian Biblical Reflections.28

(Christian Biblical Reflections.28. Here is submission or part 28 of CBR, pages 236 (232)-271 , of the Book of Ezekiel. mjmselim.Dec.2019.)
Here is the Link in my OneDrive to the Adobe, Word 635, & WordPad files of the completed Major Prophets Chapter IV. These files will show the original format of the work, which is not able to be replicated in WordPress. I have also put the two files, pdf & word of volume 1 in the folder. In Ezekiel of have used the colored texts more frequent than in Isaiah or Jeremiah, as very helpful to follow the prophetic word of the Son of Man. I have again gone through the chapter to correct errors. I had circulated a few weeks ago a Chronological Chart of 100 years to answer I question sent to me; that chart I fond later had many errors, and some of a serious kind; they are corrected in this completed work. I encourage those who I sent the chart to replace it with what is in this work.
I tried to complete the work by December 7th, my 50th year in Christ. I expect to finish Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets (Chapter V, the last chapter of the Old Testament Books) within 3 months. If my health permits in the will & grace of God I would like to finish the entire New Testament within 6 months after chapter 5. I have again altered my style in Ezekiel as a necessity. I have tried to limit any speculative comments or views from this Book.

CBR files in PDF & Word:
https://1drv.ms/u/s!AgcwUEJ0moRUg_Ua3IHBwOxi9NWARA?e=2b3BsD

Here is the link to my Internet Archive.org library page for those interested:
https://archive.org/details/@mikemjm

 

 

CHAPTER IV
Part IV: ISAIAH, JEREMIAH & LAMENTATIONS, & EZEKIEL.
Part IV: ISAIAH – EZEKIEL: Prophetical Books: Three: Major-Greater-Longer Prophets.

BOOK OF EZEKIEL: Prophet-Priest.

In the 30th year, 4th month, 5th day, Ezekiel was among the captives by the Chebar River: the heavens were opened, He saw Visions of God. In the 5th of the month of the 5th year of King Jehoiachin’s Captivity: The Lord’s Word came to the Priest Ezekiel benBuzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the Chebar River; the Lord’s Hand was on him. (Before we continue with the Visions of God, let us first determine, or explore, the 30th year of Ezekiel. It is one of three possibilities. Ezekiel’s age as a Priest according to the Law. The year of the Captivity of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. The year of the 70 Years of Captivity, or another regal or Captivity like that of Jerusalem, etc. In order to solve this, let us make a Century Timeline, 100 years, without assigning a chronological date to the years; we list only Biblical References as determined by their connection to the known regal years. An example of this method is furnished in the Text: the 30th Year is 5th Year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity; being careful not to confuse Jehoiachin with Jehoiakim, or the Regal Years with the Captivity Years. I’ve had to revise this Table to correct errors in Ezekiel’s timeline; which is conflicting among the different dates & conjectures as to the Text. I have chosen to add the chapters & verses of Ezekiel’s recorded dates in in relations to King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. Unfortunately the those who assign the dates of persons or events that is not given in the Text create added discrepancy & confusion. We should remember all dates are approximate, and that often an event occurs as part of two dates, as a birth in a part of a year, as we have seen in the chronicles of the Kings of Judah & Israel; or even a reign of 3 months counted as a regal year, so 2 kings may each share a regal year which be only 6 months. )

Captivity Years & Regal Years:

001: 12th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Book of Zephaniah)
002: 13th yr: King Josiah’s reign. Jeremiah begins to prophesy (for 40 yrs). (Jeremiah @ 20; 80 years after Isaiah’s death or ministry ceased.)
003: 14th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
004: 15th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
005: 16th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Ezekiel born.)
006: 17th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
007: 18th yr: King Josiah’s reign. Josiah @ 26. Josiah’s reforms in Jerusalem & Judah; Temple repaired; Book of the Law & Covenant found in the Temple; Great Passover observed.
008: 19th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
009: 20th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
010: 21st yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Ezekiel’s @ 5.)
011: 22nd yr: King Josiah’s reign.
012: 23rd yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Jeremiah @ 30)
013: 24th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
014: 25th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
015: 26th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Ezekiel @ 10.)
016: 27th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Babylonians & Medes conquer Assyria.)
017: 28th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Nineveh fell to Nabopolassar & Cyaxares, Nahum 2.)
018: 29th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
019: 30th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
020: 31st yr: King Josiah’s reign. Josiah dies @ 40 in battle against Pharaoh Necho at Megiddo. Jeremiah laments Josiah. King Shallum’s reign 3 mnths. Pharaoh Necho enthrones Jehoiakim. (Ezekiel @ 15.)
021: 1st yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. (Jeremiah’s Word from the Lord.)
022: 2nd yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. Jeremiah’s 20th yr of ministry. (Jerusalem assaulted.) (Jeremiah @ 40)
023: 3rd yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. He rebels against King of Babylon. Pharaoh Neco defeated (battle at Carchemish). King Nabopolassar dies. King Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem.
024: 4th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 1st yr: King Nebuchad(n,r)ezzar’s reign. 1st yr: 70 Years Captivity Begins. Jeremiah’s Prophecies recorded in a Book. (Jeremiah’s 23rd yr of ministry) (Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (in their late teens or early twenties) & other Jews taken captive to Babylon) (Daniel @ 20)
025: 5th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 2nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.) 2nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (King Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of Great Image of an Imperial Man; Daniel interprets the Dream of Empires or Kingdoms: Babylon, Medes-Persians, Greeks, & Romans. Daniel made Ruler of Babylon’s Province.) (Ezekiel @ 20.)
026: 6th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 3rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 3rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
027: 7th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 4th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 4th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
028: 8th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 5th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 5th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Baruch reads Jeremiah’s Words from the Book or Scroll.)
029: 9th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 6th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 6th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
030: 10th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 7th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 7th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (3,023 Jews deported)
031: 11th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. King Jehoiachin reigns 3 mnths; he is deported. 8th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 8th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. Exile, Deportation, & Captivity. (10,000 captive Jews deported) (7,000 Jewish warriors & 1,000 craftsmen deported) Mattaniah, Jehoiachin’s uncle, enthroned; renamed Zedekiah. (Ezekiel taken captive to Babylon @ age 25.)
032: 1st yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 1st yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 9th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 9th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Nebuchadnezzar’s army besieged Jerusalem) (Jeremiah’s Wooden Neck Yokes; The Lord’s Word to the Remnant of 70 Years Captivity must be fulfilled till Israel’s Restoration to Jerusalem.) (Jeremiah @ 50)
033: 2nd yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 2nd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 10th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 10th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Jerusalem smitten.)
034: 3rd yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 3rd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 11th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 11th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 30)
035: 4th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 12th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 12th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. 4th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity.
036: 5th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 5th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 13th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 13th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s Visions of God at the River Chebar (by the Euphrates River). Ezekiel’s ministry begins @ 30 yrs of age as Priest for 20 yrs. Ezek. Ch. 1-7 )
037: 6th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 6th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 14th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 14th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 2nd-3rd year:) (Ezek. Ch. 8-19)
038: 7th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 7th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 15th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 15th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Babylonians destroy Jerusalem & Temple, demolish walls, burn the gates, 9th of Av.) (Ezekiel’s 4th year @ 33-34) (Ezek. Ch. 20-23)
039: 8th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 8th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 16th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 16th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 5th year @ 34-35.)
040: 9th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 9th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 17th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 17th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Jerusalem besieged) (Ezekiel’s 6th year @ 35-36: Judah’s Elders sit with Ezekiel. Ezekiel’s Visions of God in Jerusalem of a Man Clothed in Linen.) (Ezek. Ch. 24-25 ?.)
041: 10th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 10th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 18th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 18th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Jeremiah’s Word while imprisoned) (832 Jews deported) (Jeremiah buys by Redemption the Field.) (Zedekiah & the Jewish nobles free the Jewish slaves & servants; shortly after reenslaved them.) (Ezekiel’s 7th year @ 36: Israel’s Elders inquire to Ezekiel) (3,023 persons from Jerusalem to Babylon.) (Ezek. Ch. 29:1-16; 30:1, 19 ?)
042: 11th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 11th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 19th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.19th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. Jerusalem besieged & captured by King of Babylon. Zedekiah’s sons & court killed, his eyes put out, he is led captive to Babylon; Zephaniah the 2nd Priest put to death. Jerusalem ‘s Temple, Palace, & great houses pillaged & torched. Nebuzaradan, Guard Captain in Jerusalem. Poorest of common folks as a remnant to tend to the land. Things of gold & silver transported to Babylon; 832 Jewish Captives deported to Babylon. Gedaliah appointed Governor of Judah & Jerusalem; & he is murdered. Jews flee to Egypt in fear, with Jeremiah & Baruch. (Jeremiah’s ministry ends at the Captivity of Jerusalem in the 19th yr of King Nebuchadnezzar & the 19th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.) (Ezekiel’s 8th yr: Ch. 33 (ch. 34-39 ?) (Ezekiel: Ch. 32:1-16) (Jeremiah @ 60)
043: 20th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 12th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 20th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 9th year: The Lord’s Word of King of Babylon in Jerusalem & Parable of the Caldron.) (Jeremiah imprisoned.) (Ezekiel’s wife died; he was about 39.) (Ezekiel: Ch. 33 (ch. 34-39 ?) (Ezekiel: Ch. 32:1-16) (Ezekiel: Ch. 32:17-32)
044: 21st yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 13th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 21st yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 10th year: The Lord’s Word against King Pharaoh & Egypt) (Daniel @ 40)
045: 22nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 14th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 22nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 11th year: The Lord’s Word against King Pharaoh of Egypt. The Lord’s Word to King Pharaoh of Egypt. The Lord’s Word against Tyre & the King of Babylon.)
046: 23rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 15th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 23rd yr of 70 Years Captivity. (Nebuzaradan, Guard Captain, deports 745 Jews; total now at 4,600) (Ezekiel’s 12th year @ 40: the Lord’s Word of Lamentation of King Pharaoh of Egypt. The Lord’s Word of Tears for the Egyptians. Jerusalem Jew escapes & tells Ezekiel Jerusalem is attacked & the Lord’s Word to Ezekiel.)
047: 24th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 16th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 24th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 13th year.)
048: 25th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 17th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 25th yr: 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s last dated prophecy.) (Ezekiel’s 14th yr @ 44: Visions of God in Israel, (14th yr after Jerusalem’s assaulted).
049: 26th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 18th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. (King Nebuchadnezzar 26th yr; he is driven insane & put out as a wild beast, acting like a wolf or wild dog, for 7 years.) 26th yr: 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 15th year @ 45:)
050: 27th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 19th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 27th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 15th-16th yr @ 45-46: The Lord’s Word of Egypt conquered by the King of Babylon.) (Ezekiel’s dated ministry ends.)
051: 28th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 20th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 28th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 17th yr @ 47)
052: 29th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 21st yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 29th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 18th yr @ 48)
053: 30th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 22nd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 30th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 18th-19th yr @ 48-49.)
054: 31st yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 23rd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 31st yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
055: 32nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 24th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 32nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (King Nebuchadnezzar recovers from his madness & is restored to the throne.) (Daniel @ 50)
056: 25th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 33rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 33rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (20th yr of King Astyages (Artaxerxes); Commandment to Rebuild Jerusalem.) . (Ezekiel @ 50: Ch. 40-48)
057: 26th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 34th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 34th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
058: 27th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 35th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 35th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel @ 52: Ch. 29:17-21)
059: 28th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 36th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 36th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
060: 29th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 37th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 37th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. ((Ezekiel @ 55 if he lived.))
061: 30th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 38th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 38th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
062: 31st yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 39th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 39th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
063: 32nd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 40th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 40th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
064: 33rd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 41st yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 41st yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
065: 34th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 42nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 42nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 60)
066: 35th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 43rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 43rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
067: 36th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 44th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 44th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
068: 37th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 45th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 45th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. King Jehoiachin released from prison by new King Evil-merodach of Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar dies.
069: 46th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
070: 47th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
071: 48th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
072: 49th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
073: 50th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
074: 51st yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Nabonidus)
075: 52nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 70)
076: 53rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
077: 54th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
078: 55th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
079: 56th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
080: 57th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
081: 58th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
082: 58th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
083: 60th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
084: 61st yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
085: 62nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 80)
086: 63rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
087: 64th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
088: 65th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Fall of Babylon. Persian Kingdom in Babylon. King Cyrus, decrees Jews to return to Jerusalem to Rebuild City & Temple) (Dan. 9.) (Daniel @ 83)
089: 66th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
090: 67th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Belshazzar) (Daniel @ 85)
091: 68th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. 3rd yr: King Cyrus of Persia.
092: 69th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Nehemiah rebuilds Wall in Jerusalem)
093: 70th yr of the 70 Years Captivity Ends. (Belshazzar killed. Darius the Median (Astyages) takes the Throne. (Astyages (Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes) marries Esther.). Cyrus, Astyages son, Decree rebuilding of Temple. Daniel’s Vision of the 70 Sevens. Temple Foundation laid. Nehemiah in Jerusalem.) (Zerubbabel & Remnant Returns to Jerusalem. Feast of Tabernacles observed.) (1st yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.) (Daniel dies @ 88.)
094: (1st yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
095: (2nd yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
096: (3rd yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
097: (4th yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
098: (5th yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
099: (6th yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.) (King Cyrus dies.) (Cambyses makes Nehemiah Governor in Jerusalem.)
100: (Persian rule.) (City & Temple being Rebuilt. Ezra & Nehemiah.) [After this date Darius Hystaspis enthroned & reigns for some 30 years (Herodotus). Temple is Rebuilt & Dedicated. Haggai, Zechariah, & Malachi closes the Old Testament about 400 B.C.] [7th yr of Astyages (Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes) reign.]
The Table shows that Ezekiel’s 30th Year cannot be assigned to any known Regal Years except that of Jehoiachin which was his Captivity Years & coincides with Nebuchadnezzar’s 9th Regal Years, and the 9th Year of the 70 Years Captivity (the two always matching). If we attempt to place Ezekiel’s 30th Year to the Captivity or to Nebuchadnezzar it becomes impossible. Now the Reign of King Jehoiachin in Jerusalem was only 3 months, that year his uncle Mattaniah was enthroned by the King of Babylon, and renamed Zedekiah, whose Regal Years were 11, which is the same as the Captivity Years of King Jehoiachin. As long as King Jehoiachin lived in his Captivity his Regal Years were valid as the rightful King of Jerusalem and must be accounted for or recorded or chronicled. Ezekiel would date his Visions relative to any of these Years. In addition to the Years of the Kings, of the Captivity, his own Ministry Years would be a valid dating reference. Only the verse & context can clarify which of these is meant. In 1:1 30th year may be his age, but in 8:1 the 6th year cannot; understanding the date becomes important in the interpretation of the Text. We return to the Visions.

Ezekiel saw a Stormy Wind from the North, a Great Cloud, with Fire enfolding itself with Brightness above & around, in it Glowing Metal out of the Fire; out of it came the Likeness of 4 Living-Ones (Creatures, Chaioth, Zöön, Animals, Tiere, Terrestrial); they appeared in likeness of Man (Human Form); each had 4 Faces (16 total), & 4 Wings (16 total); & Straight Feet; the Sole of their Feet like the Sole of a Calf’s Foot; & they Sparkled like Burnished (Polished) Brass; Human Hands under their Wings on their 4 Sides; all 4 with Faces & Wings; their Wings joined together; they turned not in movement, only straight forward. The likeness of their Faces that each one had: Human Face, Lion Face on the right side, Ox Face on the left side, & Eagle Face. Their Faces & Wings were separate above; 2 of each were joined to each other, & 2 covered their Bodies. Each Creature moved straight forward: wherever the Spirit went they went without turning. The likeness of the Living Creatures: their appearance like Burning Coals of Fire, like Torches (Flames): going up & down among the Living Creatures, Bright Fire, from the Fire came a Flash of Lightning. The Living Creatures ran or darted & returned as the appearance of a Flash of Lightning. Ezekiel watched the Living Creatures: One Wheel on earth beside the Living Creatures for each of the 4 Faces (4 wheels in all). The appearance of the Wheels & their work was like Beryl: all 4 had one likeness; their appearance & work was if a Wheel within a Wheel. When they moved in their 4 directions they never turn. Their Rims were high & dreadful; all 4 had Rims full of Eyes all around; when the Living Creatures moved, the Wheels moved beside them; when the Living Creatures rose from the earth, the Wheels rose. Wherever the Spirit moved, they moved, following the Spirit: The Wheels rose with them, for the Spirit of the Living Creature was in the Wheels. Above the Living Creature was the likeness of a Firmament (Expanse, Heaven), like the terrible Crystal to look on, stretched over above their heads. Below the Firmament their Wings were straight, toward each other: each had 2 Wings covering this side & the other side of their Bodies. In movement Ezekiel heard the noise of their Wings like the sound of Great Waters, like the Voice of Shaddai (the Almighty), a sound of tumult, like the noise of an army (host): when the Living Creatures stood still, they let down their Wings. Above the Firmament that was above their Heads was the likeness of a Throne, as the appearance of a Sapphire Stone; on the likeness of the Throne was a likeness in appearance of a Man on it above; Ezekiel saw as if it were Glowing Metal, as the appearance of Fire within it all around, from the appearance of His Loins & upward (to His Chest), & from His Loins downward (to His Feet), he saw as it were the appearance of Fire, and there was Brightness all around Him; as the appearance of the Bow in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the Brightness all around. This was the appearance of the likeness of the Glory of Jehovah. When Ezekiel saw it, he fell on his face, and he heard a Voice of One Who spoke.
The Voice said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, stand up, I will speak to yu’. The Spirit entered into him when He spoke, and set him on his feet, and he heard the One speaking to him, saying: ‘Son of Man, go to BeniIsrael, to rebellious nations, rebelling against Me: they & their fathers have transgressed Me even to this day. Impudent & stiff hearted Children (Sons): Go & say to them, the Lord says: perhaps they will listen, maybe reject, (they are a Rebellious House), yet they will know that there is a Prophet among them. Son of Man, fear not them or their words, though briers & thorns are with yu, and you live with scorpions; fear not their words, nor be dismayed at their looks; that Rebellious House’! ‘Son of Man, listen, be not like that Rebellious House: open yur mouth, and eat what I give yu’. Ezekiel saw a Hand extended to him with a Book Scroll; He spread the Scroll before him: it was written on both sides, with the writings of lamentations & mourning & woe. (The Book Scroll was the prophetic word & message from the Lord.)
He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, eat what yu find; eat this Scroll, then go speak to the House of Israel’. Ezekiel opened his mouth to eat the Scroll. He said to him: ‘Son of Man, let yur belly eat, fill yur stomach with the Scroll’. He ate; it was sweet as honey in his mouth. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, go to the House of Israel, and speak My Words to them. Yu are not sent to a people of a strange speech & difficult language, hard to understand; if I sent yu to them they would listen. The House of Israel will not listen to yu; because they will not listen to Me: The House of Israel has a hard forehead & stiff heart. I have made yur face hard against their faces, yur forehead hard against their foreheads; an adamant harder than flint is yur forehead, be not afraid or dismayed at the Rebellious House. Son of Man, receive My Words in yur heart, hear with yur ears. Go to them of the Captivity, to yur people’s children, speak & tell them, the Lord says; maybe they’ll listen, maybe not’. The Spirit lifted Ezekiel, and took him away; in bitterness, in the heat of his spirit; the Lord’s Hand was strong on him. Ezekiel came to them of the Captivity at Tel-abib, near the River Chebar, where they dwelt; he sat there overwhelmed among them 7 days; afterwards the Lord’s Word came to him: ‘Son of Man, yu are a Watchman to Israel’s House: Listen to My Words, and warn them. When I say to the wicked, yu will die; and yu don’t warn him against his wicked way to save his life; he will die in his iniquity; but his blood I will require at yur hand. But if yu warn the wicked, and he refuses to turn, he will die in his iniquity; but yur soul is delivered. When a righteous man turns from his righteousness to iniquity to stumble; he’ll die because yu did not warn him, he’ll die in his sin, his righteous deeds done is forgotten; but his blood his required from yu. But if yu warn him not to sin, and he obeys, he will live & yu are delivered’. The Lord’s Hand was on Ezekiel, saying: ‘Go to the Plain, I will talk to yu there’. He went; the Lord’s Glory stood there, which he saw by the River Chebar; and he fell on his face. The Spirit entered into him, and stood him up, and spoke to him: ‘Go, shut yurself in yur house. But, Son of Man, they will put bands on yu to bind yu, that yu no longer freely move among them: yur tongue will cling to the roof of yur mouth that yu cannot speak or reprove them; that Rebellious House! When I speak with yu, yur mouth will open to say to them: The Lord Jehovah says: Let the hearer hear; let the he who refuses, let him refuse; that Rebellious House!’
‘Son of Man, take a Tile & lay it down, draw (inscribe) on it a City, Jerusalem: lay siege against it, build forts, cast mounds, set camps, & place battering rams all around it. Take an Iron Pan, set a Wall of Iron between yu & the City: yur face against it with siege; as a Sign to Israel’s House. Lay on yur left side with the Iniquity of Israel’s House on it: the number of days yu lay yu bear their Iniquity. The Years of their Iniquity are the number Days, 390 Days (thus 390 Years from the Divided Kingdom to the Captivity) to bear the Iniquity of Israel’s House. After these days, lay on yur right side to bear the Iniquity of Judah’s House: 40 Days (thus 40 Years till the Captivity ends), each Day for a Year. Lay siege against Jerusalem, yur arm uncovered & prophesy against it; lay bands on, don’t turn from side to side, till the days of siege are accomplished. Take wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, and spelt, mix them in a bowl to make bread to eat for the 390 Days on yur side. The food yu eat by weight at 20 shekels a day, to eat from time to time. Drink yur water by measure, 1/6th of a hin (about a quart), from time to time. Eat it as barley cakes, baked over human dung, in their sight. The Lord said: Israel’s children will eat their bread unclean, among the Gentiles where I drove them’. Ezekiel objected to the Lord that he has never eaten meat of unslaughtered animals or torn by beasts; never any abominable flesh. The Lord told him to substitute human dung to cow’s dung in baking his bread. ‘The Lord said to Ezekiel: Son of Man, I will break the staff of bread in Jerusalem: they’ll eat bread by weight in fear, they’ll drink water by measure in dismay: that they want bread & water, and be dismayed at each other as they pine away in their iniquity’.
‘Son of Man, take a Sharp Sword, a Barber’s Razor, to shave yur head & beard; weigh the hair in scales, and divide the hair. 1/3rd burn in fire in the City, when the days of siege are fulfilled; another 1/3rd smite with the sword around it; 1/3rd scatter in the wind, I will draw out the sword after them. Some of it tie to yur skirts. Take some of these to throw in the fire to burn; from there a fire will go into Israel’s House. The Lord says: This is Jerusalem; I’ve set her amid the Gentiles & countries all around her; for they have rejected My Ordinances and have not walk in My Statutes. The Lord Jehovah says: I am against yu; I will execute judgments amid yu in the sight of the Gentiles. I will do in yu what I’ve never done, or ever do again, because of yur abominations. The fathers will eat yur sons, sons will eat their fathers; I’ll execute judgments on yu; yur Remnant I’ll scatter to the winds. As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, because yu defiled My Sanctuary with yur detestable things with yur abominations, I’ll reduce yu; I will not spare, or pity. 1/3rd will die by pestilence, consumed with fire; 1/3rd by the sword; and 1/3rd I’ll scatter to the winds, pursued by the sword. My Anger accomplished, My Wrath toward them at rest, I’ll be comforted; they’ll know that Jehovah has spoken in My Zeal, that I’ve spent My Wrath on them. I’ll make yu a desolation & reproach to the Gentiles, in the sight of travelers. It will be a reproach & taunt, instruction & astonishment, to the Gentiles nearby, to execute judgments in anger & wrath, & wrathful rebukes: (I the Lord have spoken;) I’ll send evil arrows of famine for destruction, to destroy you: I’ll increase famine & break your supply of bread; I’ll send famine & wild animals to bereave; pestilence & blood: I’ll bring the sword on yu: Jehovah has spoken!’
The Lord’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, set yur face toward the Israel’s Mountains, and prophesy to them: Mountains of Israel, hear the Lord Jehovah’s Word: He says to mountains, hills, watercourses, and valleys: I will bring a sword on you to destroy your High Places. Your altars demolished; your sun-images shattered; I’ll cast down your slain before your idols; the dead of Israel’s children spread before their idols; your bones scattered around your altars. The cities of your habitations laid waste; high places desolate; altars waste & desolate; idols broken & destroyed; sun-images hewn down, and your works abolished; your slain fallen: you’ll know I am Jehovah. A Remnant will survive, some will escape the Gentiles’ sword, being scattered throughout the countries. The escaped Remnant will remember Me among the Gentiles in their Captivity, that I’ve been broken by the lewd heart in departing from Me with their harlot eyes for idols; ashamed of themselves for their abominations. They’ll know I am Jehovah; I have not spoken of this evil in vain. The Lord Jehovah says: Strike with yur hand, stamp yur foot, saying, Because of the evil abominations of Israel’s House: they’ll fall by the sword, by famine, and by pestilence. Far away by pestilence, at home by the sword; the Remnant besieged die famished: My Wrath accomplished. You’ll know I am Jehovah: their slain with their idols around their altars, on high hills, mountain tops, green trees, and thick oaks, the places where they offered sweet savor to their idols. I will extend My Hand on them to desolate & waste the land, from the Wilderness toward Diblah, throughout all their habitations: they’ll know I am Jehovah.’
The Lord’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, the Lord Jehovah says to the Land of Israel: The end on the four corners of the Land is come. The end has come with My Anger to judge according to yur ways & abominations. I’ll not spare or pity because yur ways & abominations: Know I am Jehovah’. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘Calamity & termination is coming; doom on the inhabitants of the Land; time & day is near for tumult & sorrow on the mountains. I’ll soon pour out My wrath, and accomplish My Anger against yu, judge yur ways with yur abominations without pity till yu know I Jehovah do smite. The day comes with doom, the rod blooms, pride buds; violence on the rod of wickedness; nothing! no multitude, no wealth, and no eminency. The time & day comes: no joy to buyers nor seller mourn for the wrath on all. The seller will not return purchase while he lives; the Vision touches everyone; none returns, none to strengthen himself in his iniquity of life. The trumpet is blown, they are ready, but none goes to battle because of My Wrath. Sword outside, pestilence & famine inside to devour. A Remnant will escape to the mountains like doves of the valleys moaning in iniquity. Feeble hands, weak knees like water; girded with sackcloth, covered with horror, shamed faces, and heads bald. They toss their silver in the streets, their gold as unclean, useless for deliverance in the Day of Jehovah’s Wrath: souls unsatisfied, empty stomachs, the stumbling blocks of their iniquity. The beauty of his ornament set in majesty, made into abominations & detestable things: it is all unclean. It is prey for strangers, spoil for the wicked to profane. Make chains for the bloody crimes of the Land, and the City full of violence. The worst of the Gentiles to possess their houses, pride of the strong will cease, holy places profaned. Destruction comes, they seek peace, there is none. Mischief on mischief, rumor on rumor; they’ll seek vision from the prophet, the Law will perish from the priest, counsel from elders. The King mourns, the prince clothed with desolation, the people’s hands of the Land troubled: I’ll judge their ways & desires; they’ll know I am Jehovah’.

In the 6th year, in the 6th, on the 5th of the month, Ezekiel was at home, Judah’s Elders were with him, the Lord’s Hand fell on him: He saw a Form in appearance of Fire; from His Loins downward (to His Feet), Fire; from His Loins upward (to His Chest) brightness as Glowing Metal. He extended the form of a Hand, took him by the hair of his head; the Spirit raised him between earth & heaven, brought him in the Visions of God to Jerusalem, to the door of the gate of the Inner Court facing north; to the Seat of the Image of Provoking Jealousy. The Glory of the God of Israel was there like the appearance he saw in the plain. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, look toward the north and see at the entrance of the gate of the Altar this Image of Jealousy. Again, Son of Man, see their deeds; the great abominations Israel’s House do, that I should desert My Sanctuary? Again, there is more abominations.’ He brought him to the door of the Court to see a hole in the wall; and told him to go in, and see the wicked abominations they practice. He went in and observed reptiles & insects, abominable beasts, and the idols of Israel’s House portrayed on the wall all around. 70 Elders of Israel’s House stood before them; among them was Jaazaniah benShaphan, each with a censer in his hand; the odor of the cloud of incense ascended. He said to him: ‘Son of Man, watch what the Elders Israel’s House do in the dark, each in his chambers of imagery; saying, Jehovah sees not, He has forsaken the Land’. He told him: ‘Again, see other great abominations’: He brought him to the door of the gate of Jehovah’s House northward to see the women sitting weeping for Tammuz. He told him: ‘Look, Son of Man, again greater abominations than these’. He brought him into Inner Court of Jehovah’s House, to the door of Jehovah’s Temple, between the porch & the Altar, 25 men, backs to Jehovah’s Temple, at the door of Jehovah’s Temple, their faces towards the east, worshipping the sun eastward. He told him: ‘Son of Man do yu see this? Is it nothing to Israel’s House to commit these abominations? to fill the Land with violence, to turn again to insult Me, and put the branch to their nose. I will dish out wrath; sparing none, without pity, though they cry aloud; I will not listen’.
He shouted in his ears: ‘Bring near the City managers, each with his destructive weapon’: 6 men came from the upper gate northward to slaughter; a Man among them was clothed in linen, with a writer’s inkhorn by his side. They went in and stood beside the brazen Altar. Israel’s God’s Glory was raised from the Cherub, where it was, to the threshold of the House: He called to the Man clothed in linen with the writer’s inkhorn at his side. Jehovah said to him, ‘Go through the City of Jerusalem. Mark the foreheads of the men who sigh & cry for the abominations going on’. He heard Him tell the others: ‘Follow him through the City and strike: spare not, pity not, slay the old man, young man, the virgin, children, & women; do not go near those with the mark: begin at My Sanctuary’. They began with the old men near the House. He said to them: ‘Defile the House, fill the Courts with the slain: go; they went and struck the City’. While striking, I fell to the ground, crying out: Lord Jehovah! are Yu going to destroy the Remnant of Israel in the outpouring of Yur Wrath on Jerusalem? He told him: ‘The iniquity of the House of Israel & Judah is very great, the Land is full of blood, the City full violence: they say, Jehovah has forsaken the Land, He sees nothing. I will not spare or pity, I’ll bring their way on their head’. The linen clothed Man with the inkhorn at his side, reported that he did as commanded.
Ezekiel saw in the firmament above the head of the Cherubim (Cherubs), above them, as a sapphire stone, as the likeness of a Throne. He told the linen clothed Man ‘to go in between the whirling (wheels), below the Cherub, to fill both hands with Coals of from between the Cherubim and sprinkle them over the City’. He went as Ezekiel watched. The Cherubim stood to the right of the House, while the Man entered; the cloud filled the inner Court. Jehovah’s Glory moved up from the Cherub to above the threshold of the House; the House was filled with the cloud; the Court was full of the brightness of Jehovah’s Glory. The sound of the Wings of the Cherubim was heard in the outer Court, as the Voice of God Almighty (El Shaddai) when He speaks. After He commanded the linen clothed Man to take the Fire from between the whirling wheels, the Cherub extended his hand from between the Cherubim to the Fire between the Cherubim, and took it, and put it in the Hands of the linen clothed Man, Who took it and went out. There appeared in the Cherubim the form of a man’s (human) hand under their wings. Ezekiel saw 4 wheels beside the Cherubim, one wheel beside one Cherub for each; the wheels where like beryl stone. The 4 looked alike, as if a wheel in a wheel. They moved in their 4 directions without turning, only moving in the direction of where the head looked, without turning. Their whole body, backs, hands, wings, and wheels were full of eyes all over; including the wheels the 4 had (shared). He heard the wheels were called the whirling (spiral, revolving, spinning, rotating) wheels. Each had 4 faces: 1st was of Cherub (ox-shaped, calf-like, bull-form), 2nd a human face, 3rd a lion face, and 4th an eagle face. The Cherubim ascended: this is the Living Creature (Creatures, Chaioth, Zöön, Animals, Tiere, Terrestrial) he saw by Chebar River. When the Cherubim moved, the wheels moved beside them; when they raised their wings to ascend from the earth, the wheels moved without turning. When they stopped, the wheels stopped; if they ascend, the wheels ascend: for the Spirit of the Living Creature was in the wheels. Jehovah’s Glory moved above the House’s threshold and stood above the Cherubim. The Cherubim raised their wings and ascended from the earth and moved in Ezekiel’s sight, the wheels beside them: they stood at the door of the East Gate of Jehovah’s House; the God of Israel’s Glory was above them. This is the same Living Creature he saw under the God of Israel by the Chebar River; he knew they were Cherubim. Each had 4 faces, each 4 wings, with a form of human hands under their wings. The faces & bodies were the same he saw earlier by Chebar River; each moved only straight.
The Spirit raised Ezekiel and took him to the East Gate of Jehovah’s House eastward: at the door of the gate 25 men; he saw among them Jaazaniah benAzzur, Pelatiah benBenaiah, princes of the people. He said to him: ‘Son of Man (BenAdam, AdamSon), these men devise iniquity, they give wicked counsel in this City; saying, let us not build houses yet: this is the caldron, and we are the meat. Prophesy against them Son of Man’. Jehovah’s Spirit fell on him, He told him to speak: ‘Jehovah says: you have spoken House of Israel; I know the things you think. You multiplied the slain in this City, filled the streets with the slaughtered. The Lord Jehovah says: the slain are the meat, the City is the caldron; yet a Remnant will survive. You feared the sword; I bring the sword on you, says the Lord Jehovah. I will lead you out into the hands of foreigners and execute judgments among you. You shall fall by the sword; I will judge you by the border of Israel; you will know I am Jehovah’. ‘It is the caldron, you are not the meat in it; I will judge you at the border of Israel; you will know I am Jehovah: you have not walked in My Statutes, neither executed My Ordinances, you followed the ordinances of the Gentiles nearby’. Ezekiel prophesied, Pelatiah benBenaiah died; Ezekiel lay prostrate crying aloud, ‘Lord Jehovah! will Yu make a full end of Israel’s Remnant’? The Lord’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, yur brethren, yur relatives, and Israel’s House, to whom the citizens of Jerusalem said: ‘Get away from Jehovah; this Land is our possession’. Tell them, the Lord Jehovah says: I exiled them to the Gentiles, I dispersed them to the countries, I will give you the Land of Israel. They’ll return, they’ll remove the detestable & abominable things. I’ll give them one heart, put a new spirit in them, exchange their stony heart with a heart of flesh to walk in My Statutes, keep My Ordinances to be My People, and I their God. Those who follow detestable & abominable things, I’ll repay, says the Lord Jehovah. The Cherubim raised their wings, the wheels beside them; and God’s Glory was above them. Jehovah’s Glory moved out of the City and stood on the mountain east of the City’. The Spirit raised him, transported him in the Vision by God’s Spirit to the Captivity Remnant in Chaldea. The Vision vanished. Ezekiel related to the Captivity Remnant Jehovah’s Visions’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, yu live with a Rebellious House, they have eyes to see, but see not, ears to hear, but don’t listen; they are a Rebellious House. Son of Man, prepare yur stuff to leave, leave by day in their sight; move from one place to another in their sight: perhaps they’ll consider, though they are a Rebellious House. Take yur stuff for leaving in their sight in the day, as exiles leave. Dig through the wall to leave in daylight in their sight. In their sight carry yur stuff on yur shoulder at nighttime; cover yur eyes to not see the ground: yu are a Sign to the House of Israel’. Ezekiel did as commanded: leaving by day digging through the wall; by night carrying it on the shoulder for them to see. In the morning Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, has the Rebellious House of Israel asked, ‘what are yu doing’? Tell them: The Lord Jehovah says: This Burden is of the Prince in Jerusalem, and Israel’s House there. The Prince shall leave with stuff on his shoulder in the dark, digging through the wall, with covered face, unable to see the ground. I’ll spread My Net to snare him; I’ll take him to Babylon of the Chaldeans; but he will be unable to see it, and he will die there. I’ll scatter to the winds those helper bands nearby; I’ll draw My Sword after them. They’ll know I am Jehovah in My dispersing & exiling them among the Gentiles & countries. I’ll spare a Remnant from the sword, from famine, and pestilence; to declare their abominations to the Gentiles; they’ll know I am Jehovah’ Jehovah’s Word again to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, eat yur bread with quaking, drink water with trembling & fright; tell the People of the Land: The Lord Jehovah says concerning Jerusalem’s citizens & Israel’s Land: They’ll eat their bread with quaking, their water in dismay; her Land is to be desolate of everything, because of its violence. The populated cities laid waste; the Land desolate: know I am Jehovah’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, what is this proverb in the Land of Israel: ‘The days are prolonged, every vision fails’. Tell them: The Lord Jehovah says: This proverb will cease, they’ll no longer use it; tell them, the days are at hand for the fulfilment of every vision; no more false vision nor flattering divination in the House of Israel. I am Jehovah; I’ll speak, and My Word will be performed’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s House say: ‘His vision & prophecy is in the distant future’. Tell them: The Lord Jehovah says: None of My Words will be deferred any longer, they will be performed’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy against the prophesying prophets of Israel, who prophesy from their own heart: ‘Listen to Jehovah’s Word’. The Lord Jehovah says: Woe to the foolish prophets, who follow their own spirit, but saw nothing! Israel, yur prophets are like foxes in the waste places. You’ve not fixed the gaps, not built the wall for Israel’s House, to stand in the battle in Jehovah’s day. They saw falsehood & lying divination, saying: Jehovah says; but Jehovah did not send them: making men to hope the Word be confirmed. You saw false vision, you spoke lying divination, saying, ‘Jehovah says’, but I did not. The Lord Jehovah says: Because you spoke falsehood, seen lies, I’m against you, says the Lord Jehovah. My Hand is against the prophets that see false visions & divine lies: they’ll not be in the council of My People, they’ll not be recorded in Israel’s House, they’ll not return to Israel’s Land; know I am Jehovah. They seduce My People, saying, ‘Peace’; but there is no peace; they build a wall with untempered mortar: tell them it will collapse by an overflowing shower with great hailstones & stormy wind wrecking it. When the wall falls, they’ll ask about the daubing. The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll wreck it with a stormy wind in My Wrath, an overflowing shower in My Anger, great hailstones in wrath to consume it. I’ll break down your untempered daubed wall to the foundation, destroying it; you will know I am Jehovah. I’ll accomplish My Wrath on your wall & its daubers: The wall & daubers are gone Israel’s prophets prophesying concerning Jerusalem, & see visions of her peace, but there is no peace, says Jehovah. Son of Man set yur face against the Daughters of yur People prophesying out of their own heart; tell them, the Lord Jehovah says: Woe to the women that sew pillows on elbows, make head coverings of all sizes to hunt souls. Will you hunt the souls of My People, but save souls for yourselves? You have profaned Me among My People for handfuls of barley, and pieces of bread to kill the innocent, to spare the guilty, by lying to My People who listen to your lies. The Lord Jehovah says: I’m against your pillows where you hunt souls to fly, I’ll tear then from your arms; I’ll free the hunted souls to fly’ Your kerchiefs I’ll tear to deliver My People out of your hand, never again to be hunted; know I am Jehovah. With lies you grieved the heart of the righteous without Me; you strengthened the hands of the wicked to continue in wickedness instead of turning to be saved. You will never again see false visions, nor divine divinations: I’ll deliver My People, you’ll know I am Jehovah’.
Israel’s Elders sat before Ezekiel: Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, these men have their idols in their heart, they put the offence of their iniquity before their face: I’ll not be inquired of them. Tell them , the Lord Jehovah says: Any man of Israel’s House with idols in his heart, with the offence of iniquity before his face, then comes to the Prophet; I Jehovah answer him according to his idols; so I may take Israel’s House in their heart, who are estranged from Me with their idols. Tell Israel’s House, the Lord Jehovah says: Return, turn away from your idols & abominations. Anyone of Israel’s House, or strangers sojourning in Israel, separates himself from Me with his heart idols, and the offence of his iniquity before his face, and comes to the Prophet to inquire of Me; Jehovah will answer him Himself; I’ll set My Face against him, make him an astonishment, a sign & a proverb, I’ll cut him off from My People; you’ll know I’m Jehovah. If the deceived Prophet speaks a word: I’ve deceived him, I’ll stretch out My Hand against him, I’ll destroy him from among My People Israel. They’ll share their iniquity, both Prophet & his seekers; Israel’s House will no longer stray from Me or defile themselves with their transgressions; to be My People, and I their God, says the Lord Jehovah’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, if a land sins against Me committing a trespass, if I extend My Hand on it, to break the staff of bread, to send famine, to cut off man & beast; though these 3 men, Noah, Daniel, & Job, were in it, their souls they’d deliver by their righteousness, says the Lord Jehovah. If evil beasts ravage & desolate the land, that nobody stays; these 3 men would deliver none but themselves. If I tell the sword to eradicate man & animals; these 3 men would only deliver themselves. If I send pestilence to pour out My Wrath to eradicate man & animals; Noah, Daniel, & Job they would only deliver their souls. The Lord Jehovah says: Though I send My 4 Severe Judgments on Jerusalem, the sword, famine, evil beasts, & pestilence, to exterminate man & animals: Yet a Remnant will survive of the Exile & Captivity to return; you’ll see their way & deeds; you’ll be comforted of the calamity I’ve brought on Jerusalem. They’ll comfort you when you see their ways & deeds; you’ll realize why I’ve done it, says the Lord Jehovah’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, is the vine-tree better than other trees, or the vine-branch special among the forest trees? Is wood from it used to make anything? or will a peg from it be used to hang a vessel? It is thrown in the fire to be entirely consumed as worthless wood. Before it was firewood it was useless, it is less than useless after the fire’. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘As the vine-tree among the forest trees, used for fuel, so will I give Jerusalem’s citizens. I’ll set My Face against them; they’ll go out of the fire, but it will still consume them; you’ll know I’m Jehovah, My Face is against you. I’ll desolate the Land for their trespass, says Jehovah’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, cause Jerusalem to know her abominations; tell Jerusalem for Me: Yur birth & nativity is of the land of the Canaanite; the Amorite yur father, yur mother a Hittite. Yur nativity, on yur birthday, yur navel-cord was cut, yu were not bathed, or salted, nor swaddled. No one pitied yu or cared to do these things for yu; yu were abandoned in the open field as a despised child. I passed by yu in yur weltering blood, I said to yu: Live, Live. I caused yu to multiply as grass in the field, yu increased in greatness, becoming an excellent ornament; yur breasts developed, yur hair grew; still yu were naked. Again, I passed by yu & looked, it was yur time of love (yu matured); I spread My Skirt over yu, I covered yur nakedness: I proposed & promised yu with a covenant & vow to become Mine, says the Lord Jehovah. I bathed yu to remove yur blood stains, I anointed yu with oil; I clothed yu with broidered work, with shoes of sealskin, I girded yu with fine linen, I covered yu with silk; I adorned yu with ornaments & jewelry, I put bracelets on yur hands, chains around yur neck; I put a nose-ring, ear-rings, and a crown on yur head. Yu were decked with gold & silver; yur clothes were of fine linen, silk, and embroidered work; yu ate fine flour, honey, & oil; yu were astonishingly beautiful, and prospered to royal estate & nobility. Yur fame & beauty spread among the Gentiles; perfect by My Majesty I lavished on yu, says the Lord Jehovah. Yu trusted in yur beauty, played the harlot in yur fame, pour out yur sexuality on every visitor to have. Yur dresses yu made for the high places decked with various colors to play the harlot with them: nothing like this ever was or will be. Yur fair jewels of My Gold & My Silver I gave yu, yu made into images of men to be a whore with them; yu took the embroidered clothes to cover them and set My Oil & My Incense before them. My Bread & fine flour, oil, & honey I gave yu, yu set it before them for a sweet savor, says the Lord Jehovah. Yu took yur sons & daughters, My babies, yu sacrificed them to be devoured. Yur prostitution was not enough, yu murdered My babies, giving them up to destruction. In yur abominations & harlotry yu forgot yur younger days, when yu were naked & bare, wallowing in yur blood. After all yur wickedness, (woe, woe to yu! says the Lord Jehovah,) yu built a vaulted place; and a lofty place in every street at the head of every way; yu made yur beauty an abomination, and opened yur legs to every passerby to multiply yur whoredom. Yu committed fornication with yur huge Egyptian neighbors, multiplying yur prostitution to provoke Me to anger. I have extended My Hand over yu to diminish yur supply, to deliver yu to yur haters, the daughters of the Philistines, who are ashamed of yur lewdness. Yu were an unsatisfied insatiable harlot also with the Assyrians. Yu extended yur prostitution to Chaldea, the land of great commerce, yet still unsatisfied. Yur heart fails, says the Lord Jehovah, that yu work as a shameless harlot; establishing yur brothels at the prominent locations, on every street, and not as an ordinary prostitute, yu refuse to be paid. An Adulteress Wife! takes strangers instead of her husband! Harlots are given gifts, but you reward yur lovers, yu bribe & solicit them to yu all around with yur sexuality. Yu are a unique harlot woman; other harlots don’t follow yur example to play without pay. Harlot listen to Jehovah’s Word: The Lord Jehovah says, yur filthiness was free-flowing, yur naked-body was uncovered in prostitution with yur lovers; because the idols of yur abominations, for yur children’s blood, that yu gave them. I’ll gather all yur lovers of lust & pleasure & those disliked turning against yu on all sides, to uncover yur naked-body & see yur nakedness. I’ll judge yu as those women of adultery & baby-murder, to bring on yu the blood of wrath & jealousy. I’ll give yu to them to destroy yur brothels, private places, to strip yu of clothes & jewels; to make yu completely naked. They’ll bring a company against yu to stone yu, slash yu with swords; torch yur houses, condemn yu before other women, to end yur prostitution, paying yur lovers. But I will stop My Wrath on yu, My jealousy to leave, I’ll be still, no longer angry. Yu forgot yur younger days, raging against Me by yur conduct; I’ll repay yu says the Lord Jehovah, to end sexual immorality & abominations. The proverb users will say: ‘Like Mother so Daughter’! Yu are yur mother’s daughter who despises husband & children; yu are yur sisters’ sister who despises husband & children: your mother was Hittite, yur father Amorite. Yur older sister is Samaria, who lives at yur left hand, she & her daughters; yur younger sister, to yur right, is Sodom with her daughters. Yu have not followed their example in abominations, but in comparison yu were worse than both in corruption. As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, yur sister Sodom with her daughters, are nothing compared to yu with yur daughters. Yur sister Sodom’s iniquity: pride, plenty of bread, leisure for her & her daughters; neglecting the poor & needy. They were haughty in abomination before me, so I got rid of them. Samaria has not committed half yur sins; yu multiplied yur abominations more than they; yu’ve justified yur sisters by yur conduct. Yur shame has given judgment for yur sisters: by yur abominable sins they are righteous in comparison; be confounded in shame for this. I’ll reverse their Captivity, Sodom & her daughters, with the Captivity of Samaria & her daughters, even the Captivity of the captives; to shame yu for yur conduct & bad example. Yur sisters Sodom & Samaria with all their daughters shall be restored to their former estate. Yur sister Sodom is not mentioned in yur day of pride, before yur vice was exposed, like the time of the reproach of the daughters of Syria, with her neighbors, the daughters of the Philistines, that assault yu. Yu have borne yur immorality & abominations, says Jehovah. The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll requite yu for despising My Oath in breaking My Covenant. I’ll remember My Covenant made in yur younger days, to establish an everlasting Covenant. Yu’ll remember yur ways in shame with both yur sisters; I’ll restore them to yu, but not with yur covenant. I’ll re-establish My Covenant with yu; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah; that yu remember in shame to never again say anything shameful, after I’ve forgiven yur conduct, says the Lord Jehovah’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, relate a riddle & parable to Israel’s House, saying, the Lord Jehovah says: A great Eagle with great Wings and long flight Feathers with various colors, came to Lebanon, and landed at the top of cedar trees: he cropped off the topmost young Twigs, carried it to the land of commerce; he set it in a city of merchants. He took seed from the land, planted it in a fruitful soil; he placed it beside many waters; he set it as a willow tree. It grew, a spreading Vine of small size, the branches leaned towards the Eagle, the roots were below him: it became a Vine with branches & sprigs. A second great Eagle with great Wings and many Feathers: the Vine leaned its root toward him, from the beds of its plantation to be watered; planted in good soil by many waters, to bring forth branches, to bear fruit, to be a valued Vine. The Lord Jehovah says: Shall it prosper? he’ll uproot it, cut off its fruit to wither it, even the fresh leaves; that not a strong man or many people will raise its roots. If re-planted, will it prosper? it will utterly wither when the east wind touches it, it will wither in the beds it grew in’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Tell that Rebellious House: Don’t you know what this means? Tell them: the King of Babylon came to Jerusalem, took its King & princes, and brought them with him to Babylon: he took of the Royal Seed, covenanted with him in oath, also he removed the mighty of the Land; to debase the Kingdom, that it never to rise up, but in keeping his Covenant it should stand. But he rebelled against him in sending ambassadors to Egypt to get horses & people. Will he prosper, or escape? to break the Covenant and escape? The Lord Jehovah says: in the place of the King who made King, whose Oath he despised, Covenant he broke, he’ll die with him in Babylon. Pharaoh with his great army & company will not help in war, when they cast up mounds & build forts, to cut off many. He despised the Oath & broke the Covenant in handshake, then betrayed, he’ll never escape. The Lord Jehovah says: My Oath he despised, My Covenant he broke; I’ll requite on his head. I’ll spread My Net on him to catch him in My Snare, I’ll bring him to Babylon, I’ll judge his trespasses against Me. His fugitives from his bands will fall by sword, the Remnant scattered by the winds: you’ll know Jehovah spoke. The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll take of the lofty cedar top, set it; crop its topmost young tender twigs, I’ll re-plant it on a high lofty mountain: in the highest mountain of Israel: it will grow boughs, fruit, as a fine cedar: under it will dwell every winged bird in the shade of its branches. The trees of the field will know Jehovah cut down the tall tree, exalted the low tree, dried the green tree, and made the dry tree flourish: Jehovah spoke & did it’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘What is this proverb of the Land of Israel: ‘The fathers ate sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge’? The Lord Jehovah says: never again will you use this proverb in Israel. All souls are Mine of the father & the son: the soul who sins shall alone die. If a just man is lawful & does right, not eaten sacrifices on the mountain, not lifted his eyes to the idols of Israel’s House, not defiled his neighbor’s wife, not come near sexually to a woman in menstruation, not wronged anyone, but restored to the debtor his pledge, not robbed others, shared his bread with the hungry, and clothed the naked with clothes; not lent on interest, not taken increase from loans, has withdrawn from iniquity, has executed justice between men, has walked in My Statutes, kept My Ordinances, dealing truly; he is just & will live, says Jehovah. If his son is a robber, murderer, or the such like; who instead eats on the mountains, defiles his neighbors wife, wronged the poor & needy, robbed, keeps the pledge, lifted his eyes to idols, commits abomination, lent on interest, collected usury; he will not live: he did abomination, lent on interest, and taken increase; he shall not live because of his abominations; he will die with his own blood guilt. If he too has a son, who sees his father’s actual sins, and fears to do such like; he ate not on the mountains, not raised eyes to the idols of Israel’s, not defiled neighbor’s wife, not wronged others, not kept the pledge, not robbed, but shared his bread with the hungry, and clothed the naked; has not refused help to the poor, not taken interest or gain, has executed My Ordinances, walked in My Statutes; he must not die for his father’s iniquity, he must live. But his father who cruelly oppressed, robbed, did crimes, he must die for his iniquity. But you say, ‘Why must not the son share his father’s crime’? the son who is law-abiding & right, kept indeed My Statutes, he must live. The soul who sins must die: the son must not share his father’s guilt, the father must not share the son’s guilt; the righteousness of the righteous is his own, and the wickedness of the wicked is his own. If the wicked turns from his sins to keep My Statutes, to be lawful & right, he must live, he must not die. His former transgressions must not be remembered against him: in his present righteousness he must live. Do I enjoy the death of the wicked? says the Lord Jehovah; no, only that he returns from his way to live. If the righteous man turns from his righteousness, commits crimes, acts like a criminal, should he live? None of his former good deeds will be remembered: in his trespass & sins he must die. If a wicked man turns from his crimes, is lawful abiding & right, his soul must live; because he considers, and turned away from his transgressions, he must live. But Israel’s House says, ‘The Lord’s Way is unfair’. House of Israel are not My Ways fair, and your ways unfair? I’ll judge everyone’s ways of Israel’s House, says the Lord Jehovah. Return to Me from your transgressions, that iniquity does not ruin you. Abandon your continual transgressions; make a new heart and a new spirit: why must you die House of Israel? I don’t enjoy your death for transgressions, says the Lord Jehovah: return & live’.
Again, take a Lamentation for the Princes of Israel: ‘Yur mother is a Lioness; she couched among lions; among young lions she nourished her cubs. She raised one of her cubs, he became a Young Lion, he learned to catch the prey, he devoured men. The Gentiles heard about him; he was caught in their pit; they took him by hooks to the land of Egypt. They saw her wait till hope was lost, then she took another cub to become a Young Lion. He moved among the young lions; he hunted the prey & devoured men. He knew their palaces, wasted their cities; the land was desolate with its fulness, because of his roars. The Gentiles set against him from the provinces; they spread their net over him, he was trapped in their pit. They put him in a cage with hooks, took him to Babylon; they imprisoned him never again his voice to be heard on Israel’s mountains. Yur mother was like a Vine, in yur blood, planted by rivers: fruitful & full of branches, well-watered; with strong rods for the scepters of rulers, their stature was exalted among the thick boughs, seen tall with many branches. But it was uprooted, thrown to the ground, the east wind dried its fruit: its strong rods were broken off & withered; the fire consumed them. It is re-planted in the dry & thirsty wilderness. The fire is on the rods of its branches, its fruit devoured, no longer a rod for a ruler’s sceptre. This is a Lamentation of Lamentations’.

In the 7th year, 5th month, 10th day, some of the Elders of Israel sat before Ezekiel and inquired of Jehovah: Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell the Elders of Israel, the Lord Jehovah says: Why are yu inquiring of Me? I will not be inquired by you. Judge them, Son of Man; cause them to know their fathers’ abominations; tell them, when I chose Israel, and made-oath to the seed of Jacob’s House, made Myself known to them in Egypt, and promised to rescue them, and bring them to a Land I found for them, flowing with milk & honey, the glory of all lands. I told them to discard their abominations of their eyes, to not defile themselves with idols of Egypt. They rebelled, refused to listen, did not discard their abominations, did not forsake Egypt’s idols. I threatened to exhaust My Wrath & Anger against them in Egypt. I preserved My Name to not be profaned to the Gentiles, to whom I revealed Myself in the Exodus from Egypt. After the Exodus I led them to the Wilderness; gave them My statutes, revealed My Ordinances, to do & live. I gave them My Sabbaths as a Sign to know Me as their Sanctifier. They rebelled against in the Desert, walked not in My Statutes, rejected My Ordinances, to keep & live; they profaned My Sabbaths. I threatened to consume them in My Wrath in the Wilderness. I preserved My Name with the Gentiles who saw Me save them. I promised them in the Desert the good Land flowing with milk & honey, a glorious Land; they rejected My Ordinances, walked not in My Statutes, profaned My Sabbaths: their hearts followed their idols. I spared them, not destroying them, nor eradicating them in the Desert. I told their children in the Wilderness, Walk not in your fathers’ statutes, nor observe their ordinances, nor defile yourselves with their idols. I am Jehovah your God: walk in My Statutes, keep My Ordinances, sanctify My Sabbaths which are Sign between Me & you, that you know Jehovah your God. The children rebelled against Me; walked not in My Statutes, kept not My Ordinances, to do & live; they profaned My Sabbaths. I threatened to exterminate them in My anger in the Desert. I restrained My Hand, acted for My Name’s sake, to not be profaned among the Gentiles who saw Me deliver them in the Exodus. I warned them in the Wilderness that I’d scatter them among the Gentiles, disperse in the countries, for not executing My Ordinances, but rejected My Statutes & profaned My Sabbaths, lusting their fathers’ idols. I gave them useless & impossible statutes & ordinances; I polluted them in their gifts, for sacrificing the babies, to their desolation; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’. ‘Son of Man tell the House of Israel, the Lord Jehovah says: Your fathers blasphemed Me & violated Me. When I led them to the promised Land, on the high hills & thick trees they offered their sacrifices, their provocation offerings of sweet savor and poured their libations. I asked them: Why do you go the high place? (Named & still called Bamah (High-Place)). Tell them: Why pollute yourselves like your fathers, whoring with their abominations? you offer gifts with your kids sacrificed in fires to pollute yourselves with idols to this date. Should I be inquired by you? I’ll never be inquired by you; you think & say, ‘We’ll be as the Gentiles, as the families of the countries nearby, to serve wood & stone’. I will extend My Hand & Arm & be relentless, wrath be to your King; to regather you from the Gentiles & countries nearby in your diaspora; to bring you into the wilderness of peoples, to enter into judgment Face to face. As I entered judgment with your fathers in the desert of Egypt, I’ll judge you. I’ll cause you to pass under the rod, I’ll bring you into Bond of the Covenant; I’ll purge out the rebels, My violators; I’ll force them from the land where they sojourn, but they will never enter the Land of Israel. As for you, House of Israel, says the Lord Jehovah: Go serve your idols, since you refuse to listen to Me; My Holy Name will never again be profaned with your gifts & idols. In My Holy Mountain, the Mount of the Height of Israel, says the Lord Jehovah, all the House of Israel will serve Me in the Land: there I’ll accept them, and require your offerings, and the first-fruits of your oblations, with all your holy things. As a sweet savor I’ll accept you, I’ll regather you, I’ll sanctify you in the sight of the Gentiles. Then you’ll know Me Who led you into the Land of Israel, the country I promised your fathers. You’ll remember your ways, deeds, your pollutions; you’ll be ashamed of all your evils. You’ll know Me, when I’ve dealt with you for My Name’s sake, against your vices & corruptions’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, set yur face southward, drop-words & prophesy against the Forest of the field in the South; tell the Forest of the South, Hear Jehovah’s Word: The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll kindle a fire in yu, it will devour every green, every dry tree: the flaming flame will not be extinguished, all faces south to north will be torched. All will know that I did it’. Then Ezekiel complained to the Lord that they say, ‘Is he not a speaker of parables?’
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face Jerusalem, proclaim toward the Sanctuaries, prophesy against the Land of Israel: I’m against yu, I’ll unsheathe My Sword, will cut off the righteous & the wicked; My sword will go against all flesh from south to north: it will not return. Sigh, Son of Man, with shaking loins, with bitterness. If they ask you why, tell them, news will come to melt every heart, to weaken the hands, every spirit faint, all knees like water: it will happen’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy: A sword is sharpened & polished, for slaughter, as lightning: why celebrate? my son’s rod despises every tree. The sword is polished & sharpened for use by the slayer. Son of Man, cry & wail, it is on My People, on all princes of Israel: they are delivered to the sword with My People; smite on yur thigh. This is a trial, even if the despising rod is gone. Son of Man, prophesy, strike yur hands together; double the sword a third time, the sword of the deadly wounded, for the great one deadly wounded hiding in their chambers. The threatening sword is against the gates, hearts melt, their stumbling multiplied, as lightening, for slaughter. Gather to the right in array, to the left where yur face is set. I’ll strike My Hands together; I’ll cause My Wrath to rest’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, appoint two ways for the King of Babylon to come, both ways from the same land: mark it at the head entrance to the City. Choose a way for the sword to come to Rabbah of the Ammonites, and to Judah’s fortified Jerusalem. Babylon’s King stood at the crossroads, using divination, shaking arrows to this or that, he consulted the Teraphim, he looked in the liver. In the right-hand divination for Jerusalem, to set battering rams, to open the mouth in slaughter, with sounds of loud shouting, battering the gates, to cast up mounds, to build forts. To them it is like false divination, with sworn oaths, to remember iniquity, to be caught. Yur remembered crimes, yur naked violations, in all visible sins; yu are remembered & will be captured. Yu, the fatally wounded wicked one, Prince of Israel, it’s the time of the end of iniquity: Remove the mitre, off with the crown; never again the same; exalt the low, abase the high. I’ll overturn, overturn, overturn it: never again the same, till He comes Whose right it is; & I’ll give it to Him. Son of Man, prophesy: Concerning the Ammonites, of their reproach, A polished sword is drawn for slaughter to devour as lightning; while they see for yu false visions, divine lies, to lay yu on the necks of the fatally wounded wicked, in the time of iniquity’s end. Return it to its sheath; in the place of yur creation, in the land of yur nativity, I’ll judge yu. I’ll pour out My Indignation on yu; I’ll blow on yu with the fire of My Wrath; I’ll deliver yu to brutish men, skilful to destroy. Yu’ll be fuel to the fire; yur blood in the midst of the land; yu’ll be forgotten’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, judge the bloody city; expose all her abominations; a murderous City, her time is come, who defiles herself with idols. Yu are blood guilty in killing, defiled with handmade idols; yur days & years are near: I’ve made yu a reproach to the nations, a mocking to all countries. Those near & far will mock, infamous one full of tumult. The princes of Israel in yu, each one murders; each dishonor father & mother; each oppresses sojourners; each mistreats the orphan & widow. Yu despised My Holy Things, profaned My Sabbaths; in yu slanderers murder, eating on top of the mountains; they committed immorality; they shamed their father’s nakedness; they shamed the unclean on her periods. One commits abomination with his neighbor’s wife; another sexually defiled his daughter-in-law; another rapes his sister, his father’s daughter; some take bribes for murder; one takes interest & usury, profiting from fellow citizens by oppression; yu have forgotten Me. I struck My Hands at yur dishonest gain yu made, and the murders in yu. Will yur heart or hands endure in the days I deal with yu. I said it, I’ll do it. I’ll scatter yu among the Gentiles, disperse to countries nearby; I’ll consume away yur filthiness; to be profaned before the Gentiles; yu’ll know I am Jehovah’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s House is Dross to Me: they are brass, tin, iron, lead, in the furnace; they are dross of silver. I’ll gather you in the midst of Jerusalem; as the 4 metals melt in the furnace with blowing fire to melt it; you are in My Anger & Wrath to melt you. I’ll gather you, blow on you with the fire of My Wrath and melt you; as silver is melted in the furnace, so you will melt in My outpoured Wrath. Son of Man say to her: Yu are an uncleansed Land, without rain in the day of indignation. A conspiracy of her prophets, like a roaring lion devouring prey, they devour souls; they confiscate treasures & valuables; they make many widows. Her priests assaulted My Law, polluted My Holy Things; the holy & the common are treated the same, unclean & clean as the same, they ignored My Sabbaths; I’m profaned among them. Her princes are like wolves tearing the prey, to murder, to destroy, to swindle. Her prophets plaster with cheap mortar, see false visions, divine lies for them, telling them the Lord Jehovah says, which I did not. The people oppress in the Land, practice robbery, vexed the poor & needy, and wrongly oppressed the sojourner. I sought a man among them to build the wall, stand in the gap before Me for the Land, that I do not destroy it, but found none. I poured out My Indignation on them, I consumed them with the fire of My Wrath: I repaid them with their own way’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, there were Two Women, the Daughters of one Mother: they were young harlots in Egypt; their breasts were fondled in their virginity. The oldest was named Oholah, the younger sister was Oholibah: they became Mine; they gave birth to sons & daughters. Samaria is Oholah, Jerusalem is Oholibah. Oholah was a harlot wife, she flirted with her lovers, on the Assyrians neighbors, clothed in blue, governors & rulers, desirable young men, horse riders. She prostituted with the best of the Assyrians, she solicited, with their idols she defiled herself. She has never abandoned her prostitution from Egypt to this moment; in her youth she fornicated, they fondled her virgin breasts; they spent their fornication on her. I deserted her to her Assyrian lovers she solicited. They uncovered her nakedness; they enslaved her children; they slew her with the sword: she became a byword among women; they executed judgments on her. Hers sister Oholibah saw this but was more corrupt in her solicitation & prostitution than her older sister. She solicited the Assyrians, the governors & rulers, neighbors, excellently clothed, horse riders, desirable youths. I watched their impurity: they both did the same thing. She increased her prostitution; she saw men portrayed on the wall, images of Chaldeans painted with vermilion-red, loins girdled, full head-turbans, like princes, like the Babylonians in Chaldea, the land of their nativity. As soon as she saw them, she solicited; sent messengers to them in Chaldea. The Babylonians came to her in the bed of love, they defiled her with sex, she was polluted with them, her soul was alienated from them. She stripped as a whore: My Soul was alienated from her, as My Soul was alienated from her sister. She multiplied her harlotry as when she was a young prostitute in Egypt, she solicited their adultery, with their flesh like donkeys, their offspring like horses. Yu recalled the immorality of yur youth, yur young breasts fondled by the Egyptians. Oholibah: I’ll raise yur lovers against yu, alienated from yu, I’ll bring them against yu on all sides: the Babylonians & Chaldeans, Pekod, Shoa & Koa, with the Assyrians; desirable young men, governors & rulers, princes & nobles, horse riders. They’ll assault yu with weapons, chariots, wagons, company of peoples; with buckler & shield & helmet; I’ll give them judgment to judge yu. My Jealousy will be against yu, they’ll deal with yu in fury; they’ll slice off yur nose & ears; yur Remnant will fall by the sword: they’ll take yur kids; yur Remnant will be devoured by fire. They’ll strip yu of clothes, remove yur nice jewels. I’ll remove yur vice, yur Egyptian prostitution, to shame yu to them, to make yu forget Egypt. I’ll deliver yu over to yur enemies & pimps; they’ll hate yu, steal yur pay, leave yu naked; the nakedness of yur whoredoms will be uncovered by yur fornication & prostitution. These things will happen to yu for yur prostitution with the Gentiles, yu were polluted with their idols. Yu followed the steps of yur sister, yu must drink of her cup. Drink her cup, deep & large; yu’ll be laughed to scorn, be in derision; a full cup. Yu’ll be filled with drunkenness & sorrow, with astonishment & desolation, with yur sister Samaria’s cup; drink & empty it, gnaw its sherds, tear yur breasts; I’ve spoken. Yu forgot Me, turn yur back to Me; keep yur fornication & prostitution’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, judge Oholah & Oholibah; declare their abominations. They’ve committed adultery, blood is on their hands; they committed adultery with their idols; they sacrificed their children, my babies, to pass through the fire to be devoured. They defiled My Sanctuary on the same day, they profaned My Sabbaths. The same day they murdered their kids, they came to My Sanctuary to profane it; they did it in My House! Yu invited men far away by yur messengers; yu washed yurself, painted yur eyes, decked yurself with jewelry, yu sat on a stately bed, with a prepared table, and put My Incense & Oil. The voice of a multitude at ease: common men with desert drunkards; they put bracelets on their hands, crowns on their heads. They went to her as to a harlot; they went to Oholah & Oholibah, lewd women (sluts). Righteous men must judge them with the judgment of adulteresses, with judgment murderous women; they are murderous adulteresses. I’ll bring a band against them, to toss them about, and robbed. The band will stone them, dispatch them with swords, slay their kids, and torch their houses. I’ll remove vice from the Land, that women may never practice immorality. They’ll recompence yur immorality, yu’ll bear the sins of yur idols; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

Again, in the 9th year, the 10th month, the 10th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, write down today’s date: Babylon’s King advanced to Jerusalem on this date: Utter a Parable to the Rebellious House, tell them for Me: Set on the Caldron, fill it with water: throw in the best of butchered-pieces, the thigh, shoulder, and choice bones to boil. Woe to the Bloody City! the rusty old Caldron; remove the butchered pieces; no lot is fallen on it. Within her is blood, in the open, it is poured on the ground, covered with dirt. Woe to the bloody City! I’ll make the pile big: pile on wood, increase the flames, boil the meat, thicken the broth, the bones burned. Set the empty pot on the coals, make it very hot, burn its brass, and its filthiness be molten in it, that the rust be consumed. She is wearied with toil; her rust remains after the fire. In yur dirtiness is immorality; I cleansed yu, but yu are still unclean; yu’ll remain unclean, till My Wrath on yu find rest. I’ve spoken, it will happen, I’ll do it: I’ll not restrain or spare or repent; according to yur ways & doings they’ll judge yu’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, I’ll take away the desire of yur eyes in one stroke: yu must not mourn nor weep, no tears must run down. Sigh silently, do not mourn for the dead; secure yur head-band, put on yur sandals, cover not yur lips, eat no bread of men’. He told the people in the morning; at evening his wife died; next morning he did as he was told. The people asked: ‘Tell us why yu do this’? He told them that Jehovah’s Word came to him to tell Israel’s House: ‘I’ll profane My Sanctuary, the pride of your power, the desire of your eyes, what your pities; the rest of your kids will fall by the sword. You’ll do like him; your lips uncovered, without men’s bread to eat. Your gears on your heads, sandals on your feet; you will not mourn nor weep; you’ll pine away in your iniquities, to moan for one another. Ezekiel is a Sign to you; as he did so will you; when it happens, you’ll know it is Me. Son of Man, in the day I remove their strength, the joy of their glory, the desire of their eyes, what they set their hearts on, their children; the escapee will bring news to yur ears. In that day yur mouth will be open to the escapee to break silence & speak so yu may be a Sign to the Jews’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face toward the Ammonites and prophesy against them: Yu laughed at My Sanctuary, when it was profaned; and against Israel’s Land when desolate; against Judah’s House going into Captivity: I’ll deliver yu to the Children of the East (Beni-Qedem, Easterners, Sons of the East) for a possession, they’ll encamp against yu, reside in yu; they’ll eat yur fruit & drink yur milk. I’ll make Rabbah a stable for camels, the Ammonites places for flocks: you’ll know I’m Jehovah. Yu clapped yur hands, stamped yur feet, rejoiced with yur soul’s despite against Israel’s Land; I’ve extended My Hand on yu, I’ll deliver yu as spoil to the nations; I’ll cut yu off from the peoples, I’ll get rid of yu from the countries: I’ll destroy yu; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah’. To Moab & Seir say: ‘Judah’s House is like that of the Gentiles; I’ll open Moab’s borders by the cities of its frontiers, the glory of the country, Beth-jeshimoth, Baal-meon, & Kiriathaim, for the Children of the East (Beni-Qedem) against the Ammonites; I’ll give them for a possession, that the Ammonites will be forgotten among the nations; I’ll execute judgments on Moab; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. Edom dealt against Judah’s House in vengeance, greatly offended, and revenged himself on them; I’ll extend My Hand on Edom, I’ll cutoff man & beast; I’ll desolate it from Teman to Dedan by the sword. I’ll spend My Vengeance on Edom by the hand of My People Israel; to do in Edom according to My Anger & Wrath; to know My Vengeance’. Jehovah’s Word:. ‘The Philistines executed vengeance with soul’s despite to destroy with perpetual enmity; I’ll extend My Hand on the Philistines, I’ll cut off the Cherethites, and destroy the remnant of the seacoast. I’ll execute vengeance on them with wrathful rebukes; they’ll know Me when My Vengeance is on them’.

In the 11th year, the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Tyre spoke against Jerusalem: ‘The Gate of the peoples is broken; she turned to me; I’ll be replenished in her ruin’: I’m against yu Tyre, I’ll cause many nations to come against yu, as sea waves. They’ll destroy the walls of Tyre, demolish her towers; I’ll scrape her dust, make her a bare rock. She’ll be a place for spreading nets in the sea; I’ve spoken, she’ll become a spoil of the nations. Her daughters will be slain with the sword; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. I’ll bring on Tyre King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon, King of Kings, from the north, with horses, chariots, horsemen, troops, & many people. He’ll slay yur daughters in the field; he’ll make forts against yu, fortify against yu, & raise buckler against yu; his battering rams against yur walls; his axes break down yur towers. The dust from his many horses will cover yu; yur walls will shake at his horsemen, wagons, & chariots, on entering yur gates, as invaders enter a breached city. His horses’ hoofs will tread yur streets; his sword will slay yur people; yur strong pillars will collapse. Yur wealth is spoiled, yur merchandise his prey; yur walls they’ll demolish, destroy yur pleasant houses; yur stones, timber, & dirt in the sea. Yur songs will cease; yur harps silent forever; I’ll make yu a bare rock, and a place for spreading of nets; yu’ll never be rebuilt, I’ve spoken. The Lord Jehovah says to Tyre: the isles will shake at yur fall, when the wounded groan, and the slaughtered in yu. The princes of the sea will leave their thrones, lay aside their robes, remove their embroidered clothes; they’ll cloth themselves with trembling; they’ll tremble on the ground continuously astonished. They’ll take up a lamentation for yu, saying, are yu destroyed who was inhabited by seafaring men, the renowned city, sea strong, she & her population, a terror to all her residents! The islands tremble in the day yu fall; the isles of the sea dismayed at yur departure. I’ll make yu a desolate city, like the uninhabited cities; I’ll bring the deep waters to flood yu; I’ll drag yu down with them to those who descend to the pit, to the ancient people, I’ll relocate yu to the lowest depths of the earth, places desolate of old, with those who go down to the pit, to make yu uninhabited; I’ll set glory in the land of the living. I’ll make yu a terror, but never again to be found’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, give a Lamentation concerning Tyre: Yu dwell by the entrance of the sea, the sea merchant of the peoples to many islands; yu’ve said, ‘I’m perfect in beauty’. Yur borders are in the heart of the seas; yur builders perfected yur beauty. They’ve made yur planks from Senir’s fir-trees; yur cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for yu. Yur oars from the oaks of Bashan; yur benches of ivory inlaid in boxwood, from the isles of Kittim. Yur sail of fine linen embroidered from Egypt, to be an ensign; yur awning of blue & purple from the isles of Elishah. Yur rowers were Sidonians & Arvadites: Tyre, yur pilots’ wise men. Yur caulkers were the old & wise of Gebal: the sea ships & sailors were merchants. Persia, Lud, & Put were warriors in yur army: they hanged the shield & helmet in yu to display yur beauty. The Arvadites were on yur walls with yur army, brave men in yur towers; they hanged their shields on all yur walls; they perfected yur beauty. Tarshish was yur merchant with the abundance of their wealth, silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded for yur wares. Yur trading partners were Javan, Tubal, & Meshech; trading workers & brass vessels for yur merchandise. The House of Togarmah traded yur wares for their horses & mules. The Dedanites were yur trade partners; many islands were marketplace: trading yur wares for their emeralds, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and rubies. Judah & the Land of Israel were your traders for yur products their wheat of Minnith, pannag, honey, oil, and balm. Damascus was yur merchant for yur many handcrafts for their many riches, with the wine of Helbon, and white wool. Vedan & Javan traded yur wares for their bright iron, cassia, & calamus merchandise. Dedan supplied yur riding clothes. Arabia, and the princes of Kedar were yur traders for lambs & goats. The merchants of Sheba & Raamah traded for yur products with their best spices, rare stones, & gold. Yu traded with Haran, Canneh, Eden, Sheba, Asshur, & Chilmad: trading choice wares, wrappings of blue & embroidered work, chests of rich apparel, bound with chords, made of cedar-wood; these were yur commerce. Tarshish’s ships were caravans of supplies for yur merchandise: yu were replenished, famous in the seas. Yur rowers took yu to great distant waters: the east wind broke yu in the heart of the seas. Yur riches, wares, merchandise, mariners, pilots, caulkers, dealers of yur goods, warriors & troops, will fall in the seas in the day of yur ruin. Suburbs will shake at the sound of yur sea pilots abandoning their ships to reach land; their voices will be heard louder than yurs, with bitter cries, throwing dirt on their heads, and wallow in the ashes: they’ll make themselves bald for yu, gird with sackcloth, weep in bitterness of soul & mourning. In their wailing they’ll sing a lamentation for yu, to lament yu: ‘Who is like Tyre, brought to silence in the sea’? Yur wares from the seas supplied many peoples; yu enriched kings of the earth with great wealth of products & goods. Yu were broken at sea in the depths of waters, yur goods & troops fell within yu. The islanders were astonished, their kings terrified, their face troubled. The merchants of the peoples hiss at yu; yu were a terror, but never to be again’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell the Prince of Tyre: Yur heart is proud, yu said, ‘I’m God, I sit in God’s Seat, in the midst of the seas’; yu’re man and not God, though yu set yur heart as God’s Heart: yu are wiser than Daniel; no secret is hidden from yu; by yur wisdom & understanding yu got riches, gold & silver treasures; with great wisdom in trade yu increased yur wealth, yur heart is exalted for yur wealth. Yu set yur heart as God’s Heart; I’ll bring strangers on yu, terror of the nations, they’ll draw their swords against yur onerous wisdom, they’ll defile yur brightness. They’ll drag yu down to the pit to die the death of the slain in the heart of the seas. Will yu still say to Him Who slays yu: ‘I am God’? yu are man not God in the Hand of Him Who wounds yu. Yu’ll die the death of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers: I’ve spoken’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, give a Lamentation concerning the King of Tyre: Tell him: Yu seal totality, full of wisdom, perfect in beauty. Yu were in Eden, God’s Garden; every precious stone was yur covering: the sardius, topaz, diamond, onyx, jasper, sapphire, emerald, carbuncle, & gold: the workmanship of yur tabrets & pipes were in yu; in the day yu were created they were prepared. Yu were the Anointed Cherub that covers, I stationed yu, yu were on God’s Holy Mountain; yu walked up & down in the stones of fire. Yu were perfect in yur ways from yur creation till unrighteousness was found in yu. By the abundance of your commerce they filled the midst of yu with violence, yu sinned: I discarded yu as profane out of God’s Mountain; I destroyed yu, covering Cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. Yur heart was inflated for yur beauty; yur wisdom was corrupted because of yur brightness: I’ve thrown yu to the ground; I’ve laid yu before kings to stare at yu. By yur great iniquities, in yur unrighteous commerce, yu profaned My Sanctuaries; I brought from yu a fire to devour yu, to turn yu to ashes on the ground before all who stare at yu. All who know yu among the peoples will be astonished at yu: yu were a terror, but never again to be’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face toward Sidon: prophesy against it: Sidon I’m against yu; I’ll be glorified in yur midst; they’ll know I’m Jehovah, when I’ve executed judgments in her, and be sanctified in her. I’ll send pestilence on her, blood in her streets; her wounded will fall, the sword all around; they’ll know Me. Never again pricking of brier to the House of Israel, nor the hurting thorn to do despite; they’ll know Me. When I’ve gathered Israel’s House from the peoples of their dispersion, and be sanctified in the sight of the Gentiles, they’ll dwell in their own Land that I gave to My Servant Jacob. They’ll dwell securely; they’ll build houses, plant vineyards, and live safely, after I’ve executed judgments on their despisers; they’ll know I’m Jehovah their God’.

In the 10th year, on the 10th, in the 12th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face against King Pharaoh of Egypt, prophesy against him & Egypt: I’m against yu, King Pharaoh of Egypt, the Great Monster who lurks in the rivers, boasting, ‘My river is mine alone, I’ve made for myself’. I’ll put hooks in yur jaws, the fish of yur rivers will stick to yur scales; I’ll drag yu out of the rivers, with fish sticking to yur scales. I’ll drive yu into the desert, with the fishes of yur river: yu’ll fall in the open field; yu’ll unite or be gathered; I’ve given yu to the beasts of the earth & birds of the heavens for food. The Egyptians will know I’m Jehovah, because they were a staff of reed to Israel’s House. Their hand grabbed yu, yu broke, yu ripped their shoulders; they leaned on yu, yu broke, yu made their loins paralyzed. I’ll bring a sword against yu, I’ll sever from yu man & beast. The land of Egypt will be desolation & waste; they’ll know Me for their boast: ‘The river is mine, I made it’. I’m against yu, against yur rivers, I’ll make the land of Egypt waste & desolation, from the Tower of Seveneh to the border of Ethiopia. No human foot will pass through it, it will be uninhabited 40 years. I’ll make the land of Egypt desolation among the desolate countries; her cites waste among waste cities for 40 years; I’ll scatter the Egyptians among the nations, disperse them among the countries; I’ll reverse the captivity of Egypt, they’ll return to the land of Pathros, to the land of their birth, to be a base kingdom. It will be the lowest of the kingdoms; never again to be exalted above the nations: I’ll diminish them, they’ll never rule over the nations. It will never again be the confidence of Israel’s House, recalling iniquity, turning to look after them; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

In the 27th year, in the 1st, on the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon’s army campaigned against Tyre: every head was bald, shoulders worn; no wages for his army against Tyre for his invaders. I’ll give the land of Egypt to King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon; he’ll deport her population, take her spoil, take her prey to be the wages for his army. I’ve given him the land of Egypt as recompence for service rendered to Me, Jehovah’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy: Wail! Jehovah’s Day is near, with cloudy days, a time of the Gentiles. A sword comes on Egypt, anguish in Ethiopia, the slain fall in Egypt; her population is exiled, her foundations broken down. Ethiopia, Put, Lud, mixed people, Cub, and children of the land in league, they will fall by the sword. Egypt’s allies fall; her proud power I abased: they’ll fall from the Tower of Seveneh by sword; they’ll be desolate among the desolate of the countries; her cities wasted among the wasted. They’ll know I’m Jehovah, when I’ve torched Egypt, and destroyed her helpers. I’ll send messengers to make the careless Ethiopians afraid in anguish as in the day of Egypt; it is coming. I’ll end the population of Egypt by King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon; he & his people, the terror of the nations, will destroy the land; they’ll draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the land with slain. I’ll dry up the rivers, sell the land to evil men; I’ll desolate the land, and all in it, by strangers. I’ll destroy the idols, I’ll abolish the images from Memphis; no more a prince in Egypt, I’ll put fear in the land of Egypt. I’ll desolate Pathros, I’ll torch Zoan, execute judgments on No; I’ll pour My Wrath on Sin, Egypt’s stronghold; I’ll cut off the population of No. I’ll torch Egypt: Sin in Anguish, No broken up; and Memphis adversaries are in daytime. The youths of Aven & Pibeseth fall by sword; they’ll go into captivity. The day withdraws at Tehaphnehes when I break Egypt’s yokes, her pride of power to cease, clouds will cover her, her daughters go into captivity. I’ll execute judgments on Egypt; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

In the 11th year, in the 1st, on the 7th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, I broke the arm of King Pharaoh of Egypt; it wasn’t wrapped with medicines, not bandaged to hold the sword. I’m against King Pharaoh of Egypt, I’ll rebreak his strong arms; his hand drops the sword. I’ll scatter the Egyptians among the nations, disperse them through the countries. I’ll strengthen the arms of the King of Babylon, put My Sword in his hand to break the arms of Pharaoh, he’ll groan as a fatally wounded man. I’ll hold up the arms of the King of Babylon; the arms of Pharaoh will drop; they’ll know I’m Jehovah, when I give My Sword to the King of Babylon to extend it to the land of Egypt. I’ll exile the Egyptians among the nations, disperse them through the countries; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

In the 11th year, in the 3rd, on the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell King Pharaoh of Egypt & his populace: Who compares to yu in greatness? The Assyrian was a Cedar-Tree in Lebanon with nice branches, with forest-like shade, of high stature; its top was among the thick boughs. The waters nourished it; the depths made it grow: the rivers circulated its plantation; it sent out channels to the trees in the field. Its stature was exalted above the other trees of the field; its boughs were many, its branches was long because of the rivers, when it spread. The birds of the heavens made nests in its boughs; under its branches beasts of the field birthed their young; under its shadow great nations dwelt. It was lovely in greatness, in its long branches; its roots reached many waters. The cedars in God’s Garden could not hide it; the fir-trees were not like its boughs, the plane-trees were not as its branches; no tree in God’s Garden was as beautiful. I made it fair by its many branches, that all the trees of Eden in God’s Garden, envied it. Because yu (Egyptians) are exalted in stature, he (King Pharaoh of Egypt) has set his top (throne) among the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height; I’ll deliver him to the mighty one of the nations (King of Babylon); he’ll deal with him; I’ve driven him out for his wickedness. Strangers, the terror of the nations, have cut him off & deserted him; the peoples of the earth left his shadow & deserted him. The birds of sky will dwell on his ruin, the beasts of the field on his branches; never again will the well-watered trees exalt themselves in stature, neither set their top among thick boughs, nor the well-watered mighty ones stand up on their height: they’re destined for death, to the lowest parts of the earth, with the children of men who descend to the pit. In the day he (the Cedar-Tree, King Pharaoh of Egypt) descended to Sheol (Hell, Grave, Death) I caused mourning: I covered the deep for him, I restrained the rivers, the great rivers stayed; I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, the field-trees fainted for him. I made nations shake at the sound of his fall, when I hurled him down to Sheol with those descending to the pit; the trees of Eden, the choice & best trees of Lebanon, all well-watered, were comforted together in the lower parts of the earth. Together they descended to Sheol with him those slain with the sword; those who were his arm, who dwelt under his shadow in the nations. Who compares to yu in glory & greatness among the trees of Eden? Yu’ll be dragged with Eden’s trees to earth’s lowest parts: yu’ll lie among the uncircumcised, with those slain by sword. This is Pharaoh & his populace, says the Lord Jehovah’.

In the 12th year, in the 12th month, on the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, give a Lamentation concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: Yu were likened to a Young Lion of the nations: yu are a Monster of the seas; yur rivers overflowed, yur feet troubled the waters & dirtied their rivers. I’ll spread My Net on yu with a band of many peoples; they’ll drag yu up in My Net. I’ll desert yu on the land, I’ll toss yu on the open field; the birds of the sky to settle on yu, the beasts of the earth to feast on yu. I’ll lay yur flesh on mountains, fill valleys with yur height; I’ll fill yur swimming water with yur blood to the mountains; the watercourses will be full of yu. I’ll extinguish yu, I’ll cover the skies, make the stars dark; I’ll hide the sun with a cloud, the moon will give no light; the stars of heaven will be dark, darkness on yur land. I’ll vex the hearts of many peoples with yur destruction among the nations in unknown countries. I’ll amaze many peoples with yu, their kings will horribly be afraid for yu, when I brandish My Sword before them; they’ll tremble continuously, each for his own life, in the day of yur fall. The sword of the King of Babylon will come on yu; I’ll cause the swords of the mighty to slay yur populace; they’re the terror of the nations: they’ll vanquish Egypt’s pride, the population destroyed. I’ll destroy the wild animals near the waters; human feet nor animal hoofs will never again trouble it. Their waters will be clear, rivers will run like oil. I’ll desolate & waste the land of Egypt, destitute of its abundance, its residents smitten; then they’ll know Me. This is the lamentation they’ll lament, together with the daughters of the nations, over Egypt & her populace’.

In the 12th year, on the 15th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, wail for Egypt’s populace, toss her down with the famous nation’s daughters, to earth’s lowest parts, with those descending to the pit. Whom do yu surpass in beauty? go down, be laid with the uncircumcised. They’ll fall among the slain by sword; drag her & her multitude away. The strong among the mighty will speak to him from Sheol with those who help him: they descend, they’re still, the uncircumcised, slain by sword. Asshur & her bands are there in her cemetery of those slain by sword, who were terror in the land of the living. Elam & her multitude are in the cemetery of the sword slain who descend uncircumcised to earth’s lowest depths, who were terror in the land of the living, sharing the shame with those who descend to the pit. Meshech, Tubal, & her populace are in the cemetery of the uncircumcised sword slain, who were terror in the land of the living. They’ll not lie (honorably) with the mighty fallen of the uncircumcised; that descend to Sheol with their war weapons, with their swords under their heads, their iniquities on their bones, as the terror of the mighty in the land of the living. Yu’ll be broken with the uncircumcised, yu’ll lie with the sword slain. Edom & her kings & her princes, in their power are laid with the sword slain with the uncircumcised, with those descending to the pit. The princes of the north & the Sidonians, are with the sword slain, sharing their shame with those descending to the pit. Pharaoh will see them, be comforted for his populace, Pharaoh & his army, sword slain; says the Lord Jehovah. I’ve put terror in the land of the living; he’ll be laid with the uncircumcised, with the sword slain, Pharaoh & his multitude’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell the children of yur people: If I bring a sword on a land and the people appoint their Watchman: if he sees the approaching sword in the land, if he blow the trumpet, and warn the people; if some one hears the sound but takes no warning, if the sword takes him away, his blood is on his own head. He heard but did not heed, it’s his blood to save his soul. If the Watchman sees the approaching sword, didn’t blow the trumpet, the people weren’t warned, if anyone is taken away by sword in his iniquity, I’ll require his blood from the Watchman. Son of Man, I’ve appointed yu a Watchman to Israel’s House; hear the Word from My Mouth, warn them from Me. If I say to the wicked: wicked man, yu will die, if yu don’t warn him of his way, if he dies in his iniquity, I’ll require his blood from yu. If you warn the wicked to turn from his way, if he refuses; he’ll die in his iniquity, yu’ve delivered yur soul. Son of Man, tell Israel’s House: ‘Our transgressions & our sins are on us, we pine away in them; how can we live’? Tell them for Me: I have no pleasure in the wicked’ s death; only for the wicked to turn from his way to live: turn from your evil ways; why die, House of Israel? Son of Man tell the children of yur people: the righteousness of the righteous will not deliver him in the day of his transgression; the wickedness of the wicked will not fail in the day of his turning from his wickedness; the righteous will not live in the day he sins. If I say to the righteous, he’ll live; if he trust to his righteousness, and transgress, none of his righteous deeds will be remembered; in his iniquity he’ll die. If I say to the wicked, yu must die; if he repents from his sin, do what is lawful & right, restore the pledge, return the stolen things, walk in the statutes of life, practicing no crime; he must live, he must not die. His former sins must not be remembered against him: he did what is lawful & right; he must live. The children of yur people say: ‘the Lord’s Way is unequal’: but their way is unequal. If the righteous turns from his righteousness, commits crime, he must die for it; if the wicked turns from his wickedness, practice what is lawful & right, he must live for it. You say: ‘the Lord’s Way is unfair’; House of Israel, I’ll judge each of you for his ways’.

In the 12th year of our Captivity, in the 10th, on the 10th of the month, that a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: The City is smitten. The Hand of Jehovah was on Ezekiel in evening, before the refugee arrived; his mouth He hadn’t opened till morning when he (refugee) arrived, he (Ezekiel) was no longer dumb. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s inhabitants of the wastelands say: ‘Abraham was one, and he inherited the Land: we are many; the Land is our inheritance’. Tell them for Me: You eat with blood, you lift your eyes to idols, you shed blood: will you possess the Land? You stand with yur sword, you work abomination, you defile another’s wife: will you possess the Land? Tell them for Me: Those in the wastelands will fall by sword; I’ll give the one in the open field to the wild animals to be devoured; those in strongholds & caves will die by pestilence. I’ll make the Land desolation & astonishment; her proud power will cease; Israel’s mountains be desolate; none will pass through. They’ll know I’m Jehovah when I’ve made the Land desolation & astonishment for their abominations practiced. Son of Man, the children of thy people talk about yu at the walls & doors of the houses, talking one brother to another to ‘please listen to what Jehovah says’. They come to yu as a seeking people, they sit with yu as My People, they hear yur words, but refuse to obey; with their mouth they show much love, but their heart goes after gain. Yu are to them a lovely song of a pleasing singer, who plays an instrument well; they her yur words but do nothing. When these things come about, they’ll know a Prophet was among them’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy against the Shepherds of Israel: Woe to the Shepherds of Israel who feed themselves! Should not the Shepherds feed the sheep? You eat the fat, you clothe you with wool, you kill fatlings; but you don’t feed the sheep. You haven’t strengthened the diseased, you haven’t healed the sick, you haven’t bound up the broken, you haven’t brought back those driven away, you haven’t sought the lost; with force & rigor you ruled over them. They were scattered because there was no shepherd; they became food for wild animals, they scattered. My Sheep wandered through the mountains, on high hills: My Sheep were scattered over the earth; none to search or seek. You Shepherds listen to Jehovah’s Word: As I live, as My Sheep became prey, became food for the wild animals, because there was no shepherd, neither did My Shepherds search for My Sheep, but they fed themselves, and fed not My Sheep; you Shepherds, hear Jehovah’s Word: I’m against the Shepherds; I’ll require My Sheep from them, and prevent them from feeding My Sheep; neither will they ever feed themselves; I’ll deliver my sheep from their mouth, that they be not their food. I Myself, will search for My Sheep & seek them; as a shepherd seeks his scattered flock in the day while among them, I’ll seek My Sheep; I’ll deliver them from the peoples, gather them from countries, I’ll bring them to their own Land; I’ll feed them on Israel’s mountains, by watercourses, in all the inhabited places of the earth. I’ll feed them with good pasture; on the mountains of Israel’s heights will their fold be: they’ll rest in a good fold; on fat pasture they’ll feed on Israel’s mountains. I Myself will be the Shepherd of My Sheep, I’ll cause them to rest. I’ll seek the lost, I’ll bring back those driven away, I’ll bind the broken, I’ll strengthen the sick: the fat & strong I’ll destroy; I’ll feed them with justice. You, My Flock, I judge between sheep & sheep, the rams & he-goats. Is it a small thing to you to feed on good pasture, but you tread down the rest of the pasture with yur feet? to drink the clear waters, but you must foul the rest with your feet? My Sheep they eat what you trod; they drink what you fouled. I’ll judge between the fat sheep & the lean sheep. You thrust with side & shoulder, you push the diseased with your horns, till you’ve scattered far; I’ll save My Flock, they’ll never again be prey; I’ll judge between each sheep. I’ll appoint One Shepherd over them, he’ll (He’ll) feed them, My Servant David (the Beloved); he’ll (He’ll) feed them, he’ll (He’ll) be their Shepherd. I, Jehovah, will be their God, My Servant David (the Beloved) Prince among them. I’ll make a Peace Covenant with them, I’ll rid the Land of dangerous wild animals; they’ll live safely in the wilderness & sleep in the forests. I’ll make them & the places surrounding My Hill a blessing; I’ll cause the shower to fall in season; there will be showers of blessing. The field-trees will yield fruit, earth yield its increase, they’ll be secure in their Land; they’ll know Me, when I’ve broken the bars of their yoke, delivered them from those who enslaved them. They’ll no longer be prey to the Gentiles; the wild animals will not devour them; they’ll dwell safe without fear. I’ll raise up a Renowned Plantation, they’ll no longer be consumed with famine in the Land, never again to bear the shame of the Gentiles. They’ll know I, Jehovah, their God am with them, and Israel’s House are My People. You are My Sheep, the Sheep of My Pasture, I’m your God’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face against Mount Seir & prophesy against it: I’m against yu, Mount Seir, I’ll extend My Hand against yu, I’ll make yu a desolation & astonishment. I’ll lay waste yur cities, yu’ll be desolate; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah. Yu’ve had a perpetual enmity, gave over the sons of Israel to the power of the sword in the time of their calamity, in the time of the iniquity of the end; as I live, I’ll prepare yu for blood, blood will pursue yu: since yu didn’t hate blood, blood will pursue yu. I’ll make Mount Seir an astonishment & desolation; I’ll cut off any traveling to or from. I’ll fill its mountains with slain: in yur valleys & watercourses they’ll fall, slain with sword. I’ll make yu a perpetual desolation, yur cities will be uninhabited; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah. Yu said: ‘These two nations & two countries will be mine, I’ll possess it’; but Jehovah was there: as I live, I’ll respond to yur anger & yur envy which yu showed in hatred against them; I’ll make Myself known among them, when I shall judge yu. Yu’ll know that I, Jehovah, heard yur reviling spoken against Israel’s mountains, saying, ‘They’re laid desolate, they’re given us to devour’. You magnified yourselves against Me with your mouth, you’ve multiplied your words against Me: I heard it. When the whole earth rejoices, I’ll make yu desolate. As yu rejoiced over the inheritance of Israel’s House, being desolate, so I’ll do to yu: yu’ll be desolate, Mount Seir & Edom, all of it; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.
‘Son of Man, prophesy to Israel’s Mountains: The enemy has said against you: ‘The ancient places are our possessions’; prophesy, because they’ve made you desolate, and swallowed you up on all sides, that you be a possession to the rest of the Gentiles, and you are on the lips of talkers, the evil report of the people; you mountains of Israel, listen to My Word: The Lord Jehovah says to the mountains, hills, watercourses, valleys, desolate wasteland, & to forsaken cities, which are a prey & derision to the rest of the Gentiles nearby: in the fire of My Jealousy I’ve spoken against the rest of the Gentiles, and against Edom, who appointed My Land to themselves for a possession with joyous hearts, with despiteful souls, to toss it out as prey. Prophesy concerning the Land of Israel, say to the mountains, hills, watercourses, valleys: I’ve spoken in My Jealousy & My Wrath, because you’ve borne the shame of the Gentiles: I’ve sworn, the Gentiles nearby will bear their own shame. But you, Israel’s mountains, you shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My People Israel; for they’re soon to happen. I’m for you, I’ll turn to you, and you will be tilled & sown; I’ll multiply men on you, Israel’s House, all of it; the cities inhabited, the wastelands built; I’ll multiply man & beast on you; they’ll increase & be fruitful; I’ll cause you to be inhabited after your former estate, it will be better than at your beginnings: you will know I’m Jehovah. I’ll cause men to walk on you, My People Israel; they’ll possess yu, yu’ll be their inheritance, never again bereave of children. Because they say to you: ‘Yu are a devourer of men, a bereaver of yur nation’; never again will yu devour men, or bereave yur nation; I’ll never again let yu hear the shame of the Gentiles, or the reproach of the peoples, or cause yur nation to stumble’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, when Israel’s House dwelt in their own Land, they defiled it by their way & deeds: their way to Me was as the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity. I poured out My Wrath on them for the blood which they poured out on the Land, and because they had defiled it with their idols; I scattered them among the Gentiles, they were dispersed through the countries: I judged them for their way & deeds. When they came to the Gentiles, they profaned My Holy Name; men said of them: ‘These are Jehovah’s People exiled from His Land’. I regarded My Holy Name, which Israel’s House profaned among the Gentiles in exile. Tell Israel’s House for Me: Not for your sake House of Israel I do this, but for My Holy Name, which you profaned in your exile among the Gentiles. I’ll sanctify My Great Name profaned among the Gentiles by you; the Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah, when I’m sanctified in you before their eyes. I’ll take you from among the Gentiles, gather you out of the countries, I’ll bring you into your own Land. I’ll sprinkle clean water on you, you’ll be clean, from your filthiness & idols, I’ll cleanse you. I’ll give you a new heart, I’ll put in you a new spirit; I’ll take away the stony heart out of your flesh, I’ll give a new heart of flesh. I’ll put My Spirit in you, you’ll walk in My Statutes, you’ll keep My Ordinances, and practice them; you’ll dwell in the Land that I gave to your fathers; I’ll call for grain, I’ll multiply it; and no famine be on you; I’ll multiply the fruit of the tree, and the increase of the field, that you’ll never again have the reproach of famine among the Gentiles. You’ll remember your evil ways, your no-good deeds; you’ll loathe yourselves in your own sight for your crimes & abominations. Know, Israel’s House, I don’t act for you, be ashamed & confounded for your ways. In the day I cleanse you from your crimes, I’ll cause the cities to be inhabited, the wastelands builded. The desolate Land will be tilled, though it was a desolation in the sight of travelers. They’ll say: This desolate Land is become like the Garden of Eden; the waste, desolate, ruined cities are fortified & inhabited. The Gentiles nearby will know that I, Jehovah, built the ruined places, planted the desolate: I, Jehovah, spoke it & will do it. Again, I will be inquired by Israel’s House, to accomplish it for them: I’ll increase them with men like a flock. As the flock for sacrifice, as Jerusalem’s flock in her appointed feasts, the waste cities be filled with flocks of men; they’ll know that I’m Jehovah’.
Jehovah’s Hand was on Ezekiel: He brought him out in Jehovah’s Spirit, set him down in the valley, full of dry bones. He led him by them all around, there were many in the open valley; they were very dry. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, can these Bones live? He answered Him, ‘Lord Jehovah, Yu know’. Again He said to him: Prophesy over these Bones: You dry Bones, listen to Jehovah: I’ll cause breath to enter into you, and you’ll live. I’ll lay sinews on you, grow flesh on you, cover you with skin, put breath into you, you’ll live; you’ll know I’m Jehovah’. Ezekiel prophesied as commanded: as he prophesied there was a noise & an earthquake; the Bones came together, bone to bone; with sinews, flesh, skin; but no breath in them. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Prophesy to the Wind, Son of Man: Come from the four Winds, Breath, and breathe on these slain to live’. He prophesied as commanded, the breath came, they lived, stood on their feet, a great army. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, these Bones are the House of Israel: they say, ‘Our bones are dried up, our hope lost; we’re cut off’. Prophesy: I’ll open your graves, cause you to come out of your graves, My People, I’ll lead you to Israel’s Land. You’ll know I’m Jehovah after I’ve opened your graves, caused you to come out of your graves, My People. I’ll put My Spirit in you, you’ll live, I’ll place you in your own Land: you’ll know I, Jehovah, spoke it & performed it’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, take one Stick, write on it for Judah & for his Companions the Children of Israel; take another Stick, write on it for Joseph, the Stick of Ephraim, & for his Companions the House of Israel: join the Two Sticks as One to be One in your hands. When the children of yur People ask, ‘Tell us what this means’? tell them for Me: I’ll take the Stick of Joseph, in the hand of Ephraim, & his Companions, the Tribes of Israel; I’ll join it to the Stick of Judah to make One Stick, to be One in My Hand. The Sticks yu wrote on, will be in yur hand in their sight. Tell them for Me: I’ll take Israel’s Children from among the Gentiles, in their diaspora, regather them, and return them to their own Land: I’ll make them One Nation in the Land, on Israel’s mountains; One King will be King over them; never again be Two Nations, never again be divided into Two Kingdoms; never again to defile themselves with their idols & detestable things & their crimes; I’ll save them from their dwelling-places, where they sinned, and will cleanse them: they’ll be My People, and I’ll be their God. My Servant David (the Beloved) will be King over them; they’ll have One Shepherd: they’ll walk in My Ordinances, observe My Statutes, to practice them. They’ll dwell in the Land I’ve given to My Servant Jacob, in which their fathers dwelt; there they’ll dwell forever with their children, and grandchildren: My Servant David (the Beloved) will forever be their Prince. Also, I’ll make a Covenant of Peace with them; it will be an Eternal Covenant with them; I’ll resettle them & multiply them, I’ll set My Sanctuary forever in their midst. My Tabernacle will be with them; I’ll be their God; they’ll be My People. The Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah Who sanctifies Israel, My Sanctuary will be always be in their midst’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face toward Gog (uncertain), of the Land of Magog (Japhetic, Scythians), the Prince of Rosh (chief, first, head), Meshech (Japhetic), & Tubal (Japhetic), prophesy against him: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll surround yu, put hooks in yur jaws, I’ll drag yu out, with yur army, horses & horsemen, clothed in full armor, a great company with buckler & shield, handling swords; with them Persia, Cush (Hamitic), & Put (Hamitic), with shield & helmet; Gomer (Japhetic) with his hordes; the House of Togarmah (Japhetic) in outskirts of the north & his hordes; many peoples with yu. Be prepared with yur companies gathered to yu, be guard to them. After many days yu’ll be visited: in the later days yu’ll invade the Land that is restored from the Sword, gathered out of many peoples, on the mountains of Israel, which has been a continual waste; but delivered from the peoples, they’ll dwell safely. Yu’ll ascend, yu’ll come like a storm, like a cloud to cover the Land, yu, & yur hordes, with many peoples. On that day, things will come to yur mind, yu’ll devise an evil device: yu’ll say, I’ll ascend to the Land of unwalled villages; I’ll go to them at rest, dwelling securely, without walls, neither bars or gates; to take spoil & prey; to turn yur hand against the wastelands reinhabited, against the people regathered from the Gentiles, having cattle & goods, dwelling in the Land (eretz, dry-land, ground, earth). Sheba & Dedan (Shemitic, Semitic, Arabia), & Tarshish’s (Spain or Cilicia) merchants, with their young lions, & ask yu: ‘Have yu come to take spoil’? Son of Man, prophesy, tell Gog for Me: In the day that My People dwell securely, will yu know it? Yu’ll invade from yur place in the furthest North, yu, and many peoples with yu, riding on horses, a great company & mighty army; yu’ll come against My People Israel, as a cloud to cover the Land: in the later days I’ll lead yu against My Land, that the Gentiles know Me, when I’ll be sanctified in yu, Gog, in their sight. Are yu the one I spoke of in earlier time by My Servants the Prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for years that I would lead yu against them? In that day, when Gog will come against the Land of Israel, My Wrath will come up into his nose. In My Jealousy & the fire of My Wrath I spoke, In that day there be a great shaking in the Land of Israel; the fishes of the sea, the birds of the skies, the wild-animals of the field, creeping things on the earth, and men on the earth, will shake at My Presence, the mountains will be thrown down, steep places will fall, every wall will fall to the ground. I’ll call a sword against him to the mountains: each man’s sword against his brother. I’ll enter judgment with him with pestilence & blood; I’ll rain on him, on his horses, on the many peoples who are with, an overflowing shower, and great hailstones, fire, & brimstone. I’ll magnify Myself, & sanctify Myself, I’ll make Myself known in the eyes of many Gentiles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.
‘Son of Man, prophesy against Gog: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll turn yu around, I’ll lead yu on, I’ll cause yu to ascend from the furthest North; I’ll lead yu on Israel’s mountains; I’ll strike yur bow out of yur left hand, I’ll cause yur arrows to fall out of yur right hand. Yu’ll fall on Israel’s mountains, yu, & yur hordes, & yur peoples: I’ll give yu to the ravenous birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field to be devoured. Yu’ll fall on the open field; I’ve spoken it. I’ll send a fire on Magog, on those dwelling securely in the isles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. My Holy Name I’ll make known in My People Israel; I’ll never again permit My Holy Name to be profaned: the Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah, the Holy One in Israel. It’s coming, it will be done; this is the day of which I’ve spoken. The dwellers in the cities of Israel will go forth, they’ll make fires of the weapons & burn them, both shields & bucklers, bows & arrows, hand slaves, spears, they’ll make fires of them 7 years; so that they’ll take no wood from the field, neither out of the forests; they’ll burn weapons; they’ll plunder those that plundered them, rob those who robbed them. In that day, I’ll give Gog a burial place in Israel, the valley of travelers on the east of the sea; it will prevent travelers: there they’ll bury Gog & his multitude; they’ll call it the Valley of Hamon-Gog. 7 months Israel’s House will be burying them to cleanse the Land. The people of the Land will bury them; it’ll be to them renown in the day I’ll be glorified. They’ll employ workers full time to search for those to bury who remain unburied on the Land to cleanse it: after 7 months they’ll search. The travelers will travel; when anyone sees a man’s bone, he’ll set up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in the Valley of Hamon-Gog. Hamonah will be the City’s Name. The name of the city is Hamonah. They’ll cleanse the Land. Son of Man speak to the Birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field: Assemble yourselves, come gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice on Israel’s mountains to eat flesh & drink blood. You’ll eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, lambs, goats, bullocks, of fatlings of Bashan. You’ll eat the fat till you are full, and drink the blood till you are drunk, of My Sacrifice which I’ve sacrificed for you. You’ll be filled at My Table with horses & chariots, mighty men & men of war. I’ll set My Glory among the Gentiles; the Gentiles will see My Judgment I’ve executed, and My Hand I’ve laid on them. Israel’s House will know I’m Jehovah their God, from that day & forward. The Gentiles will know that Israel’s House went into Captivity for their iniquity; they trespassed against Me, I hid My Face from them: I gave them into the hand of their adversaries, they fell by the sword. According to their uncleanness & transgressions I treated them; I hid My Face from them. I’ll reverse Jacob’s Captivity, have mercy on the whole House of Israel; I’ll be jealous for My Holy Name. They’ll bear their shame & trespasses they did against Me; they’ll dwell safely in their Land unafraid; when I’ve restored them from the peoples, and regathered them from their enemies’ lands, and I’m sanctified in them in the Gentiles’ sight. They’ll know I’m Jehovah their God, Who caused them to go into Captivity among the Gentiles, and regathered them to their own Land; I’ll never again abandon them there; never again will I hide My Face from them; for I’ve poured out My Spirit on the House of Israel’.

In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day, Jehovah’s Hand was on Ezekiel, and He transported him to there. In the Visions of God, He transported him to the Land of Israel, and set him down on a high mountain, on which was as if the frame (form, structure) of a city on the south. He transported him there; there was a Man, Whose Appearance was like the appearance of brass, with a line of flax in His Hand, and a measuring read; He stood at the gate. The Man said: ‘Son of Man, see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears, set yur heart on all that I’ll show yu; for this reason yu were brought here, that I may show to yu: declare all that yu see to Israel’s House’. A Wall was outside of the House all around it; in the Man’s Hand a measuring reed 6 cubits long, equal to 1 cubit & 1 handbreadth each cubit (cubit= 18″ or 1 1/2 feet; handbreadth= 4” wide; total reed-cubit= 22″ or 21″ plus or minus; measuring-reed= 6×22″= 132″ or 12 feet; if we make the sacred or great or angelic cubit 24″ then conversion to feet is simple: 2×12″= 24″= 2′; if we make the sacred or great or angelic handbreadth 6″ then it equals 1/2 foot; we then have the sacred reed= 6×24’= 144″ or 12 feet):
He measured the Building’s thickness, 1 reed (12′); its height, 1 reed (12′). He came to the eastward Gate, ascended its steps:
He measured the Gate’s threshold (entrance-step, doorway-base, sill), 1 reed long (12′), 1 reed wide (12′), the other threshold was the same. Each lodge (chamber, room) was 1 reed long & wide; between the lodges (chambers, rooms), 5 cubits (10′); the entrance of the gate house ward, 1 reed (12′).
He measured the Gate’s porch, 8 cubits (16′); its posts, 2 cubits (4′); the Gate’s porch was house ward. The Gate’s lodges eastward was 3 on each side; the 3 measured the same: the posts on each side measured the same.
He measured the width of the Gate’s entrance, 10 cubits (20′); the Gate’s length, 13 cubits (26′); a border before the lodges, 1 cubit (2′), both borders the same; the lodges, 6 cubits (12′), both alike.
He measured the Gate from the roof of 1 lodge to the other, a width of 25 cubits (50′); both doors. The posts also, 60 cubits (120′); the court to the posts, around the Gate. The forefront of the Gate’s entrance to the forefront of the inner porch were 50 cubits (100′). The lodges had closed windows, with their posts within the Gate around, & likewise to the arches; windows were round about inward; on each post were palm-trees.
He led Ezekiel into the Outer Court; there were chambers & pavement, for the Court around: 30 chambers were on the pavement. The pavement was by the side of the Gates, corresponding to the length of the Gates, to the lower pavement.
He measured the width from the forefront of the lower Gate to the forefront of the Inner Court outside, 100 cubits (200′), on the east & the north.
The Gate of the Outer Court facing northward, He measured its length & width. Its lodges were 3 on both sides; its posts & arches were after the measure of the 1st Gate: its length 50 cubits (100′), the width 25 cubits (50′). Its windows & arches & palm-trees, matched the measurement of the Gate facing eastward; ascending by 7 steps; its arches were before them. There was a Gate to the Inner Court opposite another Gate, on the north & east; He measured from each Gate both 100 cubits each.
He led him southward to a Gate southward; He measured its posts & arches according to these measures. It had windows, and in the arches around, with like windows: length was 50 cubits (100′), width = 25 cubits (50′). 7 steps ascended it, with its arches; with palm-trees, one on both sides, on its posts.
A Gate was at the Inner Court southward: He measured from gate to gate southward 100 cubits (200′). He led him to the Inner Court by the South Gate:
He measured the South Gate according to these measurements; its lodges, posts, & arches, with these measurements: with windows & its arches around; it was 50 cubits (100′) long, 25 cubits (50′) wide. Arches were around toward the Outer Court; palm-trees were on its posts: its ascent was by 8 steps.
He led him to the Inner Court eastward: He measured the Gate according to these measures; its lodges, posts, & arches with these measurements: with its windows & arches around; 50 cubits (100′) long, & 25 cubits (50′) wide. Its arches were toward the Outer Court; palm-trees were on its posts, on both sides: its ascent was by 8 steps.
He led him to the North Gate: He measured it with these measurements; its lodges, posts, & arches, with its windows around; the length = 50 cubits (100′), the width = 25 cubits (50′). Its posts were toward the Outer Court; palm-trees were on its posts, on both sides: the ascent was by 8 steps. A chamber with its door was by the posts at the Gates; there they washed the burnt-offering.
The Gate’s porch had two tables on both sides each, for slaughtering burnt-offering, sin-offering, & trespass-offering. 2 tables were on the outside, ascending to the Gate’s entrance northward. 4 tables each on both sides of the Gate; 8 tables for slaughtering. 4 tables for the burnt-offering, of hewn stone, 1 1/2 cubit (3′) both long & wide; for instruments for the slaughtering of burnt-offering & the sacrifice. The flesh-hooks = handbreadth (1/2′) long, fastened inside around: on the tables was the flesh (meat) of the oblation.
Outside the Inner Gate were chambers for singers in the Inner Court, at the side of the North Gate, facing southward; same at side of the East Gate facing northward. He told Ezekiel: ‘This chamber, facing southward, is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the House; the chamber facing northward is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the Altar: these are the sons of Zadok (BeniZadok), who are from the sons of Levi (BeniLevi) who approach Jehovah to minister to (serving) Him’.
He measured the Court, 100 cubits (200′) both long & wide, foursquare; the Altar was before the House. He led him to the House’s porch, & measured each post of the porch, 5 cubits (10′) on both sides: the width of the Gate was 3 cubits (6′) each on both sides. The porch’s length was 20 cubits (40′), the width = 11 cubits (22′); they ascended to it by steps; with pillars by the posts on both sides.
He led Ezekiel to the Temple, measured the posts, 6 cubits (12′) wide on both sides, being the width of the Tabernacle. The width of the entrance was 10 cubits (20′); the sides of the entrance were 5 cubits (10′) each on both sides: He measured its length at 40 cubits, the width = 20 cubits (40′).
He went inside & measured each post of the entrance, 2 cubits (4′); & the entrance, 6 cubits (12′); the width of the entrance, 7 cubits (14′).
He measured its length & width, 20 cubits (40′) each, before the Temple: He said to him: This is the Most Holy Place.
He measured the Wall of the House, 6 cubits (12′); the width of every side-chamber, 4 cubits (8′), around the House on every side. The side-chambers were in 3 stories, one above another, 30 in all; they entered the wall which belonged to the House for the side-chambers around to secure, not to take hold in the wall of the House. The side-chambers wider where they enclosed it higher & higher; the House’s enclosure went higher & higher around the House: the width of the House upward; it ascended from the lowest to the middle to the highest. Ezekiel saw the House had a raised basement around: the foundations of the side-chambers were a ‘full reed of 6 great cubits’ (12′). The Wall’s thickness for the side-chambers on the outside was 5 cubits (10′): the remaining space was of the side-chambers belonging to the House. Between the chambers was a width of 20 cubits (40′) enclosing the House. The doors of the side-chambers were toward the remaining open space, one door northward, another southward: the width of the place remaining was 5 cubits (10′) around. The Building in front of the separate place at the side westward was 70 cubits (140′) wide; the Wall of the Building was 5 cubits (10′) thick around, its length 90 cubits (180′). He measured the House, 100 cubits (200′) long; the separate place eastward, 100 cubits (200′) long; the width of the House’s face, and of the separate place eastward, 100 cubits (200′).
He measured the Building’s length before the separate place which was at its back, its galleries on both sides, 100 cubits (200′); with the Inner Temple, & the porches of the Court; the doorways, the closed windows, & galleries around on their 3 stories, opposite the doorway, sealed & wound around, the ground ascending to the windows, (the windows were covered), to & above the door, to the Inner House, & outside, & by the Wall around inside & outside, by measurement. It was made with Cherubim (Cherubs) & palm-trees; palm-tree was between both Cherubs , the Cherubs had 2 faces; there was a human face toward the palm-tree on one side, a young-lion’s face was toward the palm-tree on the other side made through the House around: from the ground to above the door were Cherubim & palm-trees: thus was the Wall of the Temple. The Temple’s door-posts were squared; the Sanctuary’s face appearance was as its appearance. The Altar was of wood, 3 cubits (6′) high, its length 2 cubits (4′); its corners, length, & walls were of wood: He told Ezekiel, This is the Table that is before Jehovah. The Temple & the Sanctuary had 2 doors. The doors had 2 leaves each, 2 turning leves: two for the one door, 2 leaves for the other. There were carved on these Temple doors, Cherubs & palm-trees, like those carved on the Walls; there was a doorway of wood on the face of the porch outside. There was closed windows & palm-trees on both sides of the porch: thus, was the side-chambers of the House, & the doorways.
He led Ezekiel out to the Outer Court, the way northward:
He led him into the chamber opposite the separate place, opposite the Building northward. The north door was before the length of 100 cubits (200′), the width was 50 cubits (100′). Opposite those 20 belonging to the Inner Court, opposite the pavement belonging to the Outer Court, was opposite galleries in the 3rd story. Before the chambers was a walk of 10 cubits (20′) wide inward, a way of 1 cubit (2′); their doors were northward. The upper chambers were shorter; the galleries shorted them, more than the lowest or the middle, in the Building. They were in 3 stories, having no pillars as the pillars of the Courts: it was shorter than the lowest & middle from the ground. The Wall outside by the side of the chambers, toward the Outer Court before the chambers, was in length 50 cubits (100′). The length of the chambers in the Outer Court was 50 cubits (100′): & before the Temple were 100 cubits (200′). From under these entry on the east side, going into them from the Outer Court. In the thickness of the Wall of the Court eastward, before the separate place, before the Building, were chambers. The way before them was like the appearance of the chambers northward; as their length so was their width: their entrance or exit were both to their fashions & doors. The doors of the chambers southward had a door at the head of the way, the way directly before the Wall eastward, on entering them. He said told Ezekiel: ‘The north & south chambers, before the separate place, are the Holy Chambers, where the Priests near to Jehovah eat the Most Holy Things: they’ll lay the Most Holy Things, the meal-offering, sin-offering, & trespass-offering; for its a Holy Place. When the Priests enter, they must not leave the Holy Place to enter the Outer Court, they must lay there their ministering clothes, for they are holy: they must change to other clothes, to approach to what pertains to the People’.
When He finished measuring the Inner House, He led Ezekiel out by way of the Gate facing eastward & measured it around.
He measured on the east side with the measuring reed 500 reeds (500×12′ = 6,000′), with the measuring reed around.
He measured on the north side 500 reeds (6,000′) with the measuring reed around. He measured on the south side 500 reeds (6,000′) with the measuring reed.
He turned around to the west side, & He measured 500 reeds (6,000′) with the measuring reed.
He measured it on the 4 sides: it had a Wall around it, the length 500, width 500, to separate between what was holy or what was common. (Note: 1 mile = 5,280′, the 4 sides were each over 1 mile, or 4 – 4 1/2 square miles.)
He led Ezekiel to the Gate facing eastward. The Glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: His Voice was like the sound of many waters; and the earth (Land) shined with His Glory. It was like the appearance of the vision which he saw, according to the vision he saw when he (He) came to destroy (the destruction of) the city; the visions were like the vision he saw by the River Chebar; & Ezekiel fell prostrate. Jehovah’s Glory came into the House by the way of the Gate facing eastward. The Spirit lifted Ezekiel, transporting him into the Inner Court; & Jehovah’s Glory filled the House. Ezekiel heard One speaking to him from the House; a Man stood near him: He told him: ‘Son of Man, the Place of My Throne, & the Place of the Soles of My Feet, where I’ll dwell amidst the Children of Israel forever. The House of Israel will never again defile My Holy Name, neither they, nor their kings, by their whoredom, and by the corpses of their kings (in, and) their High Places; in their placing their doorway next to My Doorway, their door-posts next to My Door-posts, with only a wall between Me & them; they defiled My Holy Name with their abominations they practiced: so I’ve consumed them in My Anger. Let them put far away from Me their whoredom, the corpses of their kings; and I’ll dwell amidst them forever. Son of Man show the House to Israel’s House, that they be ashamed of their iniquities; let them measure the pattern. If they be ashamed of all they’ve done, reveal to them the form of the House, & its fashion, its egresses, its entrances, its structures, its ordinances, its forms, and its laws; write it in their sight; that they may keep all its form, and all its ordinances, to do them.
This is the Law of the House: on the top of the mountain the its whole area enclosed will be holy: this is the Law of the House. These are the measurements of the Altar by cubits (the cubit = cubit + handbreadth or 20″ + 4″ = 24″ = 2′, the sacred cubit): the bottom shall be a cubit (2′), width a cubit (2′): its border around its edge was a span (8″-10″, common = 8″-9″, sacred = 10″); this must be the base of the Altar. From the bottom on the ground to the lower ledge must be 2 cubits (4′), the width 1 cubit (2′); from the lesser ledge to the greater ledge must be four cubits (8′), width 1 cubit (2′). The Upper Altar must be 4 cubits (8′); from the Altar hearth & upward must be 4 horns. The Altar hearth must be 12 (24′) long by 12 (24′) wide, square in its 4 sides (48 cubits or 96′). The ledge must be 14 long by 14 wide (28′ by 28′, 4 sides = 56′); its border around it must be 1/2 cubit (1′); its bottom must be 1 cubit (2′) around; its steps facing eastward’. He told Ezekiel, ‘Son of Man, Jehovah says: These are the ordinances of the Altar in the day they offer burnt-offerings on it, to sprinkle blood on it. You must give to the Priests the Levites from the seed of Zadok, who approach Me, to minister to Me, a young bullock for a sin-offering. Yu must take of its blood, put it on its 4 horns, on the 4 corners of the ledge, & on the border around it: thus, yu’ll cleanse & atone for it. Yu must take the bullock of the sin-offering, and it shall be burnt in the appointed place of the house, outside the Sanctuary. The 2nd day yu must offer a male-goat without blemish for a sin-offering; they’ll cleanse the Altar, as they cleansed it with the bullock. After yu’ve cleansed it, yu must offer a young bullock without blemish, and a ram from the flock without blemish. Yu must bring them near before Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them up for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. Yu must bring them near to Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. 7 days yu must atone for the Altar & purify it; so, must they consecrate it. When they’ve accomplished the days, on the 8th day, & forward, the Priests must make your burnt-offerings on the Altar, and your peace-offerings; and I’ll accept you’.
He led Ezekiel by the way of the Outer Gate of the Sanctuary, facing eastward; it was shut. Jehovah said to him: ‘This Gate must be shut; it must not be opened, neither must any man enter it; for Jehovah, the God of Israel, entered in by it; it must be shut. The Prince must sit in it as Prince to eat bread before Jehovah; he must enter by way of the porch of the Gate and exit by the same way’. Jehovah told Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, mark & see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears what I tell yu concerning the ordinances of Jehovah’s House and its Laws; make note of the House’s entrance, and the Sanctuary’s egress. Tell the Rebellious House of Israel for Me: House of Israel, be content with yur abominations, in bringing in foreigners, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, to be in My Sanctuary, to profane it, My House, offering to yur abominations My Bread, the fat & blood, breaking My Covenant. You haven’t kept the charge of My Holy Things; you’ve set keepers of My Charge in My Sanctuary for yourselves. No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, must ever enter My Sanctuary, of any foreigners among the Children of Israel. The Levites who deserted Me, when Israel went astray from Me after their idols, they must pay for their crime. Yet they must be ministers in My Sanctuary, having oversight at the Gates of the House, and ministering in the House: they must slaughter the burnt-offering & sacrifice for the People, they must stand before them to minister to them. Because they ministered to them before their idols, becoming a stumbling block of iniquity to Israel’s House; I lifted My Hand against them, they’ll pay for their crime. They must not approach Me, to execute the office of priest to Me, nor approach My Holy Things, to the Most Holy Things, they must bear their shame, their abominations they’ve committed. But I’ll make them keepers of the charge of the House, for its service, for what is done in it. The Levitical Priests, Zadok’s Sons, who kept the charge of My Sanctuary when the Children of Israel deserted Me, they must approach Me to minister to Me; they must stand before Me to offer to Me the fat & blood. They’ll enter My Sanctuary, they’ll approach My Table, to minister to Me, they’ll keep My Charge. When they enter in at the Gates of the Inner Court, they’ll be clothed with linen garments; no wool must be on them, while they minister in the Gates of the Inner Court, and inside. They must wear linen turbans on their heads, they must have linen breeches on their loins; they must not gird themselves with anything causing sweat. When they go out into the Outer Court of the People, they must remove their clothes in which they minister, lay them in the Holy Chambers; they must put on other clothes, that they don’t sanctify the People with their clothes. They must not shave their heads, nor let their locks to grow long; they must only have hair-cuts. The Priests must drink no wine when they enter the Inner Court. They must not marry a widow for wives or divorcee; they must marry virgins of the seed of Israel’s House, or a Priest’s widow. They’ll teach My People the difference between the holy & the common and help them to discern between the unclean & the clean. In a controversy they’ll stand to judge; according to My Ordinances they must judge, they must keep My Laws & Statutes in all My appointed Feasts; they must sanctify My Sabbaths. They must not go near a dead person to defile themselves; they may defile themselves for father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or an unmarried sister. After he is cleansed, they’ll reckon to him 7 days. The day he enters the Sanctuary, into the Inner Court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he must offer his sin-offering. They’ll have no inheritance: I’m their inheritance; you’ll give him no possession in Israel; I’m their possession. They’ll eat the meal-offering, the sin-offering, & the trespass-offering; and every devoted in Israel will be theirs. The first of the first-fruits of everything, and every oblation of everything, of all your oblations, will be the Priest’s: you’ll also give to the Priests the first of your dough, to cause a blessing to rest on your house. The Priests must not eat anything that dies of itself, or is torn, whether of bird or beast’.
‘When you divide the Land by lot for inheritance, you shall offer an oblation to Jehovah, a Holy Portion of the Land; the length must be 25,000 (perhaps reed, then x 12′ = 3000,000′ = c.60 miles) long, the width 10,000 (if reed, x 12′ = 120,000′ = 24 miles): it’ll be holy in all its border around. From this must be the Holy Place 500 by 500, square around; 50 cubits (100′) for its suburbs around. From this measure yu must measure a length of 25,000 by 10,000 wide: in it shall be the Sanctuary, which is Most Holy. It is a Holy Portion of the Land: it must be for the Priests, the Sanctuary’s ministers, that approach to minister to Jehovah; it must be a place for their houses, a Holy Place for the Sanctuary. 25,000 long by 10,000 wide, for the Levites, the House’s ministers, for a possession to themselves: 20 chambers. You must allot the City’s possession 5,000 wide by 25,000 long, side by side with the oblation of the Holy Portion: it’ll be for all the House of Israel. For the Prince: on both sides of the holy oblation and of the possession of the City, in front of the holy oblation & in front of the possession of the City, on both westside westward & eastside eastward; in length corresponding to the portions, from west border to east border. In the Land it will be to him for a possession in Israel: My Princes will never again oppress My People; but they’ll give the Land to the House of Israel according to their tribes. Thus says the Lord Jehovah: Let it be enough for you, Princes of Israel: remove violence & spoil, execute justice & righteousness; take away your exactions from My People. You must have just balances, just ephah (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer), & just bath (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer). The ephah & the bath (quarts & gallons) shall be one measure, the bath contains 1/10th a homer, the ephah 1/10th a homer: its measure is after the homer (10 times the ephah & bath). The shekel equals 20 gerahs (ounces or pounds); 20, 25, & 15 shekels will be your maneh (50 shekels). This is the oblation you must offer: 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of wheat; you must give 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of barley; the set portion of oil, of the bath of oil, 1/10th of a bath out of a cor (equals homer, 10 times the ephah or bath): 10 baths or ephah (10 baths equals an homer); 1 lamb from every 200 of the flock, from the well-watered pastures of Israel: for a meal-offering, burnt-offering, peace-offerings, to atone for them. The People of the Land must contribute to this oblation for the Prince in Israel. It will be the Prince’s part to give the burnt-offerings, meal-offerings, & drink-offerings, in the feasts, on the new moons, & on the sabbaths, in all the appointed feasts of Israel’s House’. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘In the 1st, on the 1st of the month, you must take a young bullock without defect to cleanse the Sanctuary. The Priest must take the blood of the sin-offering, put it on the door-posts of the House, and on the 4 corners of the ledge of the Altar, and on the posts of the Gate of the Inner Court. Thus you must do on the 7th of the month for those who err, and for the simple: so you’ll atone for the House. In the 1st, on the 14th day of the month, you’ll have the Passover, 7 days feast; unleavened bread must be eaten; on that day the Prince must prepare for himself & for the People of the Land a bullock for a sin-offering. The 7 days of the feast he must prepare a burnt-offering to Jehovah, 7 bullocks & 7 rams without defect daily 7 days; a male-goat daily for a sin-offering. He must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, and a hin (2 gallon or 8 quarts) of oil to an ephah. In the 7th , on the 15th day of the month, in the feast, he must do like in the 7 days; according to the sin-offering, burnt-offering, meal-offering, according to the oil’.
The Lord Jehovah says: ‘The Gate of the Inner Court facing eastward must be shut the 6 working days; on the sabbath day it must be opened, on the day of the new moon it must be opened. The Prince must enter by the way of the porch of the Gate outside, and must stand by the post of the Gate; the Priests must prepare his burnt-offering & his peace-offerings, & he’ll worship at the entrance of the Gate: he shall exit; but the Gate must remain open till evening. The People of the Land must worship at the door of that Gate before Jehovah on the sabbaths & new moons. The burnt-offering that the Prince must offer to Jehovah must be on the sabbath day: 6 lambs & 1 ram without defect; the meal-offering must be an ephah for the ram, and the meal-offering for the lambs as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah. On the day of the new moon it must be an ephah for the bullock without defect, 6 lambs & 1 ram, without defect: he must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for the bullock, an ephah for the ram, and for the lambs as he’s able, an hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince enters, he must go by way of the porch of the Gate, and go out by its way. When the People of the Land approach Jehovah in the appointed feasts, he who enters by the way of the North Gate to worship must exit by way of the South Gate; he must not return by the Gate he entered, but he must continue straight ahead. The Prince, when they enter, must enter in their midst, when they exit, they exit. In the feasts and solemnities the meal-offering must be an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, for lambs as he is able, & a hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince prepares a freewill-offering, a burnt-offering or peace offerings as a freewill-offering to Jehovah, someone must open for him the Gate facing eastward; he must prepare his burnt-offering & peace offerings, as he does on the sabbath day: then he must exit; and after his exit someone must shut the gate. Yu must prepare a lamb a year old without defect for a burnt-offering to Jehovah daily: every morning yu must prepare it. Yu must prepare a meal-offering with it every morning, 1/6th of an ephah, 1/3rd of a hin oil, to moisten the fine flour; a meal-offering to Jehovah continually by a perpetual ordinance. They must prepare the lamb, the meal-offering, & the oil, every morning, for a continual burnt-offering. If the Prince give a gift to his sons, it is his inheritance, it belongs to his sons; it is their possession by inheritance. If he give of his inheritance a gift to his servants, it is his inheritance to the year of jubilee; then it returns to the Prince; but his inheritance must be for his sons. The Prince must not confiscate the People’s inheritance, to force them from their possession; he must give inheritance to his sons from his own possession, that My People are not scattered from his own possession’. He led Ezekiel through the entrance at the side of the Gate, into the Holy Chambers for the Priests, facing northward: there was a place in the back westward. He said to Ezekiel: ‘This is the place where the Priests must boil the trespass-offering & the sin-offering, where they must bake the meal-offering; that they don’t bring them out into the Outer Court, to sanctify the People. He led him out to the Outer Court, causing him to pass by the 4 corners of the Court, at every corner of the Court was a Court. In the 4 corners of the Court were enclosed Courts, 40 long by 30 wide: these 4 in the corners were of one measure. There was a Wall around in them, around the 4, and boiling-places were made under the Walls around’. He said to him: ‘These are the boiling-houses, where the ministers of the House must boil the sacrifice of the People’.
He led Ezekiel back to the door of the House; waters issued out from under the doorway of the House eastward; (the forefront of the House was eastward;) the waters flowed down from under, from the right side of the House, on the south of the Altar. He led him out by way of the Gate northward.
He led him round by the way outside the Outer Gate, by the way facing eastward; there flowed waters on the right side.
When the Man went forth eastward with a line in His Hand, He measured 1,000 cubits (2,000′ or 1/3 mile), He caused Ezekiel to pass through the waters, waters to the ankles.
He measured another 1,000 (2,000′), causing him to pass through the waters knee high.
He measured another 1,000 (2,000′), passing through to waters high.
He measured another 1,000 (2,000′): a river impassable; the waters rose , waters to swim in, an impassable river. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, have yu seen this’? He caused him to return to the river’s bank, where on the river’s bank were many trees on both sides. He told him: ‘These waters flow toward the eastern region, flowing into the Arabah (desert, wilderness, south of the Dead Sea); flowing toward the sea which issued forth from it; healing waters. Every living creature which swarms, wherever the rivers flow, will live; there will be a great multitude of fish; for these waters flow there to heal, everything will live wherever the river flows. The fishers will stand near: from En-gedi (near the Dead Sea) to En-eglaim (perhaps continuing south in the Arabah towards the Gulf of Aqabah; if northward, then perhaps to the Sea of Galilee) will be a place for the spreading of nets; their catch will be fishes of every kind, as the fish of the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), so many. But its wetlands & marshes will not be healed; they’ll be given to salt. By its riverbank, on both sides, will grow every tree for food, whose leaf will not whither, neither its fruit fail: it will produce new fruit every month, because its waters flow from the Sanctuary; its fruit will be for food, its leaf for healing.
The border to divide the Land for inheritance according to the 12 Tribes of Israel: Joseph’s portions: You will inherit it, one each; for I swore to give it to your fathers: this Land will fall to you for inheritance. The border of the Land: On the North side, from the Great Sea, by the way of Hethlon, to the entrance of Zedad; Hamoth, Berothah, Sibraim, between the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauran’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazer-enon at the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauron’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazar-enon at Damascus’ border; on the north northward is Hamoth’s border. This the North side.
The East side, between Hauran & Gilead, and the Land of Israel, will be the Jordan; from the border to the East Sea (Dead Sea) you’ll measure. This is the East side.
The South side southward be for Tamar to the waters of Meriboth-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the South side southward.
The West side will be the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), from the border to the entrance of Hamath. This the West side. So you’ll divide this Land to you according to the Tribes of Israel. You must divide it by lot for an inheritance to you & to the strangers who reside among you, who birth children among you; they must be the same as the native Children of Israel; they must have inheritance with you among the Tribes of Israel. In wherever Tribe the stranger resides, there you must give him his inheritance, says the Lord Jehovah’.
These are the names of the Tribes: From the North end, by the way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, Hazar-enan at the border of Damascus, northward beside Hamath, (having both sides of east & west), Dan: 1.
Bordering Dan: east side to west side, Asher: 1.
Bordering Asher: east side to west side, Naphtali: 1
Bordering Naphtali: east side to west side, Manasseh: 1.
Bordering Manasseh: east side to west side, Ephraim: 1.
Bordering Ephraim: east side to west side, Reuben: 1.
Bordering Reuben: east side to west side, Judah: 1
Bordering Judah: east side to west side, will be the oblation which you must offer, 25,000 wide, and in length as one of the portions, from east side to west side: the Sanctuary will be in its center.
The oblation you’ll offer to Jehovah must be 20,000 in length, 10,000 in width. These for the Priests will be the Holy Oblation: northward: 25,000 in length; westward: 10,000 in width; eastward: 10,000 wide; southward: 25,000 long: the Sanctuary is in the middle. It’s for the sanctified Priests of Zadok’s sons, who kept My Charge not straying when the Children of Israel strayed, as the Levites went astray. It’s their oblation from the oblation of the Land, a thing Most Holy, by the border of the Levites. Corresponding to the Priests’ border, the Levites must have 25,000 in length, and 10,000 in width. They must not sell a part of it, nor exchange it, nor must the first-fruits of the Land be alienated; for its Holy to Jehovah. The 5,000 remaining of the width, in front of the 25,000, must be for common use, for the city, for welling & for suburbs; the City is centered in it. These are its measurements: the North side, the South side, the East side, & the West side must be 4,500 each. The City must have suburbs: northward, southward, eastward, & westward must be 250 each. The remnant in the length, matching to the Holy Oblation, must be 10,000 eastward& 10,000 westward; it must be matching to the Holy Oblation; and the surplus must be for food for the City workers. The City laborers from the Israel’s Tribes must till it. The oblation must be 25,000 by 25,000: you must offer the Holy Oblation four-square (25,000 x 4 = 100,000), with the City’s possession. The remnant must be for the Prince, on both sides of the Holy Oblation & the City’s possession; in front of the 25,000 of the oblation toward the East border, and westward in front of the 25,000 toward the West border, matching to the portions, it must be for the Prince: and the Holy Oblation & the Sanctuary of the House must be in its center.
Also, from the possession of the Levites, and from the City’s possession, being in the center of what belongs to the Prince, between the border of Judah & the border of Benjamin, it must be for the Prince. As for the rest of the Tribes: east side to west side, Benjamin: 1.
Bordering Benjamin: east side to west side, Simeon: 1.
Bordering Issachar: east side to west side, Zebulon: 1.
Bordering Zebulon: east side to west side, Gad: 1.
Bordering Gad: at the south side southward, the border must be from Tamar to the waters of Meribah-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the Land which you must divide by lot to the Tribes of Israel for inheritance, these are their individual portions, says the Lord Jehovah. These are the egresses of the City: On the north side: 4,500 by measurement; the Gates of the City must be after the names of the Tribes of Israel:
3 Gates northward: Reuben’s Gate: 1; Judah’s Gate: 1; Levi’s Gate: 1.
East side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Joseph’s Gate: 1; Benjamin’s Gate: 1; Dan’s Gate: 1.
South side: 4,500 by measure: 3 Gates: Simeon’s Gate: 1; Issachar’s Gate: 1; Zebulun’s Gate: 1.
West side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Gad’s Gate: 1; Asher’s Gate: 1; Naphtali’s Gate: 1. It must be 18,000 around: the Name of the City from that day will be: Jehovah Shammah (The Lord is There)’.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.27

     (Here is submission or part 27 of CBR, pages 171-232, of Jeremiah & Lamentations. mjmselim.Oct.2019.)

      Here are the Selections that I found very useful to explore the Book of Jeremiah and his Lamentations. I have not tried to insert objections to those things in these writings that I reject or object to, but both the good and the bad to present a fuller picture in the hermeneutics of the Prophet and his Prophecies.

Jeremiah’s Selections (10): Jeremiah’s & Lamentations Selections: Blayney, Henderson, Naegelsbach (Lange’s-Schaff), Keil-Delitzsch, Streane (CBS), Wordsworth, Smith (Scot), Driver, Brown, & Binns.

(1)
Literal Translation of Prophets, Isaiah-Malachi, v2. Jeremiah & Lamentations, by Benjamin Blayney, D.D., Prof. of Hebrew Oxford; Notes, Critical, Philological, & Explanatory, etc. New Ed. (1836). gs

{{ Preliminary Discourse: “When it was first proposed to me to revise the text of Jeremiah, and to attempt a new translation of it, with notes and illustrations, after the manner of the Bishop [Lowth] of London’s Isaiah, it appeared to me a matter of so much difficulty and importance, as justly to merit the most mature deliberation. Though sincerely disposed to pay all due deference to the authority of my friends, and earnestly desirous, at a time when I had no immediate call in the line of my profession, to find myself engaged in some worthy occupation, whereby I might have a chance of promoting the glory of God, and the spiritual good of mankind; it could not but occur to me, that, in following the plan of an author of such distinguished eminence, from a disparity of talents a most mortifying disparity might reasonably be apprehended in the execution. On the other hand, it seemed much to be regretted, that a design of such singular utility, and for which such ample materials had been lately provided, should at once be relinquished and laid aside. The learned and venerable Prelate, with whom it began, it was but too well known, had neither leisure nor health to prosecute it farther. And were it necessary to wait till another of equal qualifications should take it up, it were possible that many generations might elapse before the world might enjoy the wished-for satisfaction. But from inferior abilities some, at least, though not equal, benefit might arise; and this in particular, that, whilst the thoughts and attention of mankind were turned upon the subject, the discussion of such errors and mistakes as would be committed might gradually tend to an elucidation and discovery of the truth. And, therefore, upon these principles, when I found no other person likely to stand forth, I determined, at length, to comply with what had been recommended to me; trusting to the candour of the public, which I had heretofore experienced; and claiming no other indulgence, than, out of regard to my good intentions, to have my faults animadverted on with that gentleness and benignity which every liberal-minded person will be inclined to exercise towards others, because he must naturally wish to be so treated himself……I should still think myself guilty of a most unpardonable omission, were I not at this time to seize the opportunity of testifying my respect for the memory of another lately deceased friend; the learned Dr. Kennicott I mean, whose name the Hebrew critic ought ever to hold in the highest veneration. I account it a singular honour and happiness to myself to have conversed familiarly with him, and to have derived much solid information and improvement from that fund of knowledge which his laborious researches enabled him to lay in, and which the friendliness of his mind disposed him freely to communicate. Of such a nature were my personal obligations to him. His public merit was more conspicuous; being attested by his astonishing collation of seven hundred Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. and printed editions of the most early date, anxiously sought out through all the different quarters of the and examined with the nicest care: A work of which he was the first that had the penetration to discern the important utility; and which he was at length fortunate enough, after a course of twenty years of indefatigable application and industry, to bring to a happy conclusion, under the patronage of the greatest names in Europe. From this ample magazine what invaluable stores may be extracted, every day’s experience tends to furnish more convincing indubitable proofs. The various readings that are produced and applied in the notes which follow, though not all of equal importance, will, many of them, I trust, be deemed far from immaterial. But let me indulge a hope, that the time is not very far distant when the task of bringing forward these materials to their proper use will not be left, as hitherto it hath been, altogether in the hands of a few well-intentioned individuals, but will be undertaken on a more extensive plan, by a select assembly of the most learned and judicious divines, commissioned by public authority to examine into the state of the Hebrew text, to restore it, as nearly as possible, to its primitive purity, and to prepare from it a new translation of the Scriptures in our own language, for the public service……Are we not taught to believe, that “all” and every part of “Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is,” according to the intention of the Donor, “profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness?” But can any Scripture be profitable, except it be understood? And if not rightly understood, may not the perversion of it be proportionably dangerous? Or is it nothing, to deprive the people of that edification which they might have received, had a fair and just exposition been submitted instead of a false one? Do we not know the advantage that is commonly taken by the enemies of revelation, of triumphing in objections plausibly raised against the Divine word upon the basis of an unsound text or wrong translation? And though these objections have been refuted over and over again by the most solid argumentation of private religionists, do they not still continue to ring them in the ears of the vulgar and unlettered Christian, as if they were owned and admitted to be unanswerable So that it requisite for the honour of God and His true religion, that these stumbling-blocks should be removed out of the way as soon as possible by an act of solemn and public disavowal. Influenced by these and such like considerations, His Swedish Majesty hath already set the example, by commanding a new revisal and more perfect translation of the Scriptures to be immediately begun in his dominions. And, which may more excite our wonder, we are credibly informed, that a similar work is set on foot in our own language, at the sole expense of a single nobleman of princely spirit, for the use of the English Roman Catholics. And shall the British nation, so deservedly famous throughout the world for its magnificence and public-spirited exertions, be less active and forward than others upon so glorious an occasion? Shall the church of England, ever accustomed to rank with the foremost in learning and piety, be the last to hold forth to her members those sacred writings in their utmost perfection and purity, the free use of which she has ever taught them to consider as the most invaluable of their privileges? Or will our governors, after having in their private capacities contributed so largely above all others to the means of reformation, stop short on a sudden, and refuse to give a public sanction to the application of them?…..” }}

{{ Historical Sketch: “…..The idolatrous apostasy and other criminal enormities of the people of Judah, and the severe judgments which God was prepared to inflict upon them, but not without a distant prospect of future restoration and deliverance, are the principal subject-matters of the following prophecies; excepting only chapter 45, which relates personally to Baruch; and the six succeeding chapters, which respect the fortunes of some particular heathen nations. It is observable, however, that, though many of these prophecies have their particular dates annexed to them, and others may be tolerably well guessed at from certain internal marks and circumstances, there appears a strange disorder in the arrangement, not easy to be accounted for on any principle of regular design. There is, indeed, a variation between the Hebrew copies and those of the LXX version, in the arrangement of those particular prophecies concerning the heathen nations; which in the Hebrew are disposed all together, and, as I conceive, in their proper order of time with respect to each other, at the end of the book; intentionally, as it should seem, not to interrupt the course of Jewish history; whilst the authors of the LXX, have inserted them, with some difference of order among themselves, though, perhaps, no very material one, after verse 13 of chapter 25. But the disorder complained of lies not here; it is common to both the Hebrew and Greek arrangements; and consists in the preposterous jumbling together of the prophecies of the reigns of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, in the seventeen (17) chapters which follow the twentieth (20th) according to the Hebrew copies; so that without any apparent reason many of the latter reign precede those of the former; and in the same reign the last delivered are put first, and the first last. As such an unnatural disposition could not have been the result of judgment, nor scarcely of inattention, in the compiler of these prophecies; it follows that the original order has most probably, by some accident or other, been disturbed. To restore which, as it may be of some use to the reader, I shall venture to transpose the chapters, where it appears needful, without altering the numerals, and shall assign the motives of every such transposition in the particular place where it is made. The following historical sketch of the times in which Jeremiah lived is given with a view to throw light upon his prophecies in general, and may help to explain sundry circumstances and allusions that are found therein. In the reign of Manasseh every species of impiety and moral corruption had been carried to the highest pitch under the encouragement of royal example. And so thoroughly tainted were the minds of men by this corrupt influence, as to baffle all the endeavours of the good Josiah to bring about a reformation. This well-disposed prince, having, in the eighteenth (18th) year of his reign, accidentally met with the book of the law, was stricken with horror at the danger to which he found himself and his kingdom exposed by the violations of it. He therefore immediately set about removing all the abominations that were in the land, and engaged his subjects to join with him in a solemn covenant to be more dutifully observant of the Divine commands for the time to come. But though the king’s heart was right, and his zeal fervent and sincere, it was all hypocrisy and dissimulation on the part of the people; their hearts were incorrigibly turned the wrong way; and God, who saw clearly the real bent of their dispositions, was not to be diverted from His designs of vengeance. He began with depriving them by a sudden stroke of their excellent prince, under whose government they had enjoyed much happiness and tranquillity, of which they were altogether unworthy. He was slain in a battle with Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, whom Josiah had gone out to oppose on his march against the Babylonian dominions, being himself in alliance with the king of Babylon; and his death, however fatal to his kingdom, was, as to his own particular, a merciful disposition of providence, that his eyes might not see all the evil that was coming upon his land. The twelve (12) first chapters of this book seem to contain all the prophecies delivered in this reign. Josiah being dead, his sons who succeeded him were not of a character to impede or delay the execution of God’s judgments. It is said in general of them all, that they did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah. The first that mounted the throne was Shallum, or Jehoahaz, the second son, by designation of the people. But his elevation was not of a long continuance. Pharaoh Necho, having defeated the Babylonian forces, and taken Carchemish, on his return deposed Jehoahaz, after a reign of three months, and, putting him in chains, carried him to Egypt, from whence he never returned. In this short reign Jeremiah does not appear to have had any revelation. Pharaoh Necho made use of his victory to reduce all Syria under his subjection; and having imposed a fine upon the kingdom of Judah of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold, he received the money from Jehoiakim, the eldest son of Josiah, whom he appointed king in his brother’s stead. Jehoiakim was one of the worst and wickedest of all the kings of Judah; a man totally destitute of all regard for religion, and unjust, rapacious, cruel, and tyrannical in his government. In the beginning of his reign he put Urijah, a prophet of God, to death, for having prophesied, as was his duty to do, of the impending calamities of Judah and Jerusalem. And having either built for himself a new palace, or enlarged the old one that belonged to the kings of Judah, by a strain of authority not less mean than wicked he withheld from the workmen the wages they had earned in building it. In short, he set no bounds to his evil inclinations and passions; and his people, freed from the wholesome discipline which had restrained them in his father’s time, were not behindhand with him in giving way to every sort of licentious extravagance. Three years he reigned without molestation or disturbance from abroad. But towards the latter end of his third (3rd) year, Nebuchadnezzar being associated in the government by his father, Nabopollassar, king of Babylon, was sent into Syria to recover the dismembered provinces of the Babylonish empire. In the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim he beat the Egyptian army at the river Euphrates, retook Carchemish, and, having subdued all the intermediate country, he appeared before Jerusalem, of which he soon made himself master. Jehoiakim was at first loaded with chains, with an intention of sending him to Babylon (* In our author’s note on chapter 22:19, this assertion, and a subsequent one at the close of the next paragraph, are modified and corrected,–J. N.). He was, however, released upon his submission, and again suffered to reign on taking an oath to be a true servant of the king of Babylon. But numbers of his people were sent captives to Babylon, together with several children of the blood royal, and of the first families of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar proposed to breed up in his own court, in order to employ them afterwards in the affairs of his empire. At the same time many of the sacred vessels were taken away, and deposited in the temple of Belus at Babylon; so that from this date the desolation of Judah may fairly be reckoned to have had its beginning. After the king of Babylon’s departure, Jehoiakim continued to pay him homage and tribute for three years. In the mean time both he and his people persisted in their evil courses, undismayed by the mischiefs which had already befallen them, and making light of the threatenings, which God by the ministry of his prophets repeatedly denounced against them. At length Jehoiakim refused to pay any longer the tribute assigned him, and broke out into open revolt. To chastise him, the king of Babylon, not being at leisure to come in person, directed his vassals of the neighbouring provinces, the Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, to join with the Chaldean troops that were on the frontiers, and to ravage the land of Judah. They did so for three years together, and carried off abundance of people from the open country, who were sent to Babylon. Jehoiakim, in some attempt, as it should seem, made by him to check these depredations, was himself slain without the gates of Jerusalem; and his dead body having been dragged along the ground with the greatest ignominy, was suffered to remain without burial in the open fields. The prophecies of this reign are continued on from chapters 13 to 20, inclusively, to which we must add chapters 22,23, 25,26, 35, & 36, together with 45,46,47, & most probably 48, and as far as to verse 34 of chapter 49. Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim, a youth of eighteen (18) years old, succeeded his father in the throne, and followed his evil example, as far as the shortness of his reign would admit. From the beginning of it, Jerusalem was closely blocked up by the Babylonian generals. At the end of three months Nebuchadnezzar joined his army in person, and upon his arrival Jeconiah surrendered himself, and his city, at discretion. He was transported directly to Babylon, with his mother, his family, and friends, and with them all the inhabitants of the land of any note or account. The treasures also of the temple, and of the king’s house, and all the golden vessels which Solomon had provided for the temple-service, were at this time carried away. We read of no prophecy that Jeremiah actually delivered in this king’s reign; but the fate of Jeconiah, his being carried into captivity, and continuing an exile till the time of his death, was early foretold in his father’s reign, as may be particularly seen in chapter 22. The last king of Judah was Zedekiah, the youngest son of Josiah, whom Nebuchadnezzar made king, and exacted from him a solemn oath of allegiance and fidelity. He was not perhaps quite so bad a man as his brother Jehoiakim; but his reign was a wicked one, and completed the misfortunes of his country. His subjects seem to have but little respected him, whilst they considered him in no other light than as the lieutenant or viceroy of the king of Babylon, whose sovereignty they detested, and were continually urging him to throw off the yoke. Nor had he been long in possession of the kingdom, before he received ambassadors from the kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyrus, and Sidon, soliciting him to join in a confederacy against the Babylonish power. But he was wise enough at this time to hearken to the prophet Jeremiah’s advice, and to reject their propositions; and for some years continued to send regularly his presents and ambassadors to Babylon, in token of his obedience. But the iniquities of his people were now ripe for punishment, and their idolatries, as the prophet Ezekiel describes them, (chap 8,) were become so enormously profligate, that the stroke of vengeance could no longer be suspended. Zedekiah, therefore, was last prevailed on by evil counsel, and the promise of assistance from Egypt, to break his oath, and renounce his allegiance; by which he drew upon himself the arms of the king of Babylon, who invaded Judah, took most of its cities, and invested Jerusalem. The Egyptians made a show of coming to his relief; and the Chaldean army, informed of their approach, broke off the siege, and advanced to meet them; having first sent off the captives that were in their camp. This produced a signal instance of the double-dealing of the Jews. For in the first moments of terror they had affected to return to God, and in compliance with His law had proclaimed the year of release to their Hebrew bondservants, and let them go free. But on the retreat of the Chaldeans, when they believed the danger was over, and not likely to return, they repented of their good deed, and compelled those whom they had discharged to return to their former servitude. The Egyptians, however, durst not abide the encounter of the enemy, but faced about, and returned to their own land, leaving the people of Judah exposed to the implacable resentment of the king of Babylon. The siege was immediately renewed with vigour, and the city taken according to the circumstantial account which is given of it in chapter 52. The prophecies, which were delivered in the reign of Zedekiah, are contained in chapters 21 & 24, 27 to 34, & 37 to 39, inclusively, together with the six last verses of chapter 49, & chapters 50, & 51, concerning the fall of Babylon. The subsequent transactions of the murder of Gedaliah, of the retreat of the Jews that remained into Egypt, and of their ill-behaviour there, are so particularly related in chapters 40-44, that it were needless here to repeat them. But it may be of use to observe, that, in the second year after the taking of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Tyre; and, in the course of that siege, which lasted thirteen (13) years, he sent part of his forces against the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Philistines, and other neighbouring nations, to desolate and lay waste the country, as the prophets of God had foretold. At the same time Nebuzaradan, the Babylonish general, again entered the land of Judah, and carried off a few miserable gleanings of inhabitants that were found there. In the next year after the taking of Tyre, the king of Babylon invaded Egypt, which he plundered and ravaged from one end to the other; and, on this occasion, all the Jews that had fled into that kingdom for refuge were almost entirely cut off, or made prisoners. Such was the state of affairs in general, till, in the course of time, and precisely at the period which had been foretold, the Babylonian monarchy was itself overturned by the prevailing power of the Medes and Persians; and the Jewish nation once more returned to their own land. It may be expected, that something should be said concerning the discriminating style and genius of this prophet’s writing. But, instead of offering an opinion of my own, which in point of judgment may be questionable, the public in general will perhaps be better gratified, if I present them with the translation of a character already drawn by a very superior hand, to which I doubt not every reader of discernment will heartily subscribe. “Jeremiah,” says this admirable critic [Lowth], “is by no means wanting either in elegance or sublimity; although, generally speaking, inferior to Isaiah in both. Jerome has objected to him a certain rusticity in his diction, of which I must confess I do not discover the smallest trace. His thoughts indeed are somewhat less elevated, and he is commonly more large and diffuse in his sentences; but the reason of this may be, that he is mostly taken up with the gentler passions of grief and pity, for the expression of which he has a peculiar talent. This is most evident in the Lamentations, where those passions altogether predominate; but it is often visible also in his Prophecies, in the former part of the book more especially, which is principally poetical; the middle are for the most part historical; but the last part, consisting of six chapters, is entirely poetical; and contains several oracles distinctly marked, in which this prophet falls very little short of the lofty style of Isaiah. But of the whole book of Jeremiah it is hardly the one half which I look upon as poetical.” (‘Lowth’ ‘De Sacrá Poesi Hebraeorum, Praelec. xxi.)” }}

{{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: Introduction: “The Lamentations of Jeremiah are very properly distributed into five chapters, each of them containing a distinct elegy, consisting of twenty-two periods, according to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet; although it is in the four first chapters only that the several periods begin, acrostic-wise, with the different letters following each other in alphabetical order. By this contrivance the metre is more precisely marked and ascertained, particularly in the third chapter, where each period contains three verses, which have all the same initial letter. The two first chapters in like manner consist of triplets, excepting only the seventh period of the first, and the nineteenth of the second, which have each a supernumerary line. The fourth chapter resembles the three former in metre, but the periods are only couplets. In the fifth chapter the periods are couplets, but of a considerably shorter measure. It has been surmised by some men of eminence in literature, both among the ancients and moderns, (*Josephus, Jerome, Archbishop Usher, &c.) that these were the funeral lamentations composed by Jeremiah on the death of the good king Josiah, which are mentioned, 2nd Chron. 35:25, and there said to have been perpetuated by an ordinance in Israel. But whatever is become of those lamentations, these cannot possibly be the same; for their whole tenor from beginning to end plainly shows them not to have been composed till after the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, and the depopulation of the country by the transmigration of all its inhabitants; which events are described not at all in the style of prophetic prediction, but alluded to and bewailed as what had been already fully accomplished and brought to pass. And that this was the most ancient opinion held concerning them, appears from the introductory title prefixed to the Greek version of the LXX, and from thence probably transmitted to the Latin Vulgate; but which, not being found in any of the Hebrew copies, I have inserted at the head of the first chapter between crotchets, ([And it came to pass after that Israel had been carried captive and Jerusalem was become desolate, that Jeremiah sat weeping, and lamented with this Lamentation over Jerusalem, and said:]) as being somewhat doubtful of its original authority. The internal evidence is, however, sufficient to ascertain both the date and the occasion of these compositions; nor can we admire too much the full and graceful flow of that pathetic eloquence, in which the author pours forth the effusions of a patriotic heart, and piously weeps over the ruins of his venerable country. “Never,” says an unquestionable judge of these matters, (*’Lowth’ ‘De Sacrá Poesi Hebraeorum’ , Praelect. xxii.) “was there a more rich and elegant variety of beautiful images and adjuncts arranged together within so small a compass, nor more happily chosen and applied.” But it was before observed, that the prophet’s peculiar talent lay in working up and expressing the passions of grief and pity; and unhappily for him, as a man and a citizen, he met with a subject but too well calculated to give his genius its full display.” }}

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah & Lamentations, Translated from Orignal Hebrew, with Commentary, Critical, Philological, & Exegetical. by E. Henderson, D.D. (1851).gs

{{ Introductory Dissertation: “…..It was the fate of Jeremiah after the death of Josiah, to live in the reigns of a succession of kings whose conduct and policy were directly the reverse of that prescribed by the theocracy; and, urged by Divine authority strenuously to oppose their wicked projects, he found himself almost incessantly in collision with them and their counsellors, and exposed to their displeasure. By Zedekiah, who appears to have shown him personal respect, and to have consulted him with reference to the national affairs, he would in all probability have been better treated, had it not been for the influence which the courtiers had over that monarch, in consequence of which our prophet was committed to prison, where he remained till Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar. This monarch ordered him to be liberated, and gave him his option whether to go with him to Babylon or to remain in his native country. Preferring the latter, he strongly protested against the emigration to Egypt of those of his countrymen who had been left in the land, and who were afraid of the vengeance of the king of Babylon on account of the murder of Gedaliah, whom that monarch had appointed governor. Determined to carry their purpose into effect, they compelled Jeremiah and Baruch to accompany them. We now find the prophet delivering predictions at Tahpanhes, a strong boundary-city on the Tanitic or Pelusian branch of the Nile; but with as little success, as it respects any real reformation, as that which had attended his labours previous to the captivity. How long he lived in Egypt we know not, but according to tradition he died in that country, and was buried at Tahpanhes. After the exile the Jews attached the highest importance to his memory, and such was their veneration for him, that they cherished the belief he would rise again from the dead, and make his appearance as a forerunner of the Messiah. See Matt. 16:14. What rendered the half century during which Jeremiah flourished, a period of peculiarly eventful and disastrous character, was the prevalence of internal disorders resulting from the obstinate refusal of the princes to listen to the admonitions of Jehovah, and the alienation of their confidence from him to their Egyptian ally. The Chaldeans, having succeeded to the rule in Asia, threatened Egypt with invasion; in consequence of which the Jews who were situated between the two powers were exposed alternately to the inroads of the one or the other of their hostile armies. The first calamity which befell them was the defeat and death of Josiah, when giving battle to Pharaoh Necho; and when they afterwards sided with the Egyptians against the Chaldeans, they became involved in all the miseries of a war with that power. Though solemnly warned by the prophet of the destructive consequences that would result from their alliance with Egypt, and repeatedly advised to submit to the Chaldean conqueror, they persisted in rejecting the Divine messages to that effect, and brought upon themselves the calamities attendant upon the capture of their city, and their subjugation by a barbarian foe. How these circumstances affected the mind of the prophet is obvious from the whole strain of his predictions. He appears to have been naturally of a mild and timid disposition, easily susceptible of sorrow and melancholy, but intrepid and unintimidated in the public discharge of the duties of his office, denouncing in unsparing language the wicked conduct of persons of all ranks, from the meanest of the subjects up to the monarch on his throne. This combination of characteristic features Havernick justly considers as furnishing a strong proof of the Divine origin of his mission; –the Spirit of prophecy acting powerfully upon his mind, controlling his natural temper, and qualifying him for his hazardous undertaking, without doing violence to his peculiar individuality. The length of time during which he prophesied in Judea was exactly forty years and a half (40 & 1/2), as appears from the following estimate: Years & Months Under: Josiah: (18 yrs); Jehoahaz: (3 mnths); Jehoiakim: (11 yrs); Jechoniah: (3 mnths); Zedekiah: (11 yrs). Total Years = 40 & 6 Months”……

Section III: Arrangement of Prophecies: “The slightest glance at the economy of the book must convince the reader, that it could not have come from the prophet in the condition in which we now find it. Even supposing that he did not pay any particular attention to chronological arrangement, but that his object was simply to furnish a collection of his different prophecies, and some of the principal historical events both of a public character and relating to his own personal circumstances, yet we can scarcely conceive it possible, that there could originally have been such instances of the (husteron proteron, hysteron proteron, [“later earlier”, i.e. the most important messages placed first though given later]) as we now meet with in his composition. According to the history of the Jewish monarchs, furnished by the Books of Kings and Chronicles, the following is the order of time in which the five last kings reigned: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jechoniah, and Zedekiah. Under all these monarchs Jeremiah flourished; but, as the second and fourth reigned only three months each, no date is taken from the period of their occupancy of the throne. The only reigns which are thus recognised are those of Josiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah. Instead, however, of the prophetic discourses being arranged in this order, we find, contrary to expectation, those which were delivered in the reign of Josiah, and which are contained collectively in chapters 1-20, immediately followed by a portion belonging to the time of Zedekiah, chap. 21. Again, instead of continuing what relates to Jehoiakim, and his brothers Jehoahaz and Jechoniah, in chap. 22 & 23, by inserting the section contained in 25, which is specially referred to the fourth (4th) of Jehoiakim, we find in chap. 24:8-10, a prediction belonging to the time of Zedekiah. We have likewise chaps. 27-29, 33 & 34 referred to the reign of Zedekiah, whereas chaps. 35 & 36 relate to transactions which occurred in that of Jehoiakim. There is also the introduction of a passage, chap. 45, dated from the fourth (4th) of Jehoiakim, after the predictions relating to the Jews who had fled to Egypt subsequent to the destruction of Jerusalem. With these exceptions, however, there is a general consecutiveness in the arrangement of the contents of the book. The main part, consisting of chaps. 1-45, is occupied with home affairs, –that portion which takes a brief glance at the fate of foreign nations, chap. 25:12-28, being introduced merely in consequence of what had just been mentioned respecting their treatment of the Jews. The remaining part, chaps. 46-51, is occupied with special predictions relative to the punishment of those foreign nations which had been hostile to the Jewish state, especially Babylon, the most formidable and destructive of all. Chap. 52 was written as an appendix by a later hand, to complete what had been narrated respecting the fate of the city, and of the Jewish exiles.

Section IV: Greek LXX Version: “…..The different arrangement in the order of the chapters, as exhibited in the Hebrew Bible and the copies of the LXX, will be seen on comparing the following columns, which begin where the discrepancy first takes place: Table: Hebrew Massoretic Text & Greek LXX Text:
Hebrew: Chapters: Order: 25:15-38; 26; 27:1-18, 19-22; 28-32; 33:1-14, 14-25; 34-38; 39:1-3, 15-18, 4-14; 40-47; 48:1-45, 46-&c; 49:1-5, 7-22, 23-27, 28-34, 35-39; 50-51.
LXX: Chapters: Order: 32-34; [27:19-22]; 35-40; [33:14-25]; 41-46: [39:4-14]; 47-50; 51:1-31, 31-35; 26; 29:1-7; 31; [48:46-&c.]; 30:1-5; 29:7-22; 30:11-16, 5-11; 25:15-21; 27-28.
On comparing the above Table it will be seen, that not only is there a transposition of the chapters, especially as it respects the prophecies against the foreign nations –these having been removed by the LXX from their position at the end of the book, and placed after chap. 25:13,– but that there is likewise a change in the order in which these prophecies are arranged. This the following Table will show:
Hebrew Text: Egypt. Philistines. Moab. Ammon. Edom. Damascus. Kedar. Elam. Babylon.
LXX Text: Elam. Egypt. Babylon. Philistines. Edom. Ammon. Kedar. Damascus. Moab.” }}

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Book Prophet Jeremiah, Theologically & Homilectically Expounded, by Dr., C. W. Eduard Naegelsbach, Pastor in Bayreuth, Bavaria. Translated, Enlarged, & Edited by Samuel R. Asbury. (1870). Jeremiah’s Lamentations by Naegelsbach Translated, Enlarged, & Edited by Wm. H. Hornblower, D.D.(1870). vol. 12. Com. Holy Script. CDH, etc. J.P. Lange & P. Schaff. CHS. (1870. 1878). gs.

{{ Preface by General Editor (Lange’s-Schaff’s Commentary): “Jeremiah was the most prominent personage in a period of deepest distress and humiliation of the Jewish theocracy. He witnessed one by one the departure of all prospects of a reformation and deliverance from impending national ruin. Profoundly sympathizing with the calamities of his people and country, he is emphatically the prophet of sorrow and affliction. The first quotation from him in the New Testament is “a voice of lamentation and weeping and great mourning” (Mat. 2:17,18). In his holy grief over Jerusalem and his bitter persecutions he resembles the life of Christ. Should he, instead of David, be the author of the 22nd Psalm, as ‘Hitzig’ plausibly conjectures, the resemblance would even be more striking; but the superscription is against it. Standing alone in a hostile world, fearless and immovable, he delivered for forty years his mournful warnings and searching rebukes, dashed the false hopes of his deluded people to the ground, counselled submission instead of resistance, denounced the unfaithful priests and false prophets, and thus brought upon himself the charge of treachery and desertion; yet in the midst of gloom and darkness be held fast to trust in Jehovah, and in the stormy sunset of prophecy he beheld the dawn of a brighter day of a new covenant of the gospel written on the heart (31:31). He is therefore the prophet of the dispensation of the Spirit (Heb. 8:13; 10:16,17). The character and temper of Jeremiah is reflected in his strongly subjective, tender, affecting, elegiac style, which combines the truth of history with the deepest pathos of poetry. It is the language of holy grief and sorrow. Even his prose is “more poetical than poetry, because of its own exceeding tragical simplicity.” Jeremiah has proved a sympathizing companion and comforter in seasons of individual suffering and national calamity from the first destruction of Jerusalem down to the siege of Paris in our own day.”……
Section 1. Historical Background: Jeremiah’s Prophet Labors: …..”If now we survey at a glance the whole character of the historical position in which Jeremiah was placed, we see in him the herald of the first precursory catastrophe of the external theocracy. At the same time he had also a mission to Babylon, the power which was appointed, after Egypt and Assyria, to engulf the theocracy, and thus in a certain sense to be the first universal monarchy. He was first to prepare the way for the divine mission of this power as the instrument of judgment on the theocracy, and then to announce its appointed judgment, after a brief respite of seventy years, and the redemption of the theocracy. This he could do only in the form of that perspective fore-shortening, which is peculiar to prophetic pictures of the future, and which has to be rectified by the fulfilment. Thus we may say that Jeremiah stands at that epoch in universal history, at which the first precursory judgment is inflicted by worldly power on the kingdom of God, and here he has to announce to both judgment and redemption; to the kingdom of God first judgment and afterwards redemption, to the world first victory and glory, but afterwards judgment (chaps. 50, 51).”…..
Section 3. Literary Character: …..”The transitions are frequently abrupt, but there is still a logical progression, and the repetitions are a necessary feature of the tableauesque style. There is, however, another kind of repetition very frequent in Jeremiah: –he not only quotes himself very often (there is a table of these self-quotations in my work, S. 128, ‘etc’.), but he likes also to introduce the sayings of others. Jeremiah is especially at home in the Pentateuch, [& Job,] and most of all in Deuteronomy. It is on account of this reproduction of the thoughts of others that he has been reproached with a want of originality. But this is as true as that he was deficient in poetry. In power he is certainly not equal to Isaiah. But he is not wanting in originality, for who could say that he has himself produced nothing or only an insignificant amount? To lose himself in his predecessors is necessary even for the most original author. As to a deficiency in poetry I point to ‘Umbreit’, who says: “The most spiritual and therefore the greatest poet of the desert and of suffering is certainly Jeremiah. But we have maintained yet more than this, having boldly asserted that of all the prophets his genius is the most poetical.” I fully subscribe to this judgment. For assuredly universal sympathy and deep and pure emotion are the qualities of a poet, and we undoubtedly find these elements of poetic inspiration, in the highest degree, in the finely-strung nature of Jeremiah. The circumstances of his life caused his emo¬tions to be predominantly sad, hence in the whole range of human composition there is scarcely a poetical expression of sorrow so thrilling as that of this prophet (viii. 23, ‘Eng. Bib’. ix. 1): “O that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people.” ‘Umbreit’ remarks that these words form the portrait of the prophet, and ‘Bendemann’, in painting his celebrated picture, seems really to have had this passage especially in view.”…..
Section 4. Book of Prophet: …..”Thus it is evident, as it seems to me, that the present form and arrangement are not those of Jeremiah, for he would certainly have given the whole a title corresponding to its contents. Some other circumstances, to be mentioned hereafter, also favor this view.
2. As to the arrangement or plan of the book, as we have it, it has been accused of endless confusion, (*Even ‘Luther’ (‘Preface’ to the prophet Jeremiah) says: “We often find some of the first part in the followlng chapter, which happened before that in the previous chapter, which looks as though Jeremiah did not arrange these books himself, but that they were composed piecemeal from his discourses , and compiled in a book. We must not trouble ourselves about the order, or allow the want or order to hinder us.”) and the most various theories have been broached to account for this confusion. Compare, to name only the most eminent, (‘Eichhorn, Bertholdt, Movers, Hitzig, Ewald, Umbreit, Haevernick, Keil, Schmeider, Staehelin, & Neumann’). In my opinion, the case is not so bad as represented, but a reasonable arrangement will at once present itself, if we only take the following points into consideration. I. In general, the principle of chronological order is followed, but admitting, in some cases, a certain order of subjects, which is sometimes suggested by external occasions (comp. ch. 21:1-7). 2. With respect to the chronological order in particular, we have a safe guide in the fact that before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, viz., before the battle of Carchemish and Nebuchadnezzar’s accession to the throne, Jeremiah never mentions the latter or the Chaldeans, while after this time he presents them constantly in all his discourses as appointed by God to be the instrument of His judgments on Israel and the nations. Until shortly before the battle of Carchemish, Assyria was at war with the Medes and Babylonians, and it was undecided which of the three would obtain the supremacy. After the fall of Nineveh and the defeat of Pharaoh Necho, the star of Nebuchadnezzar rose above the horizon like an all-prevailing sun. Jeremiah now knew definitely that the people coming from the North (1:13, ‘etc’.) were the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, and he could no longer speak to the people without counselling submission as the only means of safety. I think, then, that I may lay down this canon distinctly, that all parts of the book in which the threatening enemies are spoken of generally, without mention of Nebuchadnezzar or the Chaldeans, belong to the period before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, viz., before the time represented in ch. 25 as that of Jeremiah’s first acquaintance with them; while all the portions in which Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans are named belong to the subsequent period; so that a passage which mentions the Chaldeans and is yet dated in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim (ch. 27), may be safely regarded as bearing a false superscription, as likewise one that is dated in the reign of Zedekiah, and does not mention the Chaldeans (49:34 sqq.). In the first place, it is quite clear that our Hebrew recension, omitting chapters 1 and 52 as introduction and conclusion, falls into two principal divisions: I. The portions relating to the theocracy (ch. 2-45). 2. The prophecies against the nations (ch. 46-51). Chapter 14, the promise given to the writer of the book, the faithful Baruch, is to be regarded (as it is by ‘Keil’) as an appendix to the first division. To attach this chapter to the second division, as ‘Haevernick’ does, is entirely unsuitable. The first division may evidently be divided again into two subdivisions, the collection of discourses, with appendices, ch. 2-35, and the historical portions, ch. 36-44. In speaking of a collection of discourses, it should be remarked that, according to the intention of the arranger of the book, we must not always understand by a discourse one which forms a rhetorical unit, but also a complexus of rhetorical and historical passages, if in its fundamental thought, its form or its chronology, it presents a connected whole. In this sense our collection contains eleven (11) (or ten (10)) discourses, the beginning of each of which is designated by a superscription (comp. 3:6; 7:1; 11:1, ‘etc’.). The first two pertain to the reign of Josiah (ch. 2 & 3-6:3). It is natural that in the earliest period the proportionally smallest amount of matter should be committed to writing, so that in the passages mentioned, especially in ch. 2, only the quintessence of the discourses of the earliest period is given. The discourse pertains to the reign of Jehoiakim (ch. 7-10). These two, ch. 3-6 & ch. 7-10, are distinguished from the rest by their length, and may therefore, with ch. 25, which is inferior in length, but far superior in importance, be designated as the principal discourses. Ch. 11-13, which also pertain to the reign of Jehoiakim, have a common title, but only ch. 11 & 12 form a rhetorical whole. For ch. 13 (4th) is entirely independent, though of the same date with the preceding, and on account of its brevity, added as an appendix. The fifth (5th) discourse, though somewhat inferior to the second and third, is still one of the most important. It belongs to the period before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. The passage 17:19-27 is related to the fifth discourse as ch. 13 to the fourth (4th). I regret that by an oversight I have not designated them in the same way in the text. The seventh (7th) discourse is an account of two symbolical occurrences, to which is appended that of a personal experience and the outburst of feeling thus occasioned. Although these occurrences belong to different periods, before and after the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, they are brought together because both symbols are derived from pottery and on account of the unity of the subjects. All is here brought into connection which the prophet spoke at different times against the false shepherds of the people (kings and prophets). The opening passage (21:1-7) though in general, as ‘oratio contra regem’, not altogether unsuitable for this place, is doubtless placed here chiefly on account of the name Pashur, which it has in common with the preceding. The transitional words (21:11-14) seem also to be a fragment which is subjoined here not altogether appropriately. But in what follows we have a well-ordered series of denunciations against the evil kings of Judah. The first, in which no name is mentioned, seems to stand first as a colleotive admonition, though the king addressed in ver. 2 can be no other than Jeboiakim (22:1-9). The second is a prophecy relating to the person of Jehoahaz. It is of earlier date than that which precedes it, and is evidently an interpolation (22:10-12). The third is directed against Jeboiakim by name (22:13-23). The fourth relates to Jeboiachin (22:24-30). As a foil to these dark pictures of the kings of the present, the prophet, by an antithes reminding us of ch. 3, gives us a bright picture of the King of the Messianic future (23:1-8). The second part of the main discourse (23:9-40) is an earnest rebuke of the false prophets. The conclusion is formed by ch. 24, a vision which the prophet had in the reign of Zedekiah, and which is added here evidently in order that the fourth bad king Jeremiah had lived to see might not fail to receive his appropriate denunciation. The ninth discourse is that highly important one which Jeremiah pronounced in the fourth year of Jeboiakim after the great catastrophe which made an epoch in the prophet’s ministry, the battle of Carchemish and the succession of Nebuchadnezzar. To this are attached a series of three historical appendices, of which the first falls before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, the second in the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah, the third somewhat earlier than the preceding. All three appendices, however, relate to the conflict of the ‘true’ prophet (it should be noted, however, that Jeremiah is called (hanNabia’) for the first time in 25:2) with the false prophets. Here also is a pre-arranged antithesis. Ch. 26 standing before ch.27 & 28 has a clear chronological basis, while ch. 29, which in time is somewhat earlier than ch. 27 & 28 coming after them, has a topical basis, since thus the prophet’s conflict with the false prophets at home is first shown, and then his conflict with those at a distance. The tenth passage occupies an independent (sepher), ‘viz.’ the book of consolation, which consists of two discourses, with a double appendix. Ch. 30 & 31, originally written specially, and not as a part of the first writing, ch. 36:2-10, form a rhetorical unit, certainly contemporary with ch. 3-6, and therefore pertaining to the reign of Josiah. The second consolatory discourse consists of two separate passages, which, however, are most closely connected. The first relates to the purchase of a field which, at the command of the Lord, Jeremiah made while confined in the court of the prison, at the time of his greatest affliction. The second is connected with the demolition of many houses in Jerusalem for defensive purposes. On this double, gloomy background the prophet presents the most glorious Messianic salvation. It is not, as I have already said, a connected discourse; in ch. 32 we have first the account of the purchase of land, then the prayer expressing the prophet’s astonishment, then the Lord’s consolatory promises. Ch. 33 is, however, from beginning to end, a connected prophetic discourse.
This book of consolation is followed in chaps. 34 & 35 by a double appendix, the second half of which (34:8-35:19) itself consists of two independent parts. The short passage 34:1-7 is only a more exact account of the occurrence narrated in 32:1-5, in consequence of which Jeremiah was confined in the court of the prison, and therefore refers only to the contents of chaps. 32 & 33. The two facts however which are related in 34:8-22, & 35:1-19, are to be regarded as an appendix to the whole collection. For they show by a striking example, the accomplished but immediately revoked emancipation of the Hebrew slaves, how entirely indisposed the people of Israel were to obey the commands of their God, while a contrast to this shameful disobedience is given in the example of affecting obedience forded by the Rechabites to the commend of their earthly progenitor. We thus see that the arrangement is by no means without plan, and may in general have been made by the prophet himself. Only the mere juxtaposition of 21:1-7 for the sake of the name Pashur, and the inser¬tion of the heterogeneous passage 21:11-14 in this place, seem to betray a different hand. With chap 36 begins the second subdivision of the first main division. Historical passages follow each other in chronological order, which have for their subject partly personal experiences of the prophet, and partly the history of the fatal catastrophe of the theocracy in general. There is no difficulty here. Chap. 14, as already remarked, is an appendix to the first main division. The second part contains the prophecies against foreign nations in an order to which there is nothing to object (46-51). Chap. 52 finally forms the conclusion, which is not from the prophet himself.” }}

{ The following Table may serve to facilitate a review: (Chapters & Verses):
I: Introduction: (1). Items: 2.
II. 1st Division: (2-44): Passages Relating to Theocracy & Appendix Chap. 45.

A. 1st SubDivision: Collection of Discourses, chaps. 2-33. & Appendices, Chaps, 34 & 35.
1. 1st Discourse, (2). Items: 5.
2. 2nd Discourse, (3-6). 1st Division (3-4): Items: 4. 2nd Division (5-6): I: Items: 4. II: Items: 6.
3. 3rd Discourse, (7-10). I: 1st Charge: (7-8:8). Items: 6. II: 2nd Charge: (8:4-28). Items: 3. III: 3rd Charge (9:1-21): Items: 3. IV: Conclusion: (9:22-25; 10:17-25). Items: 3. 4. 4th Discourse, (11-12 & Appendix, 13). Items: 7. Chapter 13: Items:
5. 5th Discourse, (14-17:18). 1st Main Division (14:1-15:9). Items: 5. 2nd Main Divison (15:10-16:9). Items: 3. 3rd Main Division (16:10-17:4). Items: Conclusion (17:5-18). Items: 2.
6. 6th Discourse, (17:19-27).
7. 7th Discourse, (18-20). Symbols: Pottery: 1st Symbol: Clay & Potter (18). Items: 3. 2nd Symbol: Broken Vessel (19-20). Items: 3.
8. 8th Discourse, (21-24). Against Wicked Shepherds. I: Preface (21). Items: 2. II: Main Discourse (22-23): Against Wicked Kings & Prophets. Items: 2. III: Appendix (24): Postscript to 22:18-30: 4th King.
9. 9th Discourse, (25 & 3 Appendices, 26-29). A. Central Prophecy (25): Items 3. B. 3 Historical Apendices (26-29): Items: 2.
10. Book of Consolation:
(A). 10th Discourse, (30 & 31). I: Theme (30:1-8) . II: Delverance of Entire Israel (30:4-22). III: Special Distribution of Salvation to 2 Halves of Nation (31:1-26). (a) Ephraim’s Share (31:1-22). Items: 3. (b) Share of Judah (31:23-26). IV: Entire Renovation (31:27-30, 31-40). Items: 2.
(B). 11th Discourse, (32 & 33. & Appendix, 34:1-7). I: Chapters 32. Items: 3. II: Chapters 33. Items: 6.
11. 11th Discourse (32-33). Historical Appendix to 32:1-5 (34:1-7): Collection: Disobedience of Israel Offset by Obedience of Rechabites, (34:8-35:19).
A. Disobedience of Israelites: Servants Freed & Rebound (34:8-22).
B. Counterpart to Disobedience of Israelites: Obedience of Rechabites (35). Items: 2.

B. 2nd SubDivision: Historical Presentation of Most Important Events from 4th Year of Jehoiakim to Close of Prophet’s Ministry, (36-44). (B.C. 605-570): Chapters 36-45.
(A) Events Before Fall & Capture of Jerusalem, (36-38).
I: Writing Out Prophecies: 4th Year of Jehoiakim (36). Items: 4.
II: Events in 10th & 11th Years of Zedekiah (37-38).
(B) Events After Fall & Capture of Jerusalem, (39-44). Items: 10.
I: Appendix to First Division, (45). Promise made to Baruch.
II. 2nd Divison: (46-51): Prophecies Against Foreign Nations: Against:
1. Egypt I, (46:2-12).
2. Egypt II, (46:13-26, & Appendix, 46:27-28).
3. Philistines, (47).
4. Moab, (48).
5. Ammon, (49:1-6).
6. Edom, (49:7-22).
7. Damascus, (49:23-27).
8. Arabians, (49:28-33).
9. Elam, (49:34-39).
10. Babylon, (50 & 51). Items: 20.

IV. Conclusion: (52). Historical Appendix: Brief Survey: Events from Beginning of Zedekiah’s Reign to Jehoiachim’s Death. Items: 5. }

{{ Lamentations: Introduction: Sect. 1: Name, Place in Canon, Liturgical Use: “In Hebrew MSS. and editions this book is called (’ekah) i.e., ‘How!’ from the first word in it (as Proverbs and the Books of the Pentateuch are designated by their initial words), which word also begins chs. 2 & 4, and thus appears to be a characteristic of the Book. The Rabbins called it (qinoth), i.e., ‘neniae’, dirges, ‘elegiae’, elegies, lamentations. (Qinah) is found in the Old Testament….. The Septuagint always translates this word (thrënos, thrënoi) whence are derived the Latin names ‘Threni, Lamentationes, Lamenta’. [*Syriac, Arabic & later versions bear similar titles.]……Sect. 2: Contents & Structure: 1. The general subject of the Lamentations is the destruction of Judah and Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. That this book is a ‘prophecy’ of the destruction of Jerusalem, as Tremellius and otbers have asserted (see ‘Forster’, ‘Comm. in Thr.’, p. 5), is an utterly groundless opinion [?], which we mention only for curiosity’s sake. Similar Songs of lamentation, having for their subject the death of individual persons, or political catastrophes, occur in the Old Testament. See the citations in §1, 1. But no lamentation of equal length and so artistically constructed is now extant. The peculiar structure which is common to all these songs shows that they all have one general subject. In Song I, the poet himself is the first speaker, 1:1-11b, whilst he introduces to us Zion [Jerusalem] as an ideaI person. He pictures here the sad consequences of the destruction, whilst he indicates the causes of the same (1:8). In the second half of the chapter (1:11-22) the personified Jerusalem herself speaks, portraying her misfortunes under manifold images, explaining their causes and praying for help and vengeance. In Song II, in the first part of it, the poet himself speaks, (a) ascribing the destruction to the agency of the Lord (2:1-9), (b) depicting the consequences of the destruction (2:10-12), (c) addressing the opinion as to the causes of the catastrophe, and exhorting her to prayer (2:13-19). To this exhortation Zion, here represented by the wall of Jerusalem [Zion], responds in a prayer breathing the deepest and acutest sorrow (2:20-22). In Song III, which evidently forms the climax of the whole, the poet introduces as speaking ‘that man’, who in those troublous times had suffered more than all others, and consequently had attained, as it were, to the very summit of the common calamity, for he had suffered not only from the enemy what was common to all, but also from his own people and associates, a thing unheard of save in this particular instance. This sufferer was the Prophet Jeremiah. He does not name him, it is true, and it is evident that he has in his eye, not the person of the prophet merely, but rather the servant of the Lord as a representative of the (Israël pneumaticos) spiritual Israel, yet all the particular features of this Lamentation are borrowed from the history of that prophet (3:1-18). This section ends with a cry of despair (3:18). But immediately the poet lets a morning twilight, as it were, succeed this night of despair, (3:19, 21), which through the utterances of united believing Israel soon expands into daylight, beaming with the most radiant consolation (3:22-38). In what follows successively, the evening twilight gathers, and then the poem sweeps back into such a night of grief and mourning, that Israel begins to confess his sins (3:39-42), but then gives vent to lamentations on account of those sins (3:43-47), until finally, in the last and third part, Jeremiah again takes up the word in order to weep out his grief over Zion’s misery and sins, (those sins which were likewise the source of his own misfortunes), and to implore the Lord, in beseeching prayer, for protection and for righteous avengement upon his enemies (3:48-66). In Song IV, the poem loses more and more of its ideaI character. In the beginning indeed we find an ideal and well sustained description of Israel, as if it were the nobility of the nations, and then, further, of the princes of Israel, as the noblest among the noble , and then, appearing in sharper relief by standing out on such a background, a delineation of the sufferings endured by those nobles (4:1-11); but in the second half of the chapter the poem becomes more prosaic: the chief guilt is imputed to the prophets and the priests, whose well-deserved punishment is then portrayed in the gloomiest colors (4:12-16). Then follows a description, graphic in the highest degree in spite of its brevity, of the events occurring from the extinction of the last gleams of the rays of hope kindled by the Egyptians, till the imprisonment of the king (4:17-20). The conclusion is a short address to Edom, which is ironically congratulated at the downfall of Jerusalem, while, at the same time, the punishment of its malicious joy is foretold (4:21, 22). In Song V, the style is almost entirely prosaic. For, with the exception of 5:16a no poeti¬cal expression is found in the whole chapter, rather only a concrete graphic picture of the naked reality. The alphabetical acrostic is entirely wanting in this chapter. The whole chapter is intended as a prayer; for it begins and end with words of petition (5:1, 19-22). What lies between is only a narration of the principal afflictions, which had befallen those who had been carried to Babylon and those who had fled to exile in Egypt (5:2-18). The concluding prayer expresses the hope that the Lord, who cannot Himself change, nor altogether reject His people, will bring them back again to Himself and to their ancient splendor (5:19-22).
2. As regards its ‘external structure’, the composition of this book, both as a whole and in its several parts, is so artistic, that anything like it can hardly be found in any other book of Holy Scripture. First of all it is significant, that there are five Songs. For the uneven number has this advantage, that the middle part of the whole Poem is represented by a whole number, and does not fall between two numbers, as it would in case there were an even number of songs [i.e., the middle part of the whole poem is represented by one Song, and is not composed of parts of two songs]. By this means the prominence of the middle Song and, in connection with that, an ascent and a descent, a ‘crescendo’ and ‘decrescendo’ movement, with a clearly marked climax, is made possible. Thus it is manifest that the third chapter constitutes the climax. And this is truly and really so in two respects, both as to matter and form. As to the first, we have already shown that the first two chapters bear an ideal and highly poetical character. They constitute only the front-steps to the third chapter, which, externally, as the middle of the five songs and by its internal character, conducts us into the very middle of the night into which Israel sank, and then of the day which rose over Israel. For are not the frightful sorrows which the Prophet Jeremiah, the servant of God and representative of the spiritual Israel, had endured, and which rose at last to that terrible exclamation –’My strength and my hope is perished from Jehovah’ (3:18), the expressions of the highest outward and inward temptation which can befall a true servant of the Lord’? Here it should be observed that in 3:1-17, there is no reference to God except as the author of those sorrows which are represented, on that account, as Divine temptations; while the name of God is not even mentioned till at the end of 3:18, where, as the last word, with startling vehemence, the name “Jehovah” is pronounced. Here then we see the servant of the Lord, in the deepest night of his misery, on the brink of despair. But where exigency is greatest, help is nearest. The poet could lay up in his heart everything that be had against God, but he could not shut God Himself out of the heart. On the contrary it was proved, that after he had given the fullest expression to what he had in his heart against God, God Himself was deeply rooted therein. The night is succeeded by the dawn of morning, as represented in 3:19-21. With 3:22, breaks the full day. This ushers in with full effulgence the light of Heavenly consolation. Suffering now is seen to be the proof of God’s love. In this love, that suffering finds its explanation, its limit, and its remedy. As the pyramid of Mont Blanc, seen at sunset from Chamouny, its summit gleaming with supernal splendors, whilst below, the mountain has already disappeared wrapped in deepest darkness (See Gothe’s ‘Letters from Switzerland’, Nov. 4. 1779; Aug. 12, 1840), so, out of the profound night of despair and misery, this middle part of the third song and of the whole book towers upward, radiant with light. From this culmination point, the poet again sets out upon his downward track. Evening twilight follows the bright day (3:40-42) and passes into a night dark with misery (vers. 43-47), From the beginning of the section, so full of hope and enrouragement (3:22), the poet speaks in the plural number, as if he would make it most emphatically apparent, that this was common property. He continues to speak in the plural number till after the beginning of the third and last part of the Song, when the night has begun again. Then once more (3:48), the poet speaks in the singular number. But he no longer speaks of those highest temptation , which were the subject of 3:1-18, but of those inferior ones, which men inflict upon us. He treats of them also much more briefly; and from 3:55 to the end of the chapter, finds relief in a prayer for help and avengement. –It is evident that this chapter consists of three parts. The first part includes 3:1-21; the second, 3:22-42; the third, 3:43-66. The second part represents the culmination point of the whole book. It constitutes the point of separation between the ‘crescendo’ and ‘decrescendo’ movement. The latter continues in chapter fourth, in which the ideal and poetical sensibly subside, until at last in chapter fifth the style changes into plain prose. –With this artistic arrangement of the matter, the external form or structure corresponds. Every one of the five Songs has 22 verses, according to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, only in the third Song every verse is divided into three members, hence it has 66 (masoretic) verses. The first four Songs are acrostics. In the first two Songs the verses consist of three distiches. It has been usual to recognize four distiches in 1:7 & 2:9, but improperly: for there is no fixed measure for the length of each member of the distich; and there are, therefore, in the places referred to, only three distiches, some lines of which are composed of a greater number of syllables than the others have. The third chapter shows by its external dress that it is the middle and climax of the whole. The three distiches of each verse (corresponding to three Masoretic verses successively) begin with the same alphabetical letter. The middle part, namely 3:19-42, is still further distinguished, as the dome crowning the whole building, as follows: (1). Every verse-triad constitutes a finished whole with respect to sense [is one complete sentence]. (2). In 3:25-39, each distich begins with the same word, or with a similar word (see Intr. to chap. 3). (3). While in 3:1-18, the name of God is mentioned only once, and then with peculiar emphasis at the end of 3:18, in 3:19-42 we read the names of God repeatedly, and so arranged that in 3:22, 24,25,26 we have (Yehowah), in 3:31, 36,37 (’Adonai) alternating with (‘Elyon) in 3:35, 38, in 3:40 again (Yehowah) and at last in 3:41 (’El baShamaim). Observe here, particularly, that (‘Elyon) occurs in the Lamentations only in the two places named above, and (’Adonai) occurs only once, in the beginning of the ‘decrescendo’ movement, 3:58, whilst in chapter first it is used three times, 1:14, 15 (twice), and in chapter second seven times, 2:1,2, 5, 7, 18,19,20. Chapter fourth is indeed an acrostic, but the decline of the poetical afflatus is indicated externally by the verses being composed of only two distiches. The solemn names of God (’Adonai) and (’Elyon) occur no more, on the other hand (Yehowah) occurs three times, 4:11, 16, 20. The fifth chapter indicates its relation to the four preceding ones only by the number of verses (22). The acrostic dress entirely disappears. The style has become prose. Yet the name of God (Yehowah) is found three times in the words of prayer, 5:1, 19, 21.
We have here only one other matter to remark upon, the question why in chapters 2, 3 & 4 (P, Peh, 17th letter) is placed before (‘, ‘Ayin, 16th let.). This is usually explained as a copyist’s mistake. In fact some Codd. in ‘Kenicott’ and ‘De Rossi’ have these verses in their usual places. The Peschito also gives these verses in their proper alphabetical order. The Septuagint places the letters in their proper order in the margin, but leaves the verses themselves to follow each other in the order of the original. But this supposition of an error of transcriber is refuted, (1) by the fact that it is repeated three times, (2) by the impossibility of supposing that in chap. 3 three verses could have been transposed by mistake, (3) by the interruption of the sense which would result in chapters 3 & 4 [if the present order were changed]. If some Codd. and Versions have the letters in their right order, this is evidence of revision and correction. Others (as ‘Riegler’) explain this irregularity as merely arbitrary, others again (‘Berthholdt’) as the result of forgetfulness on the part of the author. ‘Grotius’ holds the singular opinion that the order in chapters 2, 3, 4 may be that of the Chaldaic alphabet, and therefore that Jeremiah in chap. 1 “speaks as a Hebrew, in the following chapters as a subject of the Chaldeans.” ‘Thenius’ would explain the alphabetical difference by a diversity of authors, but the unity of the plan, already proved above, and the unity of the language used, which will be proved in § 3 (to which also belongs the threefold (’Ekah, [How]) at the beginning of chaps. 2, 3, 4) contradict this most decidedly. ‘Ewald’ is (even still in his Second Edition, p. 326) of the opinion that the (‘Ayin) in chapter 1 “might have been transferred to its own place by later hands.” But this would be a manifest interruption of the connection: for 1:16 is directly connected in the closest manner with 1:15 by (‘al ken) ‘therefore’, [‘al-’elleh,’for these things’?], whilst 1:18 [17 ?] begins a new thought. The liberty which the older poets especially allowed themselves in pursuing the alphabetical order (see Ps. 9, 10, 25, 37, 145, and ‘Keil’ in ‘Haevernick’s’ ‘Introduction to Old Testament’, III., p. 50) are manifold [See ‘Barnes’ ‘Introduction to Job’, pp. 44, 45]. Whether they were influenced in this by a then prevailing diversity of method in respect to the succession of the letters, is not yet by any means sufficiently ascertained, but is nevertheless the most likely explanation of that liberty. See ‘Delitzsch’ on Ps. 145, p. 769.” }}

{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: outline & Analysis: Chapters: Songs:
I: Lamentation of Zion’s Daughters: Ruin of Jerusalem & Judah: (Destruction of City, Nation & Temple):
1: (1:1-11, Aleph-Kaph): Description: City’s Wretched Condition. Poet Speaks as City (Zion, Jerusalem).
2: (12-22, Lamed-Tau): Lamentation over Condition. Zion’s Sorrows, Cries, Sins, Judgment, Calamity, etc.
II: Lamentation of Zion’s Destruction: Jehovah’s Destruction on Zion. Extent. Land, People, Temple, etc.
1: (2:1-10, Aleph-Yod): Lord’s Judgment Inflicted. All Israel & Judah. Enemy. Kings, Princes, Prophets, etc.
2: (2:11-22, Kaph-Tau): Zion Lament’s Calamity. Jeremiah’s & Israel’s Sufferings & Sorrows. Divine Doom.
III: Middle Song: Poem’s Climax: Israel’s Brighter Day of Consolation Contrasted with Gloomy Night of Sorrow Experienced by God’s Servant Jeremiah.
1: (3:1-18, Alephs-Waus (3×6=18)): Poet’s Sufferings, Sorrows, Complaints, Wounds, Assaults, Insults, etc.
2: (3:19-42, Zains-Nuns (3×8=24)): Poet’s Transition, Comfort, Prayers, Hope, Faith, Love, etc.
3: (3:43-66, Ayin-Tau (3×5=15; Peh omitted)): Poets as Israel: God’s Wrath, Calamity, Prayer, Hope, etc.
IV: Zion’s Guilt & Punishment: Described by Eye-Witness: Sufferings: All Peoples, Grades, Ranks, etc.
1: (4:1-6, Aleph-Wau): Elegy: City of Jerusalem, Zion & Temple, Prophets & Israel, & All Peoples, etc.
2: (4:7-11, Zain-Kaph): Princes of Judah, Rape of Zion, National Devastation, Divine Punishment, etc.
3: (4:12-16, Lamed-Peh): Causes of Catastrophe, Sins of Peoples, Prophets, Priests, Princes, etc.
4: (4:17-22, Ayin-Tau): Final National Catastrophe & Egypt & Chaldea & Edom, etc.
V: Distress & Hope of Prisoners & Fugitives: (Expressed in Prayer & Pitiful Complaint to God, etc.: Non-Alphabetical (5:1-22): Post-Captivity Condition of Jerusalem: Poet as Zion, Lord Entreated, Sorrows & Tragedy, Total Devastation, Anquish, Starvation, Poverty, Slavery, Genocide, Mourning, Prayers, Exile, etc. }

(4)
Biblical Commentary on Old Testament, Edited by C. F. Keil, D.D. & F. Delitzsch, D.D., Professors of Theology. Prophetical Books. Greater Prophets. Jeremiah, Prophcies & Lamentations. v1-2. v1, Keil. Translated from German by David Patrick, (1889). v2, Keil. Translated by James Kennedy, (1874). CFTL. TTC. (1889). as.

Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: Outline & Analysis & Exposition: (Chapters & Verses):
(1): Heading: Call & Consecration of Jeremiah to be Prophet.
I. General Admonitions & Reproofs: Time of Josiah. (2-22)
(2:1-3:5): Lord’s Love & Faithfulness & Israel’s Disloyalty & Idolatry.
(3:6-6:30): Rejection of Impenitent Israel.
(7-10): Vanity of Trust in Temple & Sacrificial Service, & Way to Safety & Life.
(11-13): Judah’s Faithlessness to Covenant Obligations, & its Consequences.
(14-17): Word concerning Droughts.
(18-20): Figures of Potter’s Clay & of Earthen Pitcher.

II. Special Predictions of Judgment: Accomplished by Chaldeans, & of Messianic Salvation. (21-33)
A. Predictions of Judgment on Judah & Nations. (21-29)
(21-24): Shepherds & Leaders of People.
(25): Judgment on Judah & All Nations.
(26): Accusation & Acquittal of Jeremiah: his Prophesying Threatenings. Prophet Urijah Put to Death.
(27-29): Babylon’s Yoke upon Judah & Neighbouring Peoples.
B. Announcement of Deliverance for All Israel. (30-33)
(30-31): Israel’s Deliverance & Glorious Future Condition.
(32): Purchase of Field as Symbol: Restoration of Judah After Exile.
(33): Renewed Promise of Restoration & Glorious Condition of People of God.

III. Prophet’s Labour & Suffering Before & After Jerusalem’s Conquest & Destruction. (24-45)
A. Prophecies Delivered under Zedekiah, & Events of Jehoiakim’s Time. (34-36)
(34): Concerning Zedekiah & Emancipation of Men- & Maid-servants.
(35): Example of Rechabites.
(36): Jeremiah’s Discourses are Written Down, & Read in Temple.
B. Jeremiah’s Experiences & Utterances During Siege & Capture of Jerusalem. (37-39)
(37): Declaration Regarding Issue of Siege; Imprisonment of Jeremiah & Conversation with King.
(38): Jeremiah in Miry Pit. Last Interview with King.
(39): Capture of Jerusalem; Fate of Zedekiah & Jeremiah. Consolatory Message to Ebedmelech.
C. Jeremiah’s Predictions & Experiences after Destruction of Jerusalem. (40-45)
(40-41): Liberation of Jeremiah. Murder of Gedaliah by Ishmael, & its Results.
(42): Word of God concerning Flight to Egypt.
(43): Flight to Egypt: Conquest of Egypt predicted.
(44): Warning Against Idolatry, & Intimation of its Punishment.
(45): Promise Addressed to Baruch.

IV. Prophecies Directed Against Foreign Nations. (46-51)
(46): On Egypt.
(47): Concerning Philistines.
(48): Concerning Moab.
(49): Concerning Ammon, Edom, Damascus, Kedar, Hazor, Elam.
(50-51): Against Babylon.

V. Appendix:
(52): Historical Account of Capture & Destruction of Jerusalem, Fate of Zedekiah & People, & Liberation of Jehoiachin from Imprisonment.

Lamentations of Jeremiah: (Chapters): Exposition:

(1): Sorrow & Wailing Over Fall of Jerusalem & Judah.
(2): Lamentation Over Judgment of Destruction that has come on Zion & Desolation of Judah.
(3): Suffering & Consolation of Gospel.
(4): Submission under Judgment of God, & Hope.
(5): Prayer to Lord by Church, Languishing in Misery; for Restoration of her former State of Grace.

{{ Prophecies of Jeremiah: Introduction:
Section 1: Jeremiah’s Times: “It was in the thirteenth (13th) year of the reign of Josiah, B.C. 629, that Jeremiah was called to be a prophet. At that time the kingdom of Judah enjoyed unbroken peace. Since the miraculous destruction of Sennacherib’s host before the gates of Jerusalem in the fourteenth (14th) year of Hezekiah’s reign, B.C. 714, Judah had no longer had much to fear from the imperial power of Assyria. The reverse then sustained before Jerusalem, just eight (8) years after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel, had terribly crushed the might of the great empire. It was but a few years after that disaster till the Medes under Deioces asserted their independence against Assyria; and the Babylonians too, though soon reduced to subjection again, rose in insurrection against Sennacherib. Sennacherib’s energetic son and successor Esarhaddon did indeed succeed in re-establishing for a time the tottering throne. While holding Babylon, Elam, Susa, and Persia to their allegiance, he restored the ascendency of the empire in the western provinces, and brought Lower Syria, the districts of Syria that lay on the sea coast, under the Assyrian yoke. But the rulers who succeeded him, Samuges and the second Sardanapalus (II), were wholly unable to offer any effective resistance to the growing power of the Medes, or to check the steady decline of the once so mighty empire….Under Esarhaddon an Assyrian marauding army again made an inroad into Judah, and carried King Manasseh captive to Babylon; but, under what circumstances we know not, he soon regained his freedom, and was permitted to return to Jerusalem and remount his throne (2nd Chron. 33:11-13). From this time forward the Assyrians appeared no more in Judah. Nor did it seem as if Judah had any danger to apprehend from Egypt, the great southern empire; for the power of Egypt had been greatly weakened by intestine dissensions and civil wars. It is true that Psammetichus, after the overthrow of the dodecarchy, began to raise Egypt’s head amongst the nations once more, and to extend his sway beyond the boundaries of the country; but we learn much as to his success in this direction from the statement of Herodotus (ii. 157), that the capture of the Philistine city of Ashdod was not accomplished until after a twenty-nine (29) years’ siege. Even if, with Duncker, we refer the length of time here mentioned to the total duration of the war against the Philistines, we are yet enabled clearly to see that Egypt had not then so far recovered her former might as to be able to menace the kingdom of Judah with destruction, had Judah but faithfully adhered to the Lord its God, and in Him sought its strength. This, unhappily, Judah utterly failed to do, notwithstanding all the zeal wherewith the godly King Josiah laboured to secure for his kingdom that foremost element of its strength. In the eighth (8th) year of his reign, “while he was yet young,” ‘i.e’. when but a lad of sixteen (16, his 8th yr) years of age, he began to seek the God of David his father; and in the twelfth (12th, age 20) year of his reign he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem of the high places and Astartes, and the carved and molten images (2nd Chron. 34:3). He carried on the work of reforming the public worship without intermission, until every public trace of idolatry was removed, and the lawful worship of Jahveh was re-established. In the eighteenth (18th, age 28) year of his reign, upon occasion of some repairs in the temple, the book of the law of Moses [Deuteronomy] was discovered there, was brought and read before him. Deeply agitated by the curses with which the transgressors of the law were threatened, he then, together with the elders of Judah and the people itself, solemnly renewed the covenant with the Lord. To set a seal upon the renewal of the covenant, he instituted a passover, to which not only all Judah was invited but also all remnants of the ten tribes that had been left behind in the land of Israel (2nd Kings 22:3-23:24 ; 2nd Chron. 34:4-35:19). To Josiah there is given in 2nd Kings 23:25 the testimony that like unto him there was no king before him, that turned to Jahveh with all his heart, all his soul, and all his might, according to all the law of Moses; yet this most godly of all the kings of Judah was unable to heal the mischiefs which his predecessors Manasseh and Amon had by their wicked government created, or to crush the germs of spiritual and moral corruption which could not fail to bring about the ruin of the kingdom. And so the account of Josiah’s reign and of his efforts towards the revival of the worship of Jahveh, given in 2nd Kings 23:26, is concluded: “Yet Jahveh ceased not from His great wrath wherewith He was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations wherewith Manasseh provoked Him; and Jahveh said: Judah also will I put away from My face as I have put away Israel, and will cast off this city which I have chosen, Jerusalem, and the house of which I said, My name shall dwell there.” The kingdom of Israel had come to utter ruin in consequence of its apostasy from the Lord its God, and on account of the calf-worship which had been established by Jeroboam, the founder of the kingdom, and to which, from political motives, all his successors adhered. The history of Judah too is summed up in a perpetual alternation of apostasy from the Lord and return to Him. As early as the time of heathen-hearted Ahaz idolatry had raised itself to all but unbounded ascendency; and through the untheocratic policy of this wicked king, Judah had sunk into a dependency of Assyria. It would have shared the fate of the sister kingdom even then, had not the accession of Hezekiah, Ahaz’s godly son, brought about a return to the faithful covenant God. The reformation then inaugurated not only turned aside the impending ruin, but converted this very ruin into a glorious deliverance such as Israel had not seen since its exodus from Egypt. The marvellous overthrow of the vast Assyrian host at the very gates of Jerusalem, wrought by the angel of the Lord in one night by means of a sore pestilence, abundantly testified that Judah, despite its littleness and inconsiderable earthly strength, might have been able to hold its own against all the onsets of the great empire, if it had only kept true to the covenant God and looked for its support from His almighty hand alone. But the repentant loyalty to the faithful and almighty God of the covenant hardly lasted until Hezekiah’s death. The heathen party amongst the people gained again the upper hand under Hezekiah’s son Manasseh, who ascended the throne in his twelfth (12th) year; and idolatry, which had been only outwardly suppressed, broke out anew and, during the fifty-five (55) years’ reign of this most godless of all the kings of Israel, reached a pitch Judah had never yet known. Manasseh not only restored the high places and altars of Baal which his father had destroyed, he built altars to the whole host of heaven in both courts of the temple, and went so far as to erect an image of Asherah in the house of the Lord; he devoted his son to Moloch, practised witchcraft and soothsaying more than ever the Amorites had done, and by his idols seduced Israel to sin. Further, by putting to death such prophets and godly persons as resisted his impious courses, he shed very much innocent blood, until he had filled Jerusalem therewith from end to end (2nd Kings 21:1-16; 2nd Chron. 23:1-10). His humbling himself before God when in captivity in Babylon, and his removal of the images out of the temple upon his return to Jerusalem and to his throne (2nd Chron.33:11 ff., 15 ff.), passed by and left hardly a trace behind; and his godless son Amon did but continue his father’s sins and multiply the guilt (2 Kings 21:19-23; 2nd Chron. 33:21-23). Thus Judah’s spiritual and moral strength was so broken that a thorough¬going conversion of the people at large to the Lord and His law was now no longer to be looked for. Hence the godly Josiah accomplished by his reformation nothing more than the suppression of the grosser forms of idol-worship and the restoration of the formal temple-services; he could neither put an end to the people’s estrangement at heart from God, nor check with any effect that moral corruption which was the result of the heart’s forsaking the living God. And so, even after Josiah’s reform of public worship, we find Jeremiah complaining: “As many as are thy cities, so many are thy gods, Judah; and as many as are the streets in Jerusalem, so many altars have ye made to shame, to burn incense to Baal” (2:28, 11:13). And godlessness showed itself in all classes of the people. Go about m the streets of Jerusalem,” Jeremiah exclaims, “and look and search if there is one that doth right and asks after honesty, and I will pardon her (saith the Lord). I thought, it is but the meaner sort that are foolish, for they know not the way of Jahveh, the judgment of their God. I will then get me to the great, and will speak with them, for they know the way of Jahveh, the right of their God. But they have all broken the yoke, burst the bonds ” (Jer. 5:1-5). “Small and great are greedy for gain; prophet and priest use deceit” (6:13). This being the spiritual condition of the people, we cannot wonder that immediately after the death of Josiah, unblushing apostasy appeared again as well in public idolatry as in injustice and sin of every kind. Jehoiakim did that which was evil in the eyes of Jahveh even as his fathers had done (2nd Kings 23:37; 2nd Chron. 36:6). His eyes and his heart were set upon nothing but on gain and on innocent blood, to shed it, and on oppresssion and on violence, to do it, Jer. 22:17. And his successors on the throne, both his son Jehoiachin and his brother Zedekiah, walked in his footsteps (2nd Kings 24:5, 19; 2nd Chron. 36:9, 12), although Zedekiah did not equal his brother Jehoiakim in energy for carrying out evil, but let himself be ruled by those who were about him. For Judah’s persistence in rebellion against God and His law, the Lord ceased not from His great wrath; but carried out the threatening proclamation to king and people by the prophetess Hulda, when Josiah sent to consult her for himself, and for the people, and for all Judah, concerning the words of the newly found book of the law: “Behold, I bring evil in this place, and upon its inhabitants, all the words of the book which the king of Judah hath read: because that they have forsaken Me, and burnt incense to other gods, to provoke Me with all the works of their hands; therefore My wrath is kindled against this place, and shall not be quenched” (2nd Kings 22:16 ff.). This evil began to fall on the kingdom in Jehoiakim’s days. Josiah was not to see the coming of it. Because, when he heard the curses of the law, he humbled himself before the Lord, rent his raiment and wept before Him, the Lord vouchsafed to him the promise that He would gather him to his fathers in peace, that his eyes should not look on the evil God would bring on Jerusalem (2nd Kings 22:19 f.); and this pledge God fulfilled to him, although they that were to execute God’s righteous justice were already equipped, and though towards the end of his reign the storm clouds of judgment were gathering ominously over Judah. While Josiah was labouring in the reformation of public worship, there had taken place in Central Asia the events which brought about the fall of the Assyrian empire. The younger son of Esarhaddon, the second Sardanapalus, had been succeeded in the year 626 by his son Saracus. Since the victorious progress of the Medes under Cyaxares, his dominion had been limited to the cradle of the empire, Assyria, to Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Cilicia. To all appearance in the design of preserving Babylonia to the empire, Saracus appointed Nabopolassar, a Babylonian by birth and sprung from the Chaldean stock, to be governor of that province. This man found opportunity to aggrandize himself during a war between the Medes and the Lydians. An eclipse of the sun took place on the 30th September 610, while a battle was going on. Both armies in terror gave up the contest; and, seconded by Syennesis, who governed Cilicia under the Assyrian supremacy, Nabopolassar made use of the favourable temper which the omen had excited in both camps to negotiate a peace between the contending peoples, and to institute a coalition of Babylonia and Media against Assyria. To confirm this alliance, Amytis, the daughter of Cyaxares, was given in marriage to Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar; and the war against Assyria was opened without delay by the advance against Nineveh in the spring of 609 of the allied armies of Medes and Babylonians. But two years had been spent in the siege of that most impregnable city, and two battles had been lost, before they succeeded by a night attack in utterly routing the Assyrians, pursuing the fugitives to beneath the city walls. The fortification would long have defied their assaults, had not a prodigious spring flood of the Tigris, in the third year of the war, washed down a part of the walls lying next the river and so made it possible for the besiegers to enter the city, to take it, and reduce it to ashes. The fall of Nineveh in the year 607 overthrew the Assyrian empire; and when the conquerors proceeded to distribute their rich booty, all the land lying on the western bank of the Tigris fell to the share of Nabopolassar of Babylon. But the occupation by the Babylonians of the provinces which lay west of the Euphrates was contested by the Egyptians. Before the campaign of the allied Medes and Babylonians against Nineveh, Pharaoh Necho, the warlike son of Psammetichus, had advanced with his army into Palestine, having landed apparently in the bay of Acco, on his way to war by the Euphrates with Assyria, Egypt’s hereditary enemy. To oppose his progress King Josiah marched against the Egyptian; fearing as he did with good reason, that if Syria fell into Necho’s power, the end had come to the independence of Judah as a kingdom. A battle was fought in the plain near Megiddo; the Jewish army was defeated, and Josiah mortally wounded, so that he died on the way to Jerusalem (2nd Kings 23:29 f.; 2nd Chron. 35:20 f.). In his stead the people of the land raised his second son Jehoahaz to the throne; but Pharaoh came to Jerusalem, took Jehoahaz prisoner, and had him carried to Egypt, where he closed his life in captivity, imposed a fine on the country, and set up Eliakim, Josiah’s eldest son, to be king as his vassal under the name of Jehoiakim (2nd Kings 23:30-35; 2nd Chron. 36:1-4). Thereafter Necho pursued his march through Syria, and subjected to himself the western provinces of the Assyrian empire; and he had penetrated to the fortified town of Carchemish (‘Kirkesion’) on the Euphrates when Nineveh succumbed to the united Medes and Babylonians. –Immediately upon the dissolution of the Assyrian empire, Nabopolassar, now an old man no longer able to sustain the fatigues of a new campaign, entrusted the command of the army to his vigorous son Nebuchadnezzar, to the end that he might wage war against Pharaoh Necho and wrest from the Egyptians the provinces they had possessed themselves of (cf. Berosi ‘fragm. in Joseph. Antt’. x. 11. 1, and ‘c. Ap’. i. 19). In the year 607, the third year of Jehoiakim’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar put the army entrusted to him in motion, and in the next year, the fourth of Jehoiakim’s reign, B.C. 606, he crushed Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish on the Euphrates. Pursuing the fleeing enemy, he pressed irresistibly forwards into Syria and Palestine, took Jerusalem in the same year, made Jehoiakim his dependant, and carried off to Babel a number of the Jewish youths of highest rank, young Daniel amongst them, together with part of the temple furniture (2nd Kings 24:1; 2nd Chron. 36:6 f.; Dan. 1:1 f.). He had gone as far on his march as the boundaries of Egypt when he heard of the death of his father Nabopolassar at Babylon. In consequence of this intelligence he hastened to Babylon the shortest way through the desert, with but few attendants, with the view of mounting the throne and seizing the reins of government, while he caused the army to follow slowly with the prisoners and the booty (Beros. ‘I.c’.). This, the first taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, is the commencement of the seventy (70) years of Judah’s Chaldean bondage, foretold by Jeremiah in 25:11, shortly before the Chaldeans invaded Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim; and with the subjection of Judah to Nebuchadnezzar’s supremacy the dissolution of the kingdom began. For three years Jehoiakim remained subject to the king of Babylon; in the fourth (4th) year he rebelled against him. Nebuchadnezzar, who with the main body of his army was engaged in the interior of Asia, lost no time in sending into the rebellious country such forces of Chaldeans as were about the frontiers, together with contingents of Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites; and these troops devastated Judah throughout the remainder of Jehoiakim’s reign (2nd Kings 24:1,2). But immediately upon the death of Jehoiakim, just as his son had mounted the throne, Nebuchadnezzar’s generals advanced against Jerusalem with a vast army and invested the city in retribution for Jehoiakim’s defection. During the siege Nebuchadnezzar joined the army. Jehoiachin, seeing the impossibility of holding out any longer against the besiegers, resolved to go out to the king of Babylon, taking with him the queen-mother, the princes of the kingdom, and the officers of the court, and to make unconditional surrender of himself and the city. Nebuchadnezzar made the king and his train prisoners; and, after plundering the treasures of the royal palace and the temple, carried captive to Babylon the king, the leading men of the country, the soldiers, the smiths and artisans, and, in short, every man in Jerusalem who was capable of bearing arms. He left in the land only the poorest sort of the people, from whom no insurrectionary attempts were to be feared; and having taken an oath of fealty from Mattaniah, the uncle of the captive king, he installed him, under the name of Zedekiah, as vassal king over a land that had been robbed of all that was powerful or noble amongst its inhabitants (2nd Kings 24:8-17; 2nd Chron. 36:10). Nor did Zedekiah either keep true to the oath of allegiance he had sworn and pledged to the king of Babylon. In the fourth (4th) year of his reign, ambassadors appeared from the neighbouring states of Edom, Ammon, Moab, Tyre, and Sidon, seeking to organize a vast coalition against the Chaldean supremacy (Jer. 27:3, 28:1). Their mission was indeed unsuccessful; for Jeremiah crushed the people’s hope of a speedy return of the exiles in Babylon by repeated and emphatic declaration that the Babylonian bondage must last seventy (70) years (Jer. 27-29:27). In the same year Zedekiah visited Babylon, apparently in order to assure his liege lord (overlord, baron, feudal lord) of his loyalty and to deceive him as to his projects (Jer. 51:59). But in Zedekiah’s ninth (9th) year Hophra (Apries), the grandson of Necho, succeeded to the crown of Egypt; and when he was arming for war against Babylon, Zedekiah, trusting in the help of Egypt (Ezek. 17:15), broke the oath of fealty he had sworn (Ezek. 17:16), and tried to shake off the Babylonian yoke. But straightway a mighty Chaldean army marched against Jerusalem, and in the tenth month of that same year established a blockade round Jerusalem (2nd Kings 25:1). The Egyptian army advanced to relieve the beleaguered city, and for a time compelled the Chaldeans to raise the siege; but it was in the end defeated by the Chaldeans in a pitched battle (Jer. 37:5 ff.), and the siege was again resumed with all rigour. For long the Jews made stout resistance, and fought with the courage of despair, Zedekiah and his advisers being compelled to admit that this time Nebuchadnezzar would show no mercy. The Hebrew slaves were set free that they might do military service; the stone buildings were one after another torn down that their materials might serve to strengthen the walls ; and in this way for about a year and a half all the enemy’s efforts to master the strong city were in vain. Famine had reached its extremity when, in the fourth month of the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah, the Chaldean battering rams made a breach in the northern wall, and through this the besiegers made their way into the lower city. The defenders withdrew to the temple hill and the city of Zion; and, when the Chaldeans began to storm these strongholds during the night, Zedekiah, under cover of darkness, fled with the rest of his soldiers by the door between the two walls by the king’s garden. He was, however, overtaken in the steppes of Jericho by the pursuing Chaldeans, made prisoner, and carried to Riblah in Coele-Syria. Here Nebuchadnezzar had his headquarters during the siege of Jerusalem, and here he pronounced judgment on Zedekiah. His sons and the leading men of Judah were put to death before his eyes; he was then deprived of eyesight and carried in chains to Babylon, where he remained a prisoner till his death (2nd Kings 25:3-7; Jer. 39:2-7, 52:6-11). A month later Nebuzar-adan, the captain of the king of Babylon’s guard, came to Jerusalem to destroy the rebellious city. The principal priests and officers of the kingdom and sixty (60) citizens were sent to the king at Riblah, and executed there. Everything of value to be found amongst the utensils of the temple was carried to Babylon, the city with the temple and palace was burnt to the ground, the walls were destroyed, and what able-bodied men were left amongst the people were carried into exile. Nothing was left in the land but a part of the poorer people to serve as vinedressers and husbandmen; and over this miserable remnant, increased a little in numbers by the return of some of those who had fled during the war into the neighbouring countries, Gedaliah the son of Ahikam was appointed governor in the Chaldean interest. Jeremiah chose to stay with him amidst his countrymen. But three months afterwards Gedaliah was murdered, at the instigation of Baalis the king of the Ammonites, by one Ishmael, who was sprung from the royal stock; and thereupon a great part of the remaining population, fearing the vengeance of the Chaldeans, fled, against the prophet’s advice, into Egypt (Jer. 40-43). And so the banishment of the people was now a total one, and throughout the whole period of the Chaldean domination the land was a wilderness. Judah was now, like the ten tribes, cast out amongst the heathen out of the land the Lord had given them for an inheritance, because tliey had forsaken Jahveh, their God, and had despised His statutes. Jerusalem, the city of the great King over all the earth, was in ruins, the house which the Lord had consecrated to His name was burnt with fire, and the people of His covenant had become a scorn and derision to all peoples. But God had not broken His covenant with Israel. Even in the law –Lev. 26 and Deut. 30– He had promised that even when Israel was an outcast from his land amongst the heathen, He would remember His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and not utterly reject the exiles; but when they had borne the punishment of their sins, would turn againtheir captivity, and gather them together out of the nations.”…..
Section 2: Prophet’s Person: “Concerning the life and labours of the prophet Jeremiah, we have fuller information than we have as to those of many of the other prophets. The man is very clearly reflected in his prophecies, and his life is closely interwoven with the history of Judah. We consider first the outward circumstances of the prophet’s life, and then his character and mental gifts”……(‘b’). His Character & Mental Qualities: –If we gather togetlier in one the points of view that are discovered in a summary glance over Jeremiah’s work as a prophet, we feel the truth of Ed. Vilmar’s statement at p. 38 of his essay on the prophet Jeremiah in the periodical, ‘Der Beweis des Glauhens’. Bd. v. Gütersloh 1869: “When we consider the prophet’s faith in the imperishableness of God’s people, in spite of thier inevitable ruin which is to overwhelm the race then living, and his conviction, firm as the rock, that the Chaldeans are invincible until the end of the period allotted to them by Providence, it is manifest that his work is grounded in something other and higher than mere political sharp-sightedness or human sagacity.” Nor is the unintermitting stedfastness with which, amidst the sorest difficulties from without, he exercised his office to be explained by the native strength of his character. Naturally of a yielding disposition, sensitive and timid, it was with trembling that he bowed to God’s call (1:6) ; and afterwards, when borne down by the burden of them, he repeatedly entertained the wish to be relieved from his hard duties. ” Thou hast persuaded [‘deceived’, (AKJV of 1611) ] me, Lord,” he complains in 20:7 ff., “and I let myself be persuaded [‘I was deceived’ (‘ibid’)]; Thou hast laid hold on me and hast prevailed. I am become a laughing-stock all the day long: the word of Jahveh is become a reproach and a derision. And I thought: I will think no more of Him nor speak more in His name; and it was in my head as burning fire, shut up in my bones, and I become weary of bearing up, and cannot.” Though filled with glowing love that sought the salvation of his people, he is compelled, while he beholds their moral corruptness, to cry out: “O that I had in the wilderness a lodging-place of wayfarers! then would I leave my people, and go from them; for they are all adulterers, a crew of faithless men” (9:1). And his assurance that the judgment about to burst on the land and people could not be turned aside, draws from him the sigh: “O that mine head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears I then would I weep day and night for the slain of my people” (8:23). “He was no second Elijah,” as Hgstbg. Christol. ii. p. 370 happily puts it: “He had a soft nature, a susceptible temperament; his tears flowed readily. And he who was so glad to live in peace and love with all men, must needs, because he has enlisted in the service of truth, become a second Ishmael, his hand against every man, and every man’s hand against him; he whose love for his people was so glowing, was doomed to see that love misconstrued, to see himself branded as a traitor by those who were themselves the traitors to the people.” Experiences like these raised bitter struggles in his soul, repeatedly set forth by him, especially in 12 and 20. Yet he stands immovably stedfast in the strife against all the powers of wickedness, like “a pillar of iron and a wall of brass against the whole land, the kings of Judah, its rulers and priests, and against the common people,” so that all who strove against him could effect nothing, because the Lord, according to His promise, 1:18 f., was with him, stood by his side as a terrible warrior (20:11), and showed His power mighty in the prophet’s weakness……
Section 3: Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: (‘a’) Contents & Arrangement: The prophecies of Jeremiah divide themselves, in accordance with their subjects, into those that concern Judah and the kingdom of God, and those regarding foreign nations. The former come first in the book, and extend from chap. 1-45; the latter are comprised in chap. 46-51. The former again fall into three groups, clearly distinguishable by their form and subjects. So that the whole book may be divided into four sections; while chap. 1 contains the account of the prophet’s consecration, and chap. 52, furnishes an historical supplement……(‘b’). Origin of the Compilation or Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: “Regarding the composition of the book, all sorts of ingenious and arbitrary hypotheses have been propounded. Almost all of them proceed on the assumption that the longer discourses of the first part of the book consist of a greater or less number of addresses delivered to the people at stated times, and have been arranged partly clironologically, but partly also without reference to any plan whatever. Hence the conclusion is drawn that in the book a hopeless confusion reigns……The first notice of a written collection of the prophecies occurs in 36. Here we are told that in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim’s reign, Jeremiah, by divine command, caused his assistant Baruch to write in a roll all the words he had spoken concerning Israel and Judah and all nations from the day he was called up till that time, intending them to be read by Baruch to the assembled people in the temple on the approaching fast. And after the king had cut up the roll and cast it into the fire, the prophet caused the words Baruch had taken down to his dictation to be written anew in a roll, with the addition of many words of like import. This fact suggests the idea that the second roll written by Baruch to Jeremiah’s dictation formed the basis of the collected edition of all Jeremiah’s prophecies. The history makes it clear that till then the prophet had not committed his prophecies to writing, and that in the roll written by Baruch they for the first time assumed a written form. The same account leads us also to suppose that in this roll the prophet’s discourses and addresses were not transcribed in the precise words and in the exact order in which he had from time to time delivered them to the people, but that they were set down from memory, the substance only being preserved. The design with which they were committed to writing was to lead the people to humble themselves before the Lord and turn from their evil ways (36:3, 7), by means of importunately forcing upon their attention all God’s commands and warnings……If we are desirous not to add by new and uncertain conjectures to the already large number of arbitrary hypotheses as to the compilation and origin of the book before us, we must abide by what, after a careful scrutiny of its subject-matter and form, proves to be certainly established. And the result of our examination may be epitomized in the following propositions: 1. The book in its canonical form has been arranged according to a distinct, self-consistent plan, in virtue of which the preservation of chronological order has been made secondary to the principle of grouping together cognate subjects. 2. The book written by Baruch in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiakim’s reign, which contained the oracles spoken by Jeremiah up till that time, is doubtless the basis of the book as finally handed down, without being incorporated with it as a distinct work; but, in accordance with the plan laid down for the compilation of the entire series, was so disposed that the several portions of it were interspersed with later portions, handed down, some orally, some in writing, so that the result was a uniform whole. For that prophecies other than those in Baruch’s roll were straightway written down (if they were not first composed in writing), is expressly testified by 30:2, 29:1, and 51:60. 3. The complete edition of the whole was not executed till after the close of Jeremiah’s labours, probably immediately after his death. This work, together with the supplying of the historical notice in chap. 52, was probably the work of Jeremiah’s colleague Baruch, who may have survived the last event mentioned in the book, 52:31 ff., the restoration of Jehoiakim to freedom after Nebuchadnezzar’s death, B.C. 563.”…..Appendix: Chapter 52: Historical: Capture & destruction of Jerusalem, Fate of Zedekiah & People & Liberation of Jehoiachin from Imprisonment: “By the closing formula, 51:64, the contents of chap. 52 are separated from, and marked as an appendix to, the prophecies of Jeremiah; yet nothing is said regarding the author of this chapter. However, if we keep in mind the nature of its contents, then, from the very fact that it gives an account of the liberation of King Jehoiachin from prison, and of his elevation to royal honours, it necessarily follows that it cannot have been composed by Jeremiah, because the prophet can scarcely have lived till this occurred, which was less than 561 B.C. It must further be considered that the contents of this chapter also agree, almost word for word, with 2nd Kings 24:18-25, 30; moreover, the introductory notice regarding Zedekiah’s ascension of the throne, his age, and the character of his rule, given vers. 1-3, was unnecessary for the object of this appendix. The same holds true of the notice regarding the liberation of Jehoiachin from prison, at the close, vers. 31-34, which does not seem to stand in any close and intimate connection with the history of the destruction of Jerusalem and the fate of Zedekiah, while both of these events are closely connected with the plan and aim of the Books of Kings, and are written quite in their spirit. On these grounds, most expositors, both ancient and modern, assume that this historical appendix to the prophecies of Jeremiah has been derived from the Second Book of Kings. But weighty reasons oppose this assumption. (1.) The very fact that ‘the name of th king of Babylon is throughout written Nebuchad-rezzar makes it unlikely that the narrative was derived from 2nd Kings 24:18 ff., because the name is there constantly written Nebuchad-nezzar, –a form which also occurs in Jeremiah, though not often (see vol. i. p. 397, note). (2.) This chapter contains notices which are not found in 2nd Kings 24 and 25. Thus, it is stated, in ver. 10, that Nebuchad¬rezzar also caused all the princes of Judah to be executed at Riblah, and King Zedekiah, who had been carried to Babylon, to be put in prison till his death; in vers. 19-23 we find a whole series of special remarks as to the vessels of the temple and the ornaments of the brazen pillars, –observations which are not met with either in 2nd Kings 25, or in the description of the building of the temple, 1st Kings 7. We further find, in vers. 28-30, a notice regarding three deportations of the people, giving the numbers, not roundly, but precisely, as they are nowhere else given in the historical books of the Old Testament. Were this statement the only additional detail given by this chapter, as compared with 2nd Kings 25, one might perhaps suppose that it was an interpolation from another source, added to the rest of the account that has been derived from 2nd Kings 24 and 25; but this opinion, which even in itself is not very probable, is excluded by the other additions found in ver. 10 and in 19-23. If the author of this chapter had been able to derive, and had actually derived, these additional particulars from a historical source, treating of the later times of the kingdom of Judah, which has not come down to us, and which contained more than our canonical books of Kings and Chronicles, he would no doubt have also found there the account of the three deportations, and taken it from that source. We must therefore assume that this chapter, and 2nd Kings 24:18 on to 25:30, have both a common origin, in which the fall of the kingdom of Judah was more fully described than in the historical books of the canon; in this way, the remarkable coincidence, almost word for word, between the narrative portions which are common to the two extracts, is accounted for quite as easily as the differences that have just been mentioned.”…..}}

{{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: Introduction: Section 1: Book: Name, Contents, & Arrangement: “Name: The five Lamentations composed on the fall of Jerusalem and the kingdom of Judah, which have received their position in the canon of the Old Testament among the Hagiographa, have for their heading, in Hebrew MSS. and in printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, the word (’Echah) (“alas! how…”), which forms the characteristic initial word of three of these pieces (1:1, 2:1, & 4:1). The Rabbis name the collection (Qinoth) (Lamentations), from the nature of its contents: so in the Talmud (‘Tract. Baba Bathra’, f. 14’b’); cf. Jerome in the Prol. ‘galeat’, and in the prologue to his translation : “‘incipiunt Threni, i.e. lamentationes, quae Cynoth liebraice inscribuntur.'” With this agree the designations (Thrëni) (LXX), and ‘Threni’ or ‘Lamentationes’, also ‘Lamenta’ in the Vulgate and among the Latin writers. Contents: The ancient custom of composing and singing lamentations over deceased friends (of which we find proof in the elegies of David on Saul and Jonathan, 2nd Sam.1:17 ff., and on Abner, 2nd Sam. 3:33 ff., and in the notice given in 2nd Chron. 35:25) was even in early times extended so as to apply to the general calamities that befell countries and cities; hence the prophets often speak of taking up lamentations over the fall of nations, countries, and cities; cf. Amos 5:1, Jer. 7:29, 9:9, 17 f., Ezek. 19:1, 26:17, 27:2, etc. The five lamentations of the book now before us all refer to the destruction of Jerusalem and of the kingdom of Judah by the Chaldeans; in them are deplored the unutterable misery that has befallen the covenant people in this catastrophe, and the disgrace which the falien daughter of Zion has thereby suffered. This subject is treated of in the five poems from different points of view. In the ‘first’, the lamentation is chiefly made over the carrying away of the people into captivity, the desolation of Zion, the acts of oppression, the plundering and the starvation connected with the taking of Jerusalem, the scoffing and contempt shown by the enemy, and the helpless and comfortless condition of the city, now fallen so low. In the ‘second’, the destruction of Jerusalem and Judah is set forth as an act of God’s wrath against the sins of the people, the impotency of human comfort in the midst of the terrible calamity is shown, and the people are exhorted to seek help from the Lord. In the ‘third’, the deep spiritual sufferings of God’s people in the midst of the general distress form the subject of grievous com¬ plaint, out of which the soul endeavours to rise, and to see the compassion of the Lord, and the justice of His dealings on earth generally, as well as in this visitation of judgment; and on this is founded the confident expectation of help. In the ‘fourth’, the dreadful misery that has befallen Zion’s citizens of every class is represented as a punishment for the grievous sins of the people and their leaders. And lastly, in the ‘fifth’, the Lord is entreated to remove the disgrace from His people and restore them to their former state of grace. According to this view, one may readily perceive in these poems a well¬ cogitated plan in the treatment of the material common to the whole, and a distinct progress in the execution of this plan…..}}

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah & Lamentations. Map Notes & Introduction by Rev. A. W. Streane; M.A.; Edited for the Syndics of Univ. Press. Cambridge Bible for Schools & Colleges; Edited by J. J. S. Perowne, D.D. (1881).gs

{{ Introduction: Chapter II: Character & Style of Book:
“1. Jeremiah is personally the most interesting to us of all the prophets; because, unlike the others, he shews us the inmost recesses of his mind. The various qualities which made up the man are quickly and easily gathered from his own lips. There is hardly a clearer illustration of the Providence of God in raising up men for special sorts of work than is afforded by Jeremiah. We have just seen that they were no ordinary times in which he lived. ‘The snake’ of idolatry had been ‘scotched not killed’ by Hezekiah and Josiah. The spirit of disobedience and rebellion, which had been so long working in his countrymen, was now past remedy by all common means. Nothing but the nation’s total overthrow, at least for a time, could effect a radical cure.
2. Glowing appeals, such as had been made by an Isaiah, a Hosea, a Micah in former days, would now have been of no avail. Those prophets had fulfilled their task, and the Holy Spirit had employed their special gifts for the work which belonged to their age. Jeremiah’s office on the other hand was to utter and reiterate the warning, though sensible all the while that the sentence of condemnation was passed and would speedily be put into execution. It was not for him as for those who had preceded him to proclaim the certainty of God’s protection, to urge resistance to the foe, to present scarce any but bright pictures of the future. Hopes like these, bestowed through Isaiah, had since been forfeited, and now hardly anything remains save to mourn the downfall of the kingdom, to point again and yet again to the canker that had eaten out the vitals of the nation……
6. Belonging to the orders both of Priest and Prophet, and living at the very time when each had sunk to its lowest state of degradation, he was compelled to submit to the buffeting which they each bestowed upon a man who was by his every word and deed passing sentence upon themselves. He saw them permitted to vent their rage upon his person, he saw them held in esteem by the people, their way prospering, those that dealt treacherously happy. “For the greater part of his mission he ‘had no man likeminded with him.’ From the first moment of his call he was alone, amidst a hostile world.” But through it all conscientious devotion to duty maintained its place within his heart. The promise that he should be as a brasen wall made at the time of his call and renewed later never failed him……
8. His style corresponds closely with what we should expect from his character. It displays (‘a’) Absence of ornament…..(‘b’) Frequent repetition……(Table of Repetitions: Chapters & Verses:
2:28 & 11:13. 5:29 & 9:9. 6:13 & 8:10-12. 7:14 & 26:6. 10:12-16 & 51:15-19. 11:20 & 20:12. 15:2 & 43:11. 16:14,15 & 23:7, 8. 17:25 & 22:4. 23:19,20 & 30:23,24. 30:11 & 46:28. 31:35,36 & 33:25,26.
List of Places in which the same Thought or Image is Repeated:
‘The brasen Wall’, (1:18; 15:20). ‘The turned back’, (2:27; 7:24; 32:33).
‘Fury that burns like fire’, (4:4; 21:12).
‘The travailing woman’, (4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 30:6).
‘Rising up early’, (7:13, 25; 11:7; 25:3,4; 26:5; 29:19; 32:33; 35:14,15; 44:4).
‘Water of gall,’ (8:14; 9:15; 23:15).
‘The incurable wound’, (15:8; 30:12).
‘The fig, too bad to be eaten’, (24:8; 29:17).
Phrases which often Recur:
‘Walking in the stubbornness of the heart’, (3:17; 7:24; 9:14; 11:8; 13:10; 16:12; 23:17).
‘The evil of men’s doings’, (4:4; 21:12; 23:2, 22; 25:5; 26:3; 44:22).
‘The voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride’, (7:34; 16:9; 25:10; 33:11).
‘Men dying in the siege by the sword, by the pestilence, and by famine’, (14:12, 15,16; 15:2; 18:21; 21:7, 9; 24:10; 27:13; 29:17; 32:24, 36; 34:17; 38:2; 13:17, 22; 43:11; 44:13).
(Taken with slight additions from the ‘Speaker’s Commentary’.)

(‘c’) Frequent cases of coincidence in language with earlier prophets, as well as especially with the Book of Deuteronomy……(‘d’) Numerous images used by way of illustration……

Chapter III: Contents & Arrangement:
1. The prophecies of Jeremiah cover, as we have seen, a period of at least some thirty years (30)……
2. So far as any order is observable, it is an order not of time but of subject-matter, The following is a Summary of the Contents of the Book: (Chapters & Verses):
(i) (1-45): Prophecies mainly relating to Home Events & History of Times.
(ii) (46-51): Prophecies relating to Foreign Nations.
(iii) (52): Supplementary & Historical.
(i) Subdivided thus:
(a) (1-20): Prophecies mostly from Time of Jeremiah’s call (13th year of Josiah) to 4th year of Jehoiakim.
(b) (21-25:14): Prophecies directed at various times Against Kings of Judah & Against False Prophets.
(c) (25:15-38): Kind of summary of Fuller Predictions Against Foreign Nations which occur (46-51); perhaps placed here as suggested by the announcement of Approaching Overthrow of Babylon, which ends (b).
(d) (26-28): Prophecies concerning Fall of Jerusalem, with Historical Notices interspersed. These belong to Different Periods of Jeremiah’s Life, and seem Grouped Together here in accordance with the Principle of Arrangement mentioned above.
(e) (29): Letter & Message to Captives in Babylon.
(f) (30-31): Prophecies mainly of Comfort & Hope.
(g) (32-44): History of Two Years Preceding Capture & Destruction of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Prophecies of Jeremiah during that time. (35-36) Break Chronological Order here.
(h) (45): Supplementary Notice on the part of Baruch.
(ii) Subdivided thus:
(a) (46:1): Superscription. (b) (46): Against Egypt. (c) (47): Against Philistines. (d) (48): Against Moab, (e) (49:1-6): Against Amnion. (f) (49:7-22): Against Edom. (g) (49:23-27): Against Damascus. (h) (49:28-33): Against Kedar & Hazor. (i) (49:34-39): Against Elam. (j) (50,51): Against Babylon. ” }}

{{ Lamentations: Introduction: Chapter III: Subject-Matter & Purpose of Book:
I. The subject, as we have seen already, is undoubtedly the capture of the city under Nebuchadnezzar, and the sorrow and suffering which were thereby entailed. Herewith is united both the confession that this has come upon the people on account of their sins, and entreaties for deliverance.
2. Taking the poems severally: Chap. i. (‘Miseries of Jerusalem’) dwells upon the solitary condition and grief of the city; Chap. ii. (‘God’s judgments upon City. Lamentation. Supplication’) sets forth the destruction that has come upon lier, and acknowledges that it is the result of sin; Chap. iii., (‘Prophet, as Representing Nation, bewails their Sufferings. Words of Submission & Hope. Renewed Expressions of Suffering joined with Appeal to God for Help. Thanksgiving & Prayer for Vengeance.) which although framed for the most part in the singular number, yet includes the nation throughout, complains of the bitter cup which God’s people have to drink, and yet acknowledges that the trials which are come upon them are inflicted by a Father’s hand; Chap. iv. (‘Sufferings of People are consequent on Sin’. ) describes the reverses in fortune that have been brought about by recent events, and again acknowledges sin; Chap. v. (‘Sorrowful Enumeration of Insults heaped on Zion because of her Sins’.) recapitulates the pitiful details of their condition, and ends by an earnest prayer for deliverance.
3. The Book from an historical point of view thus forms a supplement to the Book of Jeremiah. There we traced the life and thoughts of the prophet while events were gradually leading to the final catastrophe. Here we see him after that catastrophe has been reached, and mark that it is the same man still, clearly recognizing the sin of his fellows, but as full as ever of sympathy for them and of love for his country. “All feeling of exultation in which, as mere prophet of evil, he might have indulged at the fulfilment of his forebodings, was swallowed up in deep overwhelming sorrow” (Prof. Plumptre in ‘Sm. Bib. Dict’.).
4. It was not in one who had faithfully warned his country-men for so long, to keep silence now, and doubtless the very pouring out of his heart in this form gave his sorrow a certain relief. As he had probably lamented for Josiah in some such I manner (2nd Chron. 35:25), so now he was moved to come forward and embody in language those thoughts which an inspired prophet like him would be guided to publish and record.
5. “There are perhaps few portions of the Old Testament which appear to have done the work they were meant to do more effectually than this.” It has not been connected with the theological or ecclesiastical disputes of any age, while it has supplied the earnest Christian of all times with words in which to confess his sins, and shortcomings, as well as with a picture of Him Who bore our sins and carried our sorrows, on Whom was ” laid the iniquity of us all.”
6. The Book is annually read among the Jews to commemorate the burning of the Temple. The following is Schaff’s description (‘Through Bible Lands’, pp. 250—252) of the scene at the ‘Wailing Place of the Jews’ at Jerusalem. “There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon and on festivals to bewail the downfall of the holy city. I saw on Good Friday a large number, old and young, male and female, venerable rabbis with patriarchal beards and young men kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and Prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms. . . . The key note of all these laments and prayers was struck by Jeremiah, the most pathetic and tender hearted of prophets, in the Lamentations, that funeral dirge of Jerusalem and the theocracy. This elegy, written with sighs and tears, has done its work most effectually in great public calamities, and is doing it every year on the ninth of the month Ab (July), when it is read with loud weeping in all the synagogues of the Jews and especially at Jerusalem. It keeps alive the memory of their deepest humiliation and guilt and the hope of final deliverance. The scene of the Wailing Place was to me touching and pregnant with meaning.” }}

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Holy Bible. Vol. 5 Old Testament. Authorized Version & Notes & Introductions: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, & Ezekiel. Christian Wordsworth,D.D., Bishop of Lincoln. (1871).

{{ Introduction to Book of Prophet Jeremiah: “There are two Prophets in the Hebrew Canon of Holy Scripture, whose history and writings may best be studied in connexion, as illustrative of each other. Both of them were Priests as well as Prophets; both foretold the destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; both were contemporary with that event; both survived it. The one dwelt among Hebrew exiles and captives at the river Chebar in Babylonia, and echoed the voice of the other, prophesying at Jerusalem. Both were signal types of the Lord of all the prophets, the Incarnate Word of God; both pre-announced the graces and glories of His Advent, and the building up of His Church Universal; both are exemplary and instructive to all, especially to pastors and priests of the Church of Christ, who are commissioned to maintain and to declare the truth in evil days, and to cheer fainting hearts with hopes of future victories, and who, though feeble in themselves, are assured of strength and support from above, if they are faithful witnesses to Him Who has called them to their work. One of these two prophets is ‘Jeremiah’: the other, ‘Ezekiel’. The prophetic mission of Jeremiah at Jerusalem lasted about forty (40) years, dating from the thirteenth (13th) year of the good King Josiah (*B.C. 627; Jer. 1:2; 25:3) and closing with the fall of Jerusalem in the eleventh (11th) year of his son Zedekiah. These forty (40) years of probation, granted to Jerusalem during Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry, may be compared with the forty (40) years beginning with our Lord’s mission, inaugurated at the river Jordan, and continued in His Apostles, sent by Him and filled with the Holy Ghost (Spirit) given by Him from heaven, and preaching of coming judgments to Jerusalem, until the time of its destruction by the armies of imperial Rome. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, Jeremiah prophesied in a heathen land, Egypt; and, similarly, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, the prophetic work of Christ was extended to the heathen world. There is no Hebrew prophet with whose personal character and history we are so intimately acquainted as Jeremiah. But the time, place, and manner of his death are not known. He vanishes from the sight in a mysterious manner. The Jewish rabbis supposed that he would reappear as a herald of the Messiah; and in the ancient Christian Church it was a prevalent opinion, that Jeremiah would come again in the latter days to fight against Antichrist (*’Victorinus Pet’., in Apocalypsim, xi. 3; ‘Sixtus Senensis’, Bibl. Sanct., vi. ann. 316; ‘, Eiuleit. pp. 68-72.) There is a moral significance in these popular traditions. The spirit which animated Jeremiah breathes and moves in all faithful witnesses, who prepare the way for the Second Coming of Christ; and among the prophets of the Old Dispensation none affords more instruction than Jeremiah, both by his history and writings, how they may contend against the Antichristianism of the last times before the Second Advent of Christ. Let us contemplate him in this light.”…..
”Such theories as these, however groundless, have their uses to the reverent and thoughtful student of Holy Writ. The allegation just specified may serve to remind us of an important truth. Not only is there a striking resemblance between the prophecies of Jeremiah and the Book of Deuteronomy, but the spirit of Moses lived and moved in Jeremiah (See below Wordsworth-Kueper’s Index of examples.). Jeremiah’s mission began as the mission of Moses began, and as the mission of all true prophets begins –in a confession of personal weakness, and in words of humility: “Ah! Lord God, behold I cannot speak, for I am a child.” Jeremiah’s prophecies are impregnated with the Pentateuch. Many of the phrases and portions of them are not intelligible without reference to it, especially the Book of Deuteronomy. The Book of Deuteronomy is like that written roll, of which his brother prophet Ezekiel speaks, which he was commanded to take into his hands and eat. Deuteronomy was such a roll to Jeremiah. He took it and ate it. It passed into his life-blood, and assimilated itself to bis spiritual being. Jeremiah had a special mission to show to the Hebrew nation that the Pentateuch bad a living power for himself and for his own age. He throws himself back upon the Law, and grounds himself upon it; he appeals to its code as a divine standard of moral and spiritual truth; and be declares that the curses for disobedience which had been denounced in Deuteronomy nearly a thousand years before were now growing up and springing forth in vigorous energy, and were about to be fulfilled in all their terrible reality. But he also comforts them with the assurance that the promises made in Deuteronomy would be accomplished, if they turned to God with contrite hearts. Hence the prophecies of Jeremiah ring with a clear note of power which sounded forth in the book of the Law at Horeb and in the wilderness of Arabia. 2. A like use may be made of another sceptical allegation of modern times, with regard to Jeremiah’s prophecies. It bas been observed with truth, that a great portion of these predictions, especially those concerning Babylon, Moab, and Edom, are reiterations or amplifications of the prophecies of his great predecessor, Isaiah. Hence it has been inferred by some, that either the prophecies of Isaiah were interpolated by the author of those predictions in Jeremiah, or that those prophecies in Jeremiah are due to an unknown author, whom some critics dignify by the name of “the second Isaiah” but who never had any existence. Such theories as these vanish before the light of truth.”
Compare: Genesis & Jeremiah: G 1:2 & J 4:23. G 1:28 & J 3:16. G 6:7 & J 9:9. G 8:22 & J 31:36. G 11:3 & J 51:25, &c. G 15:5 & J 33:22, & 34. G 17:14 & J 32:17. G 19:15 & Jer. Ii. 51:6, 50. G 19:25 & J 20:16. G 25:26 & J 9:3. G 30:18, 20 & J 31:16,17. G 37:35; 42:36 & J 31:15. G 49:17 & J 8:16.
Compare: Exodus & Jeremiah: E 4:10, &c. & J 1:6,7; 15:19. E 7:14 & J 50:33. E 16:9 & J 30:21. E 20:8; 11 & J 17:21. E 22:20 & J 5:28. E 32:9 & J 7:26. E 32:16 & J 17:1. E 34:7 & J 30:11; 32:18.
Compare: Leviticus & Jeremiah: L 13:45 & Lam. 4:15. L 19:12 & J 5:2. L 19:16 & J 6:28; 9:3. L 19:27 & J 9:25. L 19:32 & Lam. 5:12. L 26:6 & J 14:13. L 26:13 & J 2:20. L 26:33 & J 4:27.
Compare: Numbers & Jeremiah: N 5:11-31 & J 2. N 6:5, &c. & J 7:29. N 16:22 & J 32:27. N 21:6 & J 8:17. N 21:28; 24:17, &c. & J 48:4-5, 46; 4916. N 24:14, 16 & J 26:8, 9. N 36:7,8 & J 6:12; 8:10.
“Vides, nullam Pentateuchi esse partem, quin in usum vocata sit. Simul consequitur, omnia, quae de lege divina antiquitus data apud Prophetam dicantur, ad Pentateuchum referenda esse, ita ut Jeremiae saltem aetate Judaeis nihil de posteriori legis origine compertum esse potuerit.” –’Aug. Kueper’, Jeremias Librorum Sacrorum Interpres, atque Vindex, p. 48. Berlin, 1837. [‘Yu see, none of the Pentateuch to be a part, which in usage is called; such it follows, all, that’s of Divine Law, anciently spoken by the Prophet, in response to the Pentateuch referred to, such as in Jeremiah’s age at least of Judaea, nothing of the Law of latter origin ascertained was possible.’ -‘Aug. Kueper’ Holy Book of Jeremiah, Interpretation & Index. p. 48, Berlin, 1837.]
….. Jeremiah, in the last days of Jerusalem, discharged a sacred office in repeating and authenticating the prophetic oracles of former generations. By his ministry the Holy Spirit gathered together His own Words, uttered by former Prophets, and gave them new life and light. Jeremiah’s prophecies are like a fair tesselated pavement, in which the enamelled glasswork, and precious stones, and rich jewels, of divine truth are inlaid and incrusted as in a sacred mosaic spread before the altar of some beautiful temple. (*See on Jer. 48:1. It is well said by a recent German Expositor, that Jeremiah leans throughout upon utterances of the earlier Prophets, and reproduces their thoughts, figures, and words. Thus, for example, nearly all his prophecies against foreign nations are founded upon utterances of the earlier Prophets: that against the Philistines (Jer. 47), upon Isaiah’s prophecy against that people (Isa. 14:28-32); that against the Moabites (Jer. 48), upon that of Isaiah, in chaps. 15,16; that against the Ammonites (Jer. 49:1-6), upon the prophecy of Amos against the same (Amos 1:13-15); that against Damascus (Jer. 49:23-27), upon that of Amos against this kingdom (Amos 1:3-5); and lastly, that against Babylon (Jer. 50,51), upon the prophecy of Isaiah against Babylon, in Isa. 13-14:23. To this we may add (1) that the prophecy of Isaiah against Edom contains a number of expressions peculiar to himself and characteristic of his style, not a single one of which is to be found in Obadiah; whilst nothing is met with elsewhere in Jeremiah, of that which is common to Obadiah and him (for the proofs of this, see ‘Caspari’, pp. 7, 8); and (2) that what is common to the two Prophets, not only forms an outwardly connected passage in Obadiah, whereas in Jeremiah it occurs in several unconnected passages of his prophecy (compare Obad. 1-8 with Jer. 49:7, 9,10; 14-16); but, as the exposition will show, that in Obadiah it is more closely connected, and apparently more original than in Jeremiah. But if it be a fact, as this unquestionably proves, that Obadiah’s prophecy is more original, and therefore older, than that of Jeremiah, Obadiah cannot have prophesied after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, but must have prophesied before it, since Jeremiah’s prophecy against Edom belongs to the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. See ‘Caspari’, p. 14, sqq., and ‘Grafs’ Jeremias, pp. 558—559, compared with p. 506 (‘Keil’, Die zwolf Kleinen Propheten, p. 243. ‘Introd’. to Obadiah).)…..
3. Another arbitrary assertion of the same recent criticism may also be specified here, in order that it may be converted to good by reminding us of another remarkable attribute of Jeremiah’s character, which renders it specially instructive and exemplary to the champions of the truth in days of public trial and distress. It has been alleged, that some of the prophetic portions of Holy Scripture which foretell the sufferings of Christ, especially the fifty-third (53rd) chapter of Isaiah, and the sixty-ninth (69th) Psalm, have no reference to Jesus of Nazareth, but were fulfilled in the person of Jeremiah. True it is, that the language of that fifty-third (53rd) chapter of Isaiah, and of that sixty-ninth (69th) Psalm, had a remarkable applicability to Jeremiah. But why was this? Because Jeremiah was not only a prophet, but a prophecy. Jeremiah is among the prophets what Job is among the patriarchs. Jeremiah is the ‘suffering’ prophet. He was a signal type of “the Man of sorrows.” He was a figure of Him Who suffered on the cross, and Who conquered by suffering. When therefore we read in Isaiah, “He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter;” and when we hear Jeremiah saying, “I was like a lamb brought to the slaughter; ” and when we hear the Psalmist say, “I sink in deep mire where is no standing” and “let not the pit shut her mouth upon me;” and when we read of Jeremiah the prophet, that “they took him and cast him into the dungeon or rather the pit (it is the same word in the original as in the Psalm, and is repeated no less than six times in the seven verses of that narrative concerning Jeremiah), “and they let down Jeremiah with cords, and in the pit there was no water, but mire; so Jeremiah sank in mire:” when we hear and read such words as these, and many others in Jeremiah’s history, and when also we remember that Jeremiah was cast into the pit and left to die there (as far as they were concerned) by the rulers of Jerusalem, and was drawn out of the pit by a Gentile stranger, the Ethiopian eunuch Ebed-melech (as the Gospel of Christ, rejected and put to death by the Jews, was gladly received by the Gentiles), we are brought to the conclusion, which is confirmed by countless incidents in Jeremiah’s life, that in his history we have a foreshadowing of the Gospel, and that in seeing the struggles of Jeremiah standing alone against princes, prophets, priests, and people, and contending as a faithful witness of the truth, amid scorn, calumny, and insult, injury and violence; and foretelling the fall of Jerusalem in his prophecies, and yet weeping amid its ruins in his Lamentations, we have a vision of the agony in Gethsemane, and of the arraignment in the hall of Caiaphas, and of the precious death on Calvary, of Him Who shed tears of compassion over Jerusalem, and Who shed His Blood upon the Cross, to redeem her from her sins.” }}

Chronological Table to Illustrate Jeremiah & Ezekiel.
[For Earlier Chronology, see Intr. to Kings, p. xx; and for later, see Intr. to Ezra, p. 295. Received Chronolgy is lowered by two years in the following Table, in accordance with the results of recent investigations.]
B.C.: Judah. Assyria & Babylon. Egypt. Other Nations. (Table: B.C. 650 – 600 – 550 – 500 = 150 Yrs.)
650}|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|{500
650:
639: Josiah Comes to Throne & Reigns 31 Years. Religious Reformation. (Saracus, Last King of Assyria).
633: (Median Empire Founded by Cyaxares).
627: Jeremiah Prophesies at Jerusalem 40 Years.
625: Habakkuk & Zephaniah Prophesy in Reign of Josiah. (Nabo-Polassar Founds Babylonian Empire; & with Cyaxares Takes Nineveh before the year B.C. 610.). (Alyattes, King of Lydia.).
616: (Tarquinius Priscus at Rome.).
615: (Media & Lydia; War of Cyaxares & Alyattes Ended by Mediation of Nabo-Polassar.).
610: (Neko (or Pharaoh Necho) Marches Against Babylonia.).
608: Josiah is Killed in Battle Against Pharaoh Necho. Jehoahaz, or Shallum, Succeeds Josiah, & Reigns 3 Months, & is Deposed by Pharaoh Necho, & Dies in Egypt. Jehoiakim is Set Up by Pharaoh Necho, & Reigns 11 Years.
605: Jeremiah’s Prophecy of 70 Years’ Captivity, & of 70 Years’ Supremacy of Babylon, Ending B.C. Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem, & Carries Away Sacred Vessels of Temple to Babylon. 1st Captivity of Judah. (Nebuchadnezzar sent Against Necho by his Father Nabo-Polassar, & Defeats him in Battle of Carchemish; & Succeeds his Father on Throne of Babylon.).
604: Jeremiah’s Roll Read.
603: (Daniel at Babylon.).
602: Jehoiakim Revolts from Nebuchadnezzar.
600:
599: (Cyaxares Aids Nebuchadnezzar.).
598: Nebuchadnezzarn Marches Against Jerusalem; Resumes Siege of Tyre, & thence Returns to Jerusalem.
597: Jehoiachin, Jeconiah,or Conlah, Succeeds Jehoiakim, & Reigns 3 Months. Jerusalem Again Taken. King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah or Coniah) is Deposed by Nebuchadnezzar. Great Captivity. Ezekiel Carried Captive to Babylon with Jehoiachin. King Zedekiah Succeeds & Reigns 11 Years.
594: (Solon at Athens.)
593: Jeremiah’s prophecy against Babylon. (Ezekiel’s Vision of Temple, Holy City, & Holy Land.) (Psammetichus II.) (Astyages King of Media.)
588: Jerusalem Besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. (Nebuchadnezzar Marches Against Jerusalem & Against Egypt.) (Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) Takes Gaza, but Retreats before Nebuchadnezzar.)
587: Jerusalem’s Vain Hope of Relief from Egypt (Pharaoh Hophra).
586: Jerusalem is Taken & Destroyed. End of kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah is Carried to Babylon, where he Dies. Gedaliah, Son of Ahikam, is Set Up as Governor by Babylonians. Gedaliah is Treacherously Murdered by Ishmael, Son of Nethaniah, of Seed Royal. Jeremiah & Other Jews Go into Egypt.
585: (Nebuchadnezzar Takes Tyre.)
582: Further Captivity by Nebuzar¬adan, Generalissimo of Babylon.
581: (Nebuchadnezzar Overruns Egypt.) (Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) Defeated by Nebuchadnezzar.)
572: (Destroys Tyre.)
570: (2nd Invasion of Egypt.)
569: (Madness of Nebuchadnezzar?) (Amasis.)
568: (Croesus King of Lydia.)
561: Jehoiachin, at Babylon, is Released. (Evil Merodach.)
560: (Epoch of Greek Tyrants. Pisistratus at Athens.)
559: (Neriglissar.)
558: (Cyrus Deposes Astyages.)
556: (Laborosoarchod.) (Alliance of Babylon, Egypt, & Lydia.)
555: (Nabonedus.)
554: (Cyrus Conquers Lydia.)
550:
539: Daniel’s Dream of Four Beasts. (Nabonedus Associates Belshazzar as Viceroy with himself. Cyrus Defeats Nabonedus. Belshazzar’s Feast. Babylon Taken by Cyrus. Belshazzar Slain.)
538 Daniel’s Vision at Shushan of Ram & He-Goat. Daniel’s Prophecy of Seventy (70) Weeks. (Darius Median. Daniel Governor of Babylon. Edict of Cyrus (in his 1st Year when Sole Monarch) for Restoration of Jews & Rebuilding of Temple.)
536: Return of Jews to Jerusalem.
500:

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Holy Bible According to Authorized Version(A.D. 1611). Explanatory & Critical Commentary, & Revision of Translation, by Bishops & Other Clergy of Anglican Church; Edited by F.C. Cook. M.A., Canon of Exeter, Preacher at Lincoln’s Inn, Chaplain in Ordinary to Queen. Vol. 5. Isaiah – Jeremiah – Lamentations. (1883) gs. Jeremiah & Lamentations: Introduction, Commentary & Critical Notes, by R. Payne Smith, D.D., Dean of Canterbury.

Contents. Commentary & Critical Notes.
Introductory: 1st Prophecy: ‘Call of Jeremiah’.
Jeremiah’s 2nd Prophecy: ‘Expostulation with Israel because of Idolatry’.
His 3rd Prophecy: ‘Call to Repentance’.
Jeremiah’s 4th Prophecy, or Group of Prophecies: ‘God’s Judgment upon Unrepentant’.
2nd Portion of Jeremiah’s 4th Group of Prophecies: 5th: ‘Sermon in Temple upon Fast-Day’.
Jeremiah’s 6th Prophecy: ‘Curse of Broken Covenant’.
His 7th Prophecy: ‘Linen Girdle’.
His 8th Prophecy: ‘Drought’.
His 9th Prophecy: ‘Punishment of Judah by Pestilence & Exile’.
His 10th Prophecy: ‘Sabbath’.
His 11th Prophecy: ‘Potter’.
His 12th Prophecy: ‘Broken Vessel, with Events which Followed thereon’.
His 13th Prophecy: ‘Zedekiah’s Roll’.
His 14th Prophecy: ‘Wine-cup of Fury’.
His 15th Prophecy: ‘Prophet in Danger of Death’ .
His 16th Prophecy: ‘Babylonian Yoke’.
His 17th Prophecy: ‘Israel’s Hope’.
His 18th Prophecy: ‘Fate of Zedekiah, & Jeremiah’s Rebuke of People for Breaking Faith with Their Slaves’.
Emancipation of Hebrew Slaves.
Jeremiah’s 19th Prophecy: ‘Rechabites’.
Historical Events Connected with Collection of Jeremiah’s Prophecies into Volume, & with His Personal History Immediately Before & After siege of Jerusalem: 20th: (1) ‘Burning of the Roll’. (2) ‘Events During Siege of Jerusalem’. (3) ‘Capture of Jerusalem’. (4) ‘Jeremiah’s History After Capture of Jerusalem’.
Baruch’s Disappointment. Prophecies Against Nations.
Destruction of Babylon & Return of Israel From Captivity.
Historical Appendix to Prophecies of Jeremiah.

Book of Prophet Jeremiah: 1:1-3:
1: ‘The words of Jeremiah’: The usual title of the prophetical books, occurring no less than eight times, is The Word of the Lord: on the contrary the two books of Amos and Jeremiah are called the words of those prophets, probably, as Kimchi, Abravanel, and other Jewish commentators suggest, because they contain not merely prophecies, but also the record of much which belongs to the personal history of the writers. In Hebrew historical works are regularly called ‘the words’, rendered ‘acts’ in 1st Kngs 11:41; 2nd Chron. 23:18; but ‘book’ thrice in 1st Chron. 29:29. So also “The Life of Moses,” quoted by Bp Pearson on the Creed, is called in the original (dbry Mshh), the words of Moses. More exactly, therefore, this title might be translated the life or acts of Jeremiah. Graf however and others understand by it a collection of the prophecies of Jeremiah, supposing the phrase to be taken from ch. 36:10, but the other view is more in accordance with Hebrew idiom.
‘Jeremiah’: Most commentators render this name ‘Jehovah shall throw down’, in proof of which Hengstenberg refers to Exod. 15:1, where the verb to throw down is ‘ramah’. A name so ill-omened would scarcely have been in such common use, for seven or eight Jeremiahs are mentioned in the Bible, and a more reasonable derivation is from ‘ram’, high, giving as the meaning ‘God exalteth’.
‘the son of Hilkiah’: As the proper names of the Jews were comparatively few, their bearers were further distinguisheq by the addition of the father’s name. Could we keep the Hebrew form ben-Hilkiah, we should escape the danger of applying to the father what belongs to the son, and of inaccuracies such as occur in the translation of the rest of the verse. This Hilkiah may have been the high-priest of that name. See Introduc¬ tion, p. 311.
‘of the priests that’ were: More correctly, who was, ‘i.e.’ dwelt. The right meaning is that Jeremiah was a priest, who dwelt at Anathoth. The Vulgate makes the same mistake as the A.V., but the LXX. and the Targum render it correctly. The Syriac, like the Hebr., is ambiguous, the pronoun being indeclinable, and neither language using a copula. Hitzig supports the rendering of the A.V.
2: ‘To whom the word of the LORD came’: The simple Hebr. phrase is ‘to whom the word of the Lord was’; but as the verb ‘to be’ is seldom in Hebr. a mere copula, but has a strong meaning, signifying ‘to abide, to exist’, the phrase implies that Jeremiah possessed God’s word from that time onward, not fitfully as coming and going, but constantly.
‘the thirteenth (13th) year of his reign’: According to the ordinary reckoning this would be B.C. 629, but if the Ptolemaic canon is right in putting the capture of Jerusalem in B.C. 586, it would be two years later, namely B.C. 627. According however to the Assyrian chronology it would be B.C. 608. It was the year after that in which Josiah began his reforms.
3: ‘It came also’: Literally, And it was. In the subsequent enumeration of the kings in whose time Jeremiah prophesied, two are omitted, Jehoahaz and Jeconiah, probably on account of the shortness of their reigns. The whole period contained in the verse is no less than forty (40) years and six (6) months, namely, eighteen (18) years under Josiah, two periods of eleven (11) years each under Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, and three (3)
months under each of the omitted kings Jehoahaz and Jeconiah. Few prophets were God’s witnesses for so long a period, and under such trying circumstances, as Jeremiah.
‘in the fifth (5th) month’: The capture of Jerusalem took place in tbe fourth (4th) month, but its destruction in the fifth (5th), called Ab (2nd Kng. 25:3, 8), the ninth (9th) day of which was subsequently kept as a fast-day in remembrance of this sad event (Zech. 7:3).

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah, Revised Translation, Introduction & Short Explanations. Rev. Samuel Rolles Driver, DD. Regius Prof.Hebrew & Canon of Christ Church, Oxford; etc. (1907).gs [This volume of Driver’s labor on the Book of Jeremiah in his Translation, Notes & Comments is highly recommended for the serious student of the Scriptures.]

{ “Preface: The aim of the present volume is to assist an ordinary educated reader to read the Book of Jeremiah intelligently, and to understand the gist and scope of its different parts. For this purpose I have given a revised translation of the Book, in the general style of the Authorized Version, as clear and exact as English idiom would permit; the text has been divided into paragraphs, with headings prefixed to each, summarizing the argument or narrative which follows; and a minimum of short notes has been added sometimes illustrating from other passages the terms used, more frequently explaining briefly historical or other allusions, difficult passages (so far as this was possible), technical expressions, and other things not likely to be familiar to any but special students. It is from being unacquainted with things such as these, that the writings of the prophets are, it is to be feared, found by many readers to be frequently difficult to understand, and consequently unattractive. A few words are, however, often all that is required to remove the obscurity, and render them intelligible. It is especially of importance, if the prophets’ writings are to be properly understood, that attention should be paid to the history and circumstances of the age which gave them birth. For the prophets, however far they rose above the mass of their contemporaries in spirituality and moral force, were essentially, one and all, the children of their time: they spoke out of, and to, the circumstances of their own time ; it was the aim of their life to guide, to reform, or to encourage, as the case might be, their countrymen among whom they lived; and their writings reflect throughout the impression which the movements and circumstances of their own age made upon them. I have accordingly made it my endeavour to acquaint the reader, at least in outline, with the history and circumstances of Jeremiah’s age; and to help him to understand, wherever this was possible, the bearing of his various prophecies upon the events or circumstances which called them forth. Although, however, the volume is intended primarily for readers unacquainted with Hebrew, I have not been forgetful of the needs of Hebrew students; and both the translation, and also the explanatory notes upon some of the renderings at the end of the volume, will, I hope, be found interesting and useful by them. A detailed discussion of exegetical or other difficulties (except in so far as some of them form the subject of the notes just referred to), as also of the deeper literary problems presented by the Book of Jeremiah, I have considered to lie beyond the scope of the present volume. S. R. Driver. Aug. 25, 1906.” }

Book of Jeremiah: Translation & Notes: (Chapters & Verses):
(1): Jeremiah’s Call.
(2-6): Condition & Prospects of Judah under Josiah.
(7-9:26; 10:17-25): Judah’ s Persistent Disregard of Yahweh, & Coming Doom.
(10:1-16): Israel not to Dread Gods of Heathen.
(11:1-12:6): Obedience to Yahweh Inculcated; Consequences of People’s Return to Sins of Their Forefathers; Plot of Men of Anathoth Against Jeremiah’s Life, & Prophet’s Complaint at Their Escape from Justice.
(12:7-17): Lamentation on Desolation of Judah by its Neighbours.
(13): Judah’s Unworthiness, & Approaching Doom, Taught by Symbolism of Marred Waistcloth, & Parable of Filled Wine-Jar.
(14-15): Dialogue between Prophet & Yahweh, Arising out of Drought, on (1) Future Fate of Judah, & (2) Prophets Personal Trials.
(16:1-17:18): Further Predictions of Coming Disaster.
(17:19-27): Exhortation to Observe Sabbath.
(18): Lesson from Potter. Jeremiah’s Predictions of Misfortune Lead to Plots being Formed Against His Life.
(19-20): Lesson of Broken Cruse, & its Consequences to Jeremiah.
(21): Jeremiah declares to Zedekiah Issue of Seige of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans.
(22-24): Jeremiah’s Judgement on Kings & Prophets of His Time: On Kings (22:1-23:8). On Prophets (23:9-40).
(24): Vision of Two Baskets of Figs.
(25): Babylonian Supremacy Foretold.
(26): Jeremiah, Warning People: Temple is likely to Share Fate of Shiloh, Escapes Narrowly with His Life.
(27-29): No Prospect of Speedy End of Babylonian Supremacy: Yoke of King of Babylon Not Yet to be Broken
(27). No Hope of Immediate Restoration of Sacred Vessels (28). Jeremiah’s Letter to Exiles in Babylonia, Bidding Them Dwell Contentedly in Their New Home, & Not Listen to Prophets who Deluded Them with Hopes of Speedy Return to Judah (29).
(30-33): Prophecies & Promises of Restoration.
(34): People Rebuked by Jeremiah for having Promised to Emancipate Their Hebrew Slaves, & then Refusing to Do so.
(35): Lesson from Rechabites.
(36): How Jeremiah’s Prophecies were First Committed to Writing.
(37:1-38:28a): Incidents in Jeremiah’s Life During Siege of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans.
(38:28b-39): Capture of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Favour shewn to Jeremiah Afterwards.
(40-44): Events in Jeremiah’s Life After Fall of Jerusalem: Gedaliah made Governor of Judah; Jeremiah & Other Jews Join him at Mizpah; His Assassination by Ishmael (40-41). Jeremiah Compelled by Other Jews to Accompany Them into Egypt; His Prediction of Invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar (42-43). He Rebukes the Jews Resident in Egypt forb Their Idolatries & Threatens Them with Disaster (44).
(45): Jeremiah’s Prophecy to Baruch.
(46-51): Prophecies Against Nations: On Egypt (46:2-26). On Philistines (47). On Moab (48). On Ammonites
(49:1-6). On Edom (49:7-22). On Damascus (49:23-27). On Kedar & Hazor (49:28-33). On Elam (49:34-39).
On Babylon (50:1-51:58). Message Sent by Jeremiah to Babylon in 4th Year or Zedekiah (51:59-64).
(52): Capture of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Exile of its Inhabitants.

Chronological Table: 100 Years: B.C. 639-537:
‘Josiah’s’ Accession-Year (639) & His 1st ‘Full’ Year (638). ‘Jehoahaz’ & ‘Jehoiakim’ Reign (608). Jehoiakim Tributary to Nebuchadnezzar (c. 600-598). Jehoiachin Reign (597). Zedekiah’s Accession-Year (597). Capture of Babylon by Cyrus (538). Return of Exiles under Zerubbabel (537).

Driver’s Summary & Outline of Jeremiah: (Chapters & Verses):

(1): Jeremiah’s call, in Josiah’s thirteenth year (B.C. 626). (*V. 2, fixing a specific date, forms the title to ch. 1. V. 3 must be an addition by a later hand, intended to extend the terms of v. 2, –though with disregard of prophecies belonging to the period between the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah (B.C. 626) and the end of his reign (B.C. 608),– so as to include all the prophecies delivered by Jeremiah down to the time of the fall of Jerusalem, B.C. 586 (2nd Kings 25:8, 11).) The vision of Jeremiah’s call to be a prophet of Yahweh. A vision of reassurance for the prophet: Yahweh’s word, though the time may seem long, will not fail of its fulfilment. A vision showing that the judgement will break upon Judah from the north. Jeremiah is encouraged to deliver his message fearlessly, in spite of the opposition which he will provoke by it.

(2-6): The condition and prospects of Judah under Josiah, probably during the years between the prophets call (B.C. 626) and shortly after Josiah’s reformation (B.C. 620). (These chapters contain presumably Jeremiah’s first prophetical discourses, as they were reproduced in a written form in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 603). We learn, namely, from ch. 36, that none of Jeremiah’s prophecies were committed to writing till the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 604); and also that when, in the following year, the king burnt the roll, and it was rewritten by Jeremiah, it was rewritten ‘with additions’ (36:32). Although, therefore, these chapters no doubt, as a whole, reproduce the discourses delivered between 626 and c. 620, it is quite possible that they do not throughout reproduce them ‘verbatim’, but that they are coloured in parts by allusions to the course of subsequent events.)
(1): (2:1-4:4). (Probably shortly after B.C. 626.) The Verdict on Israel’s History. The devotion and happiness of Israel’s youth. Israel’s ingratitude and defection. The bitter consequences of Israel’s unfaithfulness. Israel’s inveterate propensity to idolatry. These gods will give no help in time of need. Israel’s persistent refusal to listen to her prophets. Judah compared to a faithless wife, whose promises of amendment are but as empty words. Judah contrasted unfavourably with Israel. (Vv. 6-18 (in which Judah and Israel are ‘contrasted’) seem to introduce a thought foreign both to 2:1-3:5, and to 3:19-4:4; and have probably been introduced here from a different context.) (* ‘Judah’: So Sept. The Heb. text has, ‘her faithless sister Judah’, which suggests an incorrect sense, as the pronoun can only naturally be understood of the subject in v. 9, which, however, is in fact not Israel, but Judah.) An offer of pardon and restoration, addressed to Israel. The future glory of Jerusalem, in which Judah, as well as Israel, is ultimately to share. How Yahweh’s gracious purpose towards His people had been frustrated (the sequel to 3:1-5). The prophet pictures Judah returning in penitence to Yahweh. Yahweh’s reply to Judah’s words: if Judah is truly penitent, the heathen will be brought to own Yahweh as their God. Let Judah begin a new life, before it is too late.
(2): (4:5-6:30). The approaching judgement. The foe is at the door; and Judah’s heedlessness and sin are working out their natural consequences. (The prominence in this prophecy of the foe from the north (cf. 4:6; 6:1, 22) makes it probable that it is somewhat later than 2:1-4:5, in which no such specific danger is referred to. The foe whom Jeremiah had in mind when he originally delivered the prophecy was in all probability the Scythians, a wild and fierce people, whose proper home was on the north of the Crimea, but who often made predatory incursions into distant parts, and who actually, Herodotus tells us (i. 105-8) overran Western Asia at about 625 B.C., and advanced through Palestine as far as Ashkelon, intending to invade Egypt. When, however, the prophecy was committed to writing, and, as it were, re-edited, in 604 (see above, p. 5), the descriptions were probably intended to refer to the Chaldaeans, who in the interval had become Judah’s most formidable enemy, the phraseology being possibly modified in parts, so as to be more suitable: the ‘lion’ and ‘destroyer of nations’ in 6:7, for instance, are terms more applicable to an individual leader like Nebuchadnezzar than to a horde.) A foe from the north is on his way, and will ere long fill the country with dismay. Description of the enemy’s approach. The prophet, speaking in the people’s name, describes the terror which thrills through him at the prospect of war. The reason of these woes. The prophet’s vision of the desolation about to fall upon Judah. (*’formless and empty’: The two words found in Gen. 1:2: cf. Isa. 34:11 ‘and he shall stretch over it (Edom) the line of formlessness, and the plummet of emptiness.’) Judah’s doom is irrevocable; no arts or blandishments will avail to divert the invader. Gladly would Yahweh have pardoned, had the nation shown itself worthy of forgiveness; but all, high and low alike, are corrupt. Let the appointed ministers of judgement, then, complete their work. The moral cause of the coming disaster; prophet and priest unite in the furtherance of evil. Description of the danger as drawing nearer. The completeness of the ruin. The cause in the corruption of the people. In vain has Israel been warned beforehand by its prophets. Renewed description of the invader (cf. v. 5:15-17). Jeremiah’s report on the character of the people; all his efforts to refine them had been in vain. (*’separated’: A fig. description of the vain efforts made by the prophet to remove the evil elements from his people. In refining, the alloy containing the gold or silver is mixed with lead, and fused in a furnace on a vessel of earth or bone-ash: a current of air is turned upon the molten mass (not upon the ‘fire’); the lead then oxidizes, and acting as a flux, carries away the alloy, leaving the gold or silver pure (J. Napier, ‘The Ancient Workers in Metal’, 1856, pp. 20, 23). In the case here imagined by the prophet, so inextricably is the alloy mixed with the silver, that, though the bellows blow, and the lead is oxidized in the heat, no purification is effected: only impure silver remains.)

(7-10): (except 10:1-16): (A group of prophecies belonging probably to the early years (B.C. 608-5) of Jehoiakim’s reign.)
(1): (7:1-28). Not the presence of Yahweh’s Temple in Judah, but amendment of life and obedience to Yahweh’s moral commands, is the condition of His favour and protection. (The occasion seems to be the same as that of 26:1-9, which is assigned (v. 1 ) to the ‘beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim’ (B.C. 608-7).) Yahweh threatens to do to His temple in Jerusalem as He did formerly to His Temple at Shiloh. Yahweh will accept no intercession on behalf of His people; for it is wholly given to idolatry. Yahweh has demanded of His people not sacrifice, but loyalty to Himself, and obedience to His moral commands. But to these demands Israel has never responded. (*The words must be supposed to be spoken with irony and contempt. The burnt-offering was not eaten by the worshipper, but only parts of the peace-offering. Yahweh however cares so little for either, as offered by these idolatrous Israelites, that they may, if they please, eat both together; they are nothing really sacred, but only ‘flesh.’) (* When Jeremiah wrote, the priestly parts of the Pent. had in all probability not yet been combined with the rest of the Pentateuch, and the reference here is to the latter. Sacrifices are indeed enjoined in JE (Ex. 23:14-19), and Deuteronomy: but little stress is laid upon them; and the ‘promises’ (as here, ‘in order that it may be well with you’) are annexed more generally to loyalty to Yahweh and the refusal to follow after other gods. See Ex. 15:26; 19:5, 6; 23:21 ff.; Deut. 28:1,2; and cf. Deut. 4:40, v. 33 (which particularly resembles v. 23’b’ here), 6:3, 18; also 10:12-13.) Nor will the people respond to them now.
(2): (7:29-8:3). Let the nation mourn over the idolatry which has caused Yahweh to cast off His people. A terrible judgement will overtake the people. Even the bones of the buried Israelites will suffer indignities: their graves will be opened and desecrated by the enemy.
(3): (8:4-17). Judah’s utter refusal to repent and return to Yahweh. (*Or, ‘hath made’ (it) ‘of falsehood’. The priests gave ‘törah’, or ‘direction,’ on cases. The retribution of ceremonial or other usage submitted to them (Deut. 24:8 [where ‘teach’ means ‘direct how to act’], Hag. 2:11-13 [render in v. 11 ‘Ask, now, ‘direction’ of the priests’]); and they declare here that they possess the legitimate traditional body of directions, or ‘law,’ respecting religious practice (cf. 2:8, 18:18). Jeremiah replies that the scribes have falsified this body of directions, –exactly in what way we do not know: perhaps by claiming to have Yahweh’s sanction for practices or ceremonial usages, of which in reality He did not approve.) which will fall upon them. Another description of the approach of the invader from the north.
(4): (8:18-9:22; 10:17-25). Jeremiah bewails the desperate condition and prospects of his country. The corruption of society in Judah. The judgement upon this corruption. The desolation destined shortly to come upon Judah. The bitter consequences of Judah’s abandonment of Yahweh. Let the mourning women come, and chant a dirge over Judah’s fall. (9:23-26): (Two short prophetic utterances, in no apparent connexion with the context, and probably (like 3:6-18) misplaced.) Only the right knowledge of Yahweh, and of His will for men, will profit a man. If Judah has only the circumcision of the flesh, it will be treated by Yahweh as no better than other nations. (10:1-16): No need to dread the gods of the heathen. (This section (10:1-16) interrupts the connexion (for 10:17-25 carries on the train of thought of 9:1-22); and in all probability is the work not of Jeremiah himself, but of some later prophet, probably of one living in the latter part of the Babylonian captivity, when the exiles were in danger of being overawed by the elaborate idol-worship carried on by the Babylonians around them. Cf. the similar descriptions and arguments of the second Isaiah, Is. 40:19-22; 41:7, 29; 44:9-20; 44:5-7.) (9:26-10:6): Let Israel not be tempted to stand in awe of the idols of the heathen. An idol is a thing of nought: it is Yahweh who made heaven and earth. (10:17-25): (Continuation of 9:22). The prophet sees in spirit the capital invested by the foe, and bids the inhabitants prepare to depart into exile. Jeremiah, speaking in the name of the people, prays for a mitigation of the judgement.

(11:1-12:6): (11:1-8). (The date is apparently shortly after the discovery of Deuteronomy in Josiah’s 18th year (B.C. 621).) Jeremiah is instructed to exhort the people to live in accordance with the Deuteronomic Law. Jeremiah instructed again to exhort the people to like effect, and to remind them of the consequences of disobedience. (11:9-17). (This part of the chapter belongs probably to the reign of Jehoiakim, when it had become clear (v. 10) that Josiah’s reformation had led to no lasting results.) The present generation has returned to the sins of their forefathers, and the prophet therefore reaffirms against them the sentence of judgement. (* Viz. after the reformation (2nd Kings 23), following the discovery of the ‘Book of the Law’ (i.e. the discourses of Deuteronomy) in Josiah’s eighteenth year, B.C. 621 (2nd Kings 22).) Yahweh will accept no intercession on behalf of His people; and hypocritical service will not avail to avert the doom. (11:18-12:6) Jeremiah’s discovery of a plot formed against his life by the men of his native place, Anathoth; and the judgement pronounced by him upon them in consequence. Jeremiah is surprised at the prosperity enjoyed by the wicked; and demands upon the conspirators summary vengeance. His impatience is rebuked: he may have in the future still greater trials to endure.

(12:7-17): (The prophecy dates probably from c. 598 B.C., when, after Jehoiakim’s revolt from Nebuchadnezzar, the territory of Judah was overrun by bands of Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites (2nd Kings 24:1,2).) A lamentation on the desolation of Judah by its evil-disposed neighbours (v. 14). (The speaker is Yahweh; and the sorrow and reluctance with which He gives up His heritage are pathetically depicted.) Judah’s evil-disposed neighbours will be taken into exile; but if they adopt from the heart Judah’s religion, they mll be restored to their own lands.

(13): (Vv. 18,19 belong clearly to the reign of Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), the rest of the chapter dates, probably, from that of Jehoiakim (B.C. 608-597).) Jeremiah performs a symbolical act, illustrating the corrupt condition of the people, and its consequences. Explanation of the symbolical act. A parable declaring the disaster about to fall upon Judah. Take this message to heart betimes. A lamentation on the approaching fate of Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), and his Queen-mother, Nehushta. The prophet laments the disaster which the sins of Jerusalem are bringing upon her.

(14-15): A dialogue between the prophet and Yahweh, arising out of a drought in Judah. The distress of men and animals occasioned by the drought. The prophet, interpreting the drought as a sign of Yahweh’s anger, utters a confession and supplication in the name of his people. Yahweh’s reply: He will accept no intercession on behalf of the people. Jeremiah endeavours to excuse the people, laying the blame upon their prophets. Yahweh replies again: the prophets to whom Jeremiah refers have spoken lies in His name: and the doom of Jerusalem will not be deferred. Jeremiah, in more beseeching tones, renews his supplication and confession in the name of his people. The prophet’s intercession is rejected even more decisively than before: the fate of Judah is sealed. Jeremiah laments the hard fate which has made him, through the message of evil which he bears, an object of ill-will to all men. Yahweh reassures him: The time will come when his enemies, crushed by the Chaldaean power, and with exile imminent before them, will come to implore his help. Jeremiah entreats Yahweh to interpose on his behalf: why should he be persecuted for having delivered his message faithfully? Yahweh’s final reply. Jeremiah, if he desires happiness and success, must turn back from following the false path of distrust and despair.

(16:1-17:18): Further predictions of the coming disaster; Jeremiah is not to be the father of a family: for a terrible end will ere long overtake the families of Judah. He is to take no part in either the domestic sorrows or the domestic joys of his people: for a time is coming in which there will be no place for either. The reason for these threatened judgements is the people’s idolatry. A promise of ultimate restoration. (The two following verses recur (with slight verbal differences) in 23:7,8, where they form a suitable close to the preceding prophecy. It is hardly possible that they can have originally stood here at all; for the context, on both sides, relates to Judah’s approaching exile, and vv. 16-18 continue the line of thought of vv. 10-13.) The fate which ere long will overtake the people. (Continuation of w. 10-13.) Yahweh is the prophet’s hope and strength; and the time will come when He will be recognized, even by the heathen, as the true God. Meanwhile Judah will be taught by Yahweh, who it is that they have rejected. Judah’s sin is indelible; and will be followed by condign punishment. It is useless to trust in man: Yahweh, to those who put their trust in Him and act righteously (vv. 9-11), is the sole source of strength in the hour of trouble. The prophet prays to be delivered from those who taunt and persecute him.

(17:19-27): An exhortation to observe the Sabbath.

(18): A lesson from the potter. As the potter, if the need arises, can change the vessel that he is making into another, so can Yahweh deal with His people: if it repents, He can withdraw His threats; if it does evil, He can revoke His promises. Let Judah, then, repent, in order that the threatened doom may be averted. But Judah refuses to repent; and so the judgement originally pronounced is re-affirmed. The people, resenting this unwelcome conclusion of the prophet’s, propose to form plots against his life. Jeremiah’s prayer that their plots against him may be frustrated.

(19-20): The lesson of the broken cruse, and its consequences. (The date, to judge from the distinctness with which Babylon is mentioned (20:4-6), will be after Nebuchadnezzar’s victory at Carchemish (see on 25:1), though probably still in the reign of Jehoiakim, i.e. between 605 and 597 B.C.) Jeremiah, prophesying in the Valley of the son of Hinnom, teaches, by an effective symbolism, that the disaster, impending upon the nation, will be final and irretrievable. Jeremiah repeats in the court of the Temple the substance of what he had said in the Valley of the son of Hinnom. Pashhur, the superintendent of the Temple, has Jeremiah thrown into the stocks, on account of his predictions of disaster. After his release, Jeremiah again emphatically repeats his predictions, pointing them in particular against Pashhur himself. (*Pashhur and his friends represented a policy opposed to that of Jeremiah: they believed that fear of the Chaldaeans was groundless, and that with the help of Egypt Judah would be able to resist them successfully. The name here given to him is intended to describe partly the consternation of which he will be the centre, partly the consternation which he will experience himself, when the fatal consequences of his policy have become apparent to all in the fall of the city, and exile of the nation, at the hands of the Chaldaeans.) Jeremiah complains bitterly of his lot: he could not but give utterance to the Divine word burning within him, yet it had brought him nothing but hostility and misrepresentation. Nevertheless, he is sustained and encouraged by the conviction that Yahweh is with him, and will in the end grant him justice against his persecutors. A renewed outburst of grief and despair, which now wring from him the wish that he had never been born (cf. Job 3).

(21): Zedekiah, shortly after the Chaldaeans began to besiege Jerusalem (B.C. 588), inquires of Jeremiah respecting the issue of the siege. Jeremiah’s reply: the city will be delivered into the hands of the Chaldaeans. The only hope of safety is to submit to the Chaldaeans. (*The policy here inculcated by Jeremiah was due ultimately (cf. ch. 25 and the introduction to ch. 46) to his conviction of the role which the Chaldaeans were destined to play in history; but it seemed to many of his fellow-countrymen to be unpatriotic, and led shortly afterwards, indirectly, to his arrest and imprisonment (37:13 ff.), and to a demand for his death (38:2, 4 ff.).) A warning addressed to the royal house. Only by the strict observance of justice can the coming doom be averted. (Apparently a misplaced fragment. V. 12 is parallel in general thought to 22:3, 5, but is out of connexion with either 21:1-10 or 21:13-14.) Yahweh is against Jerusalem, and will punish her inhabitants for their wrong-doing. (A poetical epilogue to vv. 1-10.)

(22-23): Jeremiah’s judgement on the kings and prophets of his time.
(1) (22:1-23:8). The kings. Exhortation to the king and princes to do justice in the land (cf. 2nd Sam. 8:15, 1st Kings 10:9), if they desire its continued prosperity. A lament on the approaching fall of the house of David. Jehoahaz (2nd Kings 23:31-35), who succeeded Josiah, but after a reign of three months (B.C. 608) was taken captive by Pharaoh Necoh, and carried into Egypt, where he died. Jehoiakim (2nd Kings 23:36-24:7: B.C. 608-597), whose selfish and oppressive luxury is contrasted bitterly with the just rule of his father Josiah. Jehoiachin (2nd Kings 24:8-16; 25:27-30), who, after a reign of three months, was carried captive to Babylon, with the flower of the nation, by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 597). A denunciation of the unworthy rulers of Judah, and promise that Yahweh will raise up faithful rulers in their place. A promise of the ideal King, or ‘Messiah.’ Those now in exile will have a share in these promised blessings; and the memory of their deliverance will eclipse that of the Exodus from Egypt.
(2) (23:9-40). The prophets. The judgement to come upon both prophet and priest. Concerning the prophets. The prophets of Jerusalem are worse than were formerly the prophets of Samaria. A warning not to listen to their delusive promises of peace: Yahweh has not sent them. Yahweh’s purpose of judgement upon the wicked. (vv. 19-20 recur, with unimportant differences, in 30:23,24; and it is doubtful if they are here in their original place. If they are, they will be intended as an announcement of Yahweh’s real purpose, as contrasted with those made by the false prophets, v. 17. vv. 21-22 carry on the thought of vv. 16-18.) Yahweh sees and knows what these prophets do; and will punish them accordingly. The word massä (‘oracle,’ ‘burden’), which was applied mockingly to the prophecies of the true prophets, to be no more used in Judah. (To understand the following paragraph, it is necessary to remember the double sense of the Heb. ‘massä’. ‘Massä’ means something ‘lifted’ or ‘taken up’, i.e. either literally a burden, or fig. something ‘taken up’ upon the lips, a ‘solemn utterance’, or ‘oracle’ (see IRVm. of 2nd Kings 9:26 [where ‘uttered’ is lit. ‘took up’]. Is. 13:1; 15:1, etc.). It seems that on account of Jeremiah’s prophecies being so constantly of coming disaster, this term was applied to them derisively in the sense of ‘burden’, and hence it is forbidden to be in future used in Judah: people are not to ask a prophet, ‘What ‘massä’ have you? ‘ but ‘What hath Yahweh answered’? or ‘What hath Yahweh said?’ At the same time Yahweh retorts the people’s word upon themselves by saying, ‘Not My words, but you yourselves, are the “burden”; and I will no longer be burdened with you; I will cast you from Me!’)

(24): The different characters and destinies of the Jews taken into exile with Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), and of those remaining in the city with Zedekiah, as symbolized by two baskets of figs, seen by Jeremiah in a vision. (*In explanation of the contrast here drawn between the two sections of the people, see the Introduction, p. xxx Ezekiel agrees with Jeremiah in judging Zedekiah and the Jews left with him in Jerusalem unfavourably (ch. 12; 17:1-21; 21:25-27; ch. 22), and in fixing his hopes for the future upon the exiles with Jehoiachin (11:17-21; 20:37, 38).)

(25): The Babylonian supremacy foretold. (Jeremiah, in accordance with the view to which he was led by the defeat of the Egyptians at Carchemish, B.C. 605 (see the Introduction to ch. 46), that the Chaldaeans were destined to become the rulers of Western Asia, declares here, first that Judah and the surrounding nations (vv. 1-14) will be subject to them for seventy years (70), and afterwards that the then known world generally (vv. 15-38) will fall into their hands.) How the people had refused to listen to the warnings of the prophets. Judah, therefore, not less than the neighbouring countries, will be laid waste, by the Chaldaeans, and be subject to them for seventy years (70). (*vv. 12-14, or, in any case, vv. 13-14, cannot have formed part of the original prophecy of Jeremiah delivered in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, but must have been added when the book of Jeremiah was completed, and stood substantially in its present form. For (1) vv. 15, 16 (notice ‘For’) give the reason, not for vv. 12-14 (the punishment, after seventy years, of Babylon), but for v. 11 (the subjugation of Judah and surrounding nations to Babylon); and (2) the terms of v. 13 presuppose the completion of Jeremiah’s book, and in particular the inclusion in it of the prophecy against Babylon in 50:1-51:58, which, in all probability, is not by Jeremiah at all, and, even if it is, was certainly not incorporated in the book of his prophecies till long after B.C. 604 (the short prophecy against Babylon in 51:59-64 is assigned by its title to the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah, B.C. 593). V. 12 is based most probably upon 29:10, and (at the end) upon 51:26, 62; v. 13 refers expressly to the prophecies against the nations contained in chaps, 46-51, and esp. to chaps. 50-51; v. 14 is based upon xxvii. 27:7’b’, and 50:29, 51:24. Cf. Davidson, in Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’, ii. p. 574.) Jeremiah (in a vision) gives the cup of Yahweh’s fury to the nations to drink. A figurative and hyperbolical description of what Yahweh will accomplish in the world by the agency of the Chaldaeans. Let kings and nobles wail over the doom that is about to fall upon them.

(26): Jeremiah, warning the people publicly that, unless they mend their ways, the Temple will share the same fate which of old befel the sanctuary of Shiloh, escapes narrowly with his life. (The occasion is generally considered to be the same as that which forms the subject of ch. 7, ch. 7 reporting more fully what Jeremiah said, and this chapter describing at length what is not mentioned in ch. 7, the personal consequences to Jeremiah himself. V. 1 fixes the date to B.C. 608, or shortly after.) The warning addressed by Jeremiah to the people. Jeremiah is attacked on account of what he had said by the priests and prophets opposed to him. He is saved from death only by the intervention of the princes and the people, who endorse his plea that he has simply spoken as Yahweh had commanded him. Certain elders also recall the very different treatment accorded a century before to Micah, when he announced the coming destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. Jeremiah thus escapes with his life; but Uriah, a prophet like-minded with him, falls under the displeasure of the king, and is put to death.

(27-29): (Jeremiah, on three separate occasions, insists that there is no prospect of a speedy deliverance from the yoke of the king of Babylon, or of a speedy return of the sacred vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had carried away with Jehoiachin in 597 to Babylon.)
(1) (27). The yoke of the king of Babylon not yet to be broken. (In the fourth (4th) year (see 28:1) of Zedekiah (B.C. 593), the kings of Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, Tyre, and Zidon, having invited Zedekiah to join them in revolting from Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah sends to warn them of the futility of making any such attempt.) The warning sent to the five kings. Jeremiah addresses a similar teaming to Zedekiah. The prophets who promise the speedy restoration of the sacred vessels delude the people with false hopes: even the vessels still left in Jerusalem will also be carried away, and restored only in a still undetermined future.
(2) (28). No hope of a speedy restoration of the sacred vessels. Hananiah, one of the prophets alluded to in ch. 27, announces that within two years the yoke of the Chaldaeans will be broken: the sacred vessels will then be restored, and the exiled Jews will return. (*For the restoration of various gold and silver bowls, etc., by Cyrus in 536, see Ezr. 1:7-11. The pillars, the brasen sea, and the bases (v. 19), were never restored, for these, being too heavy to be transported entire to Babylon, were broken up by the Chaldaeans before being removed from Jerusalem (52:17).) Jeremiah meets Hananiah’s promises with an emphatic contradiction.
(3) (29). The letter sent by Jeremiah to the exiles in Babylonia, exhorting them to settle down where they are, and not to listen to the prophets who promise them a speedy return to Judah. Settle down contentedly in your new home. Give no heed to the prophets who promise a speedy return to Judah. For no restoration will take place till the seventy (70) years of Babylonian domination are ended, when those now in exile with Jehoiachin will turn to Yahweh, and He will bring them back (cf. 24:5-7). For Zedekiah and the Jews left with him in Jerusalem are beyond hope of amendment, so that they will go into exile and remain there permanently (cf. 24:8-10). (*Vv. 16-20 are not in the Sept., and may not have formed part of Jeremiah’s original letter. The digression on the fate of the Jews in Jerusalem seems out of place in a letter of advice written to the exiles in Babylonia; and it is possible that, in the recension of his letter which found its place in the Heb. text of his book, it was not reproduced with literal exactness, but expanded in parts with additions taking account of the Jews in Jerusalem as well as of those already in exile.) But the false prophets in Babylonia, who fill you with vain hopes of restoration, will meet with an untimely end. (*This verse stands here in Lucian’s text of the Sept. (which contains vv. 16-20): in the ordinary text of the Sept. (which is without w. 16-20), also, it of course stands immediately before v. 21. In the Heb. text it stands before v. 16, where it yields no sense agreeable to the context (for it cannot give a reason for anything contained either in vv. 10-14 or In vv. 16-19); standing before vv. 21-23, it gives the reason why the exiles are to listen to what is said in these verses.) Shemaiah, one of the false prophets in Babylonia, displeased by this letter of Jeremiah’s, writes to Jerusalem, with the view of procuring the prophet’s arrest.

(30-33): Prophecies and promises of restoration.
(1) (30). Judah, though she has suffered greatly for her sins, will nevertheless be restored; her exiles will return, and Jerusalem will be rebuilt. A day of judgement is coming upon the world, out of which, however, Israel will be delivered. Israel, for her sins, has suffered greatly: ruin and exile have fallen upon her: but now Yahweh will heal her wounds, and she will be freed from her oppressors. The exiles will return, Jerusalem will be rebuilt, and again enjoy prosperity, under the rule of an independent prince of David’s line. The approach of the judgement upon the wicked.
(2) (31). A promise of restoration to the Israelites of the northern kingdom. The prophecy of the New Covenant. The territory of Ephraim to be again re-peopled and cultivated. Ephraim’s happy return from exile. The prophet hears in imagination Rachel, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, bewailing from her grave near Ramah the exile of her sons: but Yahweh bids her stay her grief; there is still hope for her sons’ return. The ground of this hope is Ephraim’s penitence, which enables Yahweh to welcome his prodigal home with affection. Let exiled Ephraim, then, bethink herself of her journey homewards. Judah, also, will be restored, as well as Ephraim. Yahweh will then be watchful over His restored people; and will so transform the constitution of society that, whereas now the children suffer for their fathers’ sins, then the bitter consequences of sin will be confined to the sinner. The prophecy of the New Covenant. Israel, in the ideal future, is to be ruled, not by a system of observances imposed from without, but by a law written in the heart, a principle operative from within, filling all with the knowledge of Yahweh, and prompting all to ready and perfect obedience. Two solemn promises of the national permanence of Israel. Jerusalem will be rebuilt, even beyond its former limits, and be holy to Yahweh.
(3) (32). Jeremiah, in full confidence of his people’s restoration, redeems some land belonging to his family at Anathoth. (In the second year of the siege of Jerusalem (B.C. 587), Jeremiah’s cousin comes to him, offering him the redemption of some land belonging to him at Anathoth. Jeremiah, seeing in this a divine sign, or omen, that, though the exile of the nation was imminent, the Jews would still once again possess the soil of Benjamin and Judah, redeems the land, and takes special precautions to ensure the preservation of the title-deeds, vv. 1-15. In vv. 16-25 Jeremiah records how his heart afterwards misgave him and in vv. 26-44 how he was reassured by Yahweh.) Jeremiah redeems the land belonging to his cousin at Anathoth. Appearances were so strongly against such hopes, that Jeremiah’s heart misgave him; and he casts himself upon Yahweh in prayer. (*The double deed may perhaps be explained from a BabyIonian custom. Contracts stamped upon clay tablets have been found, namely, in Babylonia, enclosed in an envelope of clay, on the outside of which an exact duplicate of the contract was impressod (see an illustration in Maspero, ‘The Dawn of Civilization’, p. 732): if in course of time any disagreement arose, and it was suspected that the outside text had been tampered with, the envelope was broken in the presence of witnesses to see if the inside text agreed with it or not. Earthen jars containing such duplicate contracts have been excavated at Nippur (Peters, Nippur, ii. 198).) Appearances were so strongly against such hopes, that Jeremiah’s heart misgave him; and he casts himself upon Yahweh in prayer. Yahweh’s reply. Jerusalem has indeed abundantly merited the judgement now breaking upon it. Nevertheless, Yahweh will, as He has promised, bring back His people from their exile, and give them a new heart, to serve and please Him continually.
(4) (33). Further promises of future restoration. The land now desolate will then be re-inhabited; and the signs of joy and life will be manifest everywhere in it. A promise of the ideal king or ‘Messiah,’ and of the perpetual permanence both of the Davidic dynasty, and of the Levitical priesthood. (Vv. 14-15 are repeated, with slight variations, from 23:5-6. The entire section, vv. 14-26, is not in the Sept.) A renewed promise of the permanence of the Davidic dynasty, and the Levitical priesthood. Yahweh will never cast off His people, or bring to an end the rule of the seed of David.

(34): (Incidents during the siege of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans (B.C. 588-6).)
(1) Jeremiah declares to Zedekiah the issue of the siege, and the king’s own future fate.
(2) The people, when the siege began, had sworn solemnly to obey the law, and emancipate their Hebrew slaves, but had afterwards, when the siege was temporarily raised, disowned the obligation. Jeremiah rebukes them for their disrespect towards Yahweh, and breach of faith. Yahweh will emancipate them from His own service and protection unto destruction; and the Chaldaeans will ere long return, and take the city.

(35): Jeremiah and the Rechabites. (Towards the close of the reign of Jehoiakim, in consequence of the territory of Judah being overrun by marauding bands of Chaldaeans, Syrians, and others, the family of the Rechabites, who had hitherto lived a nomad life in tents, took refuge in Jerusalem; and Jeremiah, from the example of their staunch adherence to the precepts of their ancestor, points a lesson for his own countrymen.) (*The Rechabites were a subdivision of the Kenites (1st Chron. 2:55), a nomad tribe early associated with Israel, settled afterwords in the S. of Judah (Jud. 1:16, 1st Sam. 15:6, cf. 27:10).)

(36): (How Jeremiah’s prophecies were first committed to writing.) In the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 604), Jeremiah is commanded to write down all the prophecies which had been uttered by him during the past twenty-three (23) years. He dictates them accordingly to Baruch, and directs him to read them publicly in the Temple. In the following year Baruch reads the roll in the Temple. Some of the princes, hearing of its contents, have it read again to them selves, and resolve then to inform Jehoiakim about it. (*Heb. ‘the scribe’. The king’s ‘scribe,’ or, as we should say, ‘secretary’ (1st Kings 4:3 ‘al’., RVm.), was an important minister of state: see 1st Kings 4:3; 2nd Kings 12:10, Isa. 37:2. It was the secretary, Shaphan, here mentioned, who, 18 years before, brought and read Deuteronomy to Josiah, after it had been discovered by the high priest, Hilkiah, in the Temple: see 2nd Kings 23:3, 8, 9-11, 12, 14. Gemariah was the brother of Ahikam, who had befriended Jeremiah a few years previously (26:24).) Jehoiakim orders the roll to be brought and read before him. Enraged by its contents, he cuts it in pieces, and burns it in the fire. Jeremiah is commanded to rewrite the roll of his prophecies; and to announce to Jehoiakim the failure of his dynasty and his own ignominious death. The roll, with many additions, is rewritten by Baruch at Jeremiah’s dictation.

(37-38:28’a’): (The personal history of Jeremiah during the siege of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans (B.C. 588-6): his arrest on a charge of deserting to the enemy; his confinement, first in a dungeon in the house of Jonathan, the king’s secretary, then in the guard-court, after that, in an underground cistern, and lastly in the guard-court again; and his interviews with Zedekiah.) Introductory note on the accession and policy of Zedekiah (B.C. 597-586). The Chaldaeans being obliged to raise the siege, Jeremiah, in reply to an enquiry addressed to him by the king, declares that they will soon return and take the city. He is arrested as a deserter; and thrown into a dungeon in the house of Jonathan, the king’s secretary. Jeremiah tells Zedekiah that he will fall into the hands of the Chaldaeans. He is removed from the dungeon, and placed in honourable confinement in the guard-court, adjoining the royal palace. (*Shaphan, who was ‘secretary’ 17 years before, under Jehoiachin (36:10), was thus no longer in office. If he was not dead, he may have been carried off to Babylon with Jehoiachin and the other ministers in 597 (24:1).) Jeremiah is accused before Zedekiah of high treason; and cast into a disused underground cistern, in the house of one of the royal princes. Ebed-melech, a foreign eunuch employed in the palace, obtains permission from Zedekiah to remove Jeremiah from the cistern. Zedekiah again consults Jeremiah secretly; and is again told by him that his only hope of safety is to surrender Jerusalem to the Chaldaeans. Zedekiah enjoins Jeremiah not to say anything to the princes about the conversation which they had had together.

(38:28’b’-39:3, 14): The favour shown to Jeremiah by the Chaldaeans after the capture of Jerusalem. He is entrusted to the care of Gedaliah, son of his friend Ahikam (26:24), and allowed to retire to his own home. (The narrative is interrupted by particulars respecting the capture of the city, and incidents following it (39:1-2, 4-13: see the notes on vv. 1 and 4). (*Vv. 1-2 interrupt the connexion, –not only (in v. 1) going back to the beginning of the siege, but being inserted in the middle of a sentence,– in a manner which shows that they must originally have been a marginal gloss on the words ‘Jerusalem was taken,’ added to explain how this came about. In substance the verses are an abridgement of 2nd Kings 25:l-3’a’, 4’a’ (–Jer. 52:4-6’a’, 7’a’).) (*Vv. 4-13 are omitted in the Sept., probably rightly. Vv. 4-10, containing particulars of what happened after the capture of the city, –in fact (see 2nd Kings 25:8 –Jer. 52:12) a month afterwards,– are abridged from 2nd Kings 25:4 (second and following clauses), 5-7, 9-12, in the purer and more original text preserved in Jer. 52:7, 8-11, 13-16. The verses were probably (like vv. 1,2) inserted where they now stand, long after the rest of the narrative was completed. It is doubtful also whether vv. 11-13 form part of the original narrative here: not only are they also absent in the Sept., but v. 11 and v. 13 both attach badly to v. 3; Nebuzaradan, the principal officer in vv.11, 13, is not mentioned at all in v. 3, and Jer. 52:12 shows that he did not come to Jerusalem till a month after the city had been taken. What we expect to find after 38:28 is an account of what happened to Jeremiah after the capture of Jerusalem; and this is contained in 28:6; 39:3, 14.) (*Gedaliah was thus son of the Ahikam, who, some twenty (20) years before (26:24), had been instrumental in saving Jeremiah’s life.) Jeremiah, in Yahweh’s name, promises safety to Ebed-melech, who had rescued him from the cistern (38:7-13), in the day when Jerusalem is taken. (Vv. 15-18 form evidently a supplement to ch. 38. They relate to a period anterior in date to the capture of Jerusalem (39:1-14), while Jeremiah was confined in the guard-court (38:13, 28).)

(40-44): (Events in Jeremiah’s life after the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans. The appointment of Gedaliah as governor of Judah; his murder by Ishmael; Johanan and the other Jews with him oblige Jeremiah to migrate with them into Egypt.) Jeremiah is released by Nebuzaradan, and allowed to go where he pleases. He joins Gedaliah (whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor of Judah) at Mizpah. Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, a member of the royal family, Johanan, the son of Kareah, and other Jews (including many who had been in exile), join Gedaliah at Mizpah. Johanan warns Gedaliah against Ishmael. Gedaliah is murdered in Mizpah by Ishmael. Seventy (70) men, journeying to Mizpah, are murdered by him likewise. Ishmael, taking forcibly with him the other refugees, starts to cross over to the Ammonites, but is overtaken by Johanan at Gibeon, and obliged to flee with the loss of his captives. Johanan and his companions, with the refugees recovered from Ishmael, withdraw to Bethlehem, intending eventually to find a home in Egypt. Johanan and the people with him consult Jeremiah, promising faithfully to do whatever he may tell them. Jeremiah, in Yahweh’ s name, earnestly dissuades them from migrating into Egypt, declaring that, if they do so, destruction will assuredly overtake them. Johanan and his companions refuse to listen to Jeremiah’s words; and proceed to Egypt, taking both Jeremiah and Baruch with them. Upon the arrival of the refugees at the border-city of Tahpanhes (Daphnae), Jeremiah, before the royal palace, foretells the future conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah rebukes the Jews resident in Egypt for continuing the idolatries practised by their forefathers, which had been the cause of Jerusalem’s ruin. The remnant of Judah, who have taken refuge in Egypt, will perish there; at most a mere handful will ever return to Judah. The Jews who worshipped the queen of heaven reply that, as long as they had worshipped her, prosperity had attended them, but it had now ceased. Their prosperity had ceased, Jeremiah replies, not because they had neglected the queen of heaven, but because of Yahweh’s anger with them for worshipping her at all. Jeremiah repeats his previous declaration that of the remnant who have taken refuge in Egypt, all but a mere handful will perish there. And points to the approaching fall of Pharaoh Hophra, as a sign witnessing to the truth of his prediction. (*Pharaoh Hophra (called by the Greeks Apries) reigned from B.C. 590 to B.C. 571. He was deposed by a military revolution; and Amasis (into whose hands he fell, and who ultimately succeeded him) delivered him over to the Egyptians, by whom he was strangled (Herod, ii. 161-163, 169).)

(45): Words of mingled reassurance and reproof, addressed to Baruch, in the depression and disappointment which overcame him, after writing the roll of the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. (A supplement to 36:1-8.) (*I.e. the words forming the roll of Jeremiah’s prophecies, written by Baruch, at Jeremiah’s dictation, in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, B.C. 605 (36:1-4); and containing predictions of disaster for Judah, and (25:15-38) Western Asia generally.) (*Baruch is reminded that the age is one in which he must not expect great things for himself, but must be content if he escapes with his bare life; even Yahweh (v. 4) is obliged to destroy the work of His own hands.)

(46-51): Prophecies against the nations.
(1) (46-49). (* Nebuchadnezzar was not yet actually ‘king’ of Babylon, though he became so a few months afterwards; see the writer’s ‘Daniel’ (in the ‘Cambridge Bible’), pp. xlix. 2. The fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim is in 25:1 equated with the first (1st) year of Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 604): so it seems that the battle of Carchemish took place really in the previous year, 605.) (Pharaoh Necho (B.C. 610-594), an ambitious and aspiring prince, essayed to add Syria, and the neighbouring parts of Asia, W. of the Euphrates, to his dominions. As he was marching through Palestine to effect his purpose, Josiah, attempting to turn him back, met his death at Megiddo (B.C. 609). Three months later Necho is mentioned as being at Riblah, in the land of Hamath, some seventy (70) miles N. of Damascus (see 2nd Kings 23:29, 33). Some years afterwards (B.C. 608), he set out with a large army, and joined battle with Nabopolassar, the king of Babylon, at Carchemish, the great commercial city and fortress, commanding the principal ford of the Euphrates, by which armies marching to and fro between Babylon and Palestine, or Egypt, regularly crossed the river, about 260 miles N.N.E. of Damascus. There his army was completely defeated by Nebuchadnezzar, acting as general for his father, Nabopolassar. This defeat of the Egyptians at Carchemish was politically the turning-point of the age. Jeremiah at once saw that the Chaldaeans were destined to become the rulers of Western Asia (cf. ch. 25); and his sense of this led him to come forward with the doctrine, –which to many of his fellow-countrymen seemed unpatriotic,– that the safety of Judah was to be found in submission to the Chaldaean supremacy (21:1-10; 27:5-8, 12, etc.). The group of prophecies contained in chaps, 46-49, except the one on Elam (49:34-39), which is assigned by its title to a later period, reflect the impression which Nebuchadnezzar’s successes made upon the prophet: he pictures not only Egypt, but also the Philistines, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Damascus (all of whom had in the past been often unfriendly to Israel), and even the more distant Kedar, as one after another succumbing helplessly before the invader.” Chapter 25 may be regarded as an introduction to these prophecies: it acquaints the reader with Jeremiah’s general view of the political situation, which is then illustrated, and poetically developed, with reference to particular countries, in the present prophecies. Probably, in the original form of the book of Jeremiah, these prophecies followed immediately after chapter 25, from which they are now separated by the mainly biographical matter contained in chapters 26-45) (*It ought, however, to be mentioned that most recent authorities on Jeremiah, including even A. B. Davidson (Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’, ii. 573’b’), are of opinion, partly upon grounds of difference of literary style, partly on account of the nature of their contents, that chaps. 46-49 are either wholly (Stade, Wellhausen, Duhin), or in part (Giesebrecht, Kuenen, Davidson), not Jeremiah’s. Gieseb. accepts only chaps, 47, 49:7-8, 10-11, and perhaps 13, and a nucleus in 46:3-12. But, though the prophecies may have been amplified in parts by a later hand (or hands), it is doubtful whether there aro sufficient reasons for reducing the original nucleus to such small dimensions as these. Kuenen (‘Einl’. § 56. 9-11) accepted the whole, except 46:27 f. (= 30:10 f.), and certain parts of chap. 48 (see the note on 48:1). Cornill, while allowing that there are parts which either upon the grounds mentioned above, or on metrical grounds, must in his judgement be rejected, argues strongly against the rejection of the whole, and accepts himself 46:3-26 (Egypt), and substantial parts of most of the other prophecies. On 50:1-11, 58, see the note prefixed to 50:1.) Egypt’s defiant ambition checked and humbled at the battle of Carchemish. Let the warriors arm themselves, and advance to the fight! Hardly has the prophet said these words, when he sees the Egyptians already in flight. Egypt’s boasts of conquest will come to nought: in vain will she endeavour to recover herself after her defeat. (The prophecy vv. 14-26 seems naturally to be the sequel to vv. 3-12; though Cornill has urged that it may be later, and belong to the period of Jeremiah’s residence in Egypt (43:7 ff.), to which 43:10-13 (shortly after 586), foretelling Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion and conquest of Egypt, also belongs. Nebuchadnezzar did in fact invade Egypt in 568: see the note on 43:13.) An imaginative description of the invasion of Egypt by the Chaldaeans, and of the collapse of the power of Egypt before them. A message of encouragement addressed to Israel. (Vv. 27, 28 are nearly identical with 30:10,11. As vv. 14-26 seem to be of the same date as vv. 3-12 (608), they can hardly be here in their original place; for they imply that the exile has begun, and contrast too strongly with the tone of menace, in which in 605-4 (25:8-11) Jeremiah was expressing himself. Probably the two verses were handed down independently; and were placed by a compiler in ch. 30 on account of their being germane there to the context, and also added here as a suitable counterpart to vv. 14-26.) On the Philistines. How the land of the Philistines will be wasted by the Chaldaeans.
(48): (On Moab). (The territory occupied by Moab was the elevated and rich plateau on the E. of the Dead Sea. Originally (Num. 21:26) the Moabite territory extended as far N. as Heshbon, to the N.E. of the Dead Sea (see on v. 2); but the Israelites, after their conquest of the country E. of Jordan, considered the territory N. of the Arnon (which flows down through a deep gorge into the Dead Sea at about the middle of its E. side) to belong to Reuben (Josh. 13:15-21), and regarded the Arnon as the N. border of Moab. But Reuben did not ultimately remain in possession of the district allotted to it; and so here, as in Isa. 15-16, many of the cities assigned in Josh. 13:15-21 to Reuben are mentioned as occupied by Moab.) The desolating invasion about to break upon Moab; and the flight of its population. (*For most of the places mentioned in this chapter, see Num. 32:3, 34-38, Josh. 13:16-19, 21:36-7, and Isaiah’s prophecy on Moab, chaps. 15-16. In vv. 5, 29-38, there are numerous verbal reminiscences from Isa. 15-16……) Moab has for long been left unmolested in his land; but now his security will be rudely disturbed. Moab is utterly crushed and helpless; the entire country is at the invader’s feet. The pride of Moab is humbled; her vineyards and winepresses are ruined; and the whole land is given over to mourning. The final doom of Moab.
(49): (On the children of Ammon). The Ammonites are threatened with retribution for taking to themselves the territory of Gad. (*The territory of Gad was on the E. of Jordan, from Heshbon at least as far N. as the Jabbok (cf. Josh. 13:14-28; Num. 32:34-36; but the details do not entirely agree; see ‘Gad’ in Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’): the Ammonite territory was on the E. of this, their principal city Rabbah (called by the Greeks, from Ptolemy Philodelphus, ‘Philadelphia’, now ‘ Ammän), on the upper course of the Jabbok, being 14 miles NE. of Heshbon, and 24 miles E. of the Jordan.)
(On Edom). (On Damascus).
(2) (50:1-52:58). On Babylon. (A long and impassioned prophecy against Babylon. The time of her end is approaching, when the violence done by her to Israel will at length be avenged (50:17 f., 33 f.; 51:24, 34-36): a people from the north, even the Medes, are about to be stirred up against her: again and again the prophet with eager vehemence summons them to begin the fray, while he bids the Jewish exiles escape betimes from the doomed city, the future fate of which he contemplates with manifest delight. The date will naturally be shortly before B.C. 538, when the conquests of Cyrus began to kindle the hopes of the exiles, and to mark him out as their coming deliverer (Isa. 41:2, 25; 44:28, etc.). The prophecy cannot be Jeremiah’s. According to 51:59,60, its date, if it were Jeremiah’s, would be the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah (B.C. 593). But (1) the ‘historical situation’ presupposed by the prophecy is not that of B.C. 593, but much later: the Temple is alluded to as having suffered violence (50:28; 51:11, 51), the Jews are in exile (50:4 f., 17; 51:34), and the end of Babylon is approaching rapidly (50:8 f.; 51:6, 45 f.). Then (2) the point of view is not that of Jeremiah either in or about 593 B.C.: Jeremiah at that time, as we know from chaps, 27-29, was earnestly opposing the prophets who promised that the yoke of Babylon would speedily be broken, and was exhorting the exiles to settle down contentedly in their new home: but the prophet who speaks in 50:1-51:58 declares confidently that the fall of Babylon is close at hand, and does his utmost to inspire the exiles with the hope of a speedy release. And (3) the prophecy is animated by a temper which is not Jeremiah’s. The vein of strong feeling against the Chaldaeans which pervades it, and the satisfaction shewn at the prospect of their approaching fate, are not consistent with Jeremiah’s repeatedly avowed conviction that the Chaldaeans were the agents appointed by Providence for the punishment of Israel’s sin –a work which in 593 was not yet accomplished. There breathes in this prophecy the spirit of an Israelite, whose experiences had been far other than Jeremiah’s, who had smarted under the painful yoke of the Chaldaeans (cf. Isa. 47:6 f., 52:3), and whose thoughts were full of vengeance for the sufferings which his fellow-countrymen had endured at their hands. The prophecy must have been the work of a prophet familiar with Jeremiah’s writings, and accustomed to the use of similar phraseology, who wrote shortly before the fall of Babylon (B.C. 538), from the same general standpoint as Isa. 13:2-14:23; 40-66. In later times, it seems, the prophecy came to be attributed to Jeremiah, and was identified with the ‘scroll’ sent by him to Babylon, of which we read in 51:59-64: a late editor of the book of Jeremiah thus prefixed it to 51:59-64, at the same time adding the title, and also 51:60’b’, for the purpose of identifying the prophecy with the contents of the scroll.
The prophecy is remarkable for the many reminiscences, and even (50:40, 41-43, 44 46; 51:15-19) excerpts from other prophecies, contained in it; the more striking instances are pointed out in the notes. The frequency with which, instead of the subject being developed regularly, the same thought is again and again reverted to (as 50:3, 9, 25, 41; 51:1f., 25; 50:14, 21, 26, 29; 51:11f, 27; 50:8; 51:6, 45, 50; 50:12, 39f.; 51:26’b’, 29’b’, 37, 43), is due probably to the torrent of impetuous feeling by which the prophet is carried along.
The doom impending upon Babylon. Yahweh’s purpose to bring a great host of nations against Babylon. The foe invited to begin the attack. A promise of restoration and pardon to Israel. Renewed invitation to the foe to attack Babylon. The prophet’s exultation over her fall. Babylon will be compelled to let her captives go. The doom imminent upon Jerusalem. Description of the invader. Renewed announcement of the approaching doom of Babylon: let Israel hasten to leave her. The foe again invited to attack Babylon. Yahweh’s power contrasted with that of idols. Yahweh is against Babylon. The nations summoned to attack Babylon: its capture by its assailants. The injuries done to Israel shall at last be avenged. The final end of Babylon. Let Israel hasten to leave the doomed city. Yahweh’s final word of judgement upon Babylon.
(3) (51:59-64). Jeremiah, in the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah (B.C. 593), by the hand of Seraiah, reads Babylon her doom. (The predictions contained in this narrative (vv. 62-64) do not either display the animus, or imply the historical situation, of 50:2-51:58; there is thus no inconsistency in supposing Jeremiah to be their author. A simple, unimpassioned declaration of the future end of Babylon is not inconsistent with Jeremiah’s attitude at the beginning of Zedekiah’s reign (cf. the limit of seventy (70) years assigned to Babylonian rule, and the promise of restoration afterwards, in 29:10), and the symbolical action of v. 63 is analogous to those narrated in 13:17; 19:1, 10; 27:2; 43:9.)

(52): (1) The capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, and exile of its inhabitants. (Vv. 1-27 are excerpted from 2nd Kings 24:18-25:21: vv. 28-30 are taken by the compiler from some independent source. The entire account was probably added here for the purpose of shewing how Jeremiah’s principal and most constant prediction was fulfilled. The text of vv. 1-27 has, in several places, been preserved here more purely than in Kings. Vv. 4-11, 13-16, have occurred already slightly abridged, in 39:1-2, 4-10.) (* ‘seventh’: Read, probably, `seventeenth`. This would be the year in which the siege of Jerusalem was begun (comp. v. 4 with v. 12): the reference appears to be to the men of Judah taken prisoners (as opposed to those out of Jerusalem, v. 29). The items given do not include the numbers taken into exile after the capture of Jerusalem (in Nebuchadnezzar’s nineteenth (19th) year).)
(2) The favour shown by Evil-Merodach to Jehoiachin. (Excerpted from 2nd Kings 25:27-30.) (*’Evil-Merodach’: Pronounce, Evïl. The name means ‘man of Marduk’ (50:2), in Babylonian ‘Amilu-Marduk’. He succeeded Nebuchadnezzar and reigned for two years [B.C. 561-559).)

9: The Book of Jeremiah the Prophet. Charles Rufus Brown, D.D. Newton Theological Institution. American Baptist Pub. Soc. Phil. (1907).gs (Brown’s work is thorough & defers often to others when appropriate, especially to Driver.)

I. {{ “The Historical Background of Jeremiah’s Ministry.
The general situation in Western Asia has changed since Isaiah lived and preached, and soon after Jeremiah’s call Babylonia took the place of Assyria as the great world-empire. Among the nations whose general history is important and interesting from the point of view of Jeremiah and his times three stand out in boldest relief: Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria; and the mutual relations of these three we must hold in mind. Babylonia we must call the oldest country, Egypt next, and Assyria the youngest. The two great world-powers in ancient times were Babylonia and Egypt, and the rule of Assyria for seven centuries, powerful as it was, and terrible as were her rulers, was hardly more than an episode from the point of view of all the centuries. During the Babylonian-Egyptian wars, at the time when Egypt had reached the height of her glory, say 1500 B.C., Assyria was colonized from Babylonia and about 1300 B.C. won its independence and captured Babylon itself. In or about 606 Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, was captured by the hordes of the Manda, the Scythian allies of the Babylonians, and the empire fell never to rise again. As far back as we can trace the history there was intermittent war between the East and the West, between Egypt and Babylonia up to 1300 and after 600, between Egypt and Assyria in the seven intervening centuries. In Egypt civil wars were frequent and struggle was constant with Ethiopia and with the maritime countries of the Mediterranean, but in the intervals the arms of Egypt were pushed into the far East with varying fortunes until the fall of the empire before the Persians in 525 B.C. The nations of Palestine and its vicinity, lying as they did in the thoroughfare between the two great powers, were sure to be engaged on the one side or the other; and hence it was that different political parties arose more than once in Israel and Judah, urging an alliance with the one country or the other. The Northern kingdom fell before the Assyrian arms a century before Jeremiah’s ministry, but during his life Judah was often involved in war and subjected to conquest; and beginning with the storm that broke upon the country soon after the accession of King Jehoiakim, the political atmosphere was continually charged with one danger or another. It will be seen in the sequel that Jeremiah took an active part in politics, as good ministers frequently do, and that he was in fact, so far as we know, the truest patriot and most keen-sighted statesman of his age. The following chronological tables, covering the time from the call of Jeremiah to the Roman conquest of Syria and Egypt, may aid students seeking to obtain and retain dates for the various portions of Jeremiah. Here the author, contrary to his method of procedure in general (see especially a later section, VI.), has thought it better to adopt dates from other writers of good standing. ‘E.g’., the dates assigned to pieces of Israelitish literature in the second column [list] have been copied from Kautzsch’s ‘The Literature of the Old Testament’, with any such changes of a year or so in the dates as are needed to bring them into consistency with the chronology adopted in the first column [list]. The dates of the Jewish high priests between 520 and 195 B. C. are only approximately correct and several other dates are inexact, notably in the Egyptian column [list]. In the following table c, a, and b stand for about, after, and before respectively.”}}

Tables:Columns-Lists: Judah & Jews. Israelitish Literature Exclusive of Jeremiah. Babylonia. Egypt.: Years B.C. 700-30 A.D. (From C. R. Brown, slightly edited in format.)

B.C.:
700 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
600 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
500 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
400 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
300 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
200 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
100 }………|………|………{ A.D. 30

Column-List 1: Judah & Jews:
638-608. ‘Josiah’.
626. Scythians near Palestine.
626. Call of Jeremiah.
621. Great Reformation.
608. Josiah’s Defeat & Death.
608. ‘Jehoahaz’.
607-597. ‘Jehoiakim’.
601. Submission to Nebuchadrezzar.
598. King’s Rebellion.
597. ‘Jehoiachin’.
597. Deportation of King and First Captives to Babylon.
596-586. Zedekiah.
593. Ambassadors Received from Surrounding Countries.
592-570. Ezekiel among the Captives.
586. Fall of Jerusalem and Second Deportation to Babylon.
581. Third Deportation; Departure of Mizpah Colony to Egypt.
538-330. ‘Persian Rule in the East’.
536. Return to Palestine under ‘Zerubbabel’ & ‘Joshua’.
520-500. ‘Joshua’, High Priest.
520-516. Temple Rebuilt.
500-463. ‘Jehoiakim’, High Priest.
463-430. ‘Eliashib’, High Priest.
458 (or 398). Ezra, the Scribe.
445, 432. Visits by Nehemiah.
444 (or 398). Introduction of the Written Priestly Law.
430-400. ‘Joiada’, High Priest.
400. Samaritan Temple Built on Gerizim.
400-350. ‘Johanan’, High Priest.
350-333. ‘Jaddua’, High Priest.
344. Temple Polluted & Jews Enslaved by Persians.
332. Destruction of Tyre by ‘Alexander’ & Submission of Palestine.
331. Settlement of Jews at Alexandria.
330-323. ‘Rule of Alexander the Great’.
323-276. Wars of the Diadochi.
323-320, 314-301, Judaea ruled for the most part by Antigonus. (320-314, 301-294, 280-202, Palestine an Egyptian Province.) (294-280,202-167, Palestine under the Seleucids.) (264-248, 224-198, Sharp Contests between Syria & Egypt.)
321-301. ‘Onias I’.,High Priest.
300-285. ‘Simon I’.High Priest.
284-265. ‘Eleazar’, High Priest.
264-240. ‘Manasseh’, High Priest.
239-225. ‘Onias II’., High Priest.
224-195. ‘Simon II’., The Just, High Priest.
194-175. ‘Onias III’., High Priest.
180.c. General acceptance of the Hist. & Prop. Books & of a Psalm Book.
176. Heliodorus attempts plunder of Temple for Syrians.
174-171. ‘Jason’, High Priest.
170-162. ‘Menelaus’, High Priest.
170. Jerusalem Plundered by Syria.
168. Daily Sacrifice suspended by Antiochus.
167. Hasmonean Uprising.
166. Victory of Judas Maccabeus over Syria.
165. Temple Rededicated.
161-159. ‘Alcimus’, High Priest.
161. Death of Judas.
153-143. ‘Jonathan Apphus’, High Priest & Prince.
142-136. ‘Simon’, Hereditary High Priest & Governor.
141. Citadel & Syrian Garrison Captured; Beginning of Hasmonean Dynasty.
135-105. ‘John Hyrcanus’, High Priest.
134. Walls of Jerusalem Razed by Antiochus VII.
130. First use of term “The Law and the Prophets.”
130. Samaritan Temple Destroyed.
129. Conquest of Edom.
108. Destruction of Samaria.
105,104. ‘Aristobulus I’, High Priest & King.
103-78. ‘Alexander Jannaeus’, High Priest & King.
97. Capture of Gaza.
94. Conquest of Moab and Ammon.
82. Triumphs of Alexander Celebrated in Jerusalem.
77-69. ‘AIexandra’, Queen.
77-69. ‘Hyrcanus II’., High Priest & King.
68-63. ‘Arislobulus II’., High Priest & King.
63. Jerusalem taken by Pompey; Judaea a Roman Province.

Column-List 2: Israelitish Literature Exclusive of Jeremiah:
630.c. Zephaniah 1.
621.b. Deuteronomy in an early form.
615.c. Habakkuk, Zeph. 2:1-3:13.
600.c. Deut. redaction of books of Kings.
592-570. Ezekiel’s Prophecies.
570-500. Lamentations.
560.c. Deut.32; Deut. completed & added to earlier history now contained in Pentateuch & Joshua. Deut. redaction of Judges, Samuel, & Kings. Nucleus of Lev. 17-26.
540.c. Is. 40-55; 21:1-10; 13:1-14:23; 34,35.
536. Zeph. 3:14-20.
520. Haggai.
520-518. Zech. 1-8.
500.c. Priests’ Code of Law now found in Pentateuch & Joshua.
500.a. Is. 56-66.
458.b. Malachi.
458. Aramaic Source of Ezra 4-6.
458.a. Ruth.
444.a. Oldest Collection of Hymns, Ps. 3-41.
435.c. Memoirs of Ezra in Ezra-Nehemiah.
432. Obadiah.
432. Memoirs of Nehemiah.
400.c. Completion of Pentateuch & formation of Gen. 1-2nd Kings 25.
350.c. Completion of Proverbs; Joel; Jonah.
340.c. Collection Ps. 42-89; Job.
332.c. The Song of Songs; Isa. 24-27; Additions to the older Prophets.
311.c. Psalms of the Greek period,
300.c. Ezra-Nehemiah; Chronicles; Zech. 9-14.
250.c. Ecclesiastes, Alexandrian trans. of Pentateuch, the beginning of LXX.
180.c. The Wisdom of Jesus Sirach.
166. Daniel.
150.a. Esther; Five Books of Jason on Maccabean Wars. This the source of 2nd Maccabees.
142. Collection of Ps. 90-150 & close of Psalter.
138.c. Judith.
130.c. Proverbs of Jesus Sirach trans. into Greek.
90.c. 1st Maccabees.
50.a. The Wisdom of Solomon.

Column-List 3: Babylonia, Persia, & Syria:

Babylonia:
625-604. ‘Nabopolasar’.
606. Destruction of Nineveh.
604. Victory over Egypt at Carchemish.
603-562. ‘Nebuchadrezzar III’.
582-569. Siege of Tyre.
568. Invasion of Egypt.
561-560. ‘Evil-Merodach’.
559-556. ‘Neriglissar’.
556. ‘Labashi-Marduk’.
555-538. ‘Nabonidus’.

Persia:
558-530. ‘Cyrus II’, of Elam.
549. Conquest of Media.
548. Amalgamation with Persia.
538. Conquest of Babylon.
529-522. ‘Cambyses II’.
522. ‘Pseudo-Bardes’,
or ‘Smerdis’ (Gomates).
521-486. ‘Darius I’, ‘Hystaspis’.
485-465. ‘Zerxes l’.
465-464. ‘Artabanus’.
463-425. ‘Artaxerxes I’, ‘Longimanus’.
425. Zerxes II.
425, 424. Sogdianos.
423-405. Darius II, Nothus.
404-359. ‘Artaxerxes II’, ‘Mnemon’. Judaeans comparatively undisturbed.
358-338. ‘ArtaxerxesIII’, Ochus.
344. Sidon Destroyed.
337-336. ‘Arses’.
335-330. ‘Darius III’, ‘Codomannus’.
333, 331. Victories of Alexander.

Syria:
312-281. ‘Seleucus I’, ‘Nicator’.
280-261. ‘Antiochus I’, ‘Soter’.
260-246. ‘Antiochus II’, ‘Theos’.
245-226. ‘Seleucus II’, ‘Callinicus’.
225-224. ‘Seleucus III’, ‘Keraunos’.
223-187. ‘Antiochus III’, ‘The Great’.
190. Defeated by the Romans.
186-175. ‘Seleucus IV’, ‘Philopator’.
174-164. ‘Antiochus IV’, ‘Epiphanes’.
174. Attempt to Hellenize.
170. Victory in Egypt.
163-162. ‘Antiochus V’, ‘Eupator’.
161-150. ‘Demetrius I’, ‘Soter’.
152-146. ‘Alexander Balas’.
145-138. ‘Demetrius II’, ‘Nicator’.
145-138. ‘Antiochus VI’, & ‘Trypho’, Rival Kings.
142. Independence of Judaea acknowledged.
137-128. ‘Antiochus VII’, ‘Sidetes’, ‘Euergetes’.
127-125. ‘Demetrius II’.
125. ‘Seleueus V’.
124-96. ‘Antiochus VIII’, ‘Grypos’.
113-95. ‘Antiochus IX’, ‘Kyzicenos’.
96-95. ‘Seleueus VI’, ‘Epiphanes’, ‘Nicator, son of .Ant. VIII’.
95. ‘Antiochus X’, ‘Eusebes, son of Ant. IX’.
94-83. Contests for throne among Sel. VI., Ant.XI., Philip, Dem. III, and Ant. XII., sons of Ant. VIII.
82-69. ‘Tigranes’ of Armenia rules Syria.
68-65. Antiochus XIII., ‘Asiaticus’.
65. Syria a Roman Province.

Column-List 4: Egypt:

663-611. ‘Psamtik I’.
625. Independent of Assyria.
610-595. ‘Neco II’.
608. Jehoahaz of Judah taken Captive.
604. Defeat at Carchemish.
594-589. ‘Psamtik II’.
588-570. ‘Pharaoh Hophra’.
587. Relief army unable to support Zedekiah.
569-526. ‘Amasis II’.
525. ‘Psamtik III’. End of twenty-sixth Dynasty.
525-332. Persian Rule in Egypt.
525-411. Twenty-seventh (Persian) Dynasty.
404-382. Twenty-ninth (Mendessian) Dynasty.
381-343. Thirtieth (Sebennite) Dynasty.
342-332. Thirty-first (Persian) Dynasty.
332. Conquest by Alexander.
323-285. ‘Ptolemy I’, ‘Lagi’, ‘Soter’.
320. Syria and Palestine taken.
284-247. ‘Ptolemy II’, ‘Philadelphus’.
246-222. ‘Ptolemy III’, ‘Euergetes’.
221-205. ‘Ptolemy IV’, ‘Philopator’.
204-182. ‘Ptolemy V’, ‘Epiphanes’.
198. Final loss of Palestine.
182. ‘Ptolemy VI’, ‘Eupator’.
181-146. ‘Ptolemy VII’, ‘Philomator’.
168. Advance of Antiochus resisted by Rome.
146. ‘Ptolemy VII’, ‘Eupator II’, New ‘Philopator’.
145-117. ‘Ptolemy IX’., ‘Euergetes II’, ‘Physcon’.
116-106, 88-81. ‘Ptolemy X’, ‘Soter II’, ‘Lathyrus’.
105-89. ‘Ptolemy XI’, ‘Alexander I’, ‘Philomator’.
81-80. ‘Ptolemy XII’, ‘Alexander II’.
79-51. ‘Ptolemy XIII’, ‘Philopator’, ‘Philadelphia’, New ‘Dionysos Auletes’.
50-17. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XIV’.
46-45. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XV’.
44-30. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XVI’, ‘Caesarian’.
30. Egypt a Roman Province.

{{ “In outlining the ministry of Jeremiah we shall have to do with the period between 626 B.C., about twenty (20) years before the fall of Nineveh, and 575 (?) B.C. Since Assurbanipal of Assyria, the Sardanapalus of the Greeks, lived, however, only till 626 B.C., and the Assyrian empire was in a state of decay from the time of his death, we may say that the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah (626 B.C.), the year when Jeremiah was called, was synchronous with the downfall of Assyria and the rise of the second Babylonian empire. It is claimed with some degree of plausibility that the immediate occasion of Jeremiah’s call was the Scythian invasion of Western Asia, which probably took place during this decade, and occasioned great commotion to the coast lands, and even to Egypt. There are other historical epochs that are certain. In 608 B.C., Neco II., son of Psamtik I, or Psammetichus I, of the twenty-sixth dynasty, on his way to the Euphrates for conquest of Assyrian dependencies, was met at Megiddo by Josiah of Judah and the latter was slain, the Egyptian king pushing on to Carchemish, on the Euphrates. At this time Assyria had practically fallen, as we have seen, and Babylonia was not yet established on a firm basis; but the Egyptians seem never to have possessed the power to maintain their acquisitions, and a few years afterward, in 604 B.C., after Nineveh had fallen, the Babylonian king, Nabopolassar, sent his son Nebuchadrezzar against the Egyptians. At Carchemish the latter were routed and the Egyptian rule in the East was finally broken. In 601 B.C. Jehoiakim him self submitted to Nebuchadrezzar, and in 597 B.C., after the latter had crushed a rebellion instigated by him, a deportation of the inhabitants to Babylon took place. In 589 B.C. Neco’s grandson, ‘Uahabra’, the Pharaoh Hophra of Scripture, came to the throne of Egypt, and upon his accession there was a confederation of Judah and the surrounding countries against the king of Babylon, but the Egyptians were probably defeated. They withdrew at least, and the war was brought to a close by the capture of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., Zedekiah and nearly a thousand (1,000) of his people being carried off to Babylon. Of the colony that remained many settled in Egypt after unfortunate experiences in Palestine (see II.) and nearly seven hundred and fifty (750) were carried to Babylon (52:30).” }}

The Dates of the Jeremiah Material: (B.C.) (King’s Reign): Jeremiah Chapters & Verses:
1:4-19, (626), (K. Josiah’s).
2:1-6:30, (626-621), (K. Josiah’s)
11:1-5, (621), (K. Josiah’s).
22:10-12, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
11:6-12:6, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
7:1-9:22; 10:17-25, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
26:1-24, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
25:1-38, (604), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
36:1-32, (604,603), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
13:1-17:18, (603), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
18:1-20:18, (601), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
21:13,14, (601), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
22:13-19, 20-23, (598), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
12:7-17, (597), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
35:1-19, (597), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
22:24-30, (597) (K. Jehoiachin & K. Zedekiah).
24:1-10, (596), (K. Zedekiah).
29:1-32, (595), (K. Zedekiah).
23:9-40, (595), (K. Zedekiah).
27:1-28:17, (593), (K. Zedekiah).
22:1-7, (590), (K. Zedekiah).
21:1-10, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
34:1-7, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
37:1-10, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
34:8-22, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
37:11-21, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
30:1-31:40, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
32:1-44, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
33:1-13, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
38:1-39:18, (586), (siege and after fall of Judah).
23:1-8, (586), (soon after fall of Judah).
40:1-16, (586-582), (during over-lordship of Nebuchadrezzar).
41:1-43:7, (582), (during over-lordship of Nebuchadrezzar).
43:8-44:30 (581-575) (?), (Egyptian sojourn).
45:1-6, (about 586), (in Palestine or Egypt).

{{“Excluding the fifty-second (52nd) chapter, which has been taken from 2 Kings and an unknown source, the remaining passages found in Jeremiah are 9:23-26; 10:1-16; 17:19-27; 21:11,12; 22:8,9; 33:14-26; 46:1-51:64. It is impossible to assign definite dates and authors to these sections. Although some of them contain liberal quotations from the prophet’s own words, it is probable that he had little to do with them in their present form, though 9:23-26 may have proceeded from him. The sources of much of this material are to be found in other parts of Scripture as will appear under the next topic.”}}

{{“For general purposes of reference the following table of contents may be found of service: Preface: Introductory Notes of Time, (1:1-3). [Written by Baruch 604, 603 B.C., revised after 536 ]

Part I: Iniquity of Judah Portrayed & Judgment Threatened (1:4-6:30). [Compiled 604, 603 B.C.]
§1. Call of Jeremiah, (1:4-19). [Date 626 B. C, published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§2. Base Ingratitude of People in Departing from Jehovah & Entail of Punishment, (2:1-37). [Delivered 626-621 B.C., dictated and published 604, 603, annotated later.]
§3. Judith’s Superficial Estimate of her Guilt, 3:1-5. [Delivered 626-621 B.C., dictated & published 604, 603.]
§4. Lesser Degree of Israel’s Guilt & Promised Return of Penitent People to Jehovah’s Favor, (3:6-4:2).
[Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603, annotated as late as 516.]
§5. Judgment Approaching from North, (4:3-81). [Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603.]
§6. Prevailing Iniquity at Jerusalem & Necessary Result, (5:1-31). [Delivered 626-621 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§7. Rejected People, 6 : 1-30. [Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603.]

Part II: Temple Lament over Jerusalem & Prophecy of Destruction, (7:1-10: 25). [Delivered-607 B.C., published 604, 603, enlarged after 536.]
§1. Necessity of Amendment to Avert Destruction of Zion, (7:1-8:3). [Delivered 626-607 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§2. Wilfulness of Judah Exposed; Defeat & Exile Threatened, (8:4-9:1). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., published 604, 603.]
§3. Gross Corruption of People & Inevitable Destruction of Nation, (9:2-22). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§4. Best Possession of Man is Knowledge of Jehovah as Divine King, (9:23,24). [Inserted after 536 B.C.]
§5. Punishment in Store for Uncircumcised in Heart, (9:25,26). [Inserted after 536 B.C.]
§6. Impotency of Idols of Nations, (10:1-16). [Written & inserted 400-200 B.C.]
§7. Distress of Zion & Prophet’s Prayer for Mitigation of her Punishment, (10:17-25). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., inserted after 586, annotated later.]

Part III.—The Irrevocable Evil in Judah & Sad Results, (11:1-17:27). [Published 603 B.C., enlarged after Exile.]
§1. Preaching of Deuteronomic Covenant, (11:1-5). [Delivered 621 B.C., published 603.]
§2. Re-enforcement of Covenant, (11:6-8). [Delivered 607 B.C., published 603.]
§3. Apostasy of Judah & Retribution, (11:9-17). [Delivered 607 B.C., published 603.]
§4. Attack at Anathoth & Jeremiah’s Dissatisfaction with Longsuffering of Jehovah, (11:18-12:6). [Date 607 B.C., published 603.]
§5. Devastation of Judah by Neighboring Nations; Banishment & Restoration of Neighbors, (12:7-17) [Delivered 597 B.C., annotated & inserted after 536.]
§6. Damaged Waistband & Rejection of People, (13:1-27). [Published 603 B.C., annotated after 597.]
§7. Evidences of Divine Disfavor & Rejection of Prophet’s Intercession, (14:1-15:9). [Published 603 B.C., annotated in post-exilic times.]
§8. Deep Discouragement of Jeremiah; Admonition & Strength from Above, (15:10-21). [Published 603 B.C., annotated later.]
§9. Abounding Evil in Judah & Recompense, (16:1-17:4). [Published 603 B.C., annotated later.]
§10. Blessedness of Confidence in God; Jeremiah’s Strong Hope in Him, (17:5-18). [Published 603 B. C, annotated later.]
§11. Consecration of Sabbath Day, (17:19-27). [Written after 432 B.C, inserted still later.]

Part IV: Impending Doom, (18:1-20:1). [Compiled 596-586 B.C., enlarged much later, added to Jeremiah Book after 536.]
§1. Amendment of Life Necessary to Avert Threatened Calamity; Jeremiah’s Prayer for Execution of Divine Vengeance, (18:1-23). [Delivered 601 B.C., published soon after but annotated much later.]
§2. Further Prophecies of Impending Disaster & Prophet’s Grievous Discouragement, (19:1-20:18). [Date 601 B.C., published soon after, annotated much later.]

Part V. —Woes Pronounced upon Kings, Prophets, & People of Judah, (21:1-24:10). [Compiled after 586 B.C., added to Book after 536.]
§1. Answer to Zedekiah respecting Approaching Capture of Jerusalem, (21:1-10). [587 B.C., published after 586.]
§2. Woes upon Kings, (21:11-23:8). [Delivered 608-586 B.C., published after 586, annotated still later.]
§3. Woe upon Prophets of Zedekiah’ s Time, (23:9-40). [Delivered 595 B.C., annotated later.]
§4. Captives with Jehoiachin in Exile Contrasted with People left in Jerusalem, (24:1-10). [Delivered 596 B.C., entered in this Part and in Book after 536.]

Part VI: Oracles against Judah & Nations. (25:1-38). [Delivered 604 B.C., annotated & added to chs. 1-24 after 536.]

Part VII: Temple Discourse of ch. 7 & its Results, (26:1-24). [607 B.C., written by Baruch about 590, prefixed to chs. 27-29 after 536, added to Book much later.]

Part VIII: Exhortations to Submission to Babylon & Result (29 : 32). [Compiled 536 B.C., added to Book much later.]
§1. Prediction of Nebuchadrezzar’s Victories, (27:1-22). [Events of 593 B.C, written by Baruch about 590, enlarged later.]
§2. Contention of Hananiah, Prophet of Jerusalem, (28:1-17). [Events of 593 B.C., written by Baruch about 590.]
§3. Communications between Jeremiah & First Captives to Babylon, (29 : 1-32). [Events of 595 B.C., written by Baruch about 590.]

Part IX: New Covenant, or Jeremiah’s Book of Consolation for Israel, (30:1-31:40). [Delivered 626, 587 B.C., annotated & added to Book after 536.]

Part X: Certainty & Glory of Return, (32:1-33:26). [Compiled & united with Book after 536 B.C., annotated as late as 200.]
§1. Jeremiah’s Confident Prediction of Return, (32:1-44). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch 586, annotated after 636.]
§2. Glory of Return, (33:1-26). [587 B.C., annotated as late as 200.]

Part XI: Prophecy of Jerusalem’s Fall, (34:1-7). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch later introduced into ch. 34 & into Book after 536.]

Part XII: Slaves in Besieged Capital! (34:8-22). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch later added to Book after 536.]

Part XIII: Constancy of Rechabites Contrasted with Israel’s Disobedience, (35:1-19). [Events of 597 B.C. written by Baruch about 590, added to Book after 536.]

Part XIV: Jehoiakim’s Scornful Treatment of Divine Warnings, (36:1-32) [Events of 604, 603 B.C., written by Baruch somewhat later, added to Book after 536.]

Part XV: Siege & Capture of Jerusalem, & Deportation of its Inhabitants; Close Confinement of Jeremiah, (37:1-39:18). [Added to Book after 536 B.C.]
§1. Jeremiah’s Prediction of Fall of Jerusalem & his Consequent Imprisonment by Princes, (37:1-21). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch soon after 586.]
§2. Timely Succor of Jeremiah by Ethiopian Slave; Zedekiah’s Secret Interview with Prophet, (38:1-28a). [Events of 586 B.C., written by Baruch soon afterward.]
§3. Fall of Jerusalem; Jeremiah Committed to Gedaliah, (38:28b-39:14). [Events of 586 B.C., written by Baruch soon afterward.]
§4. Promise of Deliverance to Ebed-melech, (39:15-18). [Delivered 586 B.C., written by Baruch not long afterward.]

Appendix A: Judah after Fall of her Capital, (40:1-43:13). [Compiled & added to Book after 536 B.C.]
§1. Colony at Mizpah, (40:1-16). [Written by Baruch after 586 B. C]
§2. Ishmael Traitor & Johanan Brave Defender of People, (41:1-18). [Written by Baruch after 582 B. c]
§3. Journey to Egypt, (42:1-43:7). [Written by Baruch after 582 B.C.]
§4. Destined Fall of Egypt, (43:8-13).[Written by Baruch after 581 B.C.]

Appendix B: Jeremiah’s Last Prophecies to People, (44:1-30). [Written by Baruch after 581-575 (?) B.C., added to Book after 536.]

Appendix C: Admonition & Promise to Baruch, (45:1-5). [Delivered & reported by Baruch after 586 B.C., added to Book after 536.]

Appendix D: Oracles Concerning Nations, (46:1-51:64). [Compiled & added to Book after 536 B.C., annotated down to second century at least.]
§1. Egypt, (46:1-28). [Possibly completed in period 536-332 B.C.]
§2. Philistines, (47:1-7). [536-332 B.C.]
§3. Moab, (48:1-47). [Possibly written in second century B.C.]
§4. Ammon, (49:1-6). [Possibly written in fourth century B.C.]
§5. Edom, (49:7-22). [Written in period 536-332 B.C.]
§6. Damascus, (49:23-27).[Possibly written in second century B.C.]
§7. Kedar, or Hazor, (49:28-33). [Possibly written in fourth century B.C.]
§8. Elam, (49:34-39). [Written in period 536-332 B.C.]
§9. Babylon, (50:1-51:64). [Written 586-332 B.C.]

Appendix E: Historical Supplement, (52:1-34). [Added to Book after 536 B.C.]”}}

10: The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah, With Introduction & Notes. L. Elliott Binns. Late Scholar of Emmanuel College; & Sometime Chaplain & Lecturer in Old Testament History, Ridley Hall, Cambridge. Westminster Commentaries, Edited by Walter Lock. Methodist. (1919) as.

{{“Preface: During the past few years the importance of Jeremiah amongst the prophets of the Old Testament has been increasingly recognised; no longer is he overshadowed by the massive figure of Isaiah, but rather have the two prophets come to be regarded as twin peaks standing side by side and pointing the soul to the things of God. If, however, the number of books written upon the earlier prophet [Isaiah] be compared with those written upon the later [Jeremiah], it will be found that there is a very great disproportion between them. It would seem therefore that room is left for another Commentary on the Book of the prophet Jeremiah.”
Introduction: § 1. The Importance of Jeremiah: The book of the prophet Jeremiah is the longest in the Bible, and though the mere volume of matter contained in even an inspired writing is no sure or final test of its importance –such a test, for example, would make Ecclesiastes of higher value than the Epistles of St John –yet in view of the disappearance of many of the prophetic utterances, it is evidence of the regard in which Jeremiah was held by the men of the Jewish Church, that they were at pains to collect and preserve so many narratives concerning his life, as well as writings attributed to him. The importance of the book, however, does not depend on its bulk, and had there come down to us only such fragments as chh. 9, 15:15 ff., 17:12 ff., and 20:7 ff. it would hardly be an exaggeration to say that Jeremiah was still the most valuable book in OT……No, the value of OT. lies elsewhere than in the chronicling of the pomp of kings and the petty majesty of war; it lies rather in its being a record of the gradual revelation of what was to the Jews –or at any rate to the higher minds amongst them –the supreme good in life, the knowledge of the living God. The peculiar value of OT., nay of the whole Bible, is not therefore historical but spiritual or, one might almost say, psychological. Its value is psychological because it is through the mind of man quickened by the Holy Spirit that God has given the most intimate revelation of Himself. Much can be learned of God by studying His handiwork in Nature, that open book in which he ‘who runs may read’; much can be learned from His guiding of the events of history, especially in the work of preparation for the Incarnation: but it is from His dealings with the souls of men –both collectively and as individuals –that God is to be known most certainly. The unique position which the Bible occupies, even amongst religious literature, lies in the fact that it contains a number of records of such dealings, and moreover records that are inspired by that Word of God upon whose sojourn on earth all the scattered rays of revelation are centred and in the power of whose ascended life alone they are to be interpreted. It is because Jeremiah amongst the prophets has left the most intimate and impressive accounts of what God meant to his soul, of the variety and richness of his religious experience, that the book which bears his name –and which most assuredly contains much that tomes directly from him– has such surpassing importance. The value of Jeremiah, estimated by this standard, is coming more and more to be realised, and the writer of a recent book on the prophets, referring to Jer. 20:7-9, goes so far as to say that ‘Any discussion of the faith of the prophets must centre finally in this fervid record of Jeremiah’s’. In the present day there is a tendency amongst the majority of people, including the professedly religious, to neglect and in many cases altogether to ignore the reading and study of the Bible. Even amongst Bible students themselves two equally dangerous attitudes of mind are not uncommon, attitudes of mind which regard the OT. on the one hand as a collection of obsolete documents, on the other as an armoury of proof texts. (*This latter weakness marked the learning of the period before the Reformation. ‘The scholastic divines, holding to a traditional belief in the ‘plenary’ and ‘verbal’ inspiration of the whole Bible, and remorselessly pursuing this belief to its logical results, had fallen into a method of exposition almost exclusively ‘textarian’. The Bible, both in theory and in practice, had almost ceased to be a record of real events, and the lives and teaching of living men. It had become an arsenal of texts; and these texts were regarded as detached invincible weapons to be legitimately seized and wielded in theological warfare, for any purpose to which their words might be made to apply, without reference to their original meaning or context…. Thus had the scholastic belief in the verbal inspiration of the sacred text led men blindly into a condition of mind in which they practically ignored the scriptures altogether.’ Seebohm, ‘The Oxford Reformers’, ch. ii. § 1.) The effect in each case is the same, the OT. falls into the background and its influence tends to become more and more like ‘a lingering star with lessening ray.’ This modern tendency to neglect OT. is fraught with much danger, because the two parts of Holy Scripture are so closely linked together that a study and appreciation of OT. is essential to a due and proper understanding of the New.” ……..”But the teaching of OT. has a value its own, and in particular the teaching of those great forerunners of the Messiah, the prophets. Amongst the prophetical books there is none which has a more striking message for modern times than the book of Jeremiah. Even in the days before the great European “War the value of a study of this book was recognised by so clear-sighted a judge as Bishop Westcott, who in the notice to the second edition of his commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (Sept. 1892) wrote as follows:
‘The more I study the tendencies of the time in some of the busiest centres of English life, the more deeply I feel that the Spirit of God warns us of our most urgent civil and spiritual dangers through the prophecies of Jeremiah and the Epistle to the Hebrews.’ But it is since the outbreak of the war and amidst all the shocks which the traditional faith has had to undergo, that the supreme importance of Jeremiah’s teaching has come most clearly to be recognised; and it has come to be recognised because the situation in which the prophet found himself has so much in common with that of the present day. His message was delivered during an age of transition, and delivered moreover to a people whose beliefs, founded on material conceptions of God, had been shattered by the course of events, by the harsh tragedies of actual life.” ……”Amongst canonical prophets he owed most to ‘Hosea’. Not only was he indebted to him for many of his ideas, but he has even preserved and re-expressed the very images in which the earlier prophet had clothed them. It is not merely that the circumstances of the two prophets were very similar, Hosea being the herald of the Fall of Samaria, as Jeremiah was of that of Judah, but the resemblance is so close that there must have been definite borrowing on the part of the later prophet”. It is to Hosea that Jeremiah owes the conception of Jehovah as the loving husband of the nation, as well as the idea of God as Father; it is through his influence that the service of other gods is described as adultery and fornication; and doubtless it was from the same source that Jeremiah got his figure of the wilderness period as the espousal time. [Compare Isaiah as to Husband, Father, & Marriage Relations of God to Israel.] From the prophet ‘Micah’, in addition to the quotation of Mic. 3:12 in 26:18, Jeremiah seems to have derived some of his teaching, for the utterances of the two prophets have much in common. It may well be, however, that this similarity, which seldom extends to actual wording, was due more to similarity of situation than to direct borrowing; as was pointed out above the fact that Jeremiah was recognised as a second Micah is evidence of some resemblance in character and teaching. The parallels between ‘Amos’ and the book of Jeremiah are fairly numerous, though it is not certain that they originated with the prophet himself, being found as they are for the greater part in the section on the nations. Dr. Harper sees distinct traces of Amos’ influence and quotes several instances of it, the most striking being that in these two prophetic books only is there use made of the phrases ‘virgin of Israel’ and ‘days are coming’ Jeremiah does not seem to have owed much to the teaching of his greatest predecessor ‘Isaiah’, at any rate as far as it is contained in OT.; and though there are resemblances between his prophecies and those of his contemporary Zephaniah they would appear to arise more from the similarity of environment than from any mutual influence. With ‘Nahum’ and ‘Habakkuk’, who were also his contemporaries in all probability, Jeremiah’s writings shew little kinship and the difference in point of view is so striking as to preclude the possibility of influence.”……”ii: Its Contents: The contents of the book are hard to analyse and indeed bewildering in their present form which seems to follow no consistent scheme of arrangement; and this bewilderment is increased by the absence of any attempt to take advantage of the chronological notes, which in the later chapters, at all events, are sufficiently numerous. As Canon Nairne has said, ‘The book of Jeremiah is not easily analysed. Attempts have been made to classify its contents. One attempt by the Jewish Synagogue provides the book as we know it in our English Bible. Probably the most helpful way of looking at the book is to think of it as a collection of manuscripts, stored in some corner of a library, not yet fully catalogued, but providing material of different kinds for the illustration of a period of history. The period includes political and religious events of great significance, and people and scenes pass so quickly before our eyes that it is only natural we should find it difficult to put the papers in order.’ Perhaps the best attempt to re-arrange the contents of Jeremiah is that of Cornill in SBOT., yet even it can hardly be called final or really satisfactory. His arrangement is as follows:
(‘a’) Discourses from the first twenty-three years of the prophet’s ministry (i.e. up to the date of the compilation of the roll, 604 B.C.), (1:2, 4-19; 2:1-13, 18-37; 3:1-5, 19-25; 4:3-9, 11-31; 5:1-19, 23-31; 6:1-30; 3:6-16; 11; 12:1-3, 5f.; 18; 7; 8; 9:1-21; 10:17-24; 25:1-3, 7, 11, 13’a’, 15-29; 46:1-12; 47; 48:1-21’a’, 25, 28, 35-44; 49:1-33).
(‘b’) Discourses from the later years of Jehoiakim, (14; 15:1-10, 15-21; 16:1-13, 16 ff., 21; 17:1-4, 14-18; 12:7-17; 35:1-14, 17 ff).
(‘c’) Discourses from the reign of Jehoiachin, (13).
(‘d’) Discourses from the reign of Zedekiah, (24; 29:1, 3-15, 21-22’a’, 31’b’-32; 49:34-39; 22; 23:1-6, 9-18, 21-40; 21:1-10, 13 f.; 20:14-18, 7—12; 32:1’a’, 2’a’, 6-15, 24-44; 33:1, 4-13; 23:7 f. (=16:14 f.).
(‘e’) Discourses from the period after the fall of Jerusalem, (30:1-9, 13-21; 31:1, 2-9, 15-34, 38 ff.; 46:13-26).
(‘f’) Passages for which no satisfactory context can be found, (2:14-17; 9:22-25; 12:4; 16:19 f.; 17:5, 11-13).
(‘g’) Biographical passages composed after the death of Jeremiah, (19; 20:1-6; 26:1-19,24, 20-23; 36; 45; 28:l’a’; 27:1’b’, 6, 8-22; 28:1’b’-17; 51:59, 60,61, 63, 64; 34:1-7; 37:5, 3, 6-10; 34:8-22; 37:4, 11-21; 38:1-28 ‘a’; 39:15-18; 38:1-28’b’; 39:3, 14; 40:6-16; 41; 42; 43; 44:1-28).
(‘h’) Further biographical passages from a different author than the writer of those specified in (‘g’), (10:1-4, 9, 5-8, 10, 12-16; 17:19-27; 39:1, 2, 4-12; 40:1-5; 50;51; 52).
The remaining passages which it is needless to specify, consisting as they do in most cases of a few verses only, or even of parts of a verse, Cornill rejects as later glosses and interpolations.
Taking the book as it stands in EVV. the following is perhaps the best manner of dividing it up.
Part I. ‘Prophecies Mainly Included in Roll’: (Chapters & Verses):
(a) Prophet’s Call, (1). (b) 1st Collection of Prophecies, (2-6). (c) Prophecies at Temple Gate, (7-10). (d) Prophecies on Various Occasions, (11-12). (e) Warnings & Lamentations, (13). (f) Disaster and Despair, (14-17:18). (g) Concerning Sabbath, (17:19-27). (h) Lessons from Potter’s Art, (18-20).
Part II. ‘Prophecies Mainly from Siege & After:
(a) Judgements on Leaders & People, (21-24). (b) Cup of God’s Fury, (25). (c) Temple Sermon & its Sequel, (26).
(d) False Prophets & their Teaching, (27-29:27). (e) Glories of Future, (30-33). (f) Jeremiah’s Life During Siege, (34-39:14). (g) Jeremiah’s Life After Fall of Jerusalem, (40-45).
Part III. Prophecies on Nations:
(a) Concerning Nations, (46-51). (b) Historical Appendix, (52). }}

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Christian Biblical Reflections.26

      (The Book of Jeremiah the Prophet & his Lamentations is now completed as promised, a year longer than I hoped. Health issues has been the primary cause of the delay; I am thankful to the Great Physician in extending my time here below, giving me the time to complete many projects lingering for some 5 years. I have been able to edit the collection of many Public Domain books, especially the multi-volume sets, including Biblical & Theological Journals. I have been able to edit & upload the 300 volumes of the Loeb Classical Library of the Greek-Latin-English volumes as a complete set to Internet Archives. In the Christian Biblical Reflections on Jeremiah I have been compelled to again alter my style of writing. Some have expressed confusion in discerning when I am writing or speaking my Reflections specifically. I now adopt braces {} to isolate my Reflections from others where it can be confused. The double {{}} are still used for the Selections in the work. The use of italics & colored fonts are not reproduced in Notepad in which I usually initially write. WordPad allows for the italics & colored fonts; then I move the finished writing to Word & PDF. I do not know how much time I have left down here (I just turned 67), but my hope to the Lord is to finish Chapter 5, Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets in the next 6 months; this completes volume 2. If it is permitted to me, volume 3, the New Testament, should take another 6 months. mjmselim. Oct. 2019.)

      Christian Biblical Reflections: Chapter 4: Isaiah – Jeremiah & Lamentations (Ezekiel not yet ready.): Isaiah: pages 1-113; Jeremiah & Lamentations: pages 114-232.

Here are the links to the Isaiah submissions or posts:
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/17/christian-biblical-reflections-25/
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/16/christian-biblical-reflections-24/
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/15/christian-biblical-reflections-23/
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/14/christian-biblical-reflections-22/
Here is the link to volume 1(pages 1-562):
https://mjmselim.files.wordpress.com/2018/08/cbr-1-3-aug122018-christbibreflect-mjmselim-orgnl-08112018-24.pdf 

(Here is CBR submission or part 26, pages 114-171. Jeremiah & Lamentations.)

Part IV: ISAIAH, JEREMIAH & LAMENTATIONS, & EZEKIEL.
Part IV: ISAIAH – EZEKIEL: Prophetical Books: Three: Major-Greater-Longer Prophets.

Book of the Prophet JEREMIAH & LAMENTATIONS: (Chapters 1-52 & 1-5)

The Words of Jeremiah benHilkiah, of the Priests in Anathoth (some 3 miles N-E of Jerusalem) in the Land of Benjamin: Jehovah’s Word came to him in the Days of Josiah benAmon, Judah’s King, in the 13th Year of his Reign; and in the Days of Jehoiakim benJosiah, Judah’s King, unto the 11th Year of Zedekiah benJosiah, Judah’s King, unto the Captivity & Exile of Jerusalem in the 5th Month. (From about B.C. 520-490 (others add 100 years, 620-590). Josiah ruled for 31 yrs; Jehoahaz ruled 3 mnths; Jehoiakim ruled 11 yrs; Jehoiachin ruled 3 mnths; & Zedekiah ruled 11 yrs. The regal years equals: 31+11+11+1/2= 53 & 1/2 yrs subtract 13 yrs of Josiah’s rule we get 40 yrs of Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry to the Throne. In Isaiah we learnt that Hezekiah died at age 54 about B.C. 590, that Manasseh ruled for 55 yrs & Amon ruled 2 years; Manasseh took the Throne at age 12 after King Hezekiah died; therefore we have some 70 yrs between the end of Isaiah’s ministry to the Throne & the commencement of Jeremiah’s ministry to the Throne. In 2nd Kings 21-24 & 2nd Chronicles 33-35 we have the regal history behind the prophetic ministry of Jeremiah. In Isaiah the best King was Hezekiah; in Jeremiah it was Josiah. The nature of the Kings reflect the character of the people & the kingdom.)
The Lord’s Word came to Jeremiah: `Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee; I have appointed thee a Prophet unto the Nations (Gentiles)`. Jeremiah complains that he is a mere inarticulate youth; but the Lord replied: `Say not, I am a child; for to whomsoever I shall send thee thou shalt go, and whatsoever I shall command thee thou shalt speak. Be not afraid because of them; for I am with thee to deliver thee, saith Jehovah.` The Lord then touched his mouth, saying: `Behold, I have put My Words in thy mouth: see, I have this day set thee over the Nations (Gentiles) and over the Kingdoms, to pluck up and to break down and to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant.`
(If we compare Jeremiah to Isaiah we see some interesting contrasts; the conditions under which both ministered were clearly different; yet there are striking similarities to each. In Scripture we have encountered God’s calling & choosing youths: Joseph, Samuel, David, Solomon, Joash, Azariah-Uzziah, & Josiah. Isaiah predicted Judah’s doom by Babylon; under Josiah’s father Amon & his grandfather Manasseh that doom was again & again confirmed. In King Josiah’s reign, in his 8th year at age 16, the King started to purge Judah & Jerusalem of idolatry; in the 13th year at age 21, Jeremiah was called by God; 5 years later, in the King’s 18th year @ age 26, King Josiah’s Great Revival & Reform by the High Priest Hilkiah & the Scribe Shaphan was started in the Repair of the Lord’s House & Temple. It was at that time the Book of the Law (Deuteronomy) was found in the Lord’s House. “At that time King Josiah sent to inquire concerning the Words of the Book, to the Huldah the Prophetess, the wife of Shallum benTikvah, benHarhas, Keeper of the Wardrobe (now she dwelt in Jerusalem in the second quarter); and they communed with her. And she said unto them, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel: “Tell ye the man that sent you unto Me, Thus saith Jehovah, Behold, I will bring evil upon this place, and upon the inhabitants thereof, even all the Words of the Book which the King of Judah hath read. Because they have forsaken Me, and have burned incense unto other `gods`, that they might provoke Me to anger with all the work of their hands, therefore My Wrath shall be kindled against this place, and it shall not be quenched. But unto the King of Judah, who sent you to inquire of Jehovah, thus shall ye say to him, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel: As touching the Words which thou hast heard, because thy heart was tender, and thou didst humble thyself before Jehovah, when thou heardest what I spake against this place, and against the inhabitants thereof, that they should become a desolation and a curse, and hast rent thy clothes, and wept before Me; I also have heard thee, saith Jehovah. Therefore, behold, I will gather thee to thy fathers, and thou shalt be gathered to thy grave in peace, neither shall thine eyes see all the evil which I will bring upon this place.”” They brought the King word again; the King gathered all the Elders of Judah & of Jerusalem. The King went up to the Lord’s House, with the men of Judah, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the priests, the prophets, and the people, both small and great: he read in their ears all the Words of the Book of the Covenant which was found in the Lord’s House. The King stood by the pillar, and made a Covenant before the Lord, to walk after Him, to keep His Commandments, His Testimonies, and His Statutes, with all heart & soul, to confirm the Words of this Covenant that were written in this Book: and all the people stood to the Covenant. The King commanded Hilkiah the High Priest, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the threshold, to bring forth out of the Lord’s Temple the vessels that were made for Baal, for the Asherah, and for all the host of heaven, and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of the Kidron, and carried the ashes of them to Beth-el. And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven. And he brought out the Asherah from the Lord’s House, out of Jerusalem, to the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron, beat it to dust, and cast the dust thereof upon the graves of the common people. He brake down the houses of the sodomites, that were in the Lord’s House, where the women wove hangings for the Asherah. He brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the High Places where the Priests had burned incense, from Geba to Beer-sheba; he brake down the High Places of the Gates that were at the entrance of the Gate of Joshua the Governor of the City, which were on a man’s left hand at the Gate of the City. Nevertheless the priests of the High Places came not up to the Altar of Jehovah in Jerusalem, but they did eat unleavened bread among their brethren. He desecrated Topheth, which is in the Valley of Beni-Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech. He took away the [statue ] Horses that the kings of Judah had given to the Sun, at the entrance of the Lord’s House, by the Chamber of Nathan-melech the Chamberlain, which was in the precincts; and he burned the Chariots of the Sun with fire. The Altars that were on the roof of the upper Chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, the Altars which Manasseh had made in the two Courts of the Lord’s House, he broke down, beat [them] down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the Brook Kidron. The High Places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the Mount of Corruption, which King Solomon of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the Abomination of the Sidonians, and for Chemosh the Abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the Abomination of Beni-Ammon, did the King desecrate. He broke in pieces the Pillars, and cut down the Asherim, and filled their places with the bones of men. Moreover the Altar that was at Beth-el, the High Place which Jeroboam benNebat, who made Israel to sin, had made, even that Altar & High Place he broke down; he burned the High Place and beat it to dust, and burned the Asherah. And as Josiah turned himself, he spied the Sepulchres that were there in the mount; and he sent, and took the bones out of the Sepulchres, and burned them upon the Altar, and desecrated it, according to the Lord’s Word which the Man of God proclaimed concerning these things. Then he said, What Monument is that which I see? And the men of the city told him, It is the Sepulchre of the Man of God, who came from Judah, and proclaimed these things that thou hast done against the Altar of Beth-el. And he said, Let him be; let no man move his bones. So they let his bones alone, with the bones of the Prophet that came out of Samaria. And all the houses also of the High Places that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke to anger, Josiah took away, and did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Beth-el. And he slew all the Priests of the High Places that were there, upon the altars, and burned men’s bones upon them; and he returned to Jerusalem. The King commanded all the people, saying, Keep the Passover to the Lord your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant. Surely there was not kept such a Passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah; but in the 18th year of King Josiah was this passover kept to the Lord in Jerusalem. Moreover them that had familiar spirits, the wizards, the teraphim, the idols, and all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah & in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might confirm the Words of the Law which were written in the Book that the Priest Hilkiah found in the Lord’s House. Like to him was there no King before him, that turned to the Lord with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him.”)
The Lord’s Word came to Jeremiah: What do yu see? I see an Almond-tree Rod. Yu’ve seen well: I’ll make sure My Word is fulfilled. The Lord’s Word came to Jeremiah: 2nd time: What do yu see? A Boiling Caldron facing North. “Out of the North evil shall break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land. For, lo, I will call all the families of the kingdoms of the north, saith Jehovah; and they shall come, and they shall set every one his throne at the entrance of the Gates of Jerusalem, and against all the Walls thereof round about, and against all the Cities of Judah. And I will utter My Judgments against them touching all their wickedness, in that they have forsaken Me, and have burned incense unto other `gods`, and worshipped the works of their own hands. Thou therefore gird up thy loins, and arise, and speak unto them all that I command thee: be not dismayed at them, lest I dismay thee before them. For, behold, I have made thee this day a Fortified City, and an Iron Pillar, and Brazen Walls, against the whole Land, against the kings of Judah, against the princes thereof, against the priests thereof, and against the people of the land. And they shall fight against thee; but they shall not prevail against thee: for I am with thee, saith Jehovah, to deliver thee.”
The Lord’s Word came to Jeremiah: (2:1-3:5): The Lord says to Jerusalem: I remember yur young kindness, yur first love for me in the wilderness. Israel was His holiness, His first harvest: his devourers are guilty & evil comes to them. To the House of Jacob & Israel: What unrighteousness in Me has caused your rejection & vanity? No one remembers the Exodus from Egypt, the barren wilderness journey; or when I brought you to fertile Canaan, where you defiled My Land & made it an abomination. My Priests & Scribes were ignorant of Me; the rulers transgressed, and the prophets of Baal were useless. I will quarrel with with you & your children; from Kittim Islands in the North-West to Kedar in the North-East (or South-East) has this been seen & heard?: a nation changing their `gods` (idols)? My People exchange their Glory for nothing! Let the heavens be astonished & terrified: My People have two evils: they forsake Me to make broken cisterns for water! Israel is prey for the young lions; his land is destroyed & empty. The children of Memphis & Tahpanhes (in Egypt) has broken the crown of yur head; because yu’ve forsaken the Lord yur Guide. Why go south to drink the Egyptian waters of Shihor Brook, or go north to the Assyrian waters of the Euphrates River? Yur own evil ways & deeds will punish yu for forsaking the Lord; though long ago I freed yu from slavery, yu have been a harlot everywhere; though I planted yu the best vine & seed, yu’ve become a strange degenerate vine; no soap can wash away yur iniquity. Why deny yur defilement with the Baalim as a swift & wild Arabian camel? as a wild desert donkey, stubborn & yearning. Put on yur sandals, satisfy yur thirst; instead yu say it’s useless, I will seek the strangers that I love. The House of Israel is a shamed thief: people, kings, princes, priests, & prophets; saying: stock, yu are my Father; stone, yu are my Mother; but they have rejected Me; yet in trouble they beg Me saying: save us. But where are the many `gods` (idols) yu made; why do yu fight with Me, let them save yu, yu transgressors; I struck yur children, but they were not corrected; your own sword like a lion devoured the prophets. O generation, see the Lord’s Word: Am I a wilderness to Israel? a land of darkness? Why do My people say: we’re free, nevermore to come to Yu. Virgins & brides do not forget their ornaments & attire; but My People always forget Me. Why do dress up for love as an example to wicked women; yur skirts have the blood of poor innocent souls in open daylight; yet yu say: I’m innocent, He’ll not be mad. But I will judge yu for denying yur sin. Why do yu try so hard to appear good? yu’ll be ashamed of Egypt & Assyria; led away as captives by those whom the Lord as rejected. It’s said that a divorced & remarried woman that if then she returns to first husband is a very polluted land; Israel yu’re a harlot with many lovers, yet the Lord says to return to Him: yu are a well-known harlot as the famous Arabian desert whore polluting the land; the rain are withheld from the shameless harlot. Why not return to Me and say: My Father, the Guide of my virgin youth; He’ll not stay angry. But yu are a boastful harlot. The prophetic note & pattern is now established for the Book of Jeremiah: Israel’s unrepentant harlotry in idolatry & depravity.

As we have been noticing to the reader the Divine Communication in various colors (red, blue, & purple) for the direct & indirect words, so here is a general summary for those red letters in Jeremiah: Chapters & Verses: 1: many verses. 2-3: full chapters, except for a few verses. 4-6: most of chapters. 7: full chapter. 8: most of chapter. 9: all chapter less 3 verses. 10: 5 verses. 11-15: most of chapters. 16: whole chapter less 3 verses. 17-18: half chapters. 19: whole chapter less 2 verses. 20: 3 verses. 21-23: most of chapters less few verses. 24-25: half of chapters. 26: few verses. 27: chapter less 51/2 verses. 28: 3 verses. 29: chapter less 4 verses. 30-31: whole chapters less few verses. 32: half of chapter. 33: whole chapter less 3 verses. 34: most of chapter. 35: half of chapter. 36: 6 verses. 37: 4 1/2 verses. 38: 4 verses. 39: 3 verses. 42: 8 1/2 verses. 43: half of chapter. 44: most of chapter. 45: 2 of 5 verses in chapter. 46: whole chapter less 3 verses. 47: whole chapter less 1 verse. 48-50: whole chapters less few verses. 51: most of chapter.

The Lord gives to Jeremiah a new vision during the days of King Josiah: Harlot Sisters Israel & Judah: The Lord desires Israel to confess their adultery, idolatry, & depravity, and to return to Him to be forgiven & blessed; but she refused; and her treacherous sister Judah followed her example; if after the Lord divorced Israel (by Captivity & Exile), still Judah persisted in her immorality & vileness without shame or fear; but pretended to be a faithful wife. The Lord decides & declares that immoral Israel is only half as bad as treacherous Judah; so He tells Jeremiah to invite Israel to return in repentance to the Lord Who is merciful and no longer angry with her as with Judah. If Israel returns repentant then the Lord will return them from exile to Zion: “and I will give you shepherds according to My Heart, who shall feed you with knowledge and understanding. And it shall come to pass, when ye are multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith Jehovah, they shall say no more, The Ark of the Covenant of Jehovah; neither shall it come to mind; neither shall they remember it; neither shall they miss it; neither shall it be made any more. At that time they shall call Jerusalem the Throne of Jehovah; and all the Nations (Gentiles) shall be gathered unto it, to the Name of Jehovah, to Jerusalem: neither shall they walk any more after the stubbornness of their evil heart. In those days the House of Judah shall walk with the House of Israel, and they shall come together out of the land of the north to the Land that I gave for an inheritance unto your fathers. But I said, How I will put thee among the children, and give thee a pleasant land, a goodly heritage of the hosts of the nations (Gentiles)! and I said, Ye shall call me My Father, and shall not turn away from following Me. Surely as a wife treacherously departeth from her husband, so have ye dealt treacherously with Me, O House of Israel, saith Jehovah. A voice is heard upon the bare heights, the weeping [and] the supplications of the children of Israel; because they have perverted their way, they have forgotten Jehovah their God. Return, ye backsliding children, I will heal your backslidings.” Behold, we are come unto Thee; for Thou art Jehovah our God. In the Lord God is Israel’s Salvation. The return to the Lord will be a restoration to the land with the Lord as King, and the Gentiles will in Him be blessed & glory: If the Jews of Jerusalem & Judah become a good soil, with hearts for the Lord; but if not, the Lord’s Fire will consume them. Let this news be made known that: let everyone go & hide from the northern invader, the destroying lion; and cry aloud at the Lord’s Fury that will break the heart of all: kings, princes, priests, & prophets. Jeremiah tells the Lord that He has deceived the Jews with peace, though He determines to destroy; it will be as a hot desert wind to afflict them in judgment. The invader will come destructive speed; if they would just cleanse themselves He would save them from doom. News in Dan & Ephraim to the Gentiles to come against the Jews, as field workers they come because of wickedness. I am in great anxiety at the coming war; total destruction & devastation of the land & the people; how long will it take before war news end. The Jews are children that are foolish, ignorant, & spoiled: stupid to do good, wise to do evil. Vision of Judgment on the Model of Creation Week of Genesis Chapters 1 & 2 : “I beheld the earth, and, lo, it was waste and void; and the heavens, and they had no light. I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they trembled, and all the hills moved to and fro. I beheld, and, lo, there was no man, and all the birds of the heavens were fled. I beheld, and, lo, the fruitful field was a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were broken down at the presence of Jehovah, [and] before His Fierce Anger. For thus saith Jehovah, The whole land shall be a desolation; yet will I not make a full end. For this shall the earth mourn, and the heavens above be black; because I have spoken it, I have purposed it, and I have not repented, neither will I turn back from it. Every city fleeth for the noise of the horsemen and bowmen; they go into the thickets, and climb up upon the rocks: every city is forsaken, and not a man dwelleth therein. And thou, when thou art made desolate, what wilt thou do? Though thou clothest thyself with scarlet, though thou deckest thee with ornaments of gold, though thou enlargest thine eyes with paint, in vain dost thou make thyself fair; [thy] lovers despise thee, they seek thy life. For I have heard a voice as of a woman in travail, the anguish as of her that bringeth forth her first child, the voice of the Daughter of Zion, that gaspeth for breath, that spreadeth her hands, [saying], Woe is me now! for my soul fainteth before the murderers.”
The prophecy continues: “Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now, and know, and seek in the broad places thereof, if ye can find a man, if there be any that doeth justly, that seeketh truth; and I will pardon her. And though they say, As Jehovah liveth; surely they swear falsely.” Jeremiah prays concerning their unrepentant stubbornness & apostasy. He goes to the common people, but they are unchanged; he goes the nobles thinking they know the Lord’s Way, but they are worse. Therefore wild animals assault them. The Lord cannot pardon them in their apostasy of idolatry, adultery, & harlotry; they line up at the whore’s tent, like wild lusting adulteress horses. The Lord must avenge Himself of such a nation; go destroy her, but not completely, they are not the Lord’s. Both Houses of Israel & Judah are treacherous against the Lord; they deny the Lord & His Judgment; the prophets are empty; their speech shall devour them. The Lord will bring the invader, a nation distant, terrible, ancient & strange, against the House of Israel; and they will kill & destroy indiscriminately; yet I will not make a full end of you. Then you will say: Why is He doing this to us? Tell them: because of your adultery & idolatry. Declare to the House of Jacob & Judah: foolish & stupid people, blind & deaf; will you not fear Me the Creator & Manager of all things; will you continue in your rebellion, unrepentant, heartless, godless, sinful, wicked, murders; liars & deceivers, rich & powerful, greedy & fat; pros at wickedness, oppressors of the poor in justice. The Lord’s soul will be avenged on such a depraved nation, full of lying prophets, and avarice priests, and people who love it that way.
The prophecy continues & concludes: Benjaminites run from Jerusalem, blow trumpets in Tekoa (about 6 miles S of Bethlehem); raise signals in Beth-haccherim (about 5 miles W of Jerusalem); doom comes from the north to destroy delicate Zion. Her city will be pasteurs for shepherds with flocks; make war against her day & night; destroy the city which is a well of wickedness & violence. Learn Jerusalem not to alienate the Lord’s Soul, that desolation be avoided; the remnant of Israel will be gleaned as vine. Their uncircumcised ears cannot hear; the Lord’s Word is a reproach & despised; so I am fed up, I’ll destroy everything; they all covet & deceive, including the prophet & priest: healing with words of false peace; shameless & despicable; they are damned. Seek the old ways & paths of goodness & rest; you refuse the watchmen’s warnings, so the evil that the Lord brings will match their thoughts & deeds in rejection of the Lord’s Word & Law. Why do you worship Me with such rare & costly gifts, that I despise? The Lord will cause all of you to fall & perish; even by the northern warring conquering invaders; like a pregnant woman be troubled in travail in your dilemma & doom. Jeremiah is a Tester & Fortress of Israel the corrupt rebellious people; unrefinable refuse rejected by the Lord.

The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah (chapter 7): “Stand in the gate of Jehovah’s House, and proclaim there this Word, and say, Hear the Word of Jehovah, all ye of Judah, that enter in at these gates to worship Jehovah. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, Amend your ways and your doings, and I will cause you to dwell in this Place. Trust ye not in lying words, saying, The Temple of Jehovah, the Temple of Jehovah, the Temple of Jehovah, are these. For if ye thoroughly amend your ways and your doings; if ye thoroughly execute justice between a man and his neighbor; if ye oppress not the sojourner, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this Place, neither walk after other `gods` to your own hurt: then will I cause you to dwell in this Place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, from of old even for evermore. Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit. Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and burn incense unto Baal, and walk after other `gods` that ye have not known, and come and stand before Me in this House, which is called by My Name, and say, We are delivered; that ye may do all these abominations? Is this House, which is called by My Name, become a Den of Robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it, saith Jehovah. But go ye now unto My Place which was in Shiloh, where I caused My Name to dwell at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of My people Israel. And now, because ye have done all these works, saith Jehovah, and I spake unto you, rising up early and speaking, but ye heard not; and I called you, but ye answered not: therefore will I do unto the House which is called by My Name, wherein ye trust, and unto the place which I gave to you and to your fathers, as I did to Shiloh. And I will cast you out of My Sight, as I have cast out all your brethren, even the whole Seed of Ephraim. Therefore pray not thou for this People, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither make intercession to Me; for I will not hear thee. Seest thou not what they do in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem? The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead the dough, to make cakes to the Queen of Heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto other `gods`, that they may provoke Me to anger. Do they provoke Me to anger? saith Jehovah; [do they] not [provoke] themselves, to the confusion of their own faces? Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah: Behold, Mine Anger and My Wrath shall be poured out upon this Place, upon man, and upon beast, and upon the trees of the field, and upon the fruit of the ground; and it shall burn, and shall not be quenched. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat ye flesh. For I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices: but this thing I commanded them, saying, Hearken unto My Voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be My People; and walk ye in all the Way that I command you, that it may be well with you. But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in [their own] counsels [and] in the stubbornness of their evil heart, and went backward, and not forward. Since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt unto this day, I have sent unto you all My Servants the Prophets, daily rising up early and sending them: yet they hearkened not unto Me, nor inclined their ear, but made their neck stiff: they did worse than their fathers. And thou shalt speak all these words unto them; but they will not hearken to thee: thou shalt also call unto them; but they will not answer thee. And thou shalt say unto them, This is the nation that hath not hearkened to the Voice of Jehovah their God, nor received instruction: truth is perished, and is cut off from their mouth.” Cut yur hair Jerusalem, and lament that the Lord has rejected & doomed yu; because yu have polluted His House, and erected the High Places of Topheth in the Valley of Ben Hinnom (couple miles south of Jerusalem where disgusting sacrifices were offered & burnt in fire their children to Moloch); but it soon will be the Valley of Slaughter where their slaughtered dead will have no place to be buried, but will be feasts to the birds & beasts; Jerusalem wasted & quiet. The prophecy continues: The Jerusalem’s Jews will be slaughtered, their bones will be left in the open as dung; the tiny remnant will seek death; men fall & get up, they learn from it; the Lord’s people never learn from judgment, they always persist in evil; He listened but found no honest or good person; they are more stupid than animals. They boast in wisdom of the Lord’s Law by lying scribes; they have no peace, but are shameless in abominations; they are damned to doom; a barren land. They run & hide from the Lord’s calamity because of their sins; they are hopeless. The invader comes through Dan to conquer; they cry for comfort from their King, but the Lord rejects them to the snakes: “The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved.” Is there no help or healing from Gilead of Reuben & Gad across the Jordan River; no medical doctor to visit. The Lord as Messiah in Jeremiah continues: “‘Oh that My Head were waters, and Mine Eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the Daughter of My People! Oh that I had in the wilderness a lodging-place of wayfaring men; that I might leave My People, and go from them! for they are all adulterers, an assembly of treacherous men. And they bend their tongue, [as it were] their bow, for falsehood; and they are grown strong in the land, but not for truth: for they proceed from evil to evil, and they know not Me`, saith Jehovah.” Neighbors & kin are treacherous to each other, evil liars, decievers; the Lord will refine them; they are hypocrites & thugs. The Lord will visit them with judgment; the land will grieve for them; Jerusalem & Judah devastated. Let the scholar & prophet explain why this judgment: ” And Jehovah saith, `Because they have forsaken My Law which I set before them, and have not obeyed My Voice, neither walked therein, but have walked after the stubbornness of their own heart, and after the Baalim, which their fathers taught them`; therefore thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, `Behold, I will feed them, even this people, with wormwood, and give them water of gall to drink. I will scatter them also among the Nations (Gentiles), whom neither they nor their fathers have known; and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them.`” Let the women mourn & cry in Zion for the total ruin; the Lord tells them to teach a lamentation for the slaughter. ” Thus saith Jehovah, `Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth glory in this, that he hath understanding, and knoweth Me, that I am Jehovah who exerciseth lovingkindness, justice, and righteousness, in the earth: for in these things I delight`, saith Jehovah.`” The Lord will soon punish the uncircumcised Gentiles (Egypt, Edom, Ammonites, Moabites) & the Jews (Judah) of uncircumcised hearts.
The Lord continues to the House of Israel (chapter 10): “` Learn not the way of the Nations (Gentiles), and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the Nations (Gentiles) are dismayed at them. For the customs of the peoples are vanity; for one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman with the axe. They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not. They are like a palm-tree, of turned work, and speak not: they must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them; for they cannot do evil, neither is it in them to do good.`” Then Jeremiah in spirit prays & says: “`There is none like unto Thee, O Jehovah; Thou art Great, and Thy Name is Great in Might. Who should not fear Thee, O King of the Nations (Gentiles)? for to Thee doth it appertain; forasmuch as among all the wise men of the Nations (Gentiles), and in all their royal estate, there is none like unto thee.` But they are together brutish and foolish: the instruction of idols! it is but a stock. There is silver beaten into plates, which is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the artificer and of the hands of the goldsmith; blue and purple for their clothing; they are all the work of skilful men. But Jehovah is the True God; He is the Living God, and an Everlasting King: at His Wrath the earth trembleth, and the Nations (Gentiles) are not able to abide His Indignation.`” The Lord to Jeremiah: “Thus shall ye (Messiah, Jeremiah, & the Jews) say unto them, `The `gods` that have not made the heavens and the earth, these shall perish from the earth, and from under the heavens.` `He hath made the earth by His Power, He hath established the world by His Wisdom, and by His Understanding hath He stretched out the heavens: when He uttereth His Voice, there is a tumult of waters in the heavens, and He causeth the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; He maketh lightnings for the rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of His Treasuries.` `Every man is become brutish [and is] without knowledge; every goldsmith is put to shame by his graven image; for his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them. They are vanity, a work of delusion: in the time of their visitation they shall perish. The Portion of Jacob is not like these; for He is the Former of all things; and Israel is the Tribe of His Inheritance: Jehovah of Hosts is His Name.` `Gather up thy wares out of the land, O thou that abidest in the siege`. For thus saith Jehovah, `Behold, I will sling out the inhabitants of the land at this time, and will distress them, that they may feel [it].`” The Messianic Spirit in Jeremiah responds: “` Woe is Me because of My hurt! My Wound is grievous: but I said, Truly this is [My] Grief, and I must bear it. My Tent is destroyed, and all My Cords are broken: My Children are gone forth from Me, and they are not: there is none to spread My Tent any more, and to set up My Curtains. For the shepherds are become brutish, and have not inquired of Jehovah: therefore they have not prospered, and all their flocks are scattered. The voice of tidings, behold, it cometh, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Judah a desolation, a dwelling-place of jackals. `O Jehovah, I know that the way of man is not in himself: it is not in man that walketh to direct his steps. O Jehovah, correct Me, but in measure: not in Thine Anger, lest thou bring Me to nothing. Pour out Thy Wrath upon the Nations (Gentiles) that know Thee not, and upon the families that call not on Thy Name: for they have devoured Jacob, yea, they have devoured him and consumed him, and have laid waste his habitation.`”
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: Let the Jews listen up: “`Cursed be the man that heareth not the Words of this Covenant, which I commanded your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the Iron Furnace, saying, Obey My Voice, and do them, according to all which I command you: so shall ye be My People, and I will be your God; that I may establish the Oath which I sware unto your Fathers, to give them a Land flowing with milk and honey, as at this day.`” Jeremiah responds: ‘Amen, Lord’; the Lord tells him to proclaim to the Jews: ‘comply with the words of the Covenant; obey My Voice as I commanded in the Exodus from Egypt, but they obeyed not, but have always been stubborn in heart; so I have punished according to the Words of the Covenant.’ The Lord tells Jeremiah: the Jews have a conspiracy: they’ve returned to their forefather’s iniquities, refusing to obey, idolaters, covenant breakers; the Lord will bring inescapable tragedy; they’ll cry to their idols to no avail. The Jew’s idols & idol altars number as Judah’s cities & Jerusalem’s streets. Pray not or cry not for these Jews, because I will not hear hear their prayer in their trouble. Why is my Beloved in My House, since she is always lewd & rejoices in evil. The Lord called your name: Green Olive-Tree, healthy & fruitful, but with a loud noise & fire He burns your broken branches. The Lord planted, but now pronounce evil against the evil House of Israel & of Judah in offering incense to Baal. The Lord reveals to Jeremiah to know & see their deeds. Jeremiah cries: “I was like a gentle lamb that is led to the slaughter; and I knew not that they had devised devices against me, [saying],Let us destroy the tree with the fruit thereof, and let us cut him off from the land of the living, that his name may be no more remembered. But, O Jehovah of Hosts, Who judgest righteously, Who triest the heart and the mind, I shall see Thy Vengeance on them; for unto Thee have I revealed my cause. Therefore thus saith Jehovah concerning the men of Anathoth, that seek thy life, saying, Thou shalt not prophesy in the name of Jehovah, that thou die not by our hand; therefore thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, Behold, I will punish them: the young men shall die by the sword; their sons and their daughters shall die by famine; and there shall be no remnant unto them: for I will bring evil upon the men of Anathoth, even the year of their visitation.” Jeremiah prays: Lord, Yu are righteous, I contend & reason with Yu: why do the wicked prosper, & the treacherous at ease? Yu planted them, they took root,they grow, & yield fruit: Yu are near in their mouth, but far from their heart. “But thou, O Jehovah, knowest me; thou seest me, and triest my heart toward thee: pull them out like sheep for the slaughter, and prepare them for the day of slaughter. How long shall the land mourn, and the herbs of the whole country wither? for the wickedness of them that dwell therein, the beasts are consumed, and the birds; because they said, He shall not see our latter end. “If thou hast run with the footmen, and they have wearied thee, then how canst thou contend with horses? and though in a land of peace thou art secure, yet how wilt thou do in the pride of the Jordan? For even thy brethren, and the house of thy father, even they have dealt treacherously with thee; even they have cried aloud after thee: believe them not, though they speak fair words unto thee. I have forsaken My House; I have cast off My Heritage; I have given the dearly Beloved of My Soul into the hand of her enemies. My Heritage is become unto Me as a lion in the forest: she hath uttered her voice against Me; therefore I have hated her. Is My Heritage unto me as a speckled bird of prey? are the birds of prey against her round about? go ye, assemble all the beasts of the field, bring them to devour. Many shepherds have destroyed My Vineyard, they have trodden My Portion under foot, they have made My pleasant Portion a desolate wilderness. They have made it a desolation; it mourneth unto me, being desolate; the whole land is made desolate, because no man layeth it to heart. Destroyers are come upon all the bare heights in the wilderness; for the Sword of Jehovah devoureth from the one end of the land even to the other end of the land: no flesh hath peace. They have sown wheat, and have reaped thorns; they have put themselves to pain, and profit nothing: and ye shall be ashamed of your fruits, because of the fierce anger of Jehovah. Thus saith Jehovah against all Mine evil neighbors, that touch the Inheritance which I have caused My people Israel to inherit: behold, I will pluck them up from off their land, and will pluck up the House of Judah from among them. And it shall come to pass, after that I have plucked them up, I will return and have compassion on them; and I will bring them again, every man to his heritage, and every man to his land. And it shall come to pass, if they will diligently learn the ways of My People, to swear by My Name, As Jehovah liveth; even as they taught My People to swear by Baal; then shall they be built up in the midst of My People. But if they will not hear, then will I pluck up that nation, plucking up and destroying it, saith Jehovah.”

The Lord tells Jeremiah to buy a linen girdle not soaked in water to gird his waist (chapter 13); & he does so. The Word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the 2nd time, saying: Take the newly bought girdle that is around yur waist; go to the Euphrates River (some 500 miles away), and hide it there in a cleft of the rock; and he did so. After many days the Lord tells him to return to the the Euphrates River and retrieve the girdle from where yu hid it. So he went and dugout the girdle; but it was deformed & useless. “Then the Word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Thus saith Jehovah, After this manner will I mar the pride of Judah, and the great pride of Jerusalem. This evil people, that refuse to hear My Words, that walk in the stubbornness of their heart, and are gone after other `gods` to serve them, and to worship them, shall even be as this girdle, which is profitable for nothing. For as the girdle cleaveth to the loins of a man, so have I caused to cleave unto Me the whole House of Israel and the whole House of Judah, saith Jehovah; that they may be unto Me for a People, and for a Name, and for a Praise, and for a Glory: but they would not hear.” Tell them the Lord says every bottle shall be filled with wine; and they’ll reply, we know it. Tell them the Lord says: “Behold, I will fill all the inhabitants of this land, even the kings that sit upon David’s Throne, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, with drunkenness. And I will dash them one against another, even the fathers and the sons together, saith Jehovah: I will not pity, nor spare, nor have compassion, that I should not destroy them.” Listen without pride to the Lord’s message: Give Him glory before He cause darkness, before you stumble on the dark mountains, before He turn the light to the shadow of death & gross darkness. But if you listen not, I will weep in secret for that pride; I will greatly cry with tears, because the Lord’s flock is captured. Say to the King & the Queen-Mother: humble yourselves, sit down, your head-dress is removed, the crown of glory. The cities of the south are shut not to be opened; all Judah is exiled; look to the north: where are yur beautiful flock? What will yu say when He sets as yur head those yu made yur friends, as the sorrows of a pregnant woman. “And if thou say in thy heart, Wherefore are these things come upon me? for the greatness of thine iniquity are thy skirts uncovered, and thy heels suffer violence. Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? then may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil. Therefore will I scatter them, as the stubble that passeth away, by the wind of the wilderness. This is thy lot, the portion measured unto thee from Me, saith Jehovah; because thou hast forgotten Me, and trusted in falsehood. Therefore will I also uncover thy skirts upon thy face, and thy shame shall appear. I have seen thine abominations, even thine adulteries, and thy neighings, the lewdness of thy whoredom, on the hills in the field. Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem! thou wilt not be made clean; how long shall it yet be?”
“The Word of Jehovah that came to Jeremiah concerning the Drought: Judah mourneth, and the gates thereof languish, they sit in black upon the ground; and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up. And their nobles send their little ones to the waters: they come to the cisterns, and find no water; they return with their vessels empty; they are put to shame and confounded, and cover their heads. Because of the ground which is cracked, for that no rain hath been in the land, the plowmen are put to shame, they cover their heads. Yea, the hind also in the field calveth, and forsaketh [her young], because there is no grass. And the wild asses stand on the bare heights, they pant for air like jackals; their eyes fail, because there is no herbage. Though our iniquities testify against us, work thou for Thy Name’s sake, O Jehovah; for our backslidings are many; we have sinned against Thee. O Thou Hope of Israel, the Saviour thereof in the time of trouble, why shouldest Thou be as a Sojourner in the land, and as a Wayfaring Man that turneth aside to tarry for a night? Why shouldest Thou be as a Man affrighted, as a Mighty Man that cannot save? yet Thou, O Jehovah, art in the midst of us, and we are called by Thy Name; leave us not. Thus saith Jehovah unto this People, Even so have they loved to wander; they have not refrained their feet: therefore Jehovah doth not accept them; now will He remember their iniquity, and visit their sins. And Jehovah said unto me, Pray not for this People for [their] good. When they fast, I will not hear their cry; and when they offer burnt-offering and meal-offering, I will not accept them; but I will consume them by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence. Then said I, Ah, Lord Jehovah! behold, the prophets say unto them, Ye shall not see the sword, neither shall ye have famine; but I will give you assured peace in this place. Then Jehovah said unto me, The prophets prophesy lies in My Name; I sent them not, neither have I commanded them, neither spake I unto them: they prophesy unto you a lying vision, and divination, and a thing of nought, and the deceit of their own heart. Therefore thus saith Jehovah concerning the prophets that prophesy in My Name, and I sent them not, yet they say, Sword and famine shall not be in this Land: By sword and famine shall those prophets be consumed. And the people to whom they prophesy shall be cast out in the streets of Jerusalem because of the famine and the sword; and they shall have none to bury them –them, their wives, nor their sons, nor their daughters: for I will pour their wickedness upon them. And thou shalt say this word unto them, Let mine eyes run down with tears night and day, and let them not cease; for the Virgin Daughter of My People is broken with a great breach, with a very grievous wound. If I go forth into the field, then, behold, the slain with the sword! and if I enter into the city, then, behold, they that are sick with famine! for both the prophet and the priest go about in the land, and have no knowledge. Hast Thou utterly rejected Judah? hath Thy soul loathed Zion? why hast Thou smitten us, and there is no healing for us? We looked for peace, but no good came; and for a time of healing, and, behold, dismay! We acknowledge, O Jehovah, our wickedness, and the iniquity of our fathers; for we have sinned against Thee. Do not abhor [us], for Thy Name’s sake; do not disgrace the Throne of Thy Glory: remember, break not Thy Covenant with us. Are there any among the vanities of the nations (Gentiles) that can cause rain? or can the heavens give showers? art not Thou He, O Jehovah our God? therefore we will wait for Thee; for Thou hast made all these things.”
“Then said Jehovah unto me, Though Moses and Samuel stood before Me, yet My Mind would not be toward this people: cast them out of My Sight, and let them go forth. And it shall come to pass, when they say unto thee, Whither shall we go forth? then thou shalt tell them, Thus saith Jehovah: Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for the famine, to the famine; and such as are for captivity, to captivity. And I will appoint over them four kinds, saith Jehovah: the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the birds of the heavens, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and to destroy. And I will cause them to be tossed to and fro among all the kingdoms of the earth, because of Manasseh, the son of Hezekiah, king of Judah, for that which he did in Jerusalem. For who will have pity upon thee, O Jerusalem? or who will bemoan thee? or who will turn aside to ask of thy welfare? Thou hast rejected Me, saith Jehovah, thou art gone backward: therefore have I stretched out My Hand against thee, and destroyed thee; I am weary with repenting. And I have winnowed them with a fan in the gates of the land; I have bereaved [them] of children, I have destroyed My People; they returned not from their ways. Their widows are increased to Me above the sand of the seas; I have brought upon them against the mother of the young men a destroyer at noonday: I have caused anguish and terrors to fall upon her suddenly. She that hath borne seven languisheth; she hath given up the ghost; her sun is gone down while it was yet day; she hath been put to shame and confounded: and the residue of them will I deliver to the sword before their enemies, saith Jehovah. Woe is me, my mother, that thou hast borne me a man of strife and a man of contention to the whole earth! I have not lent, neither have men lent to me; [yet] every one of them doth curse me. Jehovah said, Verily I will strengthen thee for good; verily I will cause the enemy to make supplication unto thee in the time of evil and in the time of affliction. Can one break iron, even iron from the north, and brass? Thy substance and thy treasures will I give for a spoil without price, and that for all thy sins, even in all thy borders. And I will make [them] to pass with thine enemies into a land which thou knowest not; for a fire is kindled in Mine Anger, which shall burn upon you. O Jehovah, Thou knowest; remember me, and visit me, and avenge me of my persecutors; take me not away in Thy longsuffering: know that for Thy sake I have suffered reproach. Thy Words were found, and I did eat them; and Thy Words were unto me a joy and the rejoicing of my heart: for I am called by Thy Name, O Jehovah, God of Hosts. I sat not in the assembly of them that make merry, nor rejoiced; I sat alone because of Thy Hand; for Thou hast filled me with indignation. Why is my pain perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed? wilt Thou indeed be unto me as a deceitful [brook], as waters that fail? Therefore thus saith Jehovah, If thou return, then will I bring thee again, that thou mayest stand before Me; and if thou take forth the precious from the vile, thou shalt be as My Mouth: they shall return unto thee, but thou shalt not return unto them. And I will make thee unto this people a fortified brazen wall; and they shall fight against thee, but they shall not prevail against thee; for I am with thee to save thee and to deliver thee, saith Jehovah. And I will deliver thee out of the hand of the wicked, and I will redeem thee out of the hand of the terrible.”
“The word of Jehovah came also unto me, saying, Thou shalt not take thee a wife, neither shalt thou have sons or daughters, in this Place. For thus saith Jehovah concerning the sons and concerning the daughters that are born in this place, and concerning their mothers that bare them, and concerning their fathers that begat them in this land: They shall die grievous deaths: they shall not be lamented, neither shall they be buried; they shall be as dung upon the face of the ground; and they shall be consumed by the sword, and by famine; and their dead bodies shall be food for the birds of the heavens, and for the beasts of the earth. For thus saith Jehovah, Enter not into the house of mourning, neither go to lament, neither bemoan them; for I have taken away My Peace from this People, saith Jehovah, even lovingkindness and tender mercies. Both great and small shall die in this Land; they shall not be buried, neither shall men lament for them, nor cut themselves, nor make themselves bald for them; neither shall men break [bread] for them in mourning, to comfort them for the dead; neither shall men give them the cup of consolation to drink for their father or for their mother. And thou shalt not go into the house of feasting to sit with them, to eat and to drink. For thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will cause to cease out of this Place, before your eyes and in your days, the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride. And it shall come to pass, when thou shalt show this People all these Words, and they shall say unto thee, Wherefore hath Jehovah pronounced all this great evil against us? or what is our iniquity? or what is our sin that we have committed against Jehovah our God? Then shalt thou say unto them, Because your fathers have forsaken Me, saith Jehovah, and have walked after other `gods`, and have served them, and have worshipped them, and have forsaken Me, and have not kept My Law; and ye have done evil more than your fathers; for, behold, ye walk every one after the stubbornness of his evil heart, so that ye hearken not unto Me: therefore will I cast you forth out of this Land into the land that ye have not known, neither ye nor your fathers; and there shall ye serve other `gods` day and night; for I will show you no favor. Therefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that it shall no more be said, As Jehovah liveth, that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but, As Jehovah liveth, that brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north, and from all the countries whither he had driven them. And I will bring them again into their Land that I gave unto their fathers. Behold, I will send for many fishers, saith Jehovah, and they shall fish them up; and afterward I will send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and out of the clefts of the rocks. For Mine Eyes are upon all their ways; they are not hid from My Face, neither is their iniquity concealed from Mine Eyes. And first I will recompense their iniquity and their sin double, because they have polluted My Land with the carcasses of their detestable things, and have filled Mine Inheritance with their abominations. O Jehovah, my Strength, and my Stronghold, and my Refuge in the day of affliction, unto Thee shall the nations (Gentiles) come from the ends of the earth, and shall say, Our fathers have inherited nought but lies, [even] vanity and things wherein there is no profit. Shall a man make unto himself `gods`, which yet are no `gods`? Therefore, behold, I will cause them to know, this once will I cause them to know My Hand and My Might; and they shall know that My Name is Jehovah.”
“The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, [and] with the point of a diamond: it is graven upon the tablet of their heart, and upon the horns of your altars; whilst their children remember their Altars and their Asherim by the green trees upon the high hills. O My Mountain in the field, I will give thy substance and all thy treasures for a spoil, [and] thy high places, because of sin, throughout all thy borders. And thou, even of thyself, shalt discontinue from thy Heritage that I gave thee; and I will cause thee to serve thine enemies in the land which thou knowest not: for ye have kindled a fire in Mine Anger which shall burn for ever. Thus saith Jehovah: Cursed is the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from Jehovah. For he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see when good cometh, but shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness, a salt land and not inhabited. Blessed is the man that trusteth in Jehovah, and whose trust Jehovah is. For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, that spreadeth out its roots by the river, and shall not fear when heat cometh, but its leaf shall be green; and shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither shall cease from yielding fruit. The heart is deceitful above all things, and it is exceedingly corrupt: who can know it? I, Jehovah, search the mind, I try the heart, even to give every man according to his ways, according to the fruit of his doings. As the partridge that sitteth on [eggs] which she hath not laid, so is he that getteth riches, and not by right; in the midst of his days they shall leave him, and at his end he shall be a fool. A Glorious Throne, [set] on high from the beginning, is the place of our Sanctuary. Jehovah, the Hope of Israel, all that forsake Thee shall be put to shame. They that depart from me (?) shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken Jehovah, the Fountain of Living Waters. Heal me, O Jehovah, and I shall be healed; save me, and I shall be saved: for Thou art my Praise. Behold, they say unto me, Where is the Word of Jehovah? let it come now. As for me, I have not hastened from being a Shepherd after Thee; neither have I desired the Woeful Day; thou knowest: that which came out of my lips was before Thy Face. Be not a Terror unto me: Thou art my Refuge in the day of evil. Let them be put to shame that persecute me, but let not me be put to shame; let them be dismayed, but let not me be dismayed; bring upon them the day of evil, and destroy them with double destruction. Thus said Jehovah unto me: Go, and stand in the gate of the children of the people, whereby the kings of Judah come in, and by which they go out, and in all the gates of Jerusalem; and say unto them, Hear ye the Word of Jehovah, ye kings of Judah, and all Judah, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, that enter in by these gates: Thus saith Jehovah, Take heed to yourselves, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem; neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any work: but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers. But they hearkened not, neither inclined their ear, but made their neck stiff, that they might not hear, and might not receive instruction. And it shall come to pass, if ye diligently hearken unto Me, saith Jehovah, to bring in no burden through the gates of this city on the sabbath day, but to hallow the sabbath day, to do no work therein; then shall there enter in by the gates of this city kings and princes sitting upon the Throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, they, and their princes, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and this City shall remain for ever. And they shall come from the cities of Judah, and from the places round about Jerusalem, and from the land of Benjamin, and from the lowland, and from the hill-country, and from the South, bringing burnt-offerings, and sacrifices, and meal-offerings, and frankincense, and bringing [sacrifices of] thanksgiving, unto the House of Jehovah. But if ye will not hearken unto Me to hallow the sabbath day, and not to bear a burden and enter in at the gates of Jerusalem on the sabbath day; then will I kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall not be quenched.”

The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah (chapter 18): Go to the potter’s house to hear My Words: he went and the potter was at work on the wheels; the vessel he was working was marred in his hands; he remade the vessel as he pleased. The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: “O House of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith Jehovah. Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are ye in My Hand, O House of Israel. At what instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to pluck up and to break down and to destroy it; if that nation, concerning which I have spoken, turn from their evil, I will repent of the evil that I thought to do unto them. And at what instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to build and to plant it; if they do that which is evil in My Sight, that they obey not My voice, then I will repent of the good, wherewith I said I would benefit them. Now therefore, speak to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying, Thus saith Jehovah: Behold, I frame evil against you, and devise a device against you: return ye now every one from his evil way, and amend your ways and your doings. But they say, It is in vain; for we will walk after our own devices, and we will do every one after the stubbornness of his evil heart. Therefore thus saith Jehovah: Ask ye now among the nations (Gentiles), who hath heard such things; the Virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible thing. Shall the snow of Lebanon fail from the rock of the field? [or] shall the cold waters that flow down from afar be dried up? For My People have forgotten Me, they have burned incense to false [`gods`]; and they have been made to stumble in their ways, in the ancient paths, to walk in bypaths, in a way not cast up; to make their Land an astonishment, and a perpetual hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished, and shake his head. I will scatter them as with an east wind before the enemy; I will show them the Back, and not the Face, in the day of their calamity. Then said they, Come, and let us devise devices against Jeremiah; for the law shall not perish from the priest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from the prophet. Come, and let us smite him with the tongue, and let us not give heed to any of his Words. Give heed to me, O Jehovah, and hearken to the voice of them that contend with me. Shall evil be recompensed for good? for they have digged a pit for my soul. Remember how I stood before Thee to speak good for them, to turn away Thy Wrath from them. Therefore deliver up their children to the famine, and give them over to the power of the sword; and let their wives become childless, and widows; and let their men be slain of death, [and] their young men smitten of the sword in battle. Let a cry be heard from their houses, when thou shalt bring a troop suddenly upon them; for they have digged a pit to take me, and hid snares for my feet. Yet, Jehovah, Thou knowest all their counsel against me to slay me; forgive not their iniquity, neither blot out their sin from thy sight; but let them be overthrown before thee; deal Thou with them in the time of Thine Anger.
The Lord tells Jeremiah to buy a potter’s earthen bottle; take some of the elders of the priests, and go to the Valley of the Son of Hinnom (BenHinnom), near the entrance to the Gate Harsith, and proclaim My Words, saying, “Hear ye the Word of Jehovah, O kings of Judah, and inhabitants of Jerusalem: thus saith Jehovah of Hosts,the God of Israel, Behold, I will bring evil upon this place, which whosoever heareth, his ears shall tingle. Because they have forsaken Me, and have estranged this Place, and have burned incense in it unto other `gods`, that they knew not, they and their fathers and the kings of Judah; and have filled this place with the blood of innocents, and have built the High Places of Baal, to burn their sons in the fire for burnt-offerings unto Baal; which I commanded not, nor spake it, neither came it into My Mind: therefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that this place shall no more be called Topheth, nor the Valley of the Son of Hinnom (BenHinnom), but the Valley of Slaughter. And I will make void the counsel of Judah and Jerusalem in this Place; and I will cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hand of them that seek their life: and their dead bodies will I give to be food for the birds of the heavens, and for the beasts of the earth. And I will make this City an astonishment, and a hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished and hiss because of all the plagues thereof. And I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters; and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend, in the siege and in the distress, wherewith their enemies, and they that seek their life, shall distress them. Then shalt thou break the bottle in the sight of the men that go with thee, and shalt say unto them, Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts: Even so will I break this People and this City, as one breaketh a potter’s vessel, that cannot be made whole again; and they shall bury in Topheth, till there be no place to bury. Thus will I do unto this Place, saith Jehovah, and to the Inhabitants thereof, even making this City as Topheth: and the Houses of Jerusalem, and the Houses of the kings of Judah, which are defiled, shall be as the place of Topheth, even all the Houses upon whose roofs they have burned incense unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink-offerings unto other `gods`. Then came Jeremiah from Topheth, whither Jehovah had sent him to prophesy; and he stood in the court of Jehovah’s House, and said to all the people: Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, Behold, I will bring upon this city and upon all its towns all the evil that I have pronounced against it; because they have made their neck stiff, that they may not hear My Words.”
Pashhur benImmer the Priest, Chief Officer in the Lord’s House, heard Jeremiah prophesying; he struck the Prophet Jeremiah, and put him in the stocks near the upper gate of Benjamin in the Lord’s House. The next day Passhur took Jeremiah out of the stocks: Jeremiah to him, “Jehovah hath not called thy name Pashhur, but Magor-missabib. For thus saith Jehovah, Behold, I will make thee a terror to thyself, and to all thy friends; and they shall fall by the sword of their enemies, and thine eyes shall behold it; and I will give all Judah into the hand of the King of Babylon, and he shall carry them captive to Babylon, and shall slay them with the sword. Moreover I will give all the riches of this City, and all the gains thereof, and all the precious things thereof, yea, all the treasures of the kings of Judah will I give into the hand of their enemies; and they shall make them a prey, and take them, and carry them to Babylon. And thou, Pashhur, and all that dwell in thy house shall go into Captivity; and thou shalt come to Babylon, and there thou shalt die, and there shalt thou be buried, thou, and all thy friends, to whom thou hast prophesied falsely. O Jehovah, Thou hast persuaded me, and I was persuaded; thou art stronger than I, and hast prevailed: I am become a laughing-stock all the day, every one mocketh me. For as often as I speak, I cry out; I cry, Violence and destruction! because the Word of Jehovah is made a reproach unto me, and a derision, all the day. And if I say, I will not make mention of Him, nor speak any more in His Name, then there is in my heart as it were a burning fire shut up in my bones, and I am weary with forbearing, and I cannot [contain]. For I have heard the defaming of many, terror on every side. Denounce, and we will denounce him, [say] all my familiar friends, they that watch for my fall; peradventure he will be persuaded, and we shall prevail against him, and we shall take our revenge on him. But Jehovah is with me as a Mighty One [and] a Terrible: therefore my persecutors shall stumble, and they shall not prevail; they shall be utterly put to shame, because they have not dealt wisely, even with an everlasting dishonor which shall never be forgotten. But, O Jehovah of Hosts, that triest the righteous, that seest the heart and the mind, let me see thy vengeance on them; for unto thee have I revealed my cause. Sing unto Jehovah, praise ye Jehovah; for He hath delivered the soul of the needy from the hand of evil-doers. Cursed be the day wherein I was born: let not the day wherein my mother bare me be blessed. Cursed be the man who brought tidings to my father, saying, A man-child is born unto thee; making him very glad. And let that man be as the cities which Jehovah overthrew, and repented not: and let him hear a cry in the morning, and shouting at noontime; because he slew me not from the womb; and so my mother would have been my grave, and her womb always great. Wherefore came I forth out of the womb to see labor and sorrow, that my days should be consumed with shame?”
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah when King Zedekiah sent to him Passhur benMalchijah, & Zephaniah benMaaseiah, the Priest saying: Inquire, please from the Lord for us; for the Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon wars against us: perhaps the Lord will deal with us in all His wondrous works, to turn him away from us. Jeremiah said to them: Tell Zedekiah: ” Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, Behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands, wherewith ye fight against the King of Babylon, and against the Chaldeans that besiege you, without the walls; and I will gather them into the midst of this City. And I Myself will fight against you with an Outstretched Hand and with a Strong Arm, even in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation. And I will smite the inhabitants of this City, both man and beast: they shall die of a great pestilence. And afterward, saith Jehovah, I will deliver Zedekiah King of Judah, and his servants, and the people, even such as are left in this City from the pestilence, from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon, and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life: and he shall smite them with the edge of the sword; he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have mercy. And unto this people thou shalt say, Thus saith Jehovah: Behold, I set before you the way of life and the way of death. He that abideth in this City shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he that goeth out, and passeth over to the Chaldeans that besiege you, he shall live, and his life shall be unto him for a prey. For I have set My Face upon this City for evil, and not for good, saith Jehovah: it shall be given into the hand of the King of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire. And touching the House of the King of Judah, hear ye the Word of Jehovah: O House of David, thus saith Jehovah, Execute justice in the morning, and deliver him that is robbed out of the hand of the oppressor, lest My Wrath go forth like fire, and burn so that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings. Behold, I am against thee, O inhabitant of the valley, [and] of the rock of the plain, saith Jehovah; you that say, Who shall come down against us? or who shall enter into our habitations? And I will punish you according to the fruit of your doings, saith Jehovah; and I will kindle a fire in her forest, and it shall devour all that is round about her.”

The Lord to Jeremiah (chapter 22): Go to the House of the King of Judah: speak these Words: say, Hear the Word of Jehovah, O King of Judah, that sittest upon the Throne of David, thou, and thy servants, and thy people that enter in by these gates. Thus saith Jehovah: Execute ye justice and righteousness, and deliver him that is robbed out of the hand of the oppressor: and do no wrong, do no violence, to the sojourner, the fatherless, nor the widow; neither shed innocent blood in this Place. For if ye do this thing indeed, then shall there enter in by the gates of this House kings sitting upon the Throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, he, and his servants, and his people. But if ye will not hear these Words, I swear by Myself, saith Jehovah, that this House shall become a desolation. For thus saith Jehovah concerning the House of the King of Judah: Thou art Gilead unto Me, [and] the Head of Lebanon; [yet] surely I will make thee a wilderness, [and] cities which are not inhabited. And I will prepare destroyers against thee, every one with his weapons; and they shall cut down thy choice cedars, and cast them into the fire. And many nations shall pass by this city, and they shall say every man to his neighbor, Wherefore hath Jehovah done thus unto this great city? Then they shall answer, Because they forsook the Covenant of Jehovah their God, and worshipped other `gods`, and served them. Weep ye not for the dead, neither bemoan him; but weep sore for him that goeth away; for he shall return no more, nor see his native country. For thus saith Jehovah touching Shallum the son of Josiah, King of Judah, who reigned instead of Josiah his father, [and] who went forth out of this place: He shall not return thither any more. But in the place whither they have led him captive, there shall he die, and he shall see this land no more. Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, and his chambers by injustice; that useth his neighbor’s service without wages, and giveth him not his hire; that saith, I will build me a wide house and spacious chambers, and cutteth him out windows; and it is ceiled with cedar, and painted with vermilion. Shalt thou reign, because thou strivest to excel in cedar? Did not thy father [Josiah] eat and drink, and do justice and righteousness? then it was well with him. He judged the cause of the poor and needy; then it was well. Was not this to know Me? saith Jehovah. But thine eyes and thy heart are not but for thy covetousness, and for shedding innocent blood, and for oppression, and for violence, to do it. Therefore thus saith Jehovah concerning Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, King of Judah: they shall not lament for him, [saying], Ah my brother! or, Ah sister! They shall not lament for him, [saying] Ah lord! or, Ah his glory! He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem. Go up to Lebanon, and cry; and lift up thy voice in Bashan, and cry from Abarim; for all thy lovers are destroyed. I spake unto thee in thy prosperity; but thou saidst, I will not hear. This hath been thy manner from thy youth, that thou obeyedst not My Voice. The wind shall feed all thy shepherds, and thy lovers shall go into Captivity: surely then shalt thou be ashamed and confounded for all thy wickedness. O inhabitant of Lebanon, that makest thy nest in the cedars, how greatly to be pitied shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee, the pain as of a woman in travail! As I live, saith Jehovah, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the Signet upon My Right Hand, yet would I pluck thee thence; and I will give thee into the hand of them that seek thy life, and into the hand of them of whom thou art afraid, even into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon, and into the hand of the Chaldeans. And I will cast thee out, and thy mother that bare thee, into another country, where ye were not born; and there shall ye die. But to the Land whereunto their soul longeth to return, thither shall they not return. Is this man Coniah a despised broken vessel? is he a vessel wherein none delighteth? wherefore are they cast out, he and his seed, and are cast into the land which they know not? O earth, earth, earth, hear the Word of Jehovah. Thus saith Jehovah, Write ye this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days; for no more shall a man of his seed prosper, sitting upon the Throne of David, and ruling in Judah.”
The Prophecy continues: “Woe unto the shepherds that destroy and scatter the Sheep of My Pasture! saith Jehovah. Therefore thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, against the shepherds that feed [not] My People: Ye have scattered My Flock, and driven them away, and have not visited them; behold, I will visit upon you the evil of your doings, saith Jehovah. And I will gather the Remnant of My Flock out of all the countries whither I have driven them, and will bring them again to their folds; and they shall be fruitful and multiply. And I will set up shepherds over them, who shall feed them; and they shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall any be lacking, saith Jehovah. Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will raise unto David a Righteous Branch, and He shall reign as King and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely; and this is His Name whereby He shall be called: Jehovah our Righteousness. Therefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that they shall no more say, As Jehovah liveth, who brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but, As Jehovah liveth, Who brought up and Who led the seed of the House of Israel out of the north country, and from all the countries whither I had driven them. And they shall dwell in their own Land. Concerning the prophets: My heart within me is broken, all my bones shake; I am like a drunken man, and like a man whom wine hath overcome, because of Jehovah, and because of His Holy Words. For the Land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the Land mourneth; the pastures of the wilderness are dried up. And their course is evil, and their might is not right; for both prophet and priest are profane; yea, in My House have I found their wickedness, saith Jehovah. Wherefore their way shall be unto them as slippery places in the darkness: they shall be driven on, and fall therein; for I will bring evil upon them, even the year of their visitation, saith Jehovah. And I have seen folly in the prophets of Samaria; they prophesied by Baal, and caused My People Israel to err. In the prophets of Jerusalem also I have seen a horrible thing: they commit adultery, and walk in lies; and they strengthen the hands of evil-doers, so that none doth return from his wickedness: they are all of them become unto Me as Sodom, and the inhabitants thereof as Gomorrah. Therefore thus saith Jehovah of Hosts concerning the prophets: Behold, I will feed them with wormwood, and make them drink the water of gall; for from the prophets of Jerusalem is ungodliness gone forth into all the land. Thus saith Jehovah of hosts, Hearken not unto the words of the prophets that prophesy unto you: they teach you vanity; they speak a vision of their own heart, and not out of the Mouth of Jehovah. They say continually unto them that despise Me, Jehovah hath said, Ye shall have peace; and unto every one that walketh in the stubbornness of his own heart they say, No evil shall come upon you. For who hath stood in the council of Jehovah, that he should perceive and hear His Word? who hath marked My Word, and heard it? Behold, the Tempest of Jehovah, [even His] Wrath, is gone forth, yea, a whirling tempest: it shall burst upon the head of the wicked. The Anger of Jehovah shall not return, until He has executed, and till He has performed the intents of His Heart: in the latter days ye shall understand it perfectly. I sent not these prophets, yet they ran: I spake not unto them, yet they prophesied. But if they had stood in My Council, then had they caused My People to hear My Words, and had turned them from their evil way, and from the evil of their doings. Am I a God at hand, saith Jehovah, and not a God afar off? Can any hide himself in secret places so that I shall not see him? saith Jehovah. Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith Jehovah. I have heard what the prophets have said, that prophesy lies in My Name, saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed. How long shall this be in the heart of the prophets that prophesy lies, even the prophets of the deceit of their own heart that think to cause My People to forget My Name by their dreams which they tell every man to his neighbor, as their fathers forgat My Name for Baal. The prophet that hath a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that hath My Word, let him speak My Word faithfully. What is the straw to the wheat? saith Jehovah. Is not My Word like Fire? saith Jehovah; and like a Hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces? Therefore, behold, I am against the prophets, saith Jehovah, that steal My Words every one from his neighbor. Behold, I am against the prophets, saith Jehovah, that use their tongues, and say, He saith. Behold, I am against them that prophesy lying dreams, saith Jehovah, and do tell them, and cause My People to err by their lies, and by their vain boasting: yet I sent them not, nor commanded them; neither do they profit this people at all, saith Jehovah. And when this people, or the prophet, or a priest, shall ask thee, saying, What is the Burden of Jehovah? then shalt thou say unto them, What burden! I will cast you off, saith Jehovah. And as for the prophet, and the priest, and the people, that shall say, The Burden of Jehovah, I will even punish that man and his house. Thus shall ye say every one to his neighbor, and every one to his brother, What hath Jehovah answered? and, What hath Jehovah spoken? And the Burden of Jehovah shall ye mention no more: for every man’s own word shall be his burden; for ye have perverted the Words of the Living God, of Jehovah of Hosts our God. Thus shalt thou say to the prophet, What hath Jehovah answered thee? and, What hath Jehovah spoken? But if ye say, The Burden of Jehovah; therefore thus saith Jehovah: Because ye say this word, The Burden of Jehovah, and I have sent unto you, saying, Ye shall not say, The Burden of Jehovah; therefore, behold, I will utterly forget you, and I will cast you off, and the City that I gave unto you and to your fathers, away from My Presence: and I will bring an everlasting reproach upon you, and a perpetual shame, which shall not be forgotten.”

“Jehovah showed me (chapter 24), and, behold, two baskets of figs set before the Temple of Jehovah, after that Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon had carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, King of Judah, and the princes of Judah, with the craftsmen and smiths, from Jerusalem, and had brought them to Babylon. One basket had very good figs, like the figs that are first-ripe; and the other basket had very bad figs, which could not be eaten, they were so bad. Then said Jehovah unto me, What seest thou, Jeremiah? And I said, Figs; the good figs, very good; and the bad, very bad, that cannot be eaten, they are so bad. And the Word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel: Like these good figs, so will I regard the captives of Judah, whom I have sent out of this place into the land of the Chaldeans, for good. For I will set Mine Eyes upon them for good, and I will bring them again to this Land: and I will build them, and not pull them down; and I will plant them, and not pluck them up. And I will give them a heart to know Me, that I am Jehovah: and they shall be My People, and I will be their God; for they shall return unto Me with their whole heart. And as the bad figs, which cannot be eaten, they are so bad, surely thus saith Jehovah, So will I give up Zedekiah the King of Judah, and his princes, and the residue of Jerusalem, that remain in this Land, and them that dwell in the land of Egypt, I will even give them up to be tossed to and fro among all the kingdoms of the earth for evil; to be a reproach and a proverb, a taunt and a curse, in all places whither I shall drive them. And I will send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, among them, till they be consumed from off the Land that I gave unto them and to their fathers.”

The Word to Jeremiah (chapter 25) concerning all the People of Judah in the 4th year (or the 1st year of King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon) of Jehoiakim benJosiah, King of Judah: the Prophet Jeremiah spoke to all the People of Judah, & all the Inhabitants of Jerusalem: “From the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah, even unto this day, these three and twenty (23) years, the Word ofJehovah hath come unto me, and I have spoken unto you, rising up early and speaking; but ye have not hearkened. And Jehovah hath sent unto you all His Servants the Prophets, rising up early and sending them, (but ye have not hearkened, nor inclined your ear to hear,) saying, Return ye now every one from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and dwell in the Land that Jehovah hath given unto you and to your fathers, from of old and even for evermore; and go not after other `gods` to serve them, and to worship them, and provoke me not to anger with the work of your hands; and I will do you no hurt. Yet ye have not hearkened unto Me, saith Jehovah; that ye may provoke Me to anger with the work of your hands to your own hurt. Therefore thus saith Jehovah of hosts: Because ye have not heard My Words, behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith Jehovah, and [I will send] unto Nebuchadrezzar the King of Babylon, My Servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations (Gentiles) round about; and I will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and a hissing, and perpetual desolations. Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the lamp. And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations (Gentiles) shall serve the King of Babylon `seventy years` (70 yrs). And it shall come to pass, when `seventy years` (70 yrs) are accomplished, that I will punish the King of Babylon, and that nation, saith Jehovah, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans; and I will make it desolate for ever. And I will bring upon that land all my words which I have pronounced against it, even all that is written in this Book, which Jeremiah hath prophesied against all the nations (Gentiles). For many nations (Gentiles) and great kings shall make bondmen of them, even of them; and I will recompense them according to their deeds, and according to the work of their hands. For thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, unto me: take this Cup of the Wine of Wrath at My Hand, and cause all the nations (Gentiles), to whom I send thee, to drink it. And they shall drink, and reel to and fro, and be mad, because of the sword that I will send among them. Then took I the Cup at Jehovah’s Hand, and made all the nations (Gentiles) to drink, unto whom Jehovah had sent me: [to wit], Jerusalem, and the cities of Judah, and the kings thereof, and the princes thereof, to make them a desolation, an astonishment, a hissing, and a curse, as it is this day; Pharaoh King of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people; and all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of the Uz, and all the kings of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Gaza, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod; Edom, and Moab, and the children of Ammon; and all the kings of Tyre, and all the kings of Sidon, and the kings of the isle which is beyond the sea; Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that have the corners [of their hair] cut off; and all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the wilderness; and all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes; and all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another; and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth: and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them. And thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Drink ye, and be drunken, and spew, and fall, and rise no more, because of the sword which I will send among you. And it shall be, if they refuse to take the Cup at thy hand to drink, then shalt thou say unto them, Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts: Ye shall surely drink. For, lo, I begin to work evil at the City which is called by My Name; and should ye be utterly unpunished? Ye shall not be unpunished; for I will call for a sword upon all the inhabitants of the earth, saith Jehovah of Hosts. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these Words, and say unto them, Jehovah will Roar from on High, and utter His Voice from his Holy Habitation; He will Mmightily Roar against His Fold; He will give a Shout, as they that tread [the grapes], against all the inhabitants of the earth. A noise shall come even to the end of the earth; for Jehovah hath a controversy with the nations (Gentiles); He will enter into judgment with all flesh: as for the wicked, He will give them to the sword, saith Jehovah. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation, and a great tempest shall be raised up from the uttermost parts of the earth. And the Slain of Jehovah shall be at that day from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth: they shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried; they shall be Dung upon the face of the ground. Wail, ye shepherds, and cry; and wallow [in ashes], ye principal of the flock; for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are fully come, and ye shall fall like a goodly vessel. And the shepherds shall have no way to flee, nor the principal of the flock to escape. A voice of the cry of the shepherds, and the wailing of the principal of the flock! for Jehovah layeth waste their pasture. And the peaceable folds are brought to silence because of the Fierce Anger of Jehovah. He hath left His Covert, as the Lion; for their land is become an astonishment because of the fierceness of the oppressing [sword], and because of His Fierce Anger.”

In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim benJosiah, King of Judah, the Lord’s Word to Jeremiah (chapter 26): “Stand in the Court of Jehovah’s House, and speak unto all the cities of Judah, which come to worship in Jehovah’s House, all the Words that I command thee to speak unto them; diminish not a Word. It may be they will hearken, and turn every man from his evil way; that I may repent Me of the evil which I purpose to do unto them because of the evil of their doings. And thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith Jehovah: If ye will not hearken to Me, to walk in My Law, which I have set before you, to hearken to the Words of My Servants the Prophets, whom I send unto you, even rising up early and sending them, but ye have not hearkened; then will I make this House like Shiloh, and will make this City a curse to all the nations (Gentiles) of the earth.” The Priests & the Prophets & all the People heard Jeremiah speaking these Words in the Lord’s House: when he finished speaking they lay hold on him, saying, ‘yu must die! Why did yu prophesy in the Lord’s Name that this House will be like Shiloh & this City desolate?’ The People were gathered to Jeremiah in the Lord’s House. The Princes of Judah heard & came from the King’s House to the Lord’s House sitting in the entry of the New Gate: the Priests & the Prophets said to the Princes & the People: ‘he deserves to die for his prophecy against this City.’ Jeremiah replied to the Princes & the People: ‘the Lord sent me to prophesy against this House & City with all the Words you have heard.’ Change your ways & works, obey the Lord’s Voice; that He may change the evil that He has pronounced against you. As for me, I am in your hand, do as you will; just remember that if you kill me, you are guilty of an innocent man’s blood, you & this City & all the occupants; for truly the Lord sent me to you to speak these Words. The Princes & the People said to the Priests & Prophets: ‘he does not deserve to die for speaking to us in the Lord’s God Name’. Certain Elders of the land spoke to the Assembly of the People: Micah the Morashite prophesied in the days of King Hezekiah of Judah, saying to the Jews: The Lord of Hosts says: “Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountainof the House as the High Places of a forest.” King Hezekiah of Judah & all Judah never put him to death; but with Fear of the Lord, he entreated for the Lord’s Favor; the Lord cancelled the Evil He determined against them: We too are about to be guilty. Also, a certain man prophesied in the Lord’s Name, Uriah benShemaiah of Kiriath-jearim, against this Land in like Words of Jeremiah. When King Jehoiakim, & his Mighty Men, & all the Princes, heard his words, the King tried to kill him; but Uriah in fear fled to Egypt. King Jehoiakim sent men to Egypt, with Elnathan benAchbor; and arrested Uriah, and brought him to King Jehoiakim, who slew him with the sword, and threw his carcass into the graves of the common people. But Ahikam benShaphan was with Jeremiah to preserve his life.
In the beginning of the reign of King Jehoiakim benJosiah of Judah, the Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: He said to me: “Make thee bonds and bars, and put them upon thy neck and send them to the King of Edom, and to the King of Moab, and to the King of the children of Ammon, and to the King of Tyre, and to the King of Sidon, by the hand of the messengers that come to Jerusalem unto Zedekiah King of Judah; and give them a charge unto their masters, saying, Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, Thus shall ye say unto your masters: I have made the earth, the men and the beasts that are upon the face of the earth, by My Great Power and by My Outstretched Arm; and I give it unto whom it seemeth right unto Me. And now have I given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the King of Babylon, My Servant; and the beasts of the field also have I given him to serve him. And all the nations (Gentiles) shall serve him, and his son, and his son’s son, until the time of his own land come: and then many nations (Gentiles) and great kings shall make him their bondman. And it shall come to pass, that the nation and the kingdom which will not serve the same Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon, and that will not put their neck under the yoke of the King of Babylon, that nation will I punish, saith Jehovah, with the sword, and with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand. But as for you, hearken ye not to your prophets, nor to your diviners, nor to your dreams, nor to your soothsayers, nor to your sorcerers, that speak unto you, saying, Ye shall not serve the King of Babylon: for they prophesy a lie unto you, to remove you far from your land, and that I should drive you out, and ye should perish. But the nation that shall bring their neck under the yoke of the King of Babylon, and serve him, that [nation] will I let remain in their own land, saith Jehovah; and they shall till it, and dwell therein.” Jeremiah told King Zedekiah exactly these Words: Submit to the King of Babylon and live; reject the lies of the Prophets telling you in My Name not to submit; the Lord did not send them, but they will cause Me to destroy you. Jeremiah also told the Priests & the People: the Lord says not to listen to the Prophets prophesying the lie: The vessels of the Lord’s House shall soon return from Babylon. Don’t listen to their lies. These so-called Prophets claiming My Name, let them plead with Me not to let the remaining vessels in the Lord’s House, the King of Judah’s House, & what is in Jerusalem be taken to Babylon. Surely the pillars, sea-vessel, the bases, & the rest of the vessels in the City which King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon did not deport from Jerusalem to Babylon in the exile of Jeconiah benJehoiakim, King of Judah, & the the Nobles of Judah & Jerusalem, will be deported to Babylon, and remain there till I visit them, and return them to this Place.
The same year of the beginning of the reign of King Zedekiah of Judah, the 4them th year, 5th month, Hananiah benAzzur, the Prophet from Gibeon, told Jeremiah in the Lord’s House, in the presence of the Priests & People: The Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel, says, “I have broken the yoke of the King of Babylon. Within two full years will I bring again into this Place all the vessels of Jehovah’s House, that Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon took away from this Place, and carried to Babylon: and I will bring again to this Place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, King of Judah, with all the captives of Judah, that went to Babylon, saith Jehovah; for I will break the yoke of the King of Babylon.” Jeremiah immediately replied in all their presence: “Amen: Jehovah do so; Jehovah perform thy Words which thou hast prophesied, to bring again the vessels of Jehovah’s House, and all them of the Captivity, from Babylon unto this place. Nevertheless hear thou now this word that I speak in thine ears, and in the ears of all the people: The prophets that have been before me and before thee of old prophesied against many countries, and against great kingdoms, of war, and of evil, and of pestilence. The prophet that prophesieth of peace, when the word of the prophet shall come to pass, then shall the prophet be known, that Jehovah hath truly sent him.” Hananiah the Prophet removed the [wooden] bar from the Prophet Jeremiah’s neck & broke it, and said: the Lord says, so will I break the the yoke of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon within 2 full years off the neck of all the nations (Gentiles). Then the Prophet Jeremiah went his way. Then the Lord’s Word came to Jeremiah: “Go, and tell Hananiah, saying, Thus saith Jehovah: Thou hast broken the bars of wood; but thou hast made in their stead bars of iron. For thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: I have put a yoke of iron upon the neck of all these nations (Gentiles), that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon; and they shall serve him: and I have given him the beasts of the field also. Then said the Prophet Jeremiah unto Hananiah the Prophet, Hear now, Hananiah: Jehovah hath not sent thee; but thou makest this People to trust in a lie. Therefore thus saith Jehovah, Behold, I will send thee away from off the face of the earth: this year thou shalt die, because thou hast spoken rebellion against Jehovah. So Hananiah the Prophet died the same year in the seventh month.”

Now these are the Words of the Letter the Prophet Jeremiah sent from Jerusalem to the rest of the Elders of the Captivity (chapter 29), to the Priests, the Prophets, & the People, whom Nebuchadnezzar exiled from Jerusalem to Babylon; (after King Jeconiah, the Queen-Mother, the Eunuchs, the Princes of Judah & Jerusalem, the Craftsmen, & the Smiths, were deported from Jerusalem,) by Elasah benShaphan, Gemariah benHilkiah, (whom King Zedekiah of Judah sent to Babylon to King Nebuchadnezzar) saying: “Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, unto all the Captivity, whom I have caused to be carried away captivefrom Jerusalem unto Babylon: Build ye houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them. Take ye wives, and beget sons and daughters; and take wives for your sons, and give your daughters to husbands, that they may bear sons and daughters; and multiply ye there, and be not diminished. And seek the peace of the city whither I have caused you to be carried away captive, and pray unto Jehovah for it; for in the peace thereof shall ye have peace. For thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Let not your prophets that are in the midst of you, and your diviners, deceive you; neither hearken ye to your dreams which ye cause to be dreamed. For they prophesy falsely unto you in My Name: I have not sent them, saith Jehovah. For thus saith Jehovah, After seventy (70) years are accomplished for Babylon, I will visit you, and perform My Good Word toward you, in causing you to return to this Place. For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith Jehovah, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you hope in your latter end. And ye shall call upon Me, and ye shall go and pray unto Me, and I will hearken unto you. And ye shall seek Me, and find Me, when ye shall search for Me with all your heart. And I will be found of you, saith Jehovah, and I will turn again your Captivity, and I will gather you from all the nations (Gentiles), and from all the places wither I have driven you, saith Jehovah; and I will bring you again unto the Place whence I caused you to be carried away captive. Because ye have said, Jehovah hath raised us up prophets in Babylon; thus saith Jehovah concerning the King that sitteth upon the Throne of David, and concerning all the people that dwell in this City, your brethren that are not gone forth with you into Captivity; thus saith Jehovah of Hosts; Behold, I will send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and will make them like vile figs, that cannot be eaten, they are so bad. And I will pursue after them with the sword, with the famine, and with the pestilence, and will deliver them to be tossed to and fro among all the kingdoms of the earth, to be an execration, and an astonishment, and a hissing, and a reproach, among all the nations (Gentiles) whither I have driven them; because they have not hearkened to My Words, saith Jehovah, wherewith I sent unto them My Servants the Prophets, rising up early and sending them; but ye would not hear, saith Jehovah. Hear ye therefore the Word of Jehovah, all ye of the Captivity, whom I have sent away from Jerusalem to Babylon. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, concerning Ahab the son of Kolaiah, and concerning Zedekiah the son of Maaseiah, who prophesy a lie unto you in My Name: Behold, I will deliver them into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon; and he shall slay them before your eyes; and of them shall be taken up a curse by all the captives of Judah that are in Babylon, saying, Jehovah make thee like Zedekiah and like Ahab, whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire; because they have wrought folly in Israel, and have committed adultery with their neighbors’ wives, and have spoken words in My Name falsely, which I commanded them not; and I am He That knoweth, and am witness, saith Jehovah. And concerning Shemaiah the Nehelamite thou shalt speak, saying, Thus speaketh Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, saying, Because thou hast sent letters in thine own name unto all the people that are at Jerusalem, and to Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah, the priest, and to all the priests, saying, Jehovah hath made thee Priest in the stead of Jehoiada the Priest, that there may be officers in the House of Jehovah, for every man that is mad, and maketh himself a Prophet, that thou shouldest put him in the stocks and in shackles. Now therefore, why hast thou not rebuked Jeremiah of Anathoth, who maketh himself a Prophet to you, forasmuch as he hath sent unto us in Babylon, saying, [The Captivity] is long: build ye houses, and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them?” The Priest Zephaniah read this letter to the Prophet Jeremiah.
“Then came the word of Jehovah unto Jeremiah, saying, Send to all them of the Captivity, saying, Thus saith Jehovah concerning Shemaiah the Nehelamite: Because that Shemaiah hath prophesied unto you, and I sent him not, and he hath caused you to trust in a lie; therefore thus saith Jehovah, Behold, I will punish Shemaiah the Nehelamite, and his seed; he shall not have a man to dwell among this People, neither shall he behold the good that I will do unto My People, saith Jehovah, because he hath spoken rebellion against Jehovah.”

The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah (chapter 30): “Thus speaketh Jehovah, the God of Israel, saying, Write thee all the words that I have spoken unto thee in a book. For, lo, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will turn again the Captivity of My People Israel and Judah, saith Jehovah; and I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it. And these are the Words that Jehovah spake concerning Israel and concerning Judah. For thus saith Jehovah: We have heard a voice of trembling, of fear, and not of peace. Ask ye now, and see whether a man doth travail with child: wherefore do I see every man with his hands on his loins, as a woman in travail, and all faces are turned into paleness? Alas! for that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob’s trouble; but he shall be saved out of it. And it shall come to pass in that day, saith Jehovah of Hosts, that I will break his yoke from off thy neck, and will burst thy bonds; and strangers shall no more make him their bondman; but they shall serve Jehovah their God, and David their King, whom I will raise up unto them. Therefore fear thou not, O Jacob My Servant, saith Jehovah; neither be dismayed, O Israel: for, lo, I will save thee from afar, and thy Seed from the land of their Captivity; and Jacob shall return, and shall be quiet and at ease, and none shall make him afraid. For I am with thee, saith Jehovah, to save thee: for I will make a full end of all the nations (Gentiles) whither I have scattered thee, but I will not make a full end of thee; but I will correct thee in measure, and will in no wise leave thee unpunished. For thus saith Jehovah, Thy hurt is incurable, and thy wound grievous. There is none to plead thy cause, that thou mayest be bound up: thou hast no healing medicines. All thy lovers have forgotten thee; they seek thee not: for I have wounded thee with the wound of an enemy, with the chastisement of a cruel one, for the greatness of thine iniquity, because thy sins were increased. Why criest thou for thy hurt? thy pain is incurable: for the greatness of thine iniquity, because thy sins were increased, I have done these things unto thee. Therefore all they that devour thee shall be devoured; and all thine adversaries, every one of them, shall go into Captivity; and they that despoil thee shall be a spoil, and all that prey upon thee will I give for a prey. For I will restore health unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy wounds, saith Jehovah; because they have called thee an Outcast, [saying], It is Zion, whom no man seeketh after. Thus saith Jehovah: Behold, I will turn again the Captivity of Jacob’s tents, and have compassion on his dwelling-places; and the city shall be builded upon its own hill, and the palace shall be inhabited after its own manner. And out of them shall proceed thanksgiving and the voice of them that make merry: and I will multiply them, and they shall not be few; I will also glorify them, and they shall not be small. Their children also shall be as aforetime, and their congregation shall be established before Me; and I will punish all that oppress them. And their prince shall be of themselves, and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them; and I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach unto Me: for who is he that hath had boldness to approach unto Me? saith Jehovah. And ye shall be My People, and I will be your God. Behold, the Tempest of Jehovah, [even His] Wrath, is gone forth, a sweeping tempest: it shall burst upon the head of the wicked. The Fierce Anger of Jehovah shall not return, until He have executed, and till He have performed the intents of His heart: in the Latter Days ye shall understand it.”
The Lord continues: “At that time, saith Jehovah, will I be the God of all the families of Israel, and they shall be My People. Thus saith Jehovah, The people that were left of the sword found favor in the wilderness; even Israel, when I went to cause him to rest. Jehovah appeared of old unto me [Israel & Judah, the Jews], [saying], Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee. Again will I build thee, and thou shalt be built, O Virgin of Israel: again shalt thou be adorned with thy tabrets, and shalt go forth in the dances of them that make merry. Again shalt thou plant vineyards upon the mountains of Samaria; the planters shall plant, and shall enjoy [the fruit thereof]. For there shall be a day, that the watchmen upon the hills of Ephraim shall cry, Arise ye, and let us go up to Zion unto Jehovah our God. For thus saith Jehovah, Sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout for the chief of the nations: publish ye, praise ye, and say, O Jehovah, save Thy People, the Remnant of Israel. Behold, I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, [and] with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and her that travaileth with child together: a great company shall they return hither. They shall come with weeping; and with supplications will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by rivers of waters, in a straight way wherein they shall not stumble; for I am a Father to Israel, and Ephraim is My First-born. Hear the Word of Jehovah, O ye nations (Gentiles), and declare it in the isles afar off; and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as Shepherd doth His Flock. For Jehovah hath ransomed Jacob, and redeemed him from the hand of him that was stronger than he. And they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow unto the Goodness of Jehovah, to the grain, and to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the young of the flock and of the herd: and their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all. Then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old together; for I will turn their mourning into joy, and will comfort them, and make them rejoice from their sorrow. And I will satiate the soul of the priests with fatness, and My People shall be satisfied with My Goodness, saith Jehovah. Thus saith Jehovah: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; she refuseth to be comforted for her children, because they are not. Thus saith Jehovah: Refrain thy voice from weeping, and thine eyes from tears; for thy work shall be rewarded, saith Jehovah; and they shall come again from the land of the enemy. And there is hope for thy latter end, saith Jehovah; and [thy] children shall come again to their own border. I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself [thus], Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a calf unaccustomed [to the yoke]: turn Thou me, and I shall be turned; for Thou art Jehovah my God. Surely after that I was turned, I repented; and after that I was instructed, I smote upon my thigh: I was ashamed, yea, even confounded, because I did bear the reproach of my youth. Is Ephraim my dear son? is he a darling child? for as often as I speak against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore My Heart yearneth for him; I will surely have mercy upon him, saith Jehovah. Set thee up waymarks, make thee guide-posts; set thy heart toward the highway, even the way by which thou wentest: turn again, O Virgin of Israel, turn again to these thy cities. How long wilt thou go hither and thither, O thou Backsliding Daughter? for Jehovah hath created a new thing in the earth: a woman shall encompass a man. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, Yet again shall they use this speech in the land of Judah and in the cities thereof, when I shall bring again their Captivity: Jehovah bless thee, O Habitation of Righteousness, O Mountain of Holiness. And Judah and all the cities thereof shall dwell therein together, the husbandmen, and they that go about with flocks. For I have satiated the weary soul, and every sorrowful soul have I replenished. Upon this I awaked, and beheld; and my sleep was sweet unto me. Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will sow the House of Israel and the House of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast. And it shall come to pass that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up and to break down and to overthrow and to destroy and to afflict, so will I watch over them to build and to plant, saith Jehovah. In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge. But every one shall die for his own iniquity: every man that eateth the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge. Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will make a New Covenant with the House of Israel, and with the House of Judah: not according to the Covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which My Covenant they brake, although I was a Husband unto them, saith Jehovah. But this is the Covenant that I will make with the House of Israel after those days, saith Jehovah: I will put My Law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My People: and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know Jehovah; for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith Jehovah: for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more. Thus saith Jehovah, who giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, who stirreth up the sea, so that the waves thereof roar; Jehovah of Hosts is His Name: If these ordinances depart from before Me, saith Jehovah, then the Seed of Israel also shall cease from being a Nation before Me for ever. Thus saith Jehovah: If heaven above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, then will I also cast off all the Seed of Israel for all that they have done, saith Jehovah. Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that the city shall be built to Jehovah from the Tower of Hananel unto the Gate of the Corner. And the measuring line shall go out further straight onward unto the Hill Gareb, and shall turn about unto Goah. And the whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields unto the Brook Kidron, unto the corner of the Horse Gate toward the east, shall be holy unto Jehovah; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more for ever.”

The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah (chapter 32) in the 10th year of King Zedekiah of Judah, which was the 18th year of Nebuchadrezzar: The King of Babylon’s army was besieging Jerusalem; the Prophet Jeremiah was imprisoned in the Court of the Guard, which was in the King of Judah’s House; King Zedekiah jailed him saying, Why do yu prophesy: ‘The Lord says: I will surrender this City to the King of Babylon to capture. King Zedekiah will not escape from the Chaldeans; the King of Babylon will speak mouth to mouth, his eyes will look into his eyes; he will deport Zedekiah to Babylon, and there he’ll stay till I visit him; though you fight with the Chaldeans, you will not prosper’. Jeremiah: The Lord’s Word: ‘Hanamel benShallum, yur uncle, shall ask yu: Buy my field in Anathoth, for the right of redemption is yurs.’ Hanamel, my cousin, came to me in the Court of the Guard according to the Lord’s Word, to sell me the field in Anathoth of Benjamin according to the the right of inheritance & redemption.’ So I knew it was the Lord’s Word. I bought the property from my cousin Hanamel, I weighed the money, 17 silver shekels; I signed the deed, sealed it, called the witnesses, weighed the the money in the scales. I took the deed of purchase, the sealed one according to the law & custom, and the one which was open; I gave the deed of purchase to Baruch benNeriah, benMahseiah, in the presence of my cousin Hanamel & the witnesses who subscribed the deed of purchase, before all the Jews that sat in the Court of Guard. I charged Baruch before them: ‘The Lord of Hosts, Israel’s God, says: Take these deeds, the sealed deed of purchase, and the open one, put them in an earthen jar, that they may continue many days. For the Lord says: Houses & fields & vineyards shall again be purchased in this land.’
After I delivered the deed of purchase to Baruch benNeriah, I prayed to the Lord: “Ah Lord Jehovah! behold, Thou hast made the heavens and the earth by Thy great power and by Thine Outstretched Arm; there is nothing too hard for Thee, who showest lovingkindness unto thousands, and recompensest the iniquity of the fathers into the bosom of their children after them; the Great, the Mighty God, Jehovah of Hosts is His Name; great in counsel, and mighty in work; Whose Eyes are open upon all the ways of the sons of men, to give every one according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings: Who didst set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even unto this day, both in Israel and among [other] men; and madest Thee a Name, as at this day; and didst bring forth Thy People Israel out of the land of Egypt with signs, and with wonders, and with a Strong Hand, and with an Outstretched Arm, and with Great Terror; and gavest them this Land, which Thou didst swear to their fathers to give them, a land flowing with milk and honey; and they came in, and possessed it, but they obeyed not Thy Voice, neither walked in Thy Law; they have done nothing of all that Thou commandedst them to do: therefore Thou hast caused all this evil to come upon them. Behold, the mounds, they are come unto the city to take it; and the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans that fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence; and what Thou hast spoken is come to pass; and, behold, Thou seest it. And Thou hast said unto me, O Lord Jehovah, Buy thee the field for money, and call witnesses; whereas the City is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.”
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: “Behold, I am Jehovah, the God of All Flesh: is there anything too hard for Me? Therefore thus saith Jehovah: Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the Chaldeans, and into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon, and he shall take it: and the Chaldeans, that fight against this city, shall come and set this city on fire, and burn it, with the houses, upon whose roofs they have offered incense unto Baal, and poured out drink-offerings unto other `gods`, to provoke Me to anger. For the Children of Israel and the Children of Judah have done only that which was evil in My Sight from their youth; for the Children of Israel have only provoked Me to anger with the work of their hands, saith Jehovah. For this city hath been to Me a provocation of Mine Anger and of My Wrath from the day that they built it even unto this day; that I should remove it from before My Face, because of all the evil of the children of Israel and of the children of Judah, which they have done to provoke Me to anger, they, their kings, their princes, their priests, and their prophets, and the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And they have turned unto Me the back, and not the face: and though I taught them, rising up early and teaching them, yet they have not hearkened to receive instruction. But they set their abominations in the House which is called by My Name, to defile it. And they built the high places of Baal, which are in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through [the fire] unto Molech; which I commanded them not, neither came it into My Mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin. And now therefore thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, concerning this city, whereof ye say, It is given into the hand of the King of Babylon by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence: Behold, I will gather them out of all the countries, whither I have driven them in Mine Anger, and in My Wrath, and in Great Indignation; and I will bring them again unto this place, and I will cause them to dwell safely: and they shall be My People, and I will be their God: and I will give them one heart and one way, that they may fear Me for ever, for the good of them, and of their children after them: and I will make an Everlasting Covenant with them, that I will not turn away from following them, to do them good; and I will put My Fear in their hearts, that they may not depart from Me. Yea, I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in this Land assuredly with My Whole Heart and with My Whole Soul. For thus saith Jehovah: Like as I have brought all this great evil upon this People, so will I bring upon them all the good that I have promised them. And fields shall be bought in this land, whereof ye say, It is desolate, without man or beast; it is given into the hand of the Chaldeans. Men shall buy fields for money, and subscribe the deeds, and seal them, and call witnesses, in the land of Benjamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, and in the cities of the hill-country, and in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the South: for I will cause their Captivity to return, saith Jehovah.”

The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah (chapter 33), the 2nd time, while he was still imprisoned in the Court of the Guard: “Thus saith Jehovah That doeth it, Jehovah That formeth it to establish it; Jehovah is His Name. Call unto Me, and I will answer thee, and will show thee great things, and difficult, which thou knowest not. For thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, concerning the houses of this city, and concerning the houses of the kings of Judah, which are broken down [to make a defence] against the mounds and against the sword; while [men] come to fight with the Chaldeans, and to fill them with the dead bodies of men, whom I have slain in Mine Anger and in My Wrath, and for all whose wickedness I have hid My Face from this City: Behold, I will bring it health and cure, and I will cure them; and I will reveal unto them abundance of peace and truth. And I will cause the Captivity of Judah and the Captivity of Israel to return, and will build them, as at the first. And I will cleanse them from all their iniquity, whereby they have sinned against Me; and I will pardon all their iniquities, whereby they have sinned against Me, and whereby they have transgressed against Me. And [this City] shall be to Me for a Name of Joy, for a Praise and for a Glory, before all the nations (Gentiles) of the earth, which shall hear all the good that I do unto them, and shall fear and tremble for all the good and for all the peace that I procure unto it. Thus saith Jehovah: Yet again there shall be heard in this Place, whereof ye say, It is waste, without man and without beast, even in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, that are desolate, without man and without inhabitant and without beast, the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say, Give thanks to Jehovah of Hosts, for Jehovah is Good, for His Lovingkindness [endureth] for ever; [and of them] that bring [sacrifices of] thanksgiving into the House of Jehovah. For I will cause the Captivity of the land to return as at the first, saith Jehovah. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts: Yet again shall there be in this place, which is waste, without man and without beast, and in all the cities thereof, a habitation of shepherds causing their flocks to lie down. In the cities of the hill-country, in the cities of the lowland, and in the cities of the South, and in the land of Benjamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, shall the flocks again pass under the hands of him that numbereth them, saith Jehovah. Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will perform that Good Word which I have spoken concerning the House of Israel and concerning the House of Judah. In those days, and at that time, will I cause a Branch of Righteousness to grow up unto David; and He shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely; and this is [the Name] whereby (she, He) shall be called: Jehovah our Righteousness. For thus saith Jehovah: David shall never want a man to sit upon the Throne of the House of Israel; neither shall the priests the Levites want a man before Me to offer burnt-offerings, and to burn meal-offerings, and to do sacrifice continually.”
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: “Thus saith Jehovah: If ye can break My Covenant of the day, and My Covenant of the night, so that there shall not be day and night in their season; then may also My Covenant be broken with David My Servant, that he shall not have a son to reign upon his Throne; and with the Levites the Priests, My Ministers. As the Host of Heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured; so will I multiply the Seed of David My Servant, and the Levites that minister unto Me.”
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: “Considerest thou not what this people have spoken, saying, The two families which Jehovah did choose, he hath cast them off? thus do they despise My People, that they should be no more a nation before them. Thus saith Jehovah: If My Covenant of day and night [stand] not, if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth; then will I also cast away the Seed of Jacob, and of David My Servant, so that I will not take of his Seed to be rulers over the Seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: for I will cause their Captivity to return, and will have mercy on them.”

The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah (chapter 34) when King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, with his army, and the kingdoms of the earth subject to him, and all the peoples, fighting against Jerusalem and its cities: “The word which came unto Jeremiah from Jehovah, when Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and all his army, and all the kingdoms of the earth that were under his dominion, and all the peoples, were fighting against Jerusalem, and against all the cities thereof, saying: Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, Go, and speak to Zedekiah King of Judah, and tell him, Thus saith Jehovah, Behold, I will give this city into the hand of the King of Babylon, and he shall burn it with fire: and thou shalt not escape out of his hand, but shalt surely be taken, and delivered into his hand; and thine eyes shall behold the eyes of the king of Babylon, and he shall speak with thee mouth to mouth, and thou shalt go to Babylon. Yet hear the word of Jehovah, O Zedekiah King of Judah: thus saith Jehovah concerning thee, Thou shalt not die by the sword; thou shalt die in peace; and with the burnings of thy fathers, the former kings that were before thee, so shall they make a burning for thee; and they shall lament thee, [saying], Ah Lord! for I have spoken the Word, saith Jehovah.” The Prophet Jeremiah spake all these Words unto King Zedekiah of Judah in Jerusalem, when the King of Babylon’s army was fighting against Jerusalem, and against all the cities of Judah that were left, against Lachish and against Azekah; for these [alone] remained of the cities of Judah [as] fortified cities.
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah after King Zediakiah covenated with the Jerusalem residents to proclaim liberty to them: All male or female servants (slaves, bond-servants), a Hebrew or Hebrewess, (all Jews), to be free from bonds or acts or contracts of slavery, or perpetual servitude as brethren. The princes & the people agreed & entered into covenant to free, emancipate, or liberate their servants, (slaves), & handmaids. But afterwards they broke the covenant and reenslaved them, bringing them back to perpetual servitude. The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: “Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel: I made a Covenant with your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the House of Bondage, saying, At the end of seven years ye shall let go every man his brother that is a Hebrew, that hath been sold unto thee, and hath served thee six years, thou shalt let him go free from thee: but your fathers hearkened not unto Me, neither inclined their ear. And ye were now turned, and had done that which is right in Mine Eyes, in proclaiming liberty every man to his neighbor; and ye had made a Covenant before Me in the House which is called by My Name: but ye turned and profaned My Name, and caused every man his servant, and every man his handmaid, whom ye had let go free at their pleasure, to return; and ye brought them into subjection, to be unto you for servants and for handmaids. Therefore thus saith Jehovah: ye have not hearkened unto Me, to proclaim liberty, every man to his brother, and every man to his neighbor: behold, I proclaim unto you a liberty, saith Jehovah, to the sword, to the pestilence, and to the famine; and I will make you to be tossed to and fro among all the kingdoms of the earth. And I will give the men that have transgressed My Covenant, that have not performed the Words of the Covenant which they made before Me, when they cut the calf in twain and passed between the parts thereof; the princes of Judah, and the princes of Jerusalem, the eunuchs, and the priests, and all the people of the land, that passed between the parts of the calf; I will even give them into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of them that seek their life; and their dead bodies shall be for food unto the birds of the heavens, and to the beasts of the earth. And Zedekiah King of Judah and his princes will I give into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of them that seek their life, and into the hand of the King of Babylon’s army, that are gone away from you. Behold, I will Command, saith Jehovah, and cause them to return to this city; and they shall fight against it, and take it, and burn it with fire: and I will make the cities of Judah a desolation, without inhabitant.”

The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah in the days of King Jehoiakim benJosiah of Judah (chapter 35): Go to the House of the Rechabites, speak to them, bring into the Lord’s House, in one of the chambers, give them wine to drink. I took Jaazaniah benJeremiah, benHabazziniah, & his brothers, his sons, & the entire House of the Rechabites; I brought them into the Lord’s House, into the chamber of the sons of Hanan benIgdaliah, the Man of God, near to the chamber of the princes, above the chamber of Maaseiah benShallum, Keeper of the Threshold. I set it before the House of the Recabites, and told them to drink wine. They refused, saying their father Jonadab benRechab (a Kenite tribe, of which Jethro the Midianite, Moses father-in-law, was a member; Rechab assisted Jehu (the 10th King of the Northern Kingdom of Israel & Samaria) who exterminated the House of Omri in Ahab & Jezebel) commanded them never to drink wine, or build houses, sow seed, plant vineyard, or own such; but only to live in tents while they are sojourners in a foreign land. We have all obeyed ever since. When King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon invaded we decided to come to Jerusalem for refuge from the Chaldeans & the Syrian army; so we have resided in Jerusalem. The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: “Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Go, and say to the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Will ye not receive instruction to hearken to My Words? saith Jehovah. The words of Jonadab the son of Rechab, that he commanded his sons, not to drink wine, are performed; and unto this day they drink none, for they obey their father’s commandment: but I have spoken unto you, rising up early and speaking; and ye have not hearkened unto Me. I have sent also unto you all My Servants the Prophets, rising up early and sending them, saying, Return ye now every man from his evil way, and amend your doings, and go not after other `gods` to serve them, and ye shall dwell in the land which I have given to you and to your fathers: but ye have not inclined your ear, nor hearkened unto Me. Forasmuch as the sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab have performed the commandment of their father which he commanded them, but this people hath not hearkened unto Me; therefore thus saith Jehovah, the God of Hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will bring upon Judah and upon all the inhabitants of Jerusalem all the evil that I have pronounced against them; because I have spoken unto them, but they have not heard; and I have called unto them, but they have not answered. And Jeremiah said unto the House of the Rechabites, Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Because ye have obeyed the commandment of Jonadab your father, and kept all his precepts, and done according unto all that he commanded you; therefore thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Jonadab the son of Rechab shall not want a man to stand before Me for ever.”

In the 4th year of King Jehoiakim benJosiah of Judah (chapter 36): the Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: “Take thee a Roll of a Book, and write therein all the Words that I have spoken unto thee against Israel, and against Judah, and against all the Nations (Gentiles), from the day I spake unto thee, from the days of Josiah, even unto this day. It may be that the House of Judah will hear all the evil which I purpose to do unto them; that they may return every man from his evil way; that I may forgive their iniquity and their sin.” Jeremiah called Baruch benNeriah: Baruch wrote at Jeremiah’s dictation the Lord’s Word on the Scroll. Jeremiah, being imprisoned, commanded Baruch to go & read the Written Words of the Lord on the Scroll to the People in the Lord’s House on the Fast-Day, and to all Judah (Jews) from other cities. Perhaps they will be suppliant before the Lord, return from their evil ways; for the Lord’s Anger & Wrath is great against this People. Baruch did as he was instructed by the Prophet Jeremiah. In the 5th year of King Jehoiakim benJosiah of Judah, in the 9th month, the People (Jews) from the cities of Judah came to Jerusalem, and proclaimed a Fast before the Lord. Baruch read to all the People in the Book Jeremiah’s words in the Lord’s House, in the chamber of Gemariah benShaphan, the Scribe, in the Upper Court, at the entry of the New Gate of the Lord’s House. Micaiah benGemariah, benShaphan, heard the Reading from the Book the Lord’s Word, he went to the King’s House, into the Scribe’s Chamber; the princes were sitting there: Elishama the Scribe, Delaiah benShemaiah, Elnathan benAchbor, Gemariah benShaphan, Zedekiah benHananiah, with all the princes. Micaiah reported Baruch’s Reading of the Book of the Lord’s Words to the people. The princes sent Jehudi benNethaniah, benShelemiah, benCushi, to Baruch, saying: Bring the Scroll yu have read to the people. Baruch benNeriah did; they told him to sit down and read it; so he did. They heard and became afraid, looking at each other, told Baruch that they will report to the King the Words (Reading). They asked Baruch he wrote the Words that was dictated. He replied, he spoke the Words and I wrote them down with ink in the Book. The princes told Baruch that he & Jeremiah must go hide themselves without anyone knowing. They went into the court, but the Scroll they put in the chamber of Elishama the Scribe; and they reported the Words to the King. The King sent Jehudi to bring the Scroll to him; he did, and read it to the King, and to princes with him. The King was sitting in the winter-house in the 9th month, a fire was in the fire-place; as Jehudi read 3 or 4 leaves, the King cut off the leaves from the Scroll with his penknife, and threw it in the fire till the entire Scroll was burnt up. They were not afraid, and did not tear their clothes, neither did the servants who heard the Words. Elnathan, Delaiah, & Gemariah pleaded with the King not to burn the Scroll to no avail. The King commanded Jerameel the King’s son, Seraiah benAzriel, & Shelemiah benAbdeel, to arrest Baruch the Scribe & Jeremiah the Prophet; but the Lord hid them. The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah after the King burned the Scroll, and the Words which Baruch wrote at Jeremiah’s dictation: “Take thee again another Roll (Scroll), and write in it all the former words that were in the first Roll, which Jehoiakim the King of Judah hath burned. And concerning Jehoiakim King of Judah thou shalt say, Thus saith Jehovah: Thou hast burned this Roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein, saying, The King of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this Land, and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast? Therefore thus saith Jehovah concerning Jehoiakim King of Judah: He shall have none to sit upon the Throne of David; and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I will bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced against them, but they hearkened not.” Then took Jeremiah another Scroll, and gave it to Scribe Baruch the benNeriah, who wrote at Jeremiah’s dictation all the Words of the Book which King Jehoiakim of Judah had burned in the fire; and there were added besides unto them many like Words.

Zedekiah benJosiah reigned as King in the place of Coniah benJehoiakim (chapter 37), whom King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon enthroned as King in the Land of Judah. He, his servants, and the people, refused to listen to the Lord’s Words spoken by the Prophet Jeremiah. King Zedekiah, Jehucal benShelemiah, and Zephaniah benMaaseiah, the Priest, to the Prophet Jeremiah, saying: Pray to the Lord our God for us. Jeremiah freely moved among the people, not yet being imprisoned. Pharaoh’s army had come from Egypt, the Chaldeans besieging Jerusalem heard the news, and discontinued the assault on Jerusalem.
The Lord’s Word to the Prophet Jeremiah: “Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, Thus shall ye say to the King of Judah, that sent you unto Me to inquire of Me: Behold, Pharaoh’s army, which is come forth to help you, shall return to Egypt into their own land. And the Chaldeans shall come again, and fight against this City; and they shall take it, and burn it with fire. Thus saith Jehovah, Deceive not yourselves, saying, The Chaldeans shall surely depart from us; for they shall not depart.For though ye had smitten the whole army of the Chaldeans that fight against you, and there remained but wounded men among them, yet would they rise up every man in his tent, and burn this city with fire.” After the Chaldeans stopped their assault on Jerusalem for fear of the Egyptian’s army, Jeremiah left Jerusalem and went into the land of Benjamin to his lot among the people. When he was in the Gate of Benjamin, a Captain of the Ward, Irijah benShelemiah, benHananiah, arrested the Prophet Jeremiah, accusing him of desertion to the Chaldeans. Jeremiah denied it; but they refused to listen to him; Irijah arrested Jeremiah and brought him to the princes. The princes were angry with Jeremiah, and struck him, and jailed him in the house of Jonathan the Scribe; for they made that the prison. Jeremiah was put in the dungeon-house, into the cells, and stayed there many days. King Zedekiah brought him out, secretly asking if there is any Word from the Lord. Jeremiah replied: “Thou shalt be delivered into the the hand of the King of Babylon.” Jeremiah complained to King Zedekiah: How have I wronged yu, or yur servants, or the people, to be imprisoned? Where are your prophets that prophesied: ‘The King of Babylon shall not come against you, nor against this land”? Please listen, O Lord my King: let my supplication, be presented before yu, that I not be returned to die in the house of the Scribe Jonathan.’ King Zedekiah commanded to commit Jeremiah into the Court of the Guard; and to give him a daily loaf of bread out of the baker’s street, till the city was out of bread. So they did to him.
Shephatiah benMattan, Gedaliah benPashur, & Pashur benMalchijah, heard Jeremiah’s Words to the people: “Thus saith Jehovah, He that abideth in this city shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he that goeth forth to the Chaldeans shall live, and his life shall be unto him for a prey, and he shall live. Thus saith Jehovah, This City shall surely be given into the hand of the army of the king of Babylon, and he shall take it.” The princes ask the King: Let him be put to death, for he weakens the warriors in the city, and the people, in his subversive words to harm the people. King Zedekiah replied: do as you wish, I cannot stop you. They put Jeremiah down by ropes into the dungeon of Malchijah the King’s son in the Court of the Guard. The dungeon had no water, only mud, and Jeremiah sank in the mud. The Ethiopian eunuch Ebed-melech in the King’s House heard of this, and while the King was sitting in the gate of Benjamin, he left the King’s House and went to plead with the King: these men are doing great wrong against the Prophet Jeremiah, to make him die by starvation in the dungeon. The King commanded him to take 30 men to help get Jeremiah out of the dungeon before he die. They went into the King’s House under the Treasury, using rags & old clothes took up Jeremiah by the armpits out of the dungeon; and he stayed in the Court of the Guard. King Zedekiah took the Prophet Jeremiah into the 3rd entry in the Lord’s House to ask him something confidential: Jeremiah replied: If I tell yu, yu’ll put me to death; and if I counsel yu, yu’ll not listen. King Zedekiah swore secretly to Jeremiah, as the Lord lives, Who made this soul, I will not kill yu, neither hand yu over to those who want to kill yu. “Then said Jeremiah unto Zedekiah, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Hosts, the God of Israel: If thou wilt go forth unto the King of Babylon’s princes, then thy soul shall live, and this City shall not be burned with fire; and thou shalt live, and thy House. But if thou wilt not go forth to the King of Babylon’s princes, then shall this City be given into the hand of the Chaldeans, and they shall burn it with fire, and thou shalt not escape out of their hand.” King Zedekiah replied to Jeremiah: I’m afraid of those Jews who have deserted to the Chaldeans, who will betray & mock me. Jeremiah answered: they will not; obey the Lord’s Voice, in what I have spoken, and it will be well, & yu’ll live. But if yu refuse to submit, this is the Lord’s Word: “Behold, all the women that are left in the King of Judah’s House shall be brought forth to the King of Babylon’s princes,and those women shall say, Thy familiar friends have set thee on, and have prevailed over thee: [now that] thy feet are sunk in the mire, they are turned away back. And they shall bring out all thy wives and thy children to the Chaldeans; and thou shalt not escape out of their hand, but shalt be taken by the hand of the King of Babylon: and thou shalt cause this City to be burned with fire.” Zedekiah to Jeremiah: Let no one know of these words, and yu’ll not die. If the princes suspect something, and ask yu what yu said to the King, and what the King said to yu; tell them yu presented a supplication to not be returned to Jonathan’s house to die. The princes asked Jeremiah, and he answered as the King instructed him; so nothing was detected. Jeremiah stayed in the Court of the Guard till Jerusalem was captured.

Jerusalem was Captured (chapter 39): In 9th year of King Zedekiah of Judah, in the 10th Month, King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon with all his army came against Jerusalem and besieged it. In the 11th Year of Zedekiah, in the 4th month, a breach was made in the City. The princes of the King of Babylon came in, sat in the middle gate: Nergal-sharezer, Samgar-nebo, Sarsechim, Rab-saris, Nergal-sharezer, Rab-mag, with other princes of the King of Babylon. King Zedekiah of Judah and the warriors, fled by night by way of the King’s Garden, between the two walls of the gate, leaving the city toward the Arabah (Desert, South). The Chaldeans’ army pursued & caught Zedekiah in the Plains of Jericho (some 5 miles away); they brought him to King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon to Riblah in the land of Hamath; and there he judged him (Jerusalem to Riblah north of Damascus is some 270 miles). He slew Zedekiah’s sons as he watched, he slew Judah’s nobles; he put out Zedekiah’s eyes, he shackled him, & took him to Babylon (Riblah to Babylon is some 450 miles). The Chaldeans torched the King’s House, and the houses of the people; they demolished Jerusalem’s walls. Nebuzaradan the Captain of the Guard deported captives to Babylon the Remnant the Jews of the city, also the deserters, & any other Jews. But he left the poorest of the people, the homeless or landless, of Judah, giving them vineyards & fields. King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon charged Nebuzaradan the Guard Captain concerning Jeremiah: Treat him well; let go where he please. He with Nebushazban, Rab-saris, Nergal-sharezer, & Rab-mag, sent & took Jeremiah from the Court of the Guard, entrusting him to the care of Gedaliah benAhikam, benShaphan, to take him home; so he lived among the people. The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah when he was jailed in the Court of the Guard: Tell Ebed-melech the Ethiopian: “Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will bring My Words upon this City for evil, and not for good; and they shall be accomplished before thee in that day. But I will deliver thee in that day, saith Jehovah; and thou shalt not be given into the hand of the men of whom thou art afraid. For I will surely save thee, and thou shalt not fall by the sword, but thy life shall be for a prey unto thee; because thou hast put thy trust in Me, saith Jehovah.”
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah after Nebuzaradan the Guard Captain released him at Ramah from his chains among the captives of Jerusalem & Judah being deported to Babylon. The Guard Captain said to Jeremiah: The Lord yur God pronounced this doom on this place; the Lord has done it as He said because you have sinned against the Lord, and disobeyed His Voice. I now release yu from yur chains to go where yu please: yu may come with me to Babylon, where I will treat yu well, or go anywhere in the entire land before yu. Further he said to Gedaliah benAhikam, benShaphan, whom the King of Babylon made Governor over the cities of Judah, stay with him among the people anywhere yu please. So the Guard Captain gave to him provisions & a gift, & released him. Jeremiah went & stayed with Gedaliah benAhikam. The captains of the forces in the fields (resistance fighters) & their men heard that the King of Babylon had made Gedaliah benAhikam Governor in the land, to care for the men, women, & children, the poorest of the land, the Remnant who were not deported captives to Babylon; they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah: Ishmael benNethaniah, Johanan & Jonathan beniKareah, Seraiah benTanhumeth, beniEphai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah benMaacathite, with all their men. Gedaliah swore an oath to them: Do not fear to serve the Chaldeans: reside in the land, serve the King of Babylon and it will be well. I must stay at Mizpah to answer to the Chaldeans when they come; but you may gather wine, summer fruits, & oil in vessels, and take them to the cities you have chosen. When the Jews that were in Moab, and those among the children of Ammon, and in Edom, and in all the surrounding countries, heard that the King of Babylon had left a Remnant in Judah, and set over them Gedaliah benAhikam, benShaphan; all the Jews returned from the places they fled to; they came to Judah. Johanan benKareah, with his resistance fighting captains, came to Gedaliah at Mizpah, saying: King Baalis of the children of Ammon sent Ishmael benNethaniah to kill yu. Gedaliah did not believe them. Johanan spoke with Gedaliah in private, saying: let me go kill Ishmael secretly; why should he kill yu that the Jews governed be scattered, and the Remnant of Judah perish. But he refused, and replied that he was lying about Ishmael.
In the 7th month Ishmael benNethaniah, benElishama, of the royal seed, and of the chief officers of the King, came with 10 men to Gedaliah benAhikam at Mizpah, to eat bread together. Ishmael & his men slew by sword Gedaliah the appointed Governor by the King of Babylon; he also killed the Jews with him at Mizpah, with the Chaldean warriors there. No one knowing of the slaughter for two days: Men from Shechem, Shiloh, & Samaria, some 80 men, their beards shaven & their clothes torn, with bodies cut, with meal-offerings & frankincense in their hands came to bring to the Lord’s House. Ishmael met them with tears as he approached, saying, Come to Gedaliah benAhikam. They all came into the city, Ishmael killed them, and threw all of them into the pit. But 10 of the 80 men said to Ishmael: Do not kill us, we have supplies hidden in the fields, of wheat, barley, oil, & honey; so he spared them. The pit where the dead bodies where cast, was the pit that King Asa made when he was afraid of King Baasha of Israel. Ishmael led captive all remnant of the people at Mizpah: the King’s daughters, the common people that Nebuzaradan the Guard captain committed to the governship of Gedaliah, these he took with him to escape to children of Ammon. Johanan benKareah with his captains of the warriors heard of it, they pursued Ishmael and found him at the waters of Gibeon (about 5 miles from Jerusalem). The people captured by Ishmael were glad on seeing Johanan, and they turned back to go to Johanan. Ishmael escaped with 8 men to the children of Ammon. Johanan, the captains of the warriors, and the Remnant of the common folks he recovered from Ishmael: the warriors, women, children, and eunuchs; they all went & lived in Geruth Chimham near Beth-lehem to go into Egypt, because they were afraid of the Chaldeans, because Ishmael had murdered Gedaliah the Governor appointed by the King of Babylon.
The captains of the warriors, Johanan benKareah, Jezaniah benHoshaiah, and all the rest of the people, the common to the noble, came to the Prophet Jeremiah, saying: Please accept our supplication, and pray for us to the Lord yur God, for this small Remnant: that the Lord God may show us which way to walk & what to do. He replied: I will pray to the Lord your God with your words; whatever He says I will tell you exactly. They replied: The Lord be a True & Faithful Witness of us if we do not the Word the Lord yur God send to us; whether good or bad, we will obey the Voice of the Lord our God, that it go well with us. After 10 days the Lord’s Word to Jeremiah: he gathered to him Johanan, the warrior captains, and all the rest of the people, saying to them: The Lord God of Israel to Whom you sent Me to present your supplication, says: “If ye will still abide in this land, then will I build you, and not pull you down, and I will plant you, and not pluck you up; for I repent Me of the evil that I have done unto you. Be not afraid of the King of Babylon, of whom ye are afraid; be not afraid of him, saith Jehovah: for I am with you to save you, and to deliver you from his hand. And I will grant you mercy, that he may have mercy upon you, and cause you to return to your own Land. But if ye say, We will not dwell in this Land; so that ye obey not the Voice of Jehovah your God, saying, No; but we will go into the land of Egypt, where we shall see no war, nor hear the sound of the trumpet, nor have hunger of bread; and there will we dwell: now therefore hear ye the Word of Jehovah, O Remnant of Judah: Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, If ye indeed set your faces to enter into Egypt, and go to sojourn there; then it shall come to pass, that the sword, which ye fear, shall overtake you there in the land of Egypt; and the famine, whereof ye are afraid, shall follow hard after you there in Egypt; and there ye shall die. So shall it be with all the men that set their faces to go into Egypt to sojourn there: they shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; and none of them shall remain or escape from the evil that I will bring upon them. For thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: As Mine Anger and My Wrath hath been poured forth upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so shall My Wrath be poured forth upon you, when ye shall enter into Egypt; and ye shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach; and ye shall see this place no more.” Jeremiah adds: “Jehovah hath spoken concerning you, O Remnant of Judah, Go ye not into Egypt: know certainly that I have testified unto you this day. For ye have dealt deceitfully against your own souls; for ye sent me unto Jehovah your God, saying, Pray for us unto Jehovah our God; and according unto all that Jehovah our God shall say, so declare unto us, and we will do it: and I have this day declared it to you; but ye have not obeyed the voice of Jehovah your God in anything for which he hath sent me unto you. Now therefore know certainly that ye shall die by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence, in the place whither ye desire to go to sojourn there.”
After Jeremiah ended his words to the people: Azariah benHoshaiah, Johanan benKareah, and the proud men, said to Jeremiah: Yur lying; the Lord God did not say: Ye shall not go into Egypt to sojourn; but Baruch bebNeriah sets yu against us, to deliver us to Chaldeans to be put to death & deported to Babylon. So they refused to obey the Lord’s Voice to stay in Judah; but they took all the Jews, remnant and all, with Jeremiah & Baruch, and came into the land of Egypt at Tahpanhes (some 250 miles away). The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah in Tahpanhes: “Take great stones in thy hand, and hide them in mortar in the brickwork, which is at the entry of Pharaoh’s house in Tahpanhes, in the sight of the men of Judah; and say unto them, Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will send and take Nebuchadrezzar the King of Babylon, My Servant, and will set his throne upon these stones that I have hid; and he shall spread his royal pavilion over them. And he shall come, and shall smite the land of Egypt; such as are for death [shall be given] to death, and such as are for captivity to captivity, and such as are for the sword to the sword. And I will kindle a fire in the houses of the `gods` of Egypt; and he shall burn them, and carry them away captive: and he shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd putteth on his garment; and he shall go forth from thence in peace. He shall also break the pillars of Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the `gods` of Egypt shall he burn with fire.”
The Word to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews that dwelt in the land of Egypt, at Migdol, at Tahpanhes, at Memphis, and in the country of Pathros: “Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Ye have seen all the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem,and upon all the cities of Judah; and, behold, this day they are a desolation, and no man dwelleth therein, because of their wickedness which they have committed to provoke Me to anger, in that they went to burn incense, [and] to serve other `gods`, that they knew not, neither they, nor ye, nor your fathers. Howbeit I sent unto you all My Servants the Prophets, rising up early and sending them, saying, Oh, do not this abominable thing that I hate. But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear to turn from their wickedness, to burn no incense unto other `gods`. Wherefore My Wrath and Mine Anger was poured forth, and was kindled in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem; and they are wasted and desolate, as it is this day. Therefore now thus saith Jehovah, the God of Hosts, the God of Israel: Wherefore commit ye [this] great evil against your own souls, to cut off from you man and woman, infant and suckling, out of the midst of Judah, to leave you none remaining; in that ye provoke Me unto anger with the works of your hands, burning incense unto other `gods` in the land of Egypt, whither ye are gone to sojourn; that ye may be cut off, and that ye may be a curse and a reproach among all the Nations (Gentiles) of the earth? Have ye forgotten the wickedness of your fathers, and the wickedness of the kings of Judah, and the wickedness of their wives, and your own wickedness, and the wickedness of your wives which they committed in the land of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem? They are not humbled even unto this day, neither have they feared, nor walked in My Law, nor in My Statutes, that I set before you and before your fathers. Therefore thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will set My Face against you for evil, even to cut off all Judah. And I will take the Remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be consumed; in the land of Egypt shall they fall; they shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine; they shall die, from the least even unto the greatest, by the sword and by the famine; and they shall be an execration, [and] an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach. For I will punish them that dwell in the land of Egypt, as I have punished Jerusalem, by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence; so that none of the Remnant of Judah, that are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall escape or be left, to return into the land of Judah, to which they have a desire to return to dwell there: for none shall return save such as shall escape.”
The men who knew that their wives burned incense unto other `gods`, and the women that stood by, a great assembly, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying: As for the Word yu spoke to us in the Name of Jehovah, we will not listen to yu. We will certainly perform every word we have spoken: to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven, to pour out drink-offerings to her, as we have done, we and our fathers, our kings and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem; for then had we plenty of provisions, and were well, and saw no evil. But since we left off burning incense to the Queen of Heaven, and pouring out drink-offerings to her, we have lacked all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by the famine. And when we burned incense to the Queen of Heaven, and poured out drink-offerings to her, did we make her cakes to worship her, and pour out drink-offerings to her, without our husbands?
Jeremiah said to the people, to the men, the women, to all the people that had given him that answer, saying: The incense that ye burned in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, ye and your fathers, your kings and your princes, and the people of the land, did not Jehovah remember them, and came it not into His Mind? so that Jehovah could not longer bear, because of the evil of your doings, and because of the abominations which ye have committed; therefore is your land become a desolation, and an astonishment, and a curse, without inhabitant to this day. Because ye have burned incense, and because ye have sinned against Jehovah, and have not obeyed the Voice of Jehovah, nor walked in His Law, nor in His Statutes, nor in His Testimonies; therefore this calamity is happened to you to this day. Jeremiah said to the people, and to the women: Hear the Word of Jehovah, all Judah that are in the land of Egypt: Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, saying: “Ye and your wives have both spoken with your mouths, and with your hands have fulfilled it, saying, We will surely perform our vows that we have vowed, to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto her: establish then your vows, and perform your vows. Therefore hear ye the Word of Jehovah, all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt: Behold, I have sworn by My Great Name, saith Jehovah, that My Name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, As the Lord Jehovah liveth. Behold, I watch over them for evil, and not for good; and all the men of Judah that are in the land of Egypt shall be consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them. And they that escape the sword shall return out of the land of Egypt into the land of Judah, few in number; and all the remnant of Judah, that are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall know whose word shall stand, Mine, or theirs. And this shall be the Sign unto you, saith Jehovah, that I will punish you in this place, that ye may know that my Words shall surely stand against you for evil: Thus saith Jehovah, Behold, I will give Pharaoh Hophra King of Egypt into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life; as I gave Zedekiah King of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon, who was his enemy, and sought his life.”

The Word the Prophet Jeremiah spoke to Baruch benNeriah (chapter 45), when he wrote these Words in a Book at the Lord’s Mouth, in the 4th year of King Jehoiakim benJosiah of Judah: “Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, unto thee, O Baruch: Thou didst say, Woe is me now! for Jehovah hath added sorrow to my pain; I am weary with my groaning, and I find no rest. Thus shalt thou say unto him, Thus saith Jehovah: Behold, that which I have built will I break down, and that which I have planted I will pluck up; and this in the whole Land. And seekest thou great things for thyself? seek them not; for, behold, I will bring evil upon all flesh, saith Jehovah; but thy life will I give unto thee for a prey in all places whither thou goest.”

The Lord’s Word to the Prophet Jeremiah concerning the Nations (Gentiles):
Concerning Egypt (Egyptians) (chapter 46): Concerning the army of King Pharaoh-neco King Egypt, which was by the River Euphrates in Carchemish, which King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon smote in the 4th year of King Jehoiakim benJosiah of Judah: “Prepare ye the buckler and shield, and draw near to battle. Harness the horses, and get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets; furbish the spears, put on the coats of mail. Wherefore have I seen it? they are dismayed and are turned backward; and their mighty ones are beaten down, and are fled apace, and look not back: terror is on every side, saith Jehovah. Let not the swift flee away, nor the mighty man escape; in the north by the River Euphrates have they stumbled and fallen. Who is this that riseth up like the Nile, whose waters toss themselves like the rivers? Egypt riseth up like the Nile, and his waters toss themselves like the rivers: and he saith, I will rise up, I will cover the earth; I will destroy cities and the inhabitants thereof. Go up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; and let the mighty men go forth: Cush and Put, that handle the shield; and the Ludim, that handle and bend the bow. For that day is [a day] of the Lord, Jehovah of Hosts, a day of vengeance, that He may avenge Him of His adversaries: and the sword shall devour and be satiate, and shall drink its fill of their blood; for the Lord, Jehovah of Hosts, hath a sacrifice in the north country by the River Euphrates. Go up into Gilead, and take balm, O Virgin Daughter of Egypt: in vain dost thou use many medicines; there is no healing for thee. The nations (Gentiles) have heard of thy shame, and the earth is full of thy cry; for the mighty man hath stumbled against the mighty, they are fallen both of them together.” The Lord’s Word to the Prophet Jeremiah that King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon should come and smite the land of Egypt: “Declare ye in Egypt, and publish in Migdol, and publish in Memphis and in Tahpanhes: say ye, Stand forth, and prepare thee; for the sword hath devoured round about thee. Why are thy strong ones swept away? they stood not, because Jehovah did drive them. He made many to stumble, yea, they fell one upon another: and they said, Arise, and let us go again to our own people, and to the land of our nativity, from the oppressing sword. They cried there, King Pharaoh of Egypt is but a noise; he hath let the appointed time pass by. As I live, saith the King, Whose Name is Jehovah of Hosts, surely like Tabor among the mountains, and like Carmel by the sea, so shall he come. O thou Daughter that dwellest in Egypt, furnish thyself to go into Captivity; for Memphis shall become a desolation, and shall be burnt up, without inhabitant. Egypt is a very fair heifer; [but] destruction out of the north is come, it is come. Also her hired men in the midst of her are like calves of the stall; for they also are turned back, they are fled away together, they did not stand: for the day of their calamity is come upon them, the time of their visitation. The sound thereof shall go like the serpent; for they shall march with an army, and come against her with axes, as hewers of wood. They shall cut down her forest, saith Jehovah, though it cannot be searched; because they are more than the locusts, and are innumerable. The Daughter of Egypt shall be put to shame; she shall be delivered into the hand of the people of the north. Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, saith: Behold, I will punish Amon of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with her `gods`, and her kings; even Pharaoh, and them that trust in him: and I will deliver them into the hand of those that seek their lives, and into the hand of King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon, and into the hand of his servants; and afterwards it shall be inhabited, as in the days of old, saith Jehovah. But fear not thou, O Jacob My Servant, neither be dismayed, O Israel: for, lo, I will save thee from afar, and thy Seed from the land of their Captivity; and Jacob shall return, and shall be quiet and at ease, and none shall make him afraid. Fear not thou, O Jacob My Servant, saith Jehovah; for I am with thee: for I will make a full end of all the nations (Gentiles) whither I have driven thee; but I will not make a full end of thee, but I will correct thee in measure, and will in no wise leave thee unpunished.”
The Lord’s Word to Jeremiah concerning the Philistines before Pharaoh struck Gaza: “Thus saith Jehovah: Behold, waters rise up out of the north, and shall become an overflowing stream, and shall overflow the land and all that is therein, the city and them that dwell therein; and the men shall cry, and all the inhabitants of the land shall wail. At the noise of the stamping of the hoofs of his strong ones, at the rushing of his chariots, at the rumbling of his wheels, the fathers look not back to their children for feebleness of hands; because of the day that cometh to destroy all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Sidon every helper that remaineth: for Jehovah will destroy the Philistines, the remnant of the isle of Caphtor. Baldness is come upon Gaza; Ashkelon is brought to nought, the remnant of their valley: how long wilt thou cut thyself? O thou Sword of Jehovah, how long will it be ere thou be quiet? put up thyself into thy scabbard; rest, and be still. How canst thou be quiet, seeing Jehovah hath given thee a charge? Against Ashkelon, and against the sea-shore, there hath he appointed it.”
Concerning Moab (Moabites): “Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: Woe unto Nebo! for it is laid waste; Kiriathaim is put to shame, it is taken; Misgab is put to shame and broken down. The praise of Moab is no more; in Heshbon they have devised evil against her: Come, and let us cut her off from being a nation. Thou also, O Madmen, shalt be brought to silence: the sword shall pursue thee. The sound of a cry from Horonaim, desolation and great destruction! Moab is destroyed; her little ones have caused a cry to be heard. For by the ascent of Luhith with continual weeping shall they go up; for at the descent of Horonaim they have heard the distress of the cry of destruction. Flee, save your lives, and be like the heath in the wilderness. For, because thou hast trusted in thy works and in thy treasures, thou also shalt be taken: and Chemosh shall go forth into Captivity, his priests and his princes together. And the destroyer shall come upon every city, and no city shall escape; the valley also shall perish, and the plain shall be destroyed; as Jehovah hath spoken. Give wings unto Moab, that she may fly and get her away: and her cities shall become a desolation, without any to dwell therein. Cursed be he that doeth the work of Jehovah negligently; and cursed be he that keepeth back his sword from blood. Moab hath been at ease from his youth, and he hath settled on his lees, and hath not been emptied from vessel to vessel, neither hath he gone into Captivity: therefore his taste remaineth in him, and his scent is not changed. Therefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will send unto him them that pour off, and they shall pour him off; and they shall empty his vessels, and break their bottles in pieces. And Moab shall be ashamed of Chemosh, as the House of Israel was ashamed of Beth-el their confidence. How say ye, We are mighty men, and valiant men for the war? Moab is laid waste, and they are gone up into his cities, and his chosen young men are gone down to the slaughter, saith the King, Whose Name is Jehovah of Hosts. The calamity of Moab is near to come, and his affliction hasteth fast. All ye that are round about him, bemoan him, and all ye that know his name; say, How is the strong staff broken, the beautiful rod! O thou Daughter that dwellest in Dibon, come down from thy glory, and sit in thirst; for the destroyer of Moab is come up against thee, he hath destroyed thy strongholds. O inhabitant of Aroer, stand by the way, and watch: ask him that fleeth, and her that escapeth; say, What hath been done? Moab is put to shame; for it is broken down: wail and cry; tell ye it by the Arnon, that Moab is laid waste. And judgment is come upon the plain country, upon Holon, and upon Jahzah, and upon Mephaath, and upon Dibon, and upon Nebo, and upon Beth-diblathaim, and upon Kiriathaim, and upon Beth-gamul, and upon Beth-meon, and upon Kerioth, and upon Bozrah, and upon all the cities of the land of Moab, far or near. The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken, saith Jehovah. Make ye him drunken; for he magnified himself against Jehovah: and Moab shall wallow in his vomit, and he also shall be in derision. For was not Israel a derision unto thee? was he found among thieves? for as often as thou speakest of him, thou waggest the head. O ye inhabitants of Moab, leave the cities, and dwell in the rock; and be like the dove that maketh her nest over the mouth of the abyss. We have heard of the pride of Moab, [that] he is very proud; his loftiness, and his pride, and his arrogancy, and the haughtiness of his heart. I know his wrath, saith Jehovah, that it is nought; his boastings have wrought nothing. Therefore will I wail for Moab; yea, I will cry out for all Moab: for the men of Kir-heres shall they mourn. With more than the weeping of Jazer will I weep for thee, O Vine of Sibmah: thy branches passed over the sea, they reached even to the sea of Jazer: upon thy summer fruits and upon thy vintage the destroyer is fallen. And gladness and joy is taken away from the fruitful field and from the land of Moab; and I have caused wine to cease from the winepresses: none shall tread with shouting; the shouting shall be no shouting. From the cry of Heshbon even unto Elealeh, even unto Jahaz have they uttered their voice, from Zoar even unto Horonaim, to Eglath-shelishiyah: for the waters of Nimrim also shall become desolate. Moreover I will cause to cease in Moab, saith Jehovah, him that offereth in the high place, and him that burneth incense to his `gods`. Therefore my heart soundeth for Moab like pipes, and my heart soundeth like pipes for the men of Kir-heres: therefore the abundance that he hath gotten is perished. For every head is bald, and every beard clipped: upon all the hands are cuttings, and upon the loins sackcloth. On all the housetops of Moab and in the streets thereof there is lamentation every where; for I have broken Moab like a vessel wherein none delighteth, saith Jehovah. How is it broken down! [how] do they wail! how hath Moab turned the back with shame! so shall Moab become a derision and a terror to all that are round about him. For thus saith Jehovah: Behold, he shall fly as an eagle, and shall spread out his wings against Moab. Kerioth is taken, and the strongholds are seized, and the heart of the mighty men of Moab at that day shall be as the heart of a woman in her pangs. And Moab shall be destroyed from being a people, because he hath magnified himself against Jehovah. Fear, and the pit, and the snare, are upon thee, O inhabitant of Moab, saith Jehovah. He that fleeth from the fear shall fall into the pit; and he that getteth up out of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for I will bring upon him, even upon Moab, the year of their visitation, saith Jehovah. They that fled stand without strength under the shadow of Heshbon; for a fire is gone forth out of Heshbon, and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and hath devoured the corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of the tumultuous ones. Woe unto thee, O Moab! the people of Chemosh is undone; for thy sons are taken away captive, and thy daughters into Captivity. Yet will I bring back the Captivity of Moab in the latter days, saith Jehovah. Thus far is the judgment of Moab.”
Concerning the Children of Ammon (Ammonites): “Of the children of Ammon. Thus saith Jehovah: Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why then doth Malcam possess Gad, and his people dwell in the cities thereof? Therefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard against Rabbah of the children of Ammon; and it shall become a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel possess them that did possess him, saith Jehovah. Wail, O Heshbon, for Ai is laid waste; cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with sackcloth: lament, and run to and fro among the fences; for Malcam shall go into captivity, his priests and his princes together. Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding Daughter? that trusted in her treasures, [saying], Who shall come unto me? Behold, I will bring a fear upon thee, saith the Lord, Jehovah of Hosts, from all that are round about thee; and ye shall be driven out every man right forth, and there shall be none to gather together the fugitives. But afterward I will bring back the Captivity of the children of Ammon, saith Jehovah.”
Concerning Edom (Edomites): “Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts: Is wisdom no more in Teman? is counsel perished from the prudent? is their wisdom vanished? Flee ye, turn back, dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him, the time that I shall visit him. If grape-gatherers came to thee, would they not leave some gleaning grapes? if thieves by night, would they not destroy till they had enough? But I have made Esau bare, I have uncovered his secret places, and he shall not be able to hide himself: his seed is destroyed, and his brethren, and his neighbors; and he is not. Leave thy fatherless children, I will preserve them alive; and let thy widows trust in Me. For thus saith Jehovah: Behold, they to whom it pertained not to drink of the cup shall assuredly drink; and art thou he that shall altogether go unpunished? thou shalt not go unpunished, but thou shalt surely drink. For I have sworn by Myself, saith Jehovah, that Bozrah shall become an astonishment, a reproach, a waste, and a curse; and all the cities thereof shall be perpetual wastes. I have heard tidings from Jehovah, and an ambassador is sent among the nations (Gentiles), [saying], Gather yourselves together, and come against her, and rise up to the battle. For, behold, I have made thee small among the nations (Gentiles), and despised among men. As for thy terribleness, the pride of thy heart hath deceived thee, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith Jehovah. And Edom shall become an astonishment: every one that passeth by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all the plagues thereof. As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbor cities thereof, saith Jehovah, no man shall dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein. Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the pride of the Jordan against the strong habitation: for I will suddenly make them run away from it; and whoso is chosen, him will I appoint over it: for who is like Me? and who will appoint Me a time? and who is the shepherd that will stand before Me? Therefore hear ye the counsel of Jehovah, that He hath taken against Edom; and His Purposes, that He hath purposed against the inhabitants of Teman: Surely they shall drag them away, [even] the little ones of the flock; surely He shall make their habitation desolate over them. The earth trembleth at the noise of their fall; there is a cry, the noise whereof is heard in the Red Sea (Yam Suph, Gulf of Aqaba, Ezion-geber). Behold, he shall come up and fly as the eagle, and spread out his wings against Bozrah (25 miles south of the Dead Sea; so the desolation here covers some 100-150 mile along the King’s Highway): and the heart of the mighty men of Edom at that day shall be as the heart of a woman in her pangs.”
Concerning Damascus (Syrians): “Hamath is confounded, and Arpad; for they have heard evil tidings, they are melted away: there is sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet. Damascus is waxed feeble, she turneth herself to flee, and trembling hath seized on her: anguish and sorrows have taken hold of her, as of a woman in travail. How is the city of praise not forsaken, the city of my joy? Therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be brought to silence in that day, saith Jehovah of Hosts. And I will kindle a fire in the wall of Damascus, and it shall devour the palaces of Ben-hadad.” Concerning Kedar, and of the kingdoms of Hazor, [Arabians] which King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon smote: “Thus saith Jehovah: Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and destroy the children of the east. Their tents and their flocks shall they take; they shall carry away for themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels; and they shall cry unto them, Terror on every side! Flee ye, wander far off, dwell in the depths, O ye inhabitants of Hazor, saith Jehovah; for King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon hath taken counsel against you, and hath conceived a purpose against you. Arise, get you up unto a nation that is at ease, that dwelleth without care, saith Jehovah; that have neither gates nor bars, that dwell alone. And their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their cattle a spoil: and I will scatter unto all winds them that have the corners [of their hair] cut off; and I will bring their calamity from every side of them, saith Jehovah. And Hazor shall be a dwelling-place of jackals, a desolation for ever: no man shall dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein.”
The Lord’s Word to the Prophet Jeremiah concerning Elam (Elamites) in the beginning of the reign of King Zedekiah of Judah: “Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts: Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might. And upon Elam will I bring the four winds from the four quarters of heaven, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come. And I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their life; and I will bring evil upon them, even My Fierce Anger, saith Jehovah; and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them; and I will set My Throne in Elam, and will destroy from thence king and princes, saith Jehovah. But it shall come to pass in the latter days, that I will bring back the captivity of Elam, saith Jehovah.”
The Lord’s Word concerning Babylon (Chaldeans), concerning the Land of the Chaldeans, to the Prophet Jeremiah: “Declare ye among the nations (Gentiles) and publish, and set up a standard; publish, and conceal not: say, Babylon is taken, Bel is put to shame, Merodach is dismayed; her images are put to shame, her idols are dismayed. For out of the north there cometh up a nation against her (Median-Persian, Achaemenid Empire), which shall make her land desolate, and none shall dwell therein: they are fled, they are gone, both man and beast. In those days, and in that time, saith Jehovah, the children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Judah together; they shall go on their way weeping, and shall seek Jehovah their God. They shall inquire concerning Zion with their faces thitherward, [saying], Come ye, and join yourselves to Jehovah in an Everlasting Covenant that shall not be forgotten. My People have been lost sheep: their shepherds have caused them to go astray; they have turned them away on the mountains; they have gone from mountain to hill; they have forgotten their resting-place. All that found them have devoured them; and their adversaries said, We are not guilty, because they have sinned against Jehovah, the Habitation of Righteousness, even Jehovah, the Hope of their fathers. Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and go forth out of the land of the Chaldeans, and be as the he-goats before the flocks. For, lo, I will stir up and cause to come up against Babylon a company of great nations (Gentiles) from the north country; and they shall set themselves in array against her; from thence she shall be taken: their arrows shall be as of an expert mighty man; none shall return in vain. And Chaldea shall be a prey: all that prey upon her shall be satisfied, saith Jehovah. Because ye are glad, because ye rejoice, O ye that plunder My Heritage, because ye are wanton as a heifer that treadeth out [the grain], and neigh as strong horses; your mother shall be utterly put to shame; she that bare you shall be confounded: behold, she shall be the hindermost of the nations (Gentiles), a wilderness, a dry land, and a desert. Because of the Wrath of Jehovah she shall not be inhabited, but she shall be wholly desolate: every one that goeth by Babylon shall be astonished, and hiss at all her plagues. Set yourselves in array against Babylon round about, all ye that bend the bow; shoot at her, spare no arrows: for she hath sinned against Jehovah. Shout against her round about: she hath submitted herself; her bulwarks are fallen, her walls are thrown down; for it is the Vengeance of Jehovah: take vengeance upon her; as she hath done, do unto her. Cut off the sower from Babylon, and him that handleth the sickle in the time of harvest: for fear of the oppressing sword they shall turn every one to his people, and they shall flee every one to his own land. Israel is a hunted sheep; the lions have driven him away: first, the King of Assyria devoured him; and now at last Nebuchadrezzar King of Babylon hath broken his bones. Therefore thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: “Behold, I will punish the King of Babylon and his land, as I have punished the King of Assyria. And I will bring Israel again to his pasture, and he shall feed on Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall be satisfied upon the hills of Ephraim and in Gilead. In those days, and in that time, saith Jehovah, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found: for I will pardon them whom I leave as a Remnant. Go up against the land of Merathaim, even against it, and against the inhabitants of Pekod: slay and utterly destroy after them, saith Jehovah, and do according to all that I have commanded thee. A sound of battle is in the land, and of great destruction. How is the Hammer of the whole earth cut asunder and broken! how is Babylon become a desolation among the nations (Gentiles)! I have laid a snare for thee, and thou art also taken, O Babylon, and thou wast not aware: thou art found, and also caught, because thou hast striven against Jehovah. Jehovah hath opened His Armory, and hath brought forth the weapons of His Indignation; for the Lord, Jehovah of Hosts, hath a work [to do] in the land of the Chaldeans. Come against her from the utmost border; open her store-houses; cast her up as heaps, and destroy her utterly; let nothing of her be left. Slay all her bullocks; let them go down to the slaughter: woe unto them! for their day is come, the time of their visitation. The voice of them that flee and escape out of the land of Babylon, to declare in Zion the vengeance of Jehovah our God, the Vengeance of His Temple. Call together the archers against Babylon, all them that bend the bow; encamp against her round about; let none thereof escape: recompense her according to her work; according to all that she hath done, do unto her; for she hath been proud against Jehovah, against the Holy One of Israel. Therefore shall her young men fall in her streets, and all her men of war shall be brought to silence in that day, saith Jehovah. Behold, I am against thee, O thou proud one, saith the Lord, Jehovah of Hosts; for thy day is come, the time that I will visit thee. And the proud one shall stumble and fall, and none shall raise him up; and I will kindle a fire in his cities, and it shall devour all that are round about him. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts: The children of Israel and the children of Judah are oppressed together; and all that took them captive hold them fast; they refuse to let them go. Their Redeemer is strong; Jehovah of Hosts is His Name: He will thoroughly plead their cause, that He may give rest to the earth, and disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon. A sword is upon the Chaldeans, saith Jehovah, and upon the inhabitants of Babylon, and upon her princes, and upon her wise men. A sword is upon the boasters, and they shall become fools; a sword is upon her mighty men, and they shall be dismayed. A sword is upon their horses, and upon their chariots, and upon all the mingled people that are in the midst of her; and they shall become as women: a sword is upon her treasures, and they shall be robbed. A drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up; for it is a land of graven images, and they are mad over idols. Therefore the wild beasts of the desert with the wolves shall dwell there, and the ostriches shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited for ever; neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation. As when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbor cities thereof, saith Jehovah, so shall no man dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein. Behold, a people cometh from the north; and a great nation and many kings shall be stirred up from the uttermost parts of the earth. They lay hold on bow and spear; they are cruel, and have no mercy; their voice roareth like the sea; and they ride upon horses, every one set in array, as a man to the battle, against thee, O Daughter of Babylon. The King of Babylon hath heard the tidings of them, and his hands wax feeble: anguish hath taken hold of him, [and] pangs as of a woman in travail. Behold, [the enemy] shall come up like a lion from the pride of the Jordan against the strong habitation: for I will suddenly make them run away from it; and whoso is chosen, him will I appoint over it: for who is like Me? and who will appoint Me a time? and who is the shepherd that can stand before Me? Therefore hear ye the counsel of Jehovah, that He hath taken against Babylon; and His Purposes, that he hath purposed against the land of the Chaldeans: Surely they shall drag them away, [even] the little ones of the flock; surely He shall make their habitation desolate over them. At the noise of the taking of Babylon the earth trembleth, and the cry is heard among the nations (Gentiles).”
The Lord continues: “Behold, I will raise up against Babylon, and against them that dwell in Leb-kamai, a destroying wind. And I will send unto Babylon strangers, that shall winnow her; and they shall empty her land: for in the day of trouble they shall be against her round about. Against [him that] bendeth let the archer bend his bow, and against [him that] lifteth himself up in his coat of mail: and spare ye not her young men; destroy ye utterly all her host. And they shall fall down slain in the land of the Chaldeans, and thrust through in her streets.” For Israel is not forsaken, nor Judah, of his God, of Jehovah of Hosts; though their land is full of guilt against the Holy One of Israel. Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and save every man his life; be not cut off in her iniquity: for it is the time of Jehovah’s Vengeance; He will render unto her a recompense. Babylon hath been a Golden Cup in Jehovah’s Hand, that made all the earth drunken: the nations (Gentiles) have drunk of her wine; therefore the nations (Gentiles) are mad. Babylon is suddenly fallen and destroyed: wail for her; take balm for her pain, if so be she may be healed. We would have healed Babylon, but she is not healed: forsake her, and let us go every one into his own country; for her judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies. Jehovah hath brought forth our righteousness: come, and let us declare in Zion the Work of Jehovah our God. Make sharp the arrows; hold firm the shields: Jehovah hath stirred up the spirit of the kings of the Medes; because His Purpose is against Babylon, to destroy it: for it is the Vengeance of Jehovah, the Vengeance of His Temple. Set up a standard against the walls of Babylon, make the watch strong, set the watchmen, prepare the ambushes; for Jehovah hath both purposed and done that which He spake concerning the inhabitants of Babylon. O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures, thine end is come, the measure of thy covetousness. Jehovah of Hosts hath sworn by Himself, [saying], “Surely I will fill thee with men, as with the canker-worm; and they shall lift up a shout against thee”. He hath made the earth by His Power, He hath established the world by His Wisdom, and by His Understanding hath He stretched out the heavens: when He uttereth His Voice, there is a tumult of waters in the heavens, and He causeth the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; He maketh lightnings for the rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of His Treasuries. Every man is become brutish [and is] without knowledge; every goldsmith is put to shame by his image; for his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them. They are vanity, a work of delusion: in the time of their visitation they shall perish. The Portion of Jacob is not like these; for He is the Former of all things; and [Israel] is the Tribe of His Inheritance: Jehovah of Hosts is His Name. Thou art My Battle-axe and Weapons of War: and with Thee will I break in pieces the nations (Gentiles); and with Thee will I destroy kingdoms; and with Thee will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; and with Thee will I break in pieces the chariot and him that rideth therein; and with Thee will I break in pieces man and woman; and with Thee will I break in pieces the old man and the youth; and with Thee will I break in pieces the young man and the virgin; and with Thee will I break in pieces the shepherd and his flock; and with Thee will I break in pieces the husbandman and his yoke [of oxen]; and with Thee will I break in pieces governors and deputies. And I will render unto Babylon and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion in your sight, saith Jehovah. Behold, I am against thee, O Destroying Mountain, saith Jehovah, which destroyest all the earth; and I will stretch out My Hand upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain. And they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but thou shalt be desolate for ever, saith Jehovah. Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations (Gentiles), prepare the nations (Gentiles) against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz: appoint a marshal against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough canker-worm. Prepare against her the nations (Gentiles), the kings of the Medes, the governors thereof, and all the deputies thereof, and all the land of their dominion. And the land trembleth and is in pain; for the purposes of Jehovah against Babylon do stand, to make the land of Babylon a desolation, without inhabitant. The mighty men of Babylon have forborne to fight, they remain in their strongholds; their might hath failed; they are become as women: her dwelling-places are set on fire; her bars are broken. One post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to met another, to show the King of Babylon that his city is taken on every quarter: and the passages are seized, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted. For thus saith Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel: The Daughter of Babylon is like a threshing-floor at the time when it is trodden; yet a little while, and the time of harvest shall come for her. Nebuchadrezzar the King of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath, like a monster, swallowed me up, he hath filled his maw (jaws) with my delicacies; he hath cast me out. The violence done to me and to my flesh be upon Babylon, shall the inhabitant of Zion say; and, My blood be upon the inhabitants of Chaldea, shall Jerusalem say. Therefore thus saith Jehovah: Behold, I will plead thy cause, and take vengeance for thee; and I will dry up her sea, and make her fountain dry. And Babylon shall become heaps, a dwelling-place for jackals, an astonishment, and a hissing, without inhabitant. They shall roar together like young lions; they shall growl as lions’ whelps. When they are heated, I will make their feast, and I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith Jehovah. I will bring them down like lambs to the slaughter, like rams with he-goats. How is Sheshach taken! and the praise of the whole earth seized! how is Babylon become a desolation among the nations (Gentiles)! The sea is come up upon Babylon; she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof. Her cities are become a desolation, a dry land, and a desert, a land wherein no man dwelleth, neither doth any son of man pass thereby. And I will execute judgment upon Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which he hath swallowed up; and the nations (Gentiles) shall not flow any more unto him: yea, the wall of Babylon shall fall. My People, go ye out of the midst of her, and save yourselves every man from the Fierce Anger of Jehovah. And let not your heart faint, neither fear ye for the tidings that shall be heard in the land; for tidings shall come one year, and after that in another year [shall come] tidings, and violence in the land, ruler against ruler. Therefore, behold, the days come, that I will execute judgment upon the graven images of Babylon; and her whole land shall be confounded; and all her slain shall fall in the midst of her. Then the heavens and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing for joy over Babylon; for the destroyers shall come unto her from the north, saith Jehovah. As Babylon hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the slain of all the land. Ye that have escaped the sword, go ye, stand not still; remember Jehovah from afar, and let Jerusalem come into your mind. We are confounded, because we have heard reproach; confusion hath covered our faces: for strangers are come into the Sanctuaries of Jehovah’s House. Wherefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will execute judgment upon her graven images; and through all her land the wounded shall groan. Though Babylon should mount up to heaven, and though she should fortify the height of her strength, yet from Me shall destroyers come unto her, saith Jehovah. The sound of a cry from Babylon, and of great destruction from the land of the Chaldeans! For Jehovah layeth Babylon waste, and destroyeth out of her the great voice; and their waves roar like many waters; the noise of their voice is uttered: for the destroyer is come upon her, even upon Babylon, and her mighty men are taken, their bows are broken in pieces; for Jehovah is a God of recompenses, he will surely requite. And I will make drunk her princes and her wise men, her governors and her deputies, and her mighty men; and they shall sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith the King, Whose Name is Jehovah of Hosts. Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts: The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly overthrown, and her high gates shall be burned with fire; and the peoples shall labor for vanity, and the nations (Gentiles) for the fire; and they shall be weary.”
The Word the Prophet Jeremiah spoke to Seraiah: When yu get to Babylon, read all these Words saying: Lord Yu have spoken concerning this place, to cut it off, that nothing live in it, no man or beast, but it will be ever desolate. After yu have read this Book, bind it a stone and throw it into the Euphrates River, saying: Thus shall Babylon sink, never to rise again because the doom I will bring on her, and they will be exhausted. The end of Jeremiah’s Words.

Zedekiah was 21 years old when he began to reign (chapter 52); he reigned 11 years in Jerusalem: and his mother’s name was Hamutal bathJeremiah of Libnah. He did evil in the Lord’s Sight, like Jehoiakim did; so the Lord’s Anger (destroyed) Jerusalem & Judah, and exiled them from His Presence. Zedekiah rebelled against the King of Babylon: In the 9th year of his reign, the 10th month, 10th day of the month, King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon came, with all his army, against Jerusalem, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it round about. So the city was besieged to the 11th year of King Zedekiah. In the 4th month, the 9th day of the month, the famine was severe in the City, so that there was no bread for the people of the Land. A breach was made in the City, and all the men of war fled, and went forth out of the City by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the King’s Garden; (now the Chaldeans were against the city round about;) and they went toward the Arabah (Desert, South). The army of the Chaldeans pursued after the King, and overtook Zedekiah in the Plains of Jericho (some 5 miles from Jerusalem); and all his army was scattered from him. They took the King, and carried him up unto the King of Babylon to Riblah in the land of Hamath (some 270 miles away); he gave judgment upon him. The King of Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes: he slew also all the princes of Judah in Riblah. He put out the eyes of Zedekiah; the King of Babylon bound him in chains, and carried him to Babylon, and put him in prison till the day of his death. In the 5th month, in the 10th day of the month, the 19th year of King Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan the Captain of the Guard, who stood before the King of Babylon, into Jerusalem: and he burned the Lord’s House, and the King’s House; and all the houses of Jerusalem, every great house, burned he with fire. And the army of the Chaldeans with the Captain of the Guard, brake down all the Walls of Jerusalem round about. Nebuzaradan deported as captives the poorest of the people, and the Remnant of the people that were left in the City, and the deserters, that deserted to the King of Babylon, and the Remnant of the multitude. Nebuzaradan left of the poorest of the land to be vineyardmen and farmers. The Pillars of Brass that were in the Lord’s House, and the bases and the brazen sea that were in the Lord’s House, did the Chaldeans break in pieces, and carried all the brass of them to Babylon. The pots, shovels, snuffers, basins, spoons, and all the utensils of brass of service, took they away. The cups, firepans, basins, pots, candlesticks (lampstand), spoons, and bowls –what was of gold, in gold, what was of silver, in silver,– the Captain of the Guard removed. The two pillars, the one sea, and the twelve brazen bulls that were under the bases, which King Solomon had made for the Lord’s House –the brass of all these utensils was without weight; and the pillars: the height of the one pillar was 18 cubits; and a line of 12 cubits did compass it; and the thickness thereof was four fingers: it was hollow; a capital of brass was on it; and the height of the one capital was 5 cubits, with network and pomegranates upon the capital around, all of brass: the second pillar was like these; and pomegranates. There were 96 pomegranates on the sides; all the pomegranates were 100 on the network around. The Guard Captain took Chief Priest Seraiah, the second Priest Zephaniah, and the three keepers of the threshold: and out of the City he took an officer that was set over the men of war; and seven men of them that saw the King’s face, that were found in the City; and the Scribe of the Captain of the Host, who mustered the people of the Land; and 60 men of the people of the Land, that were found in the midst of the City. Nebuzaradan the Guard Captain took them, and brought them to the king of Babylon to Riblah (270 miles away). The king of Babylon smote them, and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah was exiled captive out of his Land. The people whom Nebuchadrezzar carried away captive: in the 7th year 3,020 Jews and 23 (others); in the 18th year of Nebuchadrezzar he deported captive from Jerusalem 832 persons; in the 23rd year of Nebuchadrezzar Nebuzaradan the Guard Captain deported captive of the Jews 745 persons: all the persons were 4,600. In the 37th year of the Captivity of King Jehoiachin of Judah, in the 12th month, in the 25th day of the month, King Evil-merodach of Babylon, in the [1st] year of his reign, he exalted King Jehoiachin of Judah, and brought him out of prison; and he spake kindly to him, and set his Throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon, and changed his prison garments. And [Jehoiachin] did eat bread before him continually all the days of his life: and for his allowance, there was a continual allowance given him by the King of Babylon, every day a portion, while he lived, till the day of his death.

Jeremiah’s Lamentations Concerning Judah & Jerusalem, the Promised Land, the City of God, the Lord’s Zion & House: Destruction, Desolation, Captivity, etc. (Selections from the 5 chapters illustrative of the whole, presented in poetic form.)

The City sit solitary, once full of people!
She is a Widow, once great among the Gentiles!
She was a Princess among the provinces now tributary!
She weeps in the night, her tears are on her cheeks:
Among all her lovers is none to comfort her:
All her friends deal treacherously with her; they are her enemies.
Judah is in Captivity because of affliction, because of great servitude:
She dwells among the Gentiles, she finds no rest:
All her persecutors overtook her within the straits.
The ways of Zion do mourn, none come to the solemn assembly:
All her gates are desolate, her priests do sigh:
Her virgins are afflicted, she herself is in bitterness.
Her adversaries are the head, her enemies prosper:
The Lord has afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions:
Her young children are in Captivity with the adversary.
From the Daughter of Zion all her majesty is departed:
Her princes are like harts that find no pasture:
And they are without strength before the pursuer.
Jerusalem remembers in the days of her affliction:
And of her miseries all her pleasant things from the days of old:
Her people fell into the hand of the adversary, none did help her.
The adversaries saw her, they mock at her desolations.
Jerusalem hath grievously sinned; she is as an unclean thing:
All that honored her despise her, they see her nakedness:
Yea, she sighs, & turns backward.
Her filthiness was in her skirts; she remembered not her latter end:
She has come down wonderfully; she has no comforter:
Look, Lord , my affliction; the enemy has magnified himself.
The adversary has spread out his hand on all her pleasant things:
She has seen the Gentiles entered into her Sanctuary:
Concerning whom Thou did command that they should not enter into Thine Assembly.
All her people sigh, they seek bread:
They have given their pleasant things for food to refresh the soul:
See, Lord, and behold; for I am become abject.

For these things I weep; my eye, my eye runs with tears:
Because the Comforter to refresh my soul is far from me:
My children are desolate, because the enemy hath prevailed.

They heard I sigh; there is none to comfort me:
All my enemies heard of my trouble; they are glad Thou has done it:
Thou will bring the day Thou has proclaimed, they shall be like unto me.
Let all their wickedness come before Thee:
Do to them, as Thou has done to me for all my transgressions:
My sighs are many, and my heart is faint.

What shall I testify unto thee? what shall I liken to thee, Daughter of Jerusalem?
What shall I compare to thee, that I may comfort thee, O Virgin Daughter of Zion?
Thy breach is great like the sea: who can heal thee?
Thy prophets have seen for thee false & foolish visions:
They have not uncovered thine iniquity, to bring back thy Captivity:
But seen false oracles & causes of banishment.

I am the man that has seen affliction by the Rod of His Wrath.
He hath led me & caused me to walk in darkness, not in light.
Against me He turns His Hand again & again all the day.
My flesh & my skin has He made old; He has broken my bones.
He has built against me, & compassed me with gall & travail.
He has made me to dwell in dark places, as those long dead.
He walled me about, I can’t go forth; He has made my chain heavy.
Yea, when I cry, & call for help, He shuts out my prayer.

Let us search & try our ways, & turn again to the Lord.
Let us lift up our heart with our hands to God in the heavens.
We have transgressed & have rebelled: Thou has not pardoned.
Thou art covered with anger & pursued us; Thou hast slain, Thou has not pitied.
Thou has covered Thyself with a cloud, that no prayer can pass through.

I called on Thy Name, Lord, out of the lowest dungeon.
Thou heard my voice; hide not Thine ear at my breathing, at my cry.
Thou drew near in the day that I called on Thee; Thou saidst, Fear not.
Lord, Thou has pleaded the causes of my soul; Thou hast redeemed my life.
Lord, Thou has seen my wrong; judge Thou my cause.
Thou hast seen all their vengeance & all their devices against me.
Thou hast heard their reproach, Lord, & all their devices against me:
The lips of those that rose up against me, and their device against me all the day.
Behold Thou their sitting down, & their rising up; I am their song.
Thou will render to them a recompense, Lord, according to the work of their hands.
Thou will give them hardness of heart, Thy curse to them.
Thou will pursue them in anger, & destroy them from under the Heavens of the Lord.

The Lord has accomplished His Wrath, He has poured out His Fierce Anger:
He has kindled a fire in Zion, which hath devoured the foundations thereof.
The kings of the earth believed not, neither all the inhabitants of the world:
That the adversary & the enemy would enter into the gates of Jerusalem:
Because of the sins of her prophets, & the iniquities of her priests:
That shed the blood of the just in the midst of her.

Thou, Lord, abide for ever; Thy Throne is from generation to generation.
Why does Thou forget us always, & forsake us so long time?
Turn Thou us unto Thee, O Lord, & we shall be turned: Renew our days as of old.
But Thou has utterly rejected us; Thou are very wroth against us.

We have now completed our survey & digest of the Book of Jeremiah and his Lamentations in the Major Prophets of the Old Testament; wherein we have discovered that the Book of Jeremiah & his Lamentations are 20 % or 1/5th longer than the Book of Isaiah. Although Isaiah has 66 chapters, and Jeremiah 52, and his Lamentations 5, totaling 57; yet Jeremiah is the longer. If we print the Text of Isaiah in a given font, without notes & comments, we may take 100 pages; but Jeremiah & Lamentations will take 120 pages. We discovered and made known that the Divine Inspiration of the Holy Bible, Sacred Scriptures, determined to display the two dispensational Covenants of the Old & New Testaments in the 66 Chapters of Isaiah, to reveal & reflect the 66 Books of Scripture. We agreed with & allowed that the Book of Isaiah in its content has two great divisions, or partitions, that many scholars have discovered, and in deference to some of them we adopted that these divisions could be designated Isaiah 1 & Isaiah 2. We did not agree to or allow the notion & doctrine that these designations of the Book of Isaiah suggested two Isaiahs. We discovered that Isaiah reveals a greater or fuller dispensational spectrum than either Jeremiah or Ezekiel, of which we will see more clearly shortly. And as Jeremiah builds on & reflects the books the came before, so he would in turn influence those who follow. But more than this, is the Key Books of the Old Testament, namely, Genesis, Deuteronomy, Psalms, & Isaiah would generate in Jeremiah a distinct ministry and prophetic style as the Lord’s Word would come to him.
The structure of the Book of Jeremiah & his Lamentations is seen in the words designating the Lord’s Word & Jeremiah’s Prophecy to Judah, Jerusalem, the nations (Gentiles), a specific nation, an individual, etc. The direct Words of the Lord God from Himself to the Prophet, or the words of the Prophet intertwined with the Divine Message, or Jeremiah’s words of himself, or of Jerusalem, Judah, Israel, the people, leaders, etc., are indicative & subjunctive of the revelation in its totality. At times the transition is impossible to distinguish, at other times very clear; the representation of Jeremiah the man, a Jew or Israelite, to Jeremiah the type of the Nation, of Judah or Israel, is blended that both figures must be considered in the interpretation & application of Scripture. We have tried to help in this regard by the use of the colored fonts in the verses or paragraphs or chapters in this Book more carefully. And although it is a longer Book than Isaiah, yet the Messianic emphasis is much lesser than the other.
The prophetic words of Jeremiah contains at times much historic details, facts essential to the prophecy. As Isaiah was privileged to minister under King Hezekiah, so Jeremiah was blest to serve under King Josiah. His life and ministry would revolve around Jerusalem, extending thence to Judaea, Benjamin, Israel, and the nations near & far. Seventy (70) years has passed from Isaiah’s death to Jeremiah’s call. King Hezekiah’s son Manasseh became King at twelve (12) and ruled as a most wicked King for some 55 years, confirming the Divine Judgment of the Nation’s Desolation & Captivity. The Lord indeed sought to avert the doom, recalling the people to repentance & obedience, but to no avail. From the days of Moses to the days of Josiah & Jeremiah Israel continually failed in their covenantal relationship with the Lord their God. The nation as a whole or in division as two kingdoms, were not ever able to continue to be a people or nation to satisfy the Lord as a Husband & Provider, and even as their Father the relationship was constantly strained as was seen in Isaiah. Thus arose the need to save a part for the whole. All the nation as the Israel of God, from Moses to Samuel, must in turn be evaluated as the Houses of Israel & Judah during the monarchy from David to the Captivity. Both Houses being destroyed, the Land desolated, the People exiled, the Temple desecrated & dismantled, the City destroyed, the Walls demolished, left but a Remnant to salvage. That Remnant in Jeremiah continued to shrink to a questionable state of existence as a nation, a Jewish nation & people.

The Lord’s Word comes to Jeremiah in his youth, a member of a doomed nation, a citizen of a rebellious & obstinate people hell-bent on self-destruction. An order of Prophets with their attendant schools of disciples competed with an even larger body false prophets & priests, worshippers of idols & abominations. The Instrument of punishment was to be the Gentiles, the very Gentiles the people & nation of Israel had followed in their idolatry, wickedness, and immorality. God in truth had never completely abandoned the world – world that He so loved, that He created good, that was His family destined for eternity & immortality– which He often had occasion to interact with, with His people. The world has continued to expand & develope on exponential scale that made it difficult to predict, or foresee the immediate future, or the inevitable finality. Jeremiah was very much unqualified to be a Prophet to the Gentiles and the Monarchical Kingdoms as Assyria, Egypt, & Babylon. But since God was in charge, since the Lord was Lord over the nations & kingdoms, His chosen voice & servant was more than adequate to the end desired: ‘to pluck up, to break, down to destroy, to overthrow; to build & to plant’. For the next 40 years Jeremiah would labor to reconcile the nation to God.
Jeremiah sees a Almond Tree Rod and Boiling Cauldron facing north signifying that the Lord’s Word of Judgment will certainly be executed, and the northern power will invade and destroy Jerusalem & Judah. Jeremiah is to be a witness against all ranks of the Jews. Israel’s idolatry is an apostasy from the original 1st love with the Lord at the time of the Exodus & wilderness wanderings. From the time of the entrance into Canaan they have rebelled against the Lord & polluted the land. The entire land & nation, from north to south, from west to east; from Assyria to Egypt, from the Great Sea to Arabian deserts; is filled with idolatry; they have exchanged Glory for vanity, the Lord God for broken cisterns (the idols). The House of Israel has become a divorced adulteress Harlot, that despite their shameless immorality, the Lord desires to draw them back to Himself in holy matrimony.

The two Houses of Israel & Judah are Two Harlot Sisters married to t