To the Reader: (Please see the original files to see the proper display of colors, justification, etc.)
Christian Biblical Reflections. Completed. Old Testament.
PDF, DOCX, RTF formats.
Some words concerning Christian Biblical Reflections: I am most grateful to the Lord for allowing me to finish this work. The Book is some 2,500 pages of a journey with the Bible in the Christian path. CBR.1-3.v1. c. 570 pages. CBR.4.v2. c370 pages. CBR.5.v3.p1. c. 1020 pages. CBR.v3.p2. c. 550 pages. It has been 10 years in labor & production, 7 years in typing, 3 years on the Prophets alone. It consists of the Old Testament from Genesis to Malachi, it is organized in Five Chapters in Three Volumes or broken up into Five Volumes. Due to further health issues, I delay no longer to send out this rush edition. The last 2 Selections are not properly edited; the Chronology in the Period of Daniel to Christ is not yet finished; spelling & grammar is still to be done, along with the Table of Contents, Index, etc. It does not look like I will be able to do all these things, but I'll continue as best as I can. My original intentions is to have a 2 volume work on the entire Bible, Old & New Testaments, but as you see that did not happen. I make no apologies for my literary unconvential quirks. I never intended for the work to be for the market, but to be available in digital formats freely to all. The Summary at the end of the Book, at the end of the Minor Prophets, is intended to make the work understandable to the Bible Reader. I have not tried to produce a Commentary, there are many good ones available, better than I could do; nor a translation, which I am not qualified to attempt; but only share what my exploration of biblical hermeneutics has encountered as a Cobbler examining & repairing worn shoes of doctrines & practices. I use the 1611 AKJV, 1910 ASV, NASB, NET Bible, Bullinger's Companion Bible, Dake's Annotated Reference Bible, Hebrew Text, Greek Text, Latin Text, 1960 Spanish Reina-Valera, etc. The work itself is self-explanatory as it progresses; & the Text Analysis-Digest became more defined. If & when the work is properly finished, edited, & supplemented where necessary, at that time I will reissue the work again in the 3 formats of a rtf, docx, and pdf downloadable copies. Also links will soon be provided of where the work is publicly posted or archived. I pray the work might be of help to the readers, especially the Bible Students. -mjm, 2021.
- 03-02-21: Selections 6-9 (Pusey to Briggs) are now completely edited, Selection 10 is still not finished.
- 03-15-21: Selection 10 (Smith) is completed. What is last edit to finish & add is the Chronology that commenced the Minor Prophets; and the final Reflections on the entire Prophetical Books with conclusion of the Twelve Minor Prophets.
- 03-24-2021: The Reflections on the Prophetic Books & particularly of Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets is now finished, thus completing the Book CBR, Christian Biblical Reflections of Genesis-Malachi of the Hebrew Old Testament. After perusing the Selections & Reflections of the 4 Major Prophetic Books, its apparent that the several Tables of Chronology together complete the projected full Chronology or Timeline from David to Messiah, so that I need not add more to what has been presented. Any other revisions or changes will be automatically made & place here & all the formats made to match.
- As to the New Testament I cannot say, and little hope to complete it; but what I have started is the Text Analysis & Digest with Annotations from Matthew to Revelation, without any promises or commitments. The Colors of the Text Fonts of Black, Red, Blue, Purple are used in the original formats & preserved in the PDFs to distinguish the Author, Divine Direct Words, Quotes or Citations or References. This also will be available in this location with the other works.
- April 2021. Text of Matthew’s Gospel is now completed. I will work through the Gospels & Acts, then Paul’s Epistles, the Catholic Epistles, & the Apocalypse or Revelation. Reflections & Selections will not be attempted till the Text is completed. Revisions or Additions made without notifications.
- August 2021. The Gospels of Mark, Luke, & John each were completed per month for 3 months. Acts is here completed & so completes Part I of the CBR of the Text Analysis & Digest.
- Unless requested directly, Paul’s Letters from Romans to Hebrews will not be offered in installments, but will be shared when all 14 Epistles are completed as Part II, which will take several months.
Christian Biblical Reflections. NewTestament. Continuation in Progress. 2021. Part I.
Christian Biblical Reflections. NewTestament. Continuation in Progress. 2021. Part I.
Book of the Acts of the Apostles: Chapters: 1-28.
The former Treatise (first Word, prior Account, 1st Volume; Luke’s Gospel) I made (produced, published), Theophilus (Greek = God-lover), concerning what Jesus did & taught, till the day He was received up, after He had given commandment through the Holy Spirit to the Apostles whom He had chosen: to whom He showed (appeared, evidenced) Himself alive after His Passion (Suffering, Experience) by many proofs (demonstrations, signs, evidences), appearing to them by the space of 40 days, speaking the things concerning God’s Kingdom: assembled-together (gathered-, meeting-) with them, He charged them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the Promise of the Father, which, said He, “you heard from Me: John baptized in (with, by) water; you shall be baptized in (with, by) the Holy Spirit not many days more.” When they came-together, asked Him, “Lord, do Yu at this time restore the Kingdom to Israel?” He replied, “It is not for you to know times or seasons, which the Father set within His Authority (Power). You shall receive power, when the Holy Spirit is come on you: you shall be My Witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judaea & Samaria, & to the furthest-part (ends, limits) of the earth.” When He said this, as they were looking, He ascended; a cloud received Him out of their sight. While they were looking steadfastly to heaven as He went, 2 Men stood by them in white apparel; who said, “Ye men of Galilee, why stand looking to heaven? this Jesus, Who was received up from you to heaven shall return in like manner as you watched Him going to heaven.” Then returned they to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey off (i.e., 1 mile distance).
When they came in, they went up to the upper chamber, where they were staying; both Peter, John & James, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, & Judas of James (Jacob).(11 Apostles) These with one accord continued steadfastly in prayer, with the women, & Mary, Jesus’ Mother, & with His Brothers. In these days Peter stood up in the midst of the Brothers, (some 120 persons gathered-together), & said, Brothers, it was needful that the Scripture be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was guide to them who took (seized, arrested) Jesus. He was numbered among us, & received his portion in this Ministry (Service, Deaconate). (This one obtained a field with the reward of his iniquity; falling headfirst, he burst -apart in the midst, his bowels gushed out. It became known to all the dwellers (residents, occupants) at Jerusalem; insomuch that in their language (i.e., Hebrew-Aramaic) that field was called Akeldama, that is, the Field of Blood (Blood-Field, Blood’s-Field).) It is written in the Book of Psalms, “Let his habitation be made desolate, let no man dwell therein: his office let another take.” Of the men which accompanied us all the time the Lord Jesus went in & went out among us, beginning from John’s Baptism, to the day that He was received up from us, of these must one become a witness with us of His Resurrection. They put forward ‘two’, Joseph called Barsabbas (Bar-sabbas, not Bars-Abbas; Son-?), who was surnamed Justus, & Matthias. They prayed, “Lord, Who know the hearts of all men, show of these ‘two’ the one who Yu chose to replace in this Ministry & Apostleship from which Judas fell-away (forfeited, lost, gave-up), that he might go to his own place.” They gave lots (i.e., decided by chance, by lottery) for them; the lot fell on Matthias; he was numbered with the Eleven Apostles. (1:1-26)
When the Day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place. Suddenly there came from heaven a sound as of the rushing of a mighty wind, it filled the house where they were sitting. There appeared to them tongues parting asunder, like as of fire; it sat on each one of them. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit to speak with other tongues (i.e., foreign languages), as the Spirit gave them utterance. There were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under heaven. When this sound was heard, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speaking in his own language (dialect). They were all amazed & marveled, saying, “Are not all these who speak Galilaeans? How hear we, every man in our own language (dialect) wherein we were born? Parthians, Medes, Elamites, dwellers in Mesopotamia, in Judaea & Cappadocia, in Pontus & Asia, in Phrygia & Pamphylia, in Egypt & the parts of Libya about Cyrene, & sojourners from Rome, both Jews & proselytes, Cretans & Arabians, we hear them speaking in our tongues (languages) God’s Mighty-works (Greatness, Wonders).” They were all amazed & perplexed, saying one to another, “What means this?” Others mocking, “They are filled with new-wine.”
Peter, standing up with the Eleven, lifted up his voice, spoke-out to them, “Men of Judaea, all who dwell at Jerusalem, be this known to you, give ear to my words. These are not drunken, as ye suppose; seeing it is but the 3rd hour of the day (i.e., c. 9 a.m., 3rd hour after sunup). This is what was spoken through the Prophet Joel: “In the Last Days, says God, I will pour forth of My Spirit on all flesh: your sons & daughters shall prophesy, your young-men (youths) see visions, your old-men (elders) dream dreams: on My Servants & Maids (Maidens, Handmaidens) in those days will I pour forth of My Spirit to prophesy. I will show wonders in the heaven above, signs on the earth beneath; blood, fire, & vapor of smoke: The sun shall be turned to darkness, the moon to blood, before the Lord’s Day come, that Great & Notable Day. It shall be, whoever calls on the Lord’s Name shall be saved.”
“Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man approved of God to you by Mighty-works (Powers, Miracles), wonders & signs which God did by Him in the midst of you, as you know; Him, delivered up by the determinate (prearrangement, predesignated) counsel (purpose, plan) & foreknowledge (preknowlege, prediction, prognosis) of God, you by the hand of lawless men did crucify & slay (fixed taking-away; i.e., affixed to the cross & lifting up & taking away life, nailing to death on the cross): Whom God raised up, having loosed the pangs of death: because it was not possible that He should be held by it. David says concerning Him, “I beheld the Lord always before My Face; For He is on My Right Hand, that I should not be moved: My Heart was glad, My Tongue rejoiced; My Flesh also shall dwell in hope: Yu will not leave My Soul in (to, into) Hades (Hell, Sheol, Grave, Death), neither will Yu give Yur Holy One to see corruption. Yu made known to Me the Ways of Life; Yu make Me full of gladness with Yur Countenance.”“
“Brothers, I say to you freely of the Patriarch David, he both died & was buried, his tomb is with us to this day. Being a Prophet, knowing God had sworn with an Oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins he would set one upon his Throne; foreseeing this he spoke of the Resurrection of the Christ: He was not left in (to, into) Hades, nor did His Flesh see corruption. This Jesus did God raise up, whereof we all are witnesses. Being by the Right Hand of God exalted, having received of the Father the Promise of the Holy Spirit, He poured forth this, which you see & hear. David ascended not to the heavens: but says, “The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit on My Right Hand, till I make Yur Enemies the Footstool of Yur Feet.”” Let all the House of Israel know assuredly, God Him both Lord & Christ, this Jesus Whom you crucified.”
When they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, said to Peter & the rest of the Apostles, “Brothers, what shall we do?” Peter said to them, “Repent, be baptized every one of you in the Name of Jesus Christ to (for, into) the remission (forgiveness, pardon, release, cancel) of your sins; to receive the Gift of the Holy Spirit. To you is the Promise, & to your children, & to all afar off, as many as the Lord our God calls to Him.” With many other words he testified, & exhorted them, “Save yourselves from this crooked generation.” They who received his word were baptized: there were added to them in that day about 3,000 souls. They continued steadfastly in the apostles’ teaching & fellowship, in breaking of bread & prayers. Fear came on every soul: many wonders & signs (miracles) were done through the Apostles. All who believed were together, had all things common; they sold their possessions & goods, parted them to all, according as any had need. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the Temple, breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness & singleness of heart, praising God, having favor with all the people. The Lord added to them ((the Church), Assembly, Ekklesia) day by day those saved. (2:1-47)
Peter & John were going to the Temple at the Hour of Prayer, being the 9th hour (c. 3 p.m.). A man lame from his mother’s womb (his birth) was carried, whom they laid daily at the Temple’s Door (Gate), called Beautiful, to ask alms (to beg) from them who entered the Temple; seeing Peter & John about to go into the Temple, asked to receive alms. Peter, fixing his eyes on him, with John, said, “Look on us.” He heeded them, expecting to receive something from them. Peter said, “Silver & gold have I none; what I have, I give. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, walk.” He took him by the right hand, raised him up: immediately his feet & ankle-bones received strength. Leaping up, he stood, began to walk; he entered the Temple with them, walking, leaping, & praising God. The people saw him walking & praising God: they took knowledge of (recognized) him, who sat begging at the Beautiful Gate of the Temple; they were filled with wonder & amazement at what had happened to him. As he held Peter & John, the people ran together to them in the Porch that is called Solomon’s, greatly wondering.
When Peter saw it, he responded to the people, “Ye men of Israel, why marvel at this one? or why fix your eyes on us, as though by our own power or godliness we had made him to walk? The God of Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob, the God of our Fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus; Whom you delivered up, & denied before the face of Pilate, when he determined to release Him. You denied the Holy & Righteous One, & asked for a murderer to be granted to you, killed the Prince of Life; Whom God raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses. By faith in (on, upon) His Name, His Name made this one strong, whom you see & know: the faith which is through Him gave him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all. Brothers, I know that in ignorance you did it, as did your rulers. What God foreshowed by the mouth of all the prophets, that his Christ should suffer, he thus fulfilled. Repent, turn-again (return), that your sins be blotted-out, that there may come seasons of refreshing from the Lord’s Presence; to send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus: Whom the heaven must receive till the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of His holy Prophets from of old. Moses said, “A Prophet the Lord God raise up to you from among your brothers, like me. You must listen to Him in what He speaks to you. Every soul who listens not to that Prophet, must be destroyed from among the people.” The Prophets from Samuel & after, as many as spoke, they told of these days. You are the sons (children) of the Prophets, & of the Covenant God made with your Fathers, saying to Abraham, “In yur seed (offspring, descendants) shall all the families of the earth be blessed.” To you first God raised up His Servant, sent Him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from your iniquities.” (3:1-26)
As they spoke to the people, the Priests, the Captain of the Temple, & the Sadducees came on them, very troubled because they taught the people, & proclaimed in Jesus the Resurrection from the dead. They laid hands on them, put them in ward till morning: it was now evening. Many of them who heard the Word believed; the number of the men came to be about 5,000. In the morn, their Rulers, Elders, & Scribes were gathered-together in Jerusalem; Annas the High Priest was there, and Caiaphas, John, Alexander, & the relatives of the High Priest. When they set them in the midst, they inquired, “By what Power, or in what Name, have you done this?”
Then Peter, Holy Spirit filled, said to them, “Ye Rulers of the people, & Elders, if we this day are examined concerning a good deed done to an impotent man, by what means this one is made whole; be it known to you, & to the People of Israel, in the Name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, Who you crucified, Who God raised from the dead, in Him this man stands here whole. He is the Stone which was set at nought of you the builders, which was made the Head of the corner. In none other is there Salvation: neither is any other name under heaven, given among men, wherein we must be saved.” When they saw the boldness of Peter & John, perceived that they were unlearned (uneducated, scholarly) & ignorant (illiterate, simple) men, they marveled; they took knowledge of them, they were with Jesus. Seeing the man that was healed standing with them, they could say nothing against it. When they commanded them to go aside out of the Council (Sanhedrin), they conferred among themselves, “What shall we do to these men? A notable miracle was worked through them, is manifest to all that dwell in Jerusalem; we cannot deny it. That it spread no further among the people, let us threaten them, to speak to no one in this Name.” They called them, charged them not to speak nor teach in the Name of Jesus. Peter & John answered, “Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, judge you: we cannot but speak what we saw & heard.” When they further threatened them, let them go, finding nothing how they might punish them, because of the people; for all men glorified God for what was done. The man was more than 40 years old, on whom this miracle of healing was done.
Being let go, they came to their own company, reported all that the Chief Priests & Elders had said to them. When they heard it, lifted up their voice to God with one accord, “Lord, Yu made the heaven, earth, sea, & all in them: Who by the Holy Spirit, by the mouth of our Father David Yur Servant, said, “Why did the Gentiles rage, & the Peoples imagine vain things? The Kings of the earth set themselves in array, the Rulers were gathered-together, against the Lord, & against His Anointed:” Of a truth in this city against Yur holy Servant Jesus, Whom Yu anointed, both Herod Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles & the Peoples of Israel, were gathered-together, to do whatever Yur Hand & Yur council foreordained to happen. Lord, look on their threatenings: grant to Yur servants to speak Yur Word with all boldness, while Yu stretch forth Yur Hand to heal; signs & wonders may be done through the Name of Yur Holy Servant Jesus.” When they prayed, the place was shaken wherein they were gathered together; they were filled with the Holy Spirit, they spoke the Word of God with boldness. The multitude of them that believed were of one heart & soul: not one of them said that aught of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common. With great power gave the Apostles their witness of the Resurrection of the Lord Jesus: great Grace was on them all. Neither was there among them any who lacked: as many as were possessors of lands or houses sold them, brought the prices of the things that were sold, laid them at the Apostles’ feet: distribution was made to each, according as anyone had need. Joseph, who by the Apostles was surnamed Barnabas (being interpreted (translated), Son of Exhortation; (Bar-nabas)), a Levite, a man of Cyprus by race, having a field, sold it, brought the money, laid it at the Apostles’ feet. (4:1-37)
Certain man named Ananias, with Sapphira his wife, sold a possession (property), kept back part of the price, his wife also being secret (private, party) to it, brought a certain part, laid it at the Apostles’ feet. Peter said, “Ananias, why has Satan filled yur heart to lie to the Holy Spirit, to keep back part of the price of the land? While it remained, did it not remain yur own? after it was sold, was it not in yur power? How is it that yu conceived this thing in yur heart? yu lied not to men, but to God.” Ananias hearing these words fell down & gave up the ghost: and great fear came upon all that heard it. The young men arose wrapped him round, they carried him out & buried him. It was about the space of 3 hours after, when his wife, not knowing what was done, came in. Peter asked, “Tell me whether you sold the land for so much.” She said, “Yes, for so much.”” Peter said to her, “How is it that you agreed together to try the Lord’s Spirit? The feet of them who have buried yur husband are at the door, they shall carry yu out.” She fell down immediately at his feet, and gave up the ghost: and the young men came in and found her dead, and they carried her out and buried her by her husband. Great fear came on the whole Church, (Assembly, Ekklesia, Ecclesia; here the 1st occurrence of the ekklesia in the Acts, if the disputed occurrence or variant reading in Acts 2:47 is rejected; the only occurrence in the Gospels is in Mat, 16 & 18) & on all who heard these things. By the hands of the Apostles were many signs & wonders worked among the people; they were all with one accord in Solomon’s porch. But of the rest dared no one join himself to them: howbeit the people magnified them; believers were the more added to the Lord (compare this with the variant reading of Acts 2:47), multitudes both of men & women; insomuch they carried out the sick into the streets, laid them on beds & couches, that, as Peter came by, at the least his shadow might overshadow some of them. There also came together the multitudes from the cities round about Jerusalem, bring sick folk, & those vexed with unclean spirits: everyone were healed.
The High Priest rose up with those of the Sect (heretics, party) of the Sadducees, they were filled with jealousy, laid hands on the Apostles, put them in public ward (jail, prison). The Lord’s Angel at night opened the prison doors, brought them out, & said, “Go, stand & speak in the Temple to the people all the words of this Life.” When they heard this, they entered the Temple about daybreak, & taught. The High Priest came, & those with him, called the Council (Sanhedrin) together, with the Senate (Elders) of the Children of Israel, sent to the prison-house to have them brought. The officers who came found them not in the prison; they returned, reported, “The prison-house we found shut in all safety (security), the keepers (guards) standing at the doors: but when we had opened, we found no one inside.” When the Temple Captain & Chief Priests heard these words, they were much perplexed concerning them where this would grow (spread). There came one, “The men whom you put in the prison are in the Temple standing & teaching the people.” Then went the captain with the officers, brought them, without violence; they feared the people, lest they should be stoned.
When they had brought them, they set them before the Council (Sanhedrin). The High Priest told them, “We strictly charged you not to teach in this Name: you have filled Jerusalem with your teaching, & intend to bring this Man’s Blood on us.” Peter & the Apostles answered, “We must obey God rather than men. The God of our Fathers raised up Jesus, Whom you killed, hanging Him on a Tree (wood, cross, pole). Him God exalted with His Right-hand to be Prince & Saviour, to give repentance to Israel, & remission of sins. We are witnesses of these things; so is the Holy Spirit, Whom God gave to them who obey Him.” When they heard this, were cut to the heart, & minded (intended) to slay them. There stood up one in the Council (Sanhedrin), a Pharisee, named Gamaliel, a doctor of the law (law-doctor, law-teacher, law-expert), honored by all the people, commanded to put the men out a little while. He said to them, “Men of Israel, take heed to yourselves as touching these men, what ye are about to do. Before these days rose up Theudas, giving himself out to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about 400, joined themselves: who was slain with all who obeyed him, were dispersed, & came to nothing. After this one rose up Judas of Galilee in the days of the enrolment (census), drew away some of the people after him: he also perished; & those who obeyed him, were scattered abroad. I say to you, Refrain from these men, leave them alone: for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will be overthrown: if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow them; lest perhaps you be found even to be fighting against God.” They agreed with him: when they called the Apostles to them, they beat (whipped) them, charged them not to speak in the Name of Jesus, & let them go. They departed from the presence of the Council (Sanhedrin), rejoicing they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for the Name. Daily in the Temple & at home, they ceased not to teach & preach Jesus the Christ (Christ Jesus, the Messiah Jesus). (5:1-42)
Now in these days, when the number of the Disciples was multiplying, there arose a murmuring (complaining) of the Grecian-Jews (Hellenists) against the Hebrews, because their widows were neglected in the daily ministration (service, deaconry). The Twelve called the multitude of the Disciples to them, & said, “It is not fit that we should forsake God’s Word, & serve tables. Brothers, look from among you 7 men of good report, full of the Spirit & Wisdom, whom we may appoint over this need. We will persist in Prayer, & in the ministry (service, deaconry) of the Word.” The word pleased the whole multitude: they chose Stephen, a man full of faith & the Holy Spirit, & Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, & Nicolaus a proselyte (convert) of Antioch; whom they set before the Apostles: when they prayed, they laid hands on them. God’s Word increased; the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem; a many of the priests were obedient to the Faith.
Stephen, full of Grace & Power, worked great wonders & signs among the people. There arose some (i.e., Jews) from the so called Synagogue of the Libertines, Cyrenians, Alexandrians, & from Cilicia & Asia, disputing (debating, arguing) with Stephen. They were not able to resist the Wisdom & Spirit by which he spoke. They suborned (bribed, persuaded, enticed) men, who said, “We heard him speak blasphemous words against Moses, & God.” They stirred up the people, elders, & scribes, came on him, seized him, brought him to the Council (Sanhedrin), set up false witnesses, who said, “This one ceases not to speak words against this Holy Place, & the Law: we have heard him say, this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place, change the customs which Moses delivered to us.” All who sat in the Council (Sanhedrin), fixing their eyes on him, saw his face as it had been the face of an Angel. (6:1-15)
The High Priest said, “Are these things so?” He replied, “Brothers & Fathers, listen: The God of Glory appeared to our Father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in Haran, & said to him, “Leave yur land, kindred, go to the land which I shall show yu.” He came out of the Land of the Chaldaeans, dwelt in Haran: thence, when his father was dead, God removed him to this land, wherein ye now dwell: He gave him no inheritance in it, not so much as to set his foot on: he promised to give it to him in possession, & to his seed after him, when as yet he had no child. God spoke on this wise, his seed should sojourn in a strange land, they should bring them into bondage (slavery), mistreat them ill, 400 years. The nation to which they shall be enslaved will I judge, said God: after that shall they come forth to serve Me in this place. He gave him the Covenant of Circumcision: Abraham fathered Isaac, circumcised him the 8th day; Isaac birthed Jacob, Jacob the Twelve Patriarchs. The Patriarchs, with jealousy against Joseph, sold him into Egypt: God was with him, delivered him out of all his afflictions, gave him favor & wisdom before Pharaoh King of Egypt, who made him Governor over Egypt & his house. There came a famine over Egypt & Canaan, great affliction: our Fathers found no sustenance. When Jacob heard that there was grain in Egypt, he sent forth our Fathers the first time. At the second time Joseph was made known to his brothers; and Joseph’s race became manifest to Pharaoh. Joseph sent & called Jacob his father, & his kindred, 75 souls. Jacob went to Egypt; he died with our Fathers; they were carried over to Shechem, laid in the tomb that Abraham bought for a price in silver of the sons of Hamor in Shechem.” (7:1-16 covers the Book of Generations in Genesis.)
“As the time of the promise drew near which God vouchsafed to Abraham, the people grew & multiplied in Egypt, till arose another King over Egypt, who knew not Joseph. The same dealt craftily with our race, ill-treated our Fathers, to cast out their babes to the end they might not live. At which season Moses was born, exceeding fair; he was nourished 3 months in his father’s house. When he was cast out, Pharaoh’s daughter took him up, nourished him as her own son. Moses was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians; he was mighty in his words & works. When he was nearly 40 years old, it came into his heart to visit his brothers the Children of Israel. Seeing one of them suffer wrong, he defended him, avenged the oppressed, smiting the Egyptian: he supposed his brothers understood God by his hand was giving them deliverance; they understood not. The day following he appeared to them as they fought, wanted to set them at one again (reconcile them), saying, “Sirs, you are brothers; why wrong one to another?” He who did his neighbor wrong thrust him away, saying, “Who made yu Ruler & Judge over us? Want to kill me, as yu killed the Egyptian yesterday?” Moses fled at this word, became a sojourner in the land of Midian, where he fathered two sons. When 40 years were fulfilled, an Angel appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai (i.e., Horeb), in a Flame of Fire in a bush. When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight: as he drew near, there came the Lord’s Voice, “I am the God of yur Fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob.” Moses trembled, dared not look. The Lord said to him, “Loose the shoes (sandals) from yur feet: for the place whereon yu stand is Holy Ground. I have surely seen the affliction of My People in Egypt, heard their groaning, I am come down to deliver them: come, I will send yu to Egypt.” This Moses whom they refused, saying, “Who made yu Ruler & Judge? him God sent to be both Ruler & Deliverer by the Hand of the Angel Who appeared to him in the bush. This man led them forth, having wrought wonders and signs in Egypt, and in the Red Sea, and in the Wilderness 40 years. This Moses who said to the Children of Israel, “A Prophet shall God raise up to you from among your brothers, like me.” This is he who was in the Church (Ekklesia, Assembly, Congregation) in the wilderness with the Angel Who spoke to him in the Mount Sinai (i.e., Horeb), & with our Fathers: who received living Oracles to give to us: to whom our Fathers would not be obedient, but thrust him from them, turned back in their hearts to Egypt, saying to Aaron, “Make us Gods (gods, idols) to go before us: as for this Moses, who led us out of the Land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him.” They made a calf in those days, brought a sacrifice to the idol, rejoiced in the works of their hands.” (7:17-41 covers the Book of Exodus and Leviticus, Numbers, & Deuteronomy, completing the perusal of the Torah or Law of Moses.)
“God turned, gave them up to serve the host (army, forces, powers) of heaven; as it is written in the Book of the Prophets, Did ye offer to me slain beasts & sacrifices 40 years in the Wilderness, O House of Israel? You set up the Tabernacle of Moloch, & the Star of the God Rephan, The figures (idols, images) which you made to worship them: I will deport you beyond Babylon. (See Amos 5, & the other Minor Prophets.) Our Fathers had the Tabernacle of the Testimony in the Wilderness, as He appointed Who spoke to Moses, to make it according to the figure (pattern, design) seen. Which our Fathers, in their turn, brought in with Joshua (Jesus, the Greek rendition) when they entered on the possession of the nations, who God thrust out before the face of our Fathers, to the days of David, who found favor (grace) in God’s sight, & asked to find a Habitation for Jacob’s God. Solomon built Him a House. The Most High dwells not in houses made with hands; as says the Prophet, “The heaven is My Throne, the Earth the Footstool of My Feet: What manner of House will you build Me? says the Lord: Or what is the place of My Rest? Did not My Hand make all these things?”“ (7:42-50 covers the time from Joshua to David & Solomon, or from the Judges to the Kings.)
“You stiff-necked & uncircumcised in heart & ears, you do always resist the Holy Spirit as your Fathers did. Which of the prophets did not your Fathers persecute? they killed them who showed before of the coming of the Righteous One; of whom you have now become betrayers & murderers; who received the Law (Torah) as it was ordained by Angels, & kept it not.” When they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, they gnashed (snarled) on him with their teeth. He, being full of the Holy Spirit, looked up steadily to heaven, saw God’s Glory, Jesus standing on the Right Hand of God, & said, “Look, I see the heavens opened, the Son of Man standing on God’s Right hand.” They shouted with a loud voice, stopped their ears, rushed on him with one accord; they cast him out of the city, & stoned him: the witnesses laid down their garments at the feet of a young-man named Saul. They stoned Stephen, calling on the Lord, saying, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” He kneeled down, cried with a loud voice, “Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.”” When he said this, he fell asleep (i.e., in death).” (7:1-60)
Saul was consenting to his death. There arose that day a great persecution against the Church in Jerusalem; they were scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea & Samaria, except the Apostles. Devout men buried Stephen, & made great lamentation over him. Saul wasted (devastated) the Church, entering every house, dragging men & women throwing them in prison. Those scattered (dispersed), went preaching (evangelizing) the Word. Philip went down to the City of Samaria, proclaimed to them the Christ. The multitudes gave heed with one accord to the things that were spoken by Philip, when they heard, & saw the signs (miracles) which he did. From many of those with unclean spirits, came out, crying with a loud voice: many that were palsied (paralyzed), & lame, were healed. There was much joy in that city.
Certain man, Simon by name, who beforetime in the city used sorcery, amazed the people of Samaria, pretending to be a great somebody: they gave heed to him, from least to greatest, saying, “This one is the God’s Great Power of God.” They heeded him a long time as he amazed them with his sorceries. When they believed Philip preaching Good-news (Gospel) concerning God’s Kingdom & the Name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men & women. Simon also believed & was baptized, he continued with Philip; seeing signs & great miracles worked, he was amazed. When the Apostles at Jerusalem heard Samaria received God’s Word, they sent to them Peter & John: when they were came, prayed for them to receive the Holy Spirit: as yet It was fallen on none of them: only they were baptized in (to, into, unto, for) the Name of the Lord Jesus. They laid their hands on them, they received the Holy Spirit. When Simon saw by the laying on of the Apostles’ hands the Holy Spirit was given, he offered them money, saying, “Give me this power, that on whom I lay my hands, he may receive the Holy Spirit.” Peter said to him, “Yur silver perish with yu, to think to obtain God’s Gift with money. Yu have no part nor lot in this matter: yur heart is not right before God. Repent of yur wickedness, ask the Lord, if the thought of yur heart be forgiven. I see yu are in the gall of bitterness & in the bond of iniquity.” Simon responded, “Pray for me to the Lord, that none of the things which you spoke come on me.” When they testified & spoke the Lord’s Word, returned to Jerusalem, preached the Gospel to many villages of the Samaritans.
The Lord’s Angel spoke to Philip, “Arise, go southward by way from Jerusalem to Gaza:” the desert. He arose & went: a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch (castrated, women’s-guard, chamberlain, house-manager) of great authority under Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to Jerusalem to worship; he was returning & sitting in his chariot, was reading the Prophet Isaiah. The Spirit said to Philip, “Go near, join yurself to this chariot.” Philip ran to him, heard him reading Prophet Isaiah, & asked, “Understand what yu read?” He replied, “How can I, except some one guide me?” He urged Philip to come up & sit with him. The passage of the Scripture which he was reading was, “He was led as a sheep to the slaughter; as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, So He opens not His Mouth: In His Humiliation His Judgment was taken away: His Generation who shall declare? His Life is taken from the earth.” The eunuch asked Philip, please, of whom speaks the Prophet this? of himself, or of some other? Philip opened his mouth, beginning from this Scripture, preached to him Jesus. As they went on the way, they came to water; the eunuch says, “Look, here is water; what hinders me to be baptized?” [Philip replied, “If yu believe with yur heart, yu may.” He replied, “I believe Jesus Christ is the Son of God.”] He commanded the chariot to stand still: they went into the water, both Philip & the eunuch, he baptized him. When they came out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip; the eunuch saw him no more, he went on his way rejoicing. Philip was found at Azotus: passing through he preached the gospel to the cities, till he came to Caesarea. (8:1-40)
Saul, breathing threatening & slaughter against the Lord’s Disciples, went to the High Priest, requested letters to Damascus Synagogues, if he found any of the Way, whether men or women, to bring them bound to Jerusalem. As he journeyed he drew nigh to Damascus: suddenly there shone around him a light out of heaven: he fell on the ground, heard a Voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why persecute Me?” He said, “Who are Yu, Lord?” He replied, “I am Jesus Whom Yu persecute: rise, enter the city to be told what yu must do.” The men who journeyed with him stood speechless, hearing the Voice, seeing nobody. Saul arose from the earth; when his eyes were opened, he saw nothing; they led him by hand, brought him to Damascus. He was 3 days without sight, neither ate nor drink. There was a certain Disciple at Damascus, named Ananias; the Lord said to him in vision, “Ananias.” He said, “I am here, Lord.” The Lord said to him, “Arise, go to the Street which is called Straight, inquire in Judas’ house for one named Saul of Tarsus: he prays; he saw a man named Ananias coming in, laying his hands on him, to receive his sight.” Ananias replied, “Lord, I have heard from many of this man, how much evil he did to Yur Saints at Jerusalem; is here with authority from the Chief Priests to bind all who call-on (invoke) Yur Name.” The Lord said to him, “Go yur way: he is My chosen Vessel, to bear My Name before the Gentiles & Kings, & the Children of Israel: I will show him what he must suffer for My Name.” Ananias departed, entered the house; laying his hands on him said, “Brother Saul, the Lord, Jesus, Who appeared to yu in the way which yu came, sent me to yu to receive yur sight, to be Holy Spirit filled.” Instantly there fell from his eyes as it were scales, he received his sight; he arose & was baptized; he took food, was strengthened. He was some days with the Disciples at Damascus. Straightway in the Synagogues he proclaimed Jesus, He is God’s Son. All who heard him were amazed, “Is not he who in Jerusalem made havoc of them who called on this Name? & came here for this intent, to bring them bound before the Chief Priests.” Saul increased the more in strength, confounded the Jews who dwelt at Damascus, proving that This is the Christ (Messiah). When many days were fulfilled, the Jews took counsel together to kill him: their plot became known to Saul. They watched the gates day & night to kill him: his disciples took him by night, let him down through the wall, lowering him in a basket. When he came to Jerusalem, he attempted to join himself to the Disciples: they were afraid of him, not believing that he was a Disciple. Barnabas took him, brought him to the Apostles, declared to them how he had seen the Lord in the way, & he spoke to him, & at Damascus he preached boldly in Jesus’ Name. He was with them going in and going out at Jerusalem, preaching boldly in the Lord’s Name: he spoke & disputed against the Grecian-Jews (Hellenists, Greeks, i.e., Jews of Greek mixture, Gentile Jews, like the Samaritans as Gentiles); but they were seeking to kill him. When the brothers knew it, they brought him down to Caesarea, sent him forth to Tarsus. The Church throughout all Judaea, Galilee, & Samaria had peace, being edified; walking in the Lord’s Fear & in comfort of the Holy Spirit, multiplied.
As Peter went throughout all parts, he came to the Saints who dwelt at Lydda. There he found a man named Aeneas, who was bedridden 8 years; he was paralyzed. Peter said to him, “Aeneas (Note this most famous of Romans names.), Jesus Christ heals yu: arise and make yur bed.” Instantly he arose. All who dwelt at Lydda and in Sharon saw him, & they turned to the Lord. At Joppa a Disciple named Tabitha, which by interpretation is called Dorcas: this woman was full of good works & doing charitable (acting merciful, giving alms). In those days, she fell sick, & died: when they had washed her, they laid her in an upper chamber. As Lydda was near to Joppa (some 13 miles or 22 km), the Disciples, hearing that Peter was there, sent two men to him, entreating him, “Delay not to come to us.” Peter arose, went with them. When he arrived, they brought him to the upper chamber: and all the widows stood by him weeping, showing the coats & garments which Dorcas made, while she was with them. Peter put them all forth, kneeled down & prayed; turning to the body, he said, “Tabitha, arise.” She opened her eyes; when she saw Peter, she sat up. he gave her his hand, raised her up; calling the Saints & widows, he presented her alive. It became known throughout all Joppa: many believed in the Lord. He stayed many days in Joppa with Simon, a tanner. (9:1-43)
There was a man in Caesarea, Cornelius by name (This was a very honored Roman family name; in Latin = “little-horn”.), a Centurion (Captain of some 100 soldiers) of the band called the Italian Band, devout, & God-fearing with all his house, who gave much alms to the people, prayed to God always. He saw in a Vision openly, as it were about the 9th hour of the day, God’s Angel coming to him, saying, Cornelius: fixing his eyes on him, afraid, said, “What is it, Lord?” He said to him, “Yur prayers & alms are gone up for a memorial before God. Send men to Joppa, to get Simon, who is surnamed Peter: he lodges with Simon a tanner, whose house is by the seaside.” (Caesarea to Joppa is about 40 miles x 1.6 = 64 km) When the Angel who spoke departed, he called two of his household-servants (domestics, oiketons), & a devout soldier of them that waited on him continually; rehearsed all things to them, he sent them to Joppa. In the morning, as they journeyed, drew near to the city, Peter went up the housetop to pray, about the 6th hour (noon): he became hungry, desired to eat: while they made ready, he fell in a trance; he saw the heaven opened, a vessel descending, as it were a great sheet, let down by four corners on the earth: wherein were all manner of four-footed beasts, creeping things of the earth, birds of the heaven. There came a Voice, “Rise, Peter; kill & eat.” Peter said, “No, Lord; I have never eaten anything common & unclean.” A Voice came to him the 2nd time, “What God cleansed, make (treat) not common.” This was done thrice: straightway the vessel was received up to heaven. While Peter was much perplexed in himself what the Vision might mean, the men sent by Cornelius, made inquiry for Simon’s house, stood before the gate, called & asked whether Simon Peter, were lodging there. While Peter thought on the Vision, the Spirit said to him, “Three men seek yu. Arise, get down, go with them, nothing doubting: I have sent them.”
Peter went down & said, “I am he whom you seek: why are you come?” They said, “A centurion, Cornelius, a righteous man, God fearing, well reported of by the Jewish nation, was warned of God by a holy Angel to send for yu to his house, to hear words from yu.” He welcomed them & lodged them. In the morrow he arose, went forth with them, certain of the brothers from Joppa accompanied him. In the morn they entered Caesarea. Cornelius was waiting for them, having called together his relatives & his near friends. When Peter entered, Cornelius met him, fell down at his feet, & worshipped him. Peter raised him up, “Stand up; I myself am a man.” As he talked with him, he went in, & finds many come together: he said to them, “You know it is unlawful for a Jewish man to join himself or come to one of another nation; God showed me to not call any man common or unclean: I came without gainsaying (hesitation, reluctance, resistance), when I was sent for. I ask with what intent you sent for me.” Cornelius replied, “Four days ago, at this hour, I was keeping the 9th hour (c. 3 p.m.) of prayer in my house; a Man stood before me in bright apparel, & says, “Cornelius, yur prayer is heard, yur alms are had in remembrance in God’s sight. Send to Joppa, call Simon Peter; he lodges in Simon a tanner’s house, by the seaside.” Quickly I sent to yu; yu did well to come. We are all here present in God’s sight, to hear what the Lord commanded.”
Peter opened his mouth, “Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons: but in every nation he who fears Him, works righteousness, is acceptable to Him. The Word which He sent to the Children of Israel, preaching good-news of Peace by Jesus Christ (He is Lord of all.) –that Saying you know, which was published throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the Baptism which John preached; even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed Him with (by, in) Holy Spirit & power: who went about doing good, healing all that were oppressed (overpowered) of the Devil; for God was with Him. We are witnesses of what He did in the Jewish country, & in Jerusalem; Whom they murdered (killed, slew), hanging Him on a Tree (cross). Him God raised up the 3rd day, gave Him to be made manifest, not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen–before (preordained, pre-arranged, predetermined, predestinated) of God, even to us, who ate & drank with Him after He rose from the dead (His resurrection). He charged us to preach to the people, to testify that this is He Who is ordained of God to be the Judge of the living & the dead. To him bear the Prophets witness, that through His Name everyone who believes in Him shall receive remission (forgiveness, pardon) of sins.“ While Peter spoke these words, the Holy Spirit fell on them who heard the Word. They of the circumcision who believed were amazed, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the Gift of the Holy Spirit. They heard them speak with tongues, & magnify God. Then answered Peter, “Can any man forbid the water, that these not be baptized, who have received the Holy Spirit as well as we?” He commanded them to be baptized in the Name of Jesus Christ. Then prayed (asked) they him to stay some days. (10:1-48)
The Apostles & brothers in Judaea heard the Gentiles received God’s Word. When Peter came to Jerusalem, those of the circumcision contended with him, “Yu went in to men uncircumcised, & ate with them.” Peter first related the matter to them in order, “I was in the City of Joppa praying: in a trance (ecstacy, ecstatic-state, entrancement) I saw a Vision, a certain vessel descending, as great sheet let down from heaven by four corners; it came to me: on which fastened my eyes, I considered, & saw four–footed animals of the earth, wild beasts, creeping things (reptiles), & birds of the heaven I heard a Voice saying to me, “Rise, Peter; kill & eat.” I replied, “Not so, Lord: nothing common or unclean ever entered my mouth.“ A Voice answered the 2nd time out of heaven, “What God cleansed, make (treat) not common.” This was done thrice: all were drawn up again to heaven. Forthwith (Instantly, Suddenly) 3 men stood before the house in which we were, having been sent from Caesarea to me. The Spirit bade me go with them, making no distinction (separation, division, demarcation). These 6 brothers accompanied me; we entered the man’s house: he told us saw the Angel standing in his house, saying, “Send to Joppa, get Simon Peter; to speak to yu words to be saved, yu & yur house.“ As I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell on them, as on us at the beginning (i.e., at Pentecost). I remembered the Lord’s Word (Saying), “John water baptized; you must be baptized in the Holy Spirit.” If then God gave to them the like Gift as He did to us, when we believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I, that I could withstand God?” When they heard these things, they kept quiet, glorified God, saying, “Then to the Gentiles God granted repentance to life.“
Those scattered–abroad (dispersed, relocated, migrated) on the tribulation (persecution, hostility) that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus, & Antioch (Jerusalem to Antoch Syria (Turkey) is some 1200 km or c, 750 miles; Antioch Syr. to Island of Cyprus by land some 330 miles or c. 530 km; Phoen. is on the coasts of the Medit. Sea from northern Judaea to northern Syria & Lebanon; Cyrene is in modern Libya of north Africa.), speaking the Word only to Jews. Some of them, men of Cyprus & Cyrene, when they came to Antioch, spoke to the Greeks (Hellenists), preaching the Lord Jesus. The Lord’s Hand was with them: a great number who believed turned to the Lord. The report concerning them came to the ears of the Church in Jerusalem: they sent forth Barnabas as far as Antioch: who, when he came, saw God’s Grace, was glad; he exhorted them, with purpose of heart they would cling to the Lord: he was a good man, full of Holy Spirit & Faith: many people was added to the Lord. He went forth to Tarsus (Tarsus to Antioch is some 140 miles (c. 230 km) by land only, 85 miles (c. 137 km) staight by land & sea ) to seek for Saul; when he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. For a whole year they were gathered–together with the Church, & taught much people, & the disciples were called Christians (1st & only occurrence in the New Testament in the plural; the sing occurs once in chapter 26.) first in Antioch. In these days came Prophets from Jerusalem to Antioch. There stood up one of them named Agabus, & signified by the Spirit that there should be a great famine over all the world (habitable-world; i.e., Roman world, the Mediterranean & Mesopotamian world): which came to pass in the days of Claudius. The Disciples, each according to his ability, determined to send relief to the brothers who dwelt in Judea: sending it to the Elders by the hand of Barnabas & Saul. (11:1-30)
About that time King Herod put forth his hands to afflict certain of the Church. He killed (got- rid of, took-away, annihilated) James the brother of John by sword. When he saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded to seize Peter. Those were the days of Unleavened Bread. When he took him, he put him in prison, delivered him to four quaternions (4 by 4s, 4 sets of 4; 16 soldiers) of soldiers to guard him; intending after the Passover to bring him forth to the people. Peter was kept in the prison: but prayer was made earnestly of the Church to God for him. When Herod was about to bring him forth, the same night Peter was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains: and guards before the door kept the prison. The Lord’s Angel stood by him, a light shined in the cell: he struck Peter on the side, awoke him, saying, “Rise up quickly.“ His chains fell off from his hands. The Angel said to him, “Dress yurself, put on yur sandals.“ He did so. He says, “Throw yur covering (outer-garments, extra-clothes) on, follow me.” He went out, & followed; he knew not it was true what was done by the Angel, but thought he saw a Vision. When they past the first & second guard, they came to the iron gate that leads into the city; which opened to them of its own accord: they continued, passed on through one street; straightway the Angel departed (disappeared, vanished).
When Peter was himself, he said, “I know of a truth, the Lord sent forth His Angel, delivered me out of the hand of Herod, from all the expectation of the people of the Jews.” After he had considered the thing, he came to Mary‘s house, the mother of John, surname Mark (John Mark); where many were gathered together & were praying. When he knocked at the door of the gate, a maid named Rhoda answered. When she knew Peter’s voice, she opened not the gate for joy, but ran in, said Peter stood in front of the gate. They said to her, “Yu are mad (crazy, insane, hysterical, maniacal). She confidently affirmed that it was so. They said, “It is his angel” (i.e., spirit, ghost, phantom).“ Peter continued knocking: and when they had opened, they saw him, and were amazed. Motioning to them with the hand to keep quiet, declared to them how the Lord had brought him forth out of the prison. He said, “Tell these things to James, & to the brothers.“ He departed, went to another place.
As soon as it was day, there was no small stir among the soldiers, what was become of Peter. When Herod sought for him, found him not, he examined the guards, commanded that they should be put to death. He went down from Judaea to Caesarea, stayed there. He was highly displeased with them of Tyre & Sidon: they came with one accord to him, made Blastus the King’s chamberlain their friend, they asked for peace, because their country was fed from the King’s country. A set day Herod arrayed himself in royal apparel, sat on the Throne, made an oration to them. The people shouted, “The Voice of God, not of man.” Immediately the Lord’s Angel smote him, because he gave not God the glory: he was worm-eaten, & expired (died). God’s Word grew & multiplied. Barnabas & Saul returned from Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their ministration, taking with them John Mark. (John Mark, Yochanan Marcus; said to be author of Gospel of Mark, son of Mary, Barnabas’ sister; naked youth of Mark 14; founder, patriarch, & martyr of the Coptic Church.) (12:1-25) (Here is the midway of the chapters in the Acts. Henceforth Paul & his companions’ Ministry to the Gentiles is focused.)
There were at Antioch, in the Church, prophets & teachers, Barnabas, Symeon called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen the foster-brother (childhood-companion, raised-together, family) of Herod the Tetrarch, & Saul. As they ministered to the Lord, & fasted, the Holy Spirit said, “Separate Me Barnabas & Saul for the work I have called them.” After they fasted & prayed & laid their hands on them, they sent them away. They, sent forth by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia (Seleucia in Pieria of Syria (Turkey) by the sea; some 185 miles or 300 km straight, but 100 more miles by driving route); thence they sailed to Cyprus (some 300 miles or 570 km by sea ). When they were at Salamis (on the east seacoast as a port city), they proclaimed God’s Word in the Jews’ Synagogues: they had John (John Mark) as their attendant (helper). When they had gone through the whole island unto Paphos (on the west coast some 110 miles (c. 175 km) along the southern coast), they found a sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, named Bar-jesus (Son of Jesus or Joshua); who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of understanding. The same called Barnabas & Saul, sought to hear God’s Word. Elymas the Sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood them, seeking to turn aside the Proconsul (province-governor) from the faith. Saul, called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, set his eyes on him, said, “Full of guile & villany, Devil’s son, enemy of righteousness, will yu not cease to pervert the Lord’s right ways? The Lord’s Hand is on yu, yu shall be blind, not seeing the sun for a season.“ Immediately there fell on him a mist & darkness; he went about seeking some to lead him by the hand. The Proconsul, when he saw what was done, believed, being astonished at the Lord’s Teaching (Doctrine).
Paul & his company set sail from Paphos, came to Perga in Pamphylia (Antalya, Turkey) (some 250 miles (c. 400 km) straight by sea, but 300 miles (c. 480 km) by land-sea-land): John departed from them & returned to Jerusalem. They, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia in Turkey (about 100 miles (c. 160 km)); they went into the Synagogue on the Sabbath day, & sat down. After the reading of the Law & Prophets the Synagogue Rulers sent to them, saying, “Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on.” Paul stood up, motioning with the hand said, “Men of Israel, you who fear God, listen:“
“The God of this People Israel chose our Fathers, exalted the People when they sojourned in the Land of Egypt, with a high Arm led them forth out of it. For about the time of 40 years as a Nursing-Father bared them in the Wilderness. After He destroyed 7 nations in the Land of Canaan, He gave them their land for an inheritance, (about 450 years) (i.e., from Abraham to Moses): after these things He gave them Judges till Samuel the Prophet (Joshua to Samuel some 400 years). Afterward they asked for a King: God gave to them Saul, Kish‘s son, a man of the Tribe of Benjamin, for the space of 40 years. When He removed him, He raised up David to be their King; to whom He testified, “I have found David, Jesse’s son, a man after My Heart, who shall do My Will.” Of this man’s seed hath God according to Promise brought to Israel a Saviour, Jesus; when John first preached before His coming the baptism of repentance to all the People of Israel. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, “What suppose ye that I am? I am not He. There comes One after me the shoes of Whose Feet I am not worthy to unloose.“” (Paul reviews Moses’ Books, then Joshua & the Judges, then Samuel & the Kings; concludes with John the Baptist & the Messiah Jesus. )
“Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, those among you who fear God, to us is the Word of this Salvation sent forth. They who dwell in Jerusalem, & their rulers, because they knew Him not, nor the voices of the Prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning Him. Though they found no cause of death in Him, they asked Pilate He should be slain. When they had fulfilled what was written of Him, they took him down from the tree (cross), laid Him in a tomb. God raised Him from death: He was seen many days by them who came up with Him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are now His witnesses to the people. We evangelize (preach) to you the Promise made to the Fathers, that God fulfilled to our children, in that he raised up Jesus; as it is written in the 2nd Psalm, “Yu are My Son, this day have I birthed Yu.” Concerning He raised Him death, no more to return to corruption, He spoke on this wise, “I will give you the holy & sure blessings of David.” He says in another Psalm (Ps. 16), “Thou wilt not give Thy Holy One to see corruption.“ David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, died, was laid to his Fathers, saw corruption: He Whom God raised up saw no corruption. Be it known to you, brothers, through this One is proclaimed to you forgiveness of sins: by Him every believer is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by Moses’ Law. Beware, lest that come on you which is spoken in the Prophets: “Behold, you despisers, wonder, perish; for I work a work in your days, a work which you shall never believe, if one declare it to you.““ As they went out, they besought that these words might be spoken to them the next Sabbath.
After the Synagogue broke up, many of the Jews & devout proselytes followed Paul & Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in God’s Grace. The next Sabbath almost the whole city was gathered–together to hear God’s Word. When the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with jealousy, contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul, & blasphemed. Paul & Barnabas spoke out boldly, “It was necessary God’s Word first be spoken to you. Seeing you thrust it from you, & judge yourselves unworthy of Eternal Life, we turn to the Gentiles. So the Lord commanded us, “I set yu for a Light of the Gentiles, to be Salvation to the uttermost part of the earth.” As the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, glorified God’s Word: as many as were ordained (appointed, destined, determined, designated, etc.) to Eternal Life believed. The Lord’s Word spread abroad throughout all the region. The Jews urged on the devout women of honorable estate, & the chiefs (leaders, principals) of the city, stirred up persecution against Paul & Barnabas, cast them out of their borders. They shook off the dust of their feet against them, & came to Iconium (from Antioch of Pisidia in Turkey to Iconium, Turkey going east-south is some 100 miles or 160 km). The Disciples were filled with joy with the Holy Spirit. (13:1-52)
In Iconium they entered together the Jews’ Synagogue, so spoke that a great multitude both of Jews & Greeks believed. The disobedient Jews stirred up the Gentiles‘ souls, evil affected against the brothers. Long time they stayed speaking boldly in the Lord, who testified to the Word of His Grace, granting signs & wonders to be done by their hands. The multitude of the city was divided; part held with the Jews, part with the Apostles. When there was made an attempt by the Gentiles & Jews with their Rulers, to treat them shamefully & to stone them, they became aware of it, and fled to the cities of Lycaonia, Lystra, Derbe, & the region round about: (cities of ancient Turkey in Galatia, Lycaonia, Isauria, Cappadocia, Pisidia, Cilicia, etc; Lystra was about 20 miles (c. 32 km) south of Iconium; Derbe was some 60 miles (c. 95 km) south-east of Lystra) there they evangelized (preached the Gospel). At Lystra sat a man, impotent in his feet, a cripple from his mother’s womb (birth), who never had walked. He heard Paul speaking, who, set eyes on him, seeing he had faith to be made whole, said with a loud voice, “Stand upright on yur feet.“ He leaped up & walked. When the multitude saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voice, saying in Lycaonian (i.e., not common Greek), “The Gods are come down to us in the likeness (form) of Men.” They called Barnabas, Jupiter; & Paul, Mercury, because he was the chief speaker. The Priest of Jupiter whose Temple was before the city (i.e., Lystra), brought oxen & garlands to the gates, & would have done sacrifice with the multitudes. When the Apostles, Barnabas & Paul, heard of it, they rent their garments, sprang forth among the multitude, crying out, “Men, why do you these things? We also are men of like passions with you, & bring-good-news (evangelize), to turn from these vain things to a living God, Who made the heaven, earth, sea, & all that in them is: Who in the generations gone by allowed all the nations (Gentiles) to walk in their own ways. He left not Himself without witness, in that He did good, gave you from heaven rains and fruitful seasons, filling your hearts with food & gladness.” With these sayings scarce restrained they the multitudes from doing sacrifice to them.
There came Jews from Antioch (Antioch Pisidia (Antakya), Turkey) & Iconium (Konya): & persuaded the multitudes, they stoned Paul, dragged him out of the city (i.e., Lystra), supposing that he was dead. As the disciples stood around him, he rose up, entered the city (i.e., Lystra): in the morn he returned with Barnabas to Derbe (some 60 ms or 95 km north-west). When they evangelized that city (i.e., Derbe), made many Disciples, they returned to Lystra, Iconium, & Antioch (in Turkey), (i.e., some 180 ms or 290 km on the return visits) confirming the Disciples‘ souls, exhorting them to continue in the Faith, that through many tribulations we must enter God‘s Kingdom. When they appointed (hand-picked) them Church Elders, prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, in Whom they believed. They passed through Pisidia, came to Pamphylia. (Antioch Pisidia south to Perga Pamphylia or rather Antalya Turkey is about 130 ms or 210 km) when they spoke the Word in Perga, they went south-west to Attalia (c. 10 ms or 16 km); thence they sailed to Antioch (east to Antioch Syria) (Attalia Turkey to Antioch Antayka Hatay Syria by air is c. 300 ms or 485 km, nautical miles is c.260 ms or 485 km; by coastal land route its some 450 ms or 720 km; by coastal sea route its about 400 ms or 350 nautical ms), whence they were committed to God’s Grace for the Work which they fulfilled. When they were come, & gathered the Church together, rehearsed all things God did by them, & opened a door of faith to the Gentiles. They stayed some time with the Disciples. (14:1-28) (This concludes the Apostle Paul’s 1st Missionary Journey or Travels by land & sea of some 1,500 to 2,000 ms or 2,400 to 3,200 km, & taking about 1 year travel time. The route or itinerary was: from Jerusalem through Judea-Syria, Samaria, Phoenicia, to Antioch of Syria (3rd largest city of the Roman Empire after Rome & Alexandria) from Antioch Syria by sea to Island of Cyprus on east coast at Salamais by land along southern coast west to Paphos, by sea north-west to Attalia of Pamphilia, on the coast; little north to Perga of Pamphlia, north through Pisidia to Antioch Pisidia of Galatia & Cappadocia south-west to Iconium, south to Lystra of Cilicia, south-east to Derbe of Cilicia; then returned by same route to Attalia, then by sea west to Antioch of Syria.)
Certain ones came north (i.e., some 300 ms or 480 km) from Judaea & taught the brothers (i.e., Christians), saying, “Except you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.” When Paul & Barnabas dissenting & questioning with them, the brothers appointed that Paul & Barnabas, & other of them, should go south to Jerusalem to the Apostles & Elders about this question. They being brought on their way by the Church, passed through both Phoenicia & Samaria (i.e., south of Antioch Syria), declaring the conversion of the Gentiles: they caused great joy to the brothers. When they came to Jerusalem, they were received of the Church, Apostles, & the Elders, they rehearsed what God did by them. There rose up certain of the Sect of the Pharisees who believed, saying, “It is needful to circumcise them, to charge them to keep Moses‘ Law.” The Apostles & Elders were gathered–together to consider of this matter (word).
When there was much questioning, Peter rose up, said to them, “Brothers, you know that a good while ago God chose among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear & believe the Word of the Gospel. God, knows the heart, testified, giving them the Holy Spirit, as He did to us; He made no distinction between us & them, cleansing their hearts by faith. Why try God, to put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? We believe that we shall be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, in like manner as they.“
The multitude kept silence; they listened to Barnabas & Paul rehearsing what signs & wonders God worked among the Gentiles through them.
After they kept quiet, James answered, “Brothers, hear me: Symeon (Simon Peter) rehearsed how first God visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a People for His Name. To this agree the Prophets‘ Words; as it is written, “After these things I will return, I will rebuild David’s Tabernacle, which is fallen; I will rebuild its ruins, I will set it up (establish it): that the remnant (residue) of men seek–after the Lord, with the Gentiles, on whom My Name is called, Saith the Lord, Who maketh these things known from of old.” Wherefore my judgment is, we trouble not them who from among the Gentiles turn to God; but we write to them, to abstain from the pollutions of idols, from fornication, from what is strangled, & from blood. For Moses from generations of old has in every city them who preach (proclaim, broadcast) him, being read in the Synagogues every Sabbath.“
It seemed good to the Apostles & Elders, with the whole Church, to choose men out of their company, to send them to Antioch with Paul & Barnabas; namely, Judas called Barsabbas, & Silas, leaders (chief–men) among the brothers: they wrote by them, “The apostles, elders, brothers, unto the brothers who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria & Cilicia, greeting:
“We have heard that certain went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls; to whom we gave no commandment; it seemed good to us, coming to one accord, to choose out men and send them unto you with our beloved Barnabas & Paul, men who hazarded their lives for the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ. We sent Judas & Silas, who shall tell you the same things by word of mouth. It seemed good to the Holy Spirit, & to us, to lay on you no greater burden than these necessary things: to abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, from fornication; from which if you keep yourselves, it shall be well with you. Fare well.“
When they were dismissed, came (i.e., went north c. 300 ms or 480 km) to Antioch; gathered the multitude, they delivered the epistle (letter). When they read it, they rejoiced for the consolation (encouragement). Judas & Silas, being prophets, exhorted the brothers with many words, confirmed them. After they spent some time there, they were dismissed in peace from the brothers to those who sent them forth.
[It seemed good to Silas to remain there.] Paul & Barnabas stayed in Antioch, teaching & preaching the Lord’s Word, with many others. After some days Paul said to Barnabas, “Let us return to visit the brothers (i.e., Christians) in every city wherein we proclaimed the Lord’s Word, to see how they fare.“ Barnabas was minded to take with them John Mark. Paul thought not good to take with them one who withdrew from them from Pamphylia, & went not with them to the Work. There arose a sharp contention, so that they parted between one from the other, Barnabas took Mark with him, sailed away to Cyprus (west in the Great Sea c. 200 ms or 320 km & 170 naut. ms); Paul choose Silas, went forth, being commended by the brothers to the Lord’s Grace. He went through Syria & Cilicia (some 100 ms. north-west), confirming the Churches. (1st of 2 occur. of the plural in the Acts.) (15:1-41)
He came to Derbe & Lystra (c. 200 ms from Antioch of Syria & c. 100 ms from Antioch of Pisidia): a certain Disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewess that believed; but his father was a Greek. He was well reported of by the brothers that were at Lystra & Iconium. Paul wanted to take him along; he took & circumcised him because of the Jews that were in those parts: for they all knew that his father was a Greek. As they went on their way through the cities, they delivered the decrees to keep which had been ordained of the Apostles & Elders at Jerusalem. The Churches (2nd & last occur. of the plural in the Acts) were strengthened in the Faith, increased in number daily.
They went through the region of Phrygia & Galatia (in the north), forbidden of the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia (to the west); when they were come opposite Mysia (further north-west), they attempted to go into Bithynia (further north); Jesus‘ Spirit permitted them not; passing through Mysia, they came south to Troas. A Vision appeared to Paul in the night: There was a man of Macedonia standing, imploring him, “Come over (i.e., across Aegean Sea) to Macedonia (Greece), to help us.” When ‘he‘ saw the Vision, straightway ‘we‘ sought to go forth to Macedonia, concluding that God had called us to evangelize (preach-gospel to) them. Setting sail therefore from Troas, we made a straight course to Samothrace (south-west by sea c. 150 ms or 240 km), the day following to Neapolis (Kavala, north-west by sea c. 300 ms or 480 km); thence to Philippi (10 miles away), which is a city of Macedonia, the first of the district, a Roman colony: we stayed in this city certain days. On the Sabbath day ‘we‘ (note the occasional use of the plural personal pronoun) went forth outside the gate by a river side, where ‘we‘ supposed there was a Prayer-place; ‘we‘ sat down, spoke to the women who came together. A woman named Lydia, a seller of purple of the City of Thyatira, one that worshipped God, heard ‘us‘: whose heart the Lord opened to give heed to the things which were spoken by Paul. When she was baptized, with her household (house), she besought ‘us‘, “If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come to my house, stay there.“ She constrained ‘us‘.
As we were going to the Prayer-place, a girl (maiden, young-woman, senorita) having (possessed with, controlled by) a spirit of divination (python) met us, who brought her Masters (Lords, Owners) much gain by soothsaying (fortune-telling, prognosticating, predicting, prophesying divining). The same following–after Paul & ‘us‘ cried out, “These men are servants (slaves) of the Most–High God, who proclaim to you Salvation‘s Way.” She did this for many days. Paul, being troubled, turned & said to the spirit, “I charge yu in the Name of Jesus Christ to come out of her.“ It came out that hour. When her masters saw that the hope of their gain was gone, they laid hold on Paul & Silas, dragged them into the marketplace before the Rulers, when they had brought them to the Magistrates, they said, “These men, being Jews, do exceedingly trouble our city, & set forth customs which it is not lawful for us to receive, or to observe, being Romans.“ The multitude rose up together against them: the Magistrates rent their garments off them, commanded to beat them with rods. When they had laid many stripes on them, they cast them into prison, charging the jailor to keep them safely: who, having received such a charge, cast them into the inner prison, made their feet fast in the stocks.
About midnight Paul & Silas were praying & singing hymns to God, the prisoners were listening to them; suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison-house were shaken: immediately all the doors were opened, and every one’s bands were loosed. The jailor, being roused out of sleep, seeing the prison doors open, drew his sword & was about to kill himself, supposing that the prisoners had escaped. Paul cried with a loud voice, “Do yurself no harm: for we are all here.“ He called for lights & sprang in, trembling for fear, fell down before Paul & Silas, brought them out & said, “Sirs (Lords), what must I do to be saved?” They said, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, yu shall be saved, with yur house.” They spoke the Lord’s Word to him, with those in his house. He took them the same hour of the night, washed their stripes; was baptized, he & his, immediately. He brought them up to his house, set food before them, rejoiced greatly, with his house, believed (believing) in God. When it was day, the magistrates sent the serjeants (officers, lictors), saying, “Let those men go.” The jailor reported the words to Paul, “The magistrates sent to let you go: come out, go in peace.” Paul replied, “They have beaten us publicly, uncondemned, men that are Romans, have cast us in prison; do they now cast us out secretly? No; but let them come themselves & bring us out.“ The officers (serjeants) reported these words unto the Magistrates: they feared when they heard that they were Romans; they came & begged them; when they brought them out, they asked them to go away from the city. They went out of the prison, entered Lydia’s house: when they saw the brothers, they comforted them, & departed. (16:1-40)
When ‘they‘ had passed through Amphipolis & Apollonia (south, some 30 & 40 ms, then continued south-west about 25 ms), ‘they‘ came to Thessalonica (c. 65 ms or 105 km from Philippi to Thessaloniki, Salonica), where was a Synagogue of the Jews: Paul, as his custom was, went to them, for three Sabbath days reasoned with them from the Scriptures, opening & alleging that it behooved the Christ to suffer, to rise from death; that this Jesus, said he, “I proclaim to you, is the Christ.” Some of them were persuaded, consorted with Paul & Silas, of the devout Greeks a great multitude, of the chief women not a few. The Jews, with jealousy, took certain vile fellows of the rabble, gathering a crowd, set the city on an uproar; assaulting Jason’s house, they sought to bring them forth to the people. When they found them not, they dragged Jason & some brothers before the Rulers of the city, shouting, “These have turned the world upside down are come here; whom Jason received: these act contrary to Caesar‘s decrees, saying that there is another King, a Jesus.” They troubled the multitude & Rulers of the city, when they heard these things. After they took security from Jason & the rest, they let them go. The brothers immediately sent away Paul & Silas by night to Beroea (Beria, Veroia, some 45 ms or 70 km south-west from Thessaloniki): when they came there went to the Jews Synagogue. These were more noble (well-born) than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the Word with all readiness of the mind, examining the Scriptures daily, whether these things were so. Many of them believed; of the Greek women of honorable estate, & of men, not a few. When the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that God’s Word was proclaimed of Paul at Beria, they came there, stirring up & troubling the multitudes. Then immediately the brothers sent forth Paul to go as far as the sea (the Aegian Sea of the Great Sea): Silas & Timothy stayed longer. They who conducted Paul brought him as far as Athens (south some 300 ms or 480 km along the coasts by land or sea): receiving a commandment to Silas & Timothy that they should come to him with all speed, they departed (going south).
While Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was provoked within him as he saw the city full of idols. He reasoned in the Synagogue with Jews & the devout persons, in the marketplace every day with them who met him. Certain Epicurean & Stoic philosophers encountered him. Some said, “What would this babbler (seed-picker, seed-talker) say?“ others, “He seems to be a setter forth of strange (foreign) Demons (gods, daemons):” because he preached Jesus & the Resurrection. They took hold of him, brought him to Areopagus (Mars-Hill, Areo-Pagus), saying, “May we know what this new teaching (doctrine) is, which is spoken by yu? Yu bring strange things to our ears: we want to know what these things mean.“ (The Athenians & strangers sojourning there spent their time in nothing else, either to tell or to hear some new thing.) Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus, & said,
“Men of Athens, in all things, I perceive that ye are very religious (superstitious). As I passed along, & observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription, “UNKNOWN GOD.“ What you worship in ignorance, this I set forth to you. God Who made the world & all therein, as Lord of heaven & earth, dwells not in Temples made with hands; neither is served by men’s hands, as though He needed anything, seeing He gives to all life, breath, & all; He made from one every nation of men to dwell on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed seasons, & the bounds of their habitation (dwellings); to seek God, if they might feel after Him & find Him, though He is not far from each one of us: in Him we live, move, & have our being; (See Greek poet Epimenides’ Cretica.) as certain even of your own poets have said, “We are His Offspring” (Children) (See Greek poet Aratus’ poem ‘Phaenomena’ on the Constellations.). Being God’s Offspring, we must not think the Godhead (Deity, Divinity, Divine-nature) is like gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art & device of man. The times of ignorance (i.e., Noah to Christ, the Gentile dispensation) therefore God overlooked; now He commands men everywhere to repent: as He appointed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness by the Man Whom He ordained; whereof He gave assurance to all men, when He raised Him from the Dead (Death).”
When they heard of the Resurrection of the Dead (from Death), some mocked; but others said, “We will hear more of this.” Paul went out from among them. Some men clung to him, & believed: among whom was Dionysius the Areopagite, & a woman named Damaris, & others with them. (17:1-34)
After this he departed from Athens, & came to Corinth (west to the coast then along the coast some 50 ms or 80 km; both were principle cities of the Greek & Roman Empire). He found a Jew named Aquila, a man of Pontus by race, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius (i.e., Emperor of Rome) had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome: he came to them; because he was of the same–trade, he stayed with them, they worked, for by their trade they were tentmakers (skin-workers, leather-workers; see our word ‘skin‘). He reasoned (dialoged) in the Synagogue every Sabbath, persuaded Jews & Greeks (Hellenes; so throughout). When Silas & Timothy came down from Macedonia (Berea to Corinth is about 350 ms or 560 km), Paul was constrained by the Word, testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. When they opposed themselves & blasphemed, he shook out his raiment & said, “Your blood be on your own heads; ‘I‘ am clean: henceforth ‘I‘ will go to the Gentiles.“ He departed, went to the house of a man named Titus Justus, who worshipped God, whose house joined next to the Synagogue. Crispus, the Ruler of the Synagogue, believed in the Lord with his house; many of the Corinthians hearing believed, & were baptized. The Lord said to Paul in the night by a Vision, “Be not afraid, speak, be not silent: I am with yu, no one shall set on to harm yu: I have many people in this city.” He dwelt there 1 year 6 months (1 1/2 yrs), teaching God’s Word among them. (Paul with Silas & Timothy labored 1 1/2 yrs in Corinth & its regions in Achaia of the north-west Peloponnese Peninsula.)
When Gallio was Proconsul of Achaia, (c. 55 A.D.; b. 5 B.C., d. A.D. 65. Adopted son of Seneca the Elder, older brother to Seneca the Younger. Suffect Consul. In office 56–56. Serving with Titus Cutius Ciltus. Preceded by Quintus Volusius Saturninu, Publius Cornelius Scipio. Succeeded by Publius Sulpicius Scribonius, Rufus, Publius Sulpicius Scribonius, Proculus. This period is the most important & precise dating of Paul’s Travels. Paul’s Epistles would all be written after this date of Gallio’s Office.) the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him before the judgment-seat, saying, “This one persuads men to worship God contrary to the Law.” When Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, “If indeed it were a matter of wrong or of wicked villany, Jews, reason would I bear with you: if they are questions about words & names & your own Law, look to it yourselves; I am not minded to be a judge of these matters.” He drove them from the Judgment-seat. They laid hold on Sosthenes, Synagogue Ruler, beat him before the Judgment-seat. Gallio cared for none of these things.
After Paul remained there many days, took his leave of the brothers, sailed thence for (to) Syria, with Priscilla & Aquila: shore his head (shaved his head, sheared his head, cut his hair) in Cenchreae (Kenchreai, Kenkris eastern harbor of Corinth c. 5 ms or 8 km south-east from the city. It is by sea & land c. 820 ms. or 1,300 km north-west from Jerusalem, c. 140 ms. or 225 km west from Ephesus.); for he had a vow. They came to Ephesus, he left them there: he entered the Synagogue, & reasoned with the Jews. When they asked him to stay a longer time, he consented not; taking his leave of them, saying, “I will return again unto you if God will,“ he set sail from Ephesus. (Ephesus to Caesarea by sea is about 630 nms or 1,165 km.) When he landed at Caesarea (Keysariya, Qesarya; in Israel’s western coast between Tel Aviv & Haifa), he went south & greeted the Church, & went north to Antioch (of Syria). (Caesarea in Judaea to Antioch in Syria is about 300 ms or 480 km by plane or 555 nms, by roads much longer) After some time there, he departed, went through the region of Galatia, & Phrygia, in order, establishing all the Disciples. (Galatia & Phrygia, or the regions near Antioch of Pisidia was about 300 ms or 480 km from Antioch of Syria.)
A Jew named Apollos, Alexandrian by race, eloquent man, came to Ephesus; he was mighty in the Scriptures. This one had been instructed in the Lord’s Way; fervent in spirit, he spoke & taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, knowing only John’s baptism: he spoke boldly in the Synagogue. When Priscilla & Aquila heard him, they took him, expounded to him God’s Way more accurately. When he was minded to pass over to Achaia, the brothers encouraged him, wrote to the Disciples to receive him: when he came, he helped them much who had believed through grace; he powerfully confuted the Jews, publicly, showing by the Scriptures Jesus was the Christ. (18:1-28)
While Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper country came to Ephesus, found certain Disciples: he said to them, “Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?“ They said to him, “No, we hear whether the Holy Spirit was given.” He said, “To what then were you baptized?“ They said, “To John’s baptism.“ Paul said, “John baptized repentance baptism, saying to the people to believe on Him Who should come after him, on Jesus.“ When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. When Paul laid his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them; they spake with tongues, & prophesied. They were about 12 men. He entered the synagogue, spoke boldly for about three months, reasoning & persuading the things concerning God’s Kingdom. When some were hardened & disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the multitude, he departed from them, separated the Disciples, reasoning daily in Tyrannus‘ School. This continued about 2 years; so all they who dwelt in Asia (Asia Minor; see 7 Churches of Asia in Rev. 1.) heard the Lord’s Word, Jews & Greeks.
God worked special miracles by Paul‘s hands: that to the sick were carried away from his body handkerchiefs or aprons, & the evil spirits went out. Certain also of the wandering Jews, exorcists, took on them to name over them that had the evil spirits the Name of the Lord Jesus, saying, “I adjure you by Jesus Whom Paul preaches.” There were 7 sons of Sceva, a Jew, a Chief Priest, who did this. The evil spirit responded, “Jesus I know, Paul I know (recognize), who are you?” The man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, mastered (over-powered, subdued) both of them, prevailed against them, they fled out of that house naked & wounded. This became known to all, Jews & Greeks, who dwelt at Ephesus; fear fell on them, the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified. Many of them who believed came, confessing, & declaring their deeds. Not a few of them who practised magical arts brought their books together, burned them in the sight of all; they counted the price of them, found it was 50,000 pieces silver-pieces (little-silver-coins; if this was silver denars then the day’s wage per denar would apply, a book or scroll based on how long it took to write out per page or sheet, some books taking 1 or 2 weeks to write or copy. If 5-10 denars per common book we have thousands of books or scrolls; some books or scrolls were very costly; we may compare the books of our New Testament from short to long, Gospels & Epistles, & the time to write or copy determined the cost.). Mightily grew the Lord’s Word & prevailed.
After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, “After I have been there, I must also see Rome.” (Paul concludes his 2nd Missionary Trip, then desires a 3rd & 4th.) He sent into Macedonia two of them who ministered to him, Timothy & Erastus, he stayed in Asia for a while. About that time there arose no small stir concerning the Way. A man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Diana, brought no little business to the craftsmen; whom he gathered together, with the workmen of like occupation, & said, “Men, you know that by this business we have our wealth. You see & hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia (Asia Minor west of the Aegean Sea), Paul persuaded & turned away much people, saying “they are no gods, that are made with hands:“ (“no hand-made Gods”) not only is there danger that this our trade come into disrepute; but the Temple of the great Goddess Diana be made of no account, that she should even be deposed from her magnificence whom all Asia & the world worships (Diana as Artemis & Hecate).” When they heard this they were filled with wrath, shouted, “Great is Diana of the Ephesians” (of Ephesus). The city was filled with the confusion: they rushed with one accord into the theatre, having seized Gaius & Aristarchus, Macedonians, Paul’s travel-companions (co-travelers). When Paul was minded to go out to the people, the Disciples allowed him not. Some of the Asiarchs, being his friends, sent to him & implored him not to adventure himself into the theatre. Some cried one thing, some another: for the assembly (ekklesia, church, gathering) was in confusion; most knew not why they were come– together. They brought Alexander out of the multitude, the Jews putting him forward. And Alexander beckoned with the hand, would have made a defense to the people. When they perceived (recognized, realized) that he was a Jew, all with one voice about the space of two hours cried out, “Great is Diana of the Ephesians.” When the town–clerk had quieted the multitude, he says, “Men of Ephesus, what man is there who knows not that the City of the Ephesians is Temple-keeper of the great Diana, & of the Image which fell down from Jupiter? Seeing then that these things cannot be gainsaid, you ought to be quiet (calm, cautious), do nothing rash. You have brought here these men, who are neither temple-robbers (sacrilegious, desecraters) nor blasphemers of our Goddess (God). If Demetrius, & the craftsmen with him, have a matter (word) against any man, the courts are open, there are Proconsuls (Judges): let them accuse one another. If you seek anything else, it shall be settled in the regular assembly (lawful church, legal meeting). We are in danger to be accused concerning this day’s riot, there being no cause for it: as touching it we shall not be able to give account of this concourse.” After he spoke, he dismissed the assembly (ekklesia, church). (19:1-41)
After the uproar ceased, Paul sent–for the Disciples, exhorted them, took leave of them, & departed to go to (for) Macedonia. (Asia Minor at Ephesus, to Macedonia at Thessaloniki is some 550 ms or 880 km by road & c. 250 nms ) When he went through those parts, gave them much exhortation, he came into Greece (north Macedonia to south Achaia covering some 300 ms). When he had spent 3 months there, & a plot was laid against him by Jews as he was about to set sail for Syria (i.e. Antioch Syria, from Corinth by sea), he determined to return through Macedonia (several hundred miles north by land). There accompanied him as far as Asia (Asia Minor), Sopater of Beroea, Pyrrhus‘ son; of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus & Secundus; Gaius of Derbe, & Timothy; & of Asia, Tychicus & Trophimus. These went before, & were waiting for us at Troas (north-west Asia Minor east of the Aegean Sea some 300 ms by sea from Philippi). We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, came to them to Troas in 5 days, where we stayed 7 days.
On the 1st day of the week, when we were gathered–together to break bread, Paul discoursed with them, intending to depart in the morn; & prolonged his speech till midnight. There were many lights (i.e., lamps & candles) in the upper room where we were meeting. There sat in the window a young–man (youth) named Eutychus, borne down with deep sleep; as Paul discoursed longer, falling into deep sleep he fell down from the third story, was taken up dead. Paul went down, fell on him, embracing him said, “Make no fuss; his life is in him.” When he was gone up, broken bread, eaten, talked with them a long while, till daybreak, he departed. They brought the lad (boy) alive, & were comforted.
We went ahead to the ship, set sail for Assos, there intending to take in Paul: for so had he appointed, intending himself to go by land. (The western coast of Canakkale Province of the Biga Peninsula of the Anatolia Turkey of Asia Minor between Troas (Troy, Alexandria Troas, Troas Asansor) in the north & Assos (Behram) in the south is about 50 ms or 80 km by land, by plane it is c. 30 ms, but by sea c. 70 nms.) When he met us at Assos, we took him in, came (sailed) to Mitylene. Sailing thence, we came the following day over against Chios; and the next day we touched at Samos; and the day after we came to Miletus. (Assos to Samos is about 200 miles by sea, Samos to Miletus about 50 ms by sea.) Paul had determined to sail past Ephesus, to not spend time in Asia; hastening, if it were possible for him, to be at Jerusalem the day of Pentecost. From Miletus he sent to Ephesus (c. 50 ms north-west), invited the Church Elders. When they came to him, he said to them,
“You know, from the first day that I set foot in Asia, how I was with you all the time, serving the Lord with lowliness of mind, with tears, & trials which befell me by the plots of the Jews; I shrank not from declaring to you anything that was profitable, teaching you publicly, & house to house, testifying both to Jews & Greeks repentance toward God, & faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ. Now I go bound in spirit to Jerusalem, not knowing the things that shall befall me there: only the Holy Spirit testifies to me in every city, that bonds & afflictions await me. I hold not my life as dear to myself, that I may accomplish my course, & the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify the Gospel of God’s Grace. I know that you, among whom I went preaching the Kingdom, shall see my face no more. I testify to you this day, I am pure (innocent) from the blood of all men. I shrank not from declaring to you the whole Counsel of God. Take heed to yourselves, & to the flock, in which the Holy Spirit made you Bishops (Overseers, Guardians, Shepherds, Fathers), to feed (tend, shepherd, pastor) the Lord’s Church which He purchased (fully-saved, bought-back) with His own Blood (through the Blood, the Own-one, by the Blood of One’s-Own). I know that after my departing grievous wolves shall enter among you, not sparing the flock; from among you shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the Disciples after them. Watch, remembering, for 3 years I ceased not to admonish every one night & day with tears (i.e., 2 yrs at end of the 2nd Missionary Travels, then 1 yr of the 3rd Missionary Trip). I commend you to God, to the Word of His Grace, which is able to build you up, to give you the inheritance among all them who are sanctified. I coveted no man’s silver, or gold, or apparel. You know these hands ministered to my necessities, & to them who were with me. In all things I gave you an example, so laboring you ought to help the weak, to remember the Words of the Lord Jesus, Who said, “It is more blessed to give than to receive.“ After he spoke, he kneeled down & prayed with them. They wept much, fell on Paul’s neck & kissed him, sorrowing most for the word which spoke, they should see his face no more. They brought him on his way to the ship. (20:1-38)
After ‘they’ departed from them & set sail, ‘we‘ came with a straight course to Cos, the next day to Rhodes, thence to Patara: (from Samos Island, Greece to Kos Island, Greece by sea in straight course is about 80 ms or 130 km or 150 nms; from Miletus to board ship is unknown; from Kos to Rhodes Island Greece is about 80 ms; from Rhodes to Patara of Lycia near Kas Turkey of Antalya is about 80 ms; from Kas to Antalya is c. 120 miles or 190 km) having found a ship crossing over to Phoenicia (from Antalya Turkey to Beirut Lebanon or Palestine or ancient Phoenicia in Old Testament, Syria in New Testament, is about 350 ms or 560 km), we went aboard, set sail. When we had come in sight of Cyprus (Island of Cyprus halfway, bypassing it south, Southern coast), leaving it on the left hand, we sailed to Syria, landed at Tyre; for there the ship was to unlade her burden. Finding the Disciples, we stayed there 7 days: these said to Paul through the Spirit, he should not set foot in Jerusalem. After we had accomplished the days, we departed & went on our journey; they, with wives & children, brought us on our way till we were out of the city: kneeling down on the beach, we prayed, & bid each other farewell; we went on board the ship, they returned home (returned to their own).
When we finished the voyage from Tyre, we arrived at Ptolemais (Acre in Israel, coastal south 25 ms or 40 km); we greeted the brothers, stayed with them one day. In the morning we departed, came to Caesarea (in Israel coastal south about 30 ms or 50 km): entering the evangelist Philip’s house, who was one of the seven (deacons), we stayed with him. This one had four virgin daughters, who prophesied. As we tarried there some days, there came down from Judaea a Prophet, named Agabus. Coming to us, taking Paul’s girdle (belt, sash), he bound his own feet and hands, & said, “The Holy Spirit says, “So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this girdle, & deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.“” When we heard these things, we & they of that place urged him not to go up to Jerusalem. Paul answered, “What do ye, weeping & breaking my heart? I am ready not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem for the Name of the Lord Jesus.” When he would not be persuaded, we ceased, saying, “The Lord’s Will be done.“
After these days we took up our baggage & went south-east to Jerusalem. (going coastal south about 30 ms then east about 30 ms of total 60 ms or 95 km straight, longer by actual roads) There went with us some Disciples from Caesarea, bringing with them Mnason of Cyprus, an early Disciple, with whom we should lodge. When we came to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly. The day following Paul went in with us to James; the Elders were present. After he greeted them, he rehearsed one by one the things which God worked (accomplished) among the Gentiles through his ministry. When they heard it, glorified God; they said to him, “Yu see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of them who believed; they are zealous for the Law: they have been informed concerning yu, yu teach the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. What is it? They will certainly hear yu are come. Do this what we say to yu: We have 4 men who have a vow on them; these take, purify yurself with them, be at charges for them, to shave their heads: all shall know that there is no truth in the things whereof they have been informed concerning yu; but yu also walk orderly, keeping the Law. As touching the Gentiles who believed, we wrote, giving judgment that they should keep themselves from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from what is strangled, & from fornication (sexual-immorality, immorality, vice).“
Paul took the men, the next day purifying himself with them went to the Temple, declaring the fulfilment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. When the 7 days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, when they saw him in the Temple, stirred up the multitude & laid hands on him, crying out, “Men of Israel, help: This is the man who teaches men everywhere against the people, the law, & this place; & he brought Greeks in the Temple, & defiled this Holy Place.“ They, before, saw with him in the city the Ephesian Trophimus, whom they supposed that Paul had brought into the Temple. The city was moved (agitated), the people ran together; they laid hold on Paul, dragged him out of the Temple: straightway the doors were shut. As they were seeking to kill him, news came up to the chief captain of the band (guards), that Jerusalem was in confusion. Quickly he took soldiers & centurions, ran down on them: when they saw the chief captain & soldiers, left off beating Paul. The chief captain came near, laid hold on him, & commanded him to be bound with two chains; & inquired who he was, & what he had done. Some shouted one thing, some another, among the crowd: when he could not know (determine) the certainty for the uproar, he commanded him to be brought into the castle. When he came on the stairs, so it was that he was borne of the soldiers for the violence of the crowd; the crowd of people followed after, shouting, “Away with him.” As Paul was about to be brought into the castle, he says to the chief captain, “May I say something to yu?“ He asked, “Do yu know Greek? Are yu not the Egyptian, who before these days stirred up to sedition & led out to the wilderness the 4,000 men of the Assassins (Sikaris)?“ Paul said, “I am a Jew, of Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean (insignificant, small) city: I ask to let me speak to the people.” When he permitted, Paul, standing on the stairs, beckoned with the hand to the people; after there was a great silence, he spoke to them in the Hebrew language (Hebrew-Aramaic dialect): (21:1-40) (With this chapter Paul concludes his 3rd Missionary Journey of 4 years (in the time period of 55-60 A.D.) in Asia Minor starting from Antioch Syria to Macedonia & Achaia to conclusion at Jerusalem & his arrest & trial. He travelled some 2,500 by land & sea, visiting & serving in some 2 dozens cities, with about 2 dozen co-workers, & establishing or helping a few dozen Churches, many of which were the result of his former visits & ministry. Desiring to reach Italy & Spain at heart & end of the Mediterranean world with the Gospel of God’s Christ.)
“Brothers & Fathers, hear the defence (apology) which I make to you.” When they heard he spoke to them in the Hebrew language (Hebrew-Aramaic dialect), they were more quiet: he says, “I am a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, brought up in this city, at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the Law of our Fathers, being zealous for God, as you are this day: (Gamaliel the Elder or Rabban Gamaliel 1st, son of Simeon ben Hillel & grandson of the great Jewish teacher Hillel the Elder. Gamaliel is thought to have died in 52 A.D. (A.M. 3813). He fathered Simeon ben Gamliel, who was named for his father, & a daughter, who married a priest named Simon ben Nathanael. Doctor of the Law (Torah) & member of the Sanhedrin. Pharisee of the School of Hillel. opposed to School of Shammai. He is revered in Jewish tradition, mentioned in the Mishnah & Talmud: defended his practice of bathing in the public bath-house with a statue of Aphrodite, which he says it was only a decoration & not dedicated to the Goddess, which would sanction idolatry; he & other Rabbis visited Rome; his reputation in the Mishnah is one of the greatest of Rabbis: “Since Rabban Gamaliel the Elder died, there has been no more reverence for the Law, purity & piety died out at the same time”. (see Mish. Avod. Zar. 3:4; Mish. Sota 9:15).) I persecuted this Way to the death, binding & delivering to prisons both men & women. As the High Priest can testify, with the estate (body) of the Elders: from whom I received letters to the brothers, & journeyed to Damascus to bring those there to Jerusalem in bonds to be punished. As I made my journey, drew near to Damascus, about noon, suddenly there shone from heaven a great light round about me. I fell to the ground, heard a Voice saying to me, “Saul, Saul, why persecute Me?“ I answered, “Who are Yu, Lord?“ He said to me, “I am Jesus of Nazareth, Whom yu persecute.” Those with me saw the Light, but heard not the Voice of Him Who spoke to me. I said, “What shall I do, Lord?“ The Lord said to me, “Arise, go to Damascus; there it shall be told yu what is appointed for yu to do.““
“I could not see for the glory (brightness) of that Light, & led by the hand of those with me, I came to Damascus. Ananias, a devout man according to the Law, well reported of by all the Jews who dwelt there, came to me, standing by me said to me, “Brother Saul, receive yur sight.“ That very hour I looked up on him. He said, “The God of our Fathers appointed (chosen) yu to know His Will, to see the Righteous One, & to hear a Voice from His Mouth. Yu must witness for him to all men of what yu saw & heard. Why delay? arise, be baptized, wash away thy sins, calling on His Name.” When I had returned to Jerusalem, while I prayed in the Temple, I fell into a trance, & saw Him saying to me, “Make haste, get quickly out of Jerusalem; they will not receive yur testimony concerning Me.” I said, “Lord, they know I imprisoned & beat in every Synagogue them that believed in Yu: when the blood of Stephen Yur witness was shed, I stood by, consenting, holding the garments of them who slew (killed, stoned) him.” He said to me, “Depart: I will send yu far from here to the Gentiles.““
They gave him audience to this word (i.e., to the Gentiles); they lifted up their voice, and said, “Away with such a fellow from the earth: it is not fit he should live.” As they shouted, & ripped their garments, & tossed dust in the air, the chief captain commanded him be brought into the castle, ordering he should be examined by scourging, to know for what cause they so shouted against him. when they tied him up with the thongs, Paul said to the centurion who stood by, “Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman, & uncondemned?“ When the centurion heard it, he went to the chief captain & told him, “What are yu about to do? this man is a Roman.” The chief captain came & asked him, “Tell me, are yu a Roman?“ He replied, “Yes.“ The chief captain responded, “With a great sum obtained I this citizenship.“ Paul said, “I am Roman born.” They who were about to examine him straightway departed from him: the chief captain also was afraid when he knew that he was a Roman, because he had bound him. In the morning, desiring to know the certainty why he was accused by the Jews, he loosed him, & commanded the Chief Priests & the Council (Sanhedrin) to come– together (convene), brought Paul down, set him before them. (22:1-30)
Paul, looking steadily on the Sanhedrin (Council), said, “Brothers, I have lived before God in good conscience till this day.” The High Priest Ananias commanded them who stood by him to strike him on the mouth. Paul said to him, “God shall strike yu, yu whited (white-washed, -painted) wall: yu sit to judge me according to the Law, but command me to be stricken contrary to the Law?” They who stood by replied, “Revilest thou God’s High Priest?” Paul replied, “I knew not, brothers, that he was High Priest: it is written, “Yu must not speak evil of a Ruler of yur people.” When Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees & the other Pharisees, he shouted in the Council (Sanhedrin), “Brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees: touching the hope & resurrection of the dead I am called in question.” When he had so said, there arose a dissension between the Pharisees & Sadducees; and the assembly (meeting, gathering) was divided. The Sadducees say there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; the Pharisees confess both. There arose a great clamor: some of the Scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, strove (argued), “We find no evil in this man: what if a Spirit has spoken to him, or an Angel?” When there arose a great dissension, the chief–captain, fearing lest Paul should be torn in pieces by them, commanded the soldiers to go down & take him by force from among them, & bring him into the castle (fort, station).
The night following the Lord stood by him, said, “Be of good–cheer (have-courage): for as yu testified concerning Me at Jerusalem, so must yu testify at Rome. When it was day, the Jews banded together, bound themselves under a curse, “they would neither eat nor drink till they had killed Paul.” They were more than 40 who made this conspiracy (oath, pact). They came to the Chief Priests & Elders, & said, “We have bound ourselves under a great curse, to taste nothing until we have killed Paul. You with the Sanhedrin signify to the chief captain that he bring him down to you, as though you would judge of his case more exactly: before he comes near, we are ready to slay him.” Paul’s sister’s son heard of their lying in wait, he came, entered the castle & told Paul. Paul called to him one of the centurions, and said, “Bring this young man unto the chief–captain (commander, chiliarc); for he hath something to tell him.” He took him, brought him to the chief–captain, & says, “Paul the prisoner called & asked me to bring this young–man (youth) to yu, who has something to say to yu.” The commander took him by the hand, going aside asked him privately, “What is it that yu have to tell me?” He said, “The Jews have agreed to ask yu to bring down Paul to-morrow to the Council, as though thou wouldest inquire somewhat more exactly concerning him. Do not yield to them: there lie in wait for him more than 40 men, who have bound themselves under a curse, neither to eat nor to drink till they have slain him: they are ready, looking for the promise from yu.” The chief–captain let the youth go, charging him, “Tell no man that yu have signified (disclose, revealed) these things to me.“
He called two of the centurions, & said, “Make ready 200 soldiers to go as far as Caesarea (some 80 ms or 130 km away), 70 horsemen, & 200 spearmen, at the 3rd hour of the night“ (9 pm): he bade them provide beasts, that they might set Paul thereon, bring him safe to the Governor Felix. He wrote a letter after this form: “Claudius Lysias to the most excellent Governor Felix, greeting. This man was seized by the Jews, and about to be slain of them, when I came on them with the soldiers & rescued him, having learned he was a Roman. Desiring to know the why they accused him, I brought him down to their Council: whom I found to be accused about questions of their Law, but to have nothing laid to his charge worthy of death or of bonds. When it was shown to me that there would be a plot against the man, I sent him to yu promptly, charging his accusers to speak against him before yu.“ The soldiers, as it was commanded, took Paul, brought him by night to Antipatris (going north-west, half-way point, some 40 ms distance). In the morn they left the horsemen to go with him, & returned to the castle (fort, station in Jerusalem): when they came to Caesarea (going west-north coastal some 40 ms, total 80 ms from Jerusalem) & delivered the letter to the Governor, presented Paul before him. When he had read it, he asked of what province he was; when he understood that he was of Cilicia (i.e., Tarsus of Cilicia), “I will hear yu fully,“ said he, “when yur accusers are come:“ he commanded him to be kept in Herod’s Palace. (23:1-35)
After 5 days the High Priest Ananias came down with certain Elders, with an orator, Tertullus; they informed the governor against Paul. When he was called, Tertullus began to accuse him, saying, “Seeing by yu we enjoy much peace, and by yur providence (foresight) evils are corrected for this nation, we accept it in all ways & in all places, most excellent Felix, with thankfulness. That I be not further tedious to yu, I entreat yu to hear us of yur clemency a few words. We found this man a pestilent fellow, a mover of insurrections among the Jews throughout the world (i.e., Roman world, empire), a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes: who attempted to profane the Temple: on whom we laid hold: [we would have judged him according to our Law. The chief-captain Lysias came, and with great violence took him away out of our hands, commanding his accusers to come before yu.] from whom yu will be able, by examining him, to take knowledge of what we accuse him.” The Jews joined in the charge, affirming that these things were so.
When the Governor had beckoned unto him to speak, Paul answered, “Forasmuch as I know yu have been of many years (Felix governed for 8 years, he kept Paul in prison for 2 years, so Paul refers to some 5 or 6 years as Judge) a Judge to this nation, I cheerfully make my defense: Seeing thou can take–knowledge it is not more than 12 days since I went up to worship at Jerusalem: neither in the Temple did they find me disputing with any one or stirring up a crowd, nor in the Synagogues, nor in the city. Neither can they prove to thee the things whereof they accuse me. This I confess to yu, after the Way which they call a Sect, so serve I the God of our Fathers, believing all things which are according to the Law, & written in the Prophets; having hope toward God, which these also themselves look for (i.e., Messianic Hope & Kingdom), that there shall be a resurrection both of the just & unjust (righteous & unrighteous). Herein I also exercise myself to have a conscience void of offence toward God & men always. After some years I came to bring alms to my nation, & offerings: amidst which they found me purified in the Temple, with no crowd, nor yet with tumult: but there were certain Jews from Asia –who ought to have been here before yu, to make accusation, if they had anything against me. Or else let these men themselves say what wrong-doing they found when I stood before the Sanhedrin, except it be for this one voice, I shouted standing among them, “Touching the Resurrection of the Dead I am called in question before you this day.” Felix, having more exact knowledge concerning the Way, deferred them, saying, “When Lysias the commander shall come down, I will determine your matter.“ He gave order to the centurion that he should be kept in charge, & should have indulgence (leniency, tolerance); & not to forbid any of his friends to minister to him.
After certain days, Felix came with Drusilla, his wife, who was a Jewess, sent for Paul, heard him concerning the faith in Christ Jesus. As he reasoned of righteousness, self-control, & the judgment to come, Felix was terrified, & responded, “Go yur way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for yu. He hoped money would be given him of Paul: wherefore also he sent for him the oftener, & communed with him. When two years were fulfilled, Felix was succeeded by Porcius Festus; desiring to gain favor with the Jews, Felix left Paul in bonds. (24:1-27) (The Proconsul Gallio under Emperor Claudius in the early 50s A.D., the Apostle Paul’s 4 years in Asia Minor & elsewhere brings him to his arrest & trial in Jerusalem about 55-60 A.D. Felix keeps him prisoner with liberties for 2 years, which brings him to about 60 A.D. The Governor Felix under Emperor Claudius, who died c. 55 A.D., & under Nero about 52-58 A.D., was succeeded by Porcius Festus under Nero about 60 A.D. for a few years.)
Festus came to the Province, after 3 days went south to Jerusalem from Caesarea (some 80 ms or 130 km). The Chief Priests & the principal–men (leaders, chiefs) of the Jews informed him against Paul; they besought him, asking a favor against him, to send for him to Jerusalem; laying a plot to kill him on the way. Festus answered, “Paul was kept in charge (jail, ward) at Caesarea, and that he himself was about to depart (return) thither shortly. Let them of power (ability) among you go down with me, if there is anything amiss in the man, let them accuse him.” When he stayed among them not more than 8 or 10 days, he went down to Caesarea; in the morning he sat on the Judgment-seat (Bench, Bema), commanded Paul to be brought. When he was come, the Jews that had come from Jerusalem stood round about him, bringing against him many & grievous charges which they could not prove; while Paul said in his defense (apology), Neither against the Law of the Jews, nor against the Temple, nor against Caesar, have I sinned at all. Festus, desiring to gain favor with the Jews, answered Paul, “Will yu go (down south) to Jerusalem, & there be judged of these things before me?“ Paul said, “I am standing before Caesar’s Judgment-seat, where I ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as yu very well know. If I am a wrong-doer, committed anything worthy of death, I refuse not to die; if none of those things is true whereof these accuse me, no man can give me up to them. I appeal to Caesar.” Festus, when he had conferred with the council (decision), replied, “Yu appealed to Caesar: to Caesar go.“
When certain days passed, King Agrippa & Bernice arrived at Caesarea, & greeted Festus. As they stayed there many days, Festus laid Paul’s case before the King, saying, “There is a certain man left a prisoner by Felix; whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the Chief Priests & Jews’ Elders informed me, asking for sentence against him. To whom I answered, that it is not the custom of the Romans to give up any man, before the accused have the accusers face to face, & had opportunity to make his defense (apology, argument) concerning the matter laid against him. When they were come together here, I made no delay, on the next day sat on the Judgment-seat, commanded the man to be brought. Concerning whom, when the accusers stood up, they brought no charge of such evil things as I supposed; but certain questions against him of their own religion, & of Jesus, Who was dead, Whom Paul affirmed to be alive. I, being perplexed how to inquire concerning these things, asked whether he would go to Jerusalem & there be judged concerning these things. When Paul appealed to be kept for the decision of the Emperor, I commanded him to be kept till I should send him to Caesar. Agrippa said to Festus, I also could wish to hear the man myself. To-morrow, yu shall hear him. In the morn, when Agrippa & Bernice came, with great pomp, they entered the place of hearing with the Chief Captains & principal–men (prominent, noble) of the city, at the command of Festus Paul was brought in. Festus says, King Agrippa, & all men who are here present with us, you see this man, about whom many of the Jews made suit to me, both at Jerusalem & here, shouting he ought not to live any longer. I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death: as he appealed to the Emperor I determined to send him. Whom I have no certain thing to write to my lord. I have brought him forth before you, specially before yu, King Agrippa, after examination, I may have somewhat to write. It seems to me unreasonable, in sending a prisoner, not with him to signify (state, report) the charges against him.“ (25:1-27) (Agrippa (Herod Junior) & Bernice were both children of the Idumean-Arab & Roman appointed King Agrippa 1st (Herod Senior), siblings by his wife Cypros, & grand-children of Herod the Great; educated in Rome. Berenice was married off at 13 to her 1st husband, & by 22 she left her 3rd husband to return to her brother, King Agrippa 2nd, a year older. They were privately & publicly rumored of incest over many years. Berenice married her 3rd husband King Poleme King of Cilicia in c. 50 A.D. at age 22 in bribery & manipulation. Agrippa 2nd completed his great-grandfather’s Rebuilt Temple about 63 A.D. almost 70 years since it was begun, & 7 years before it was destroyed in 70 A.D. They are reunited in 50’s in Judea & Jerusalem & Caesarea, when Felix & Festus were Governors or Proconsuls. General & Emperor Vespasian & his 31 yr old began to subdue & destroy Judah & Jerusalem before 70 A.D. Berenice at 43 yrs of age becomes Titus’s mistress till public criticism & gossip became unbearable, then she was sent back to her brother King Agrippa 2nd. The Herods were supreme in Judah in subservience to Rome.)
Agrippa said to Paul, “Yu are permitted to speak for yurself.“ Then Paul stretched forth his hand, made his defence (apology): “I think myself happy, King Agrippa, to make my defense before yu this day touching all the things whereof I am accused by the Jews: especially because yu are expert in all customs & questions which are among the Jews: I beseech yu to hear me patiently. My manner of life from my youth up, which was from the beginning among mine own nation & at Jerusalem, know all the Jews; knowing me from the first, if they be willing to testify, that after the straitest (strictest) sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee. I stand here to be judged for the Hope of the Promise made of God to our Fathers; to which promise our Twelve Tribes, earnestly serving God night & day, hope to attain. Concerning this Hope I am accused by the Jews, King! Why is it judged incredible with you, if God raises the dead? I verily thought with myself that I ought to do many things contrary to the Name of Jesus of Nazareth. This I also did in Jerusalem: I shut up (jailed) many of the saints (holy-ones) in prisons, receiving authority from the Chief Priests, & when they were put to death I gave my vote against them. Punishing (Persecuting) them oftentimes in the Synagogues, I strove to make them blaspheme; exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even to foreign cities. As I journeyed to Damascus with the authority & commission of the Chief Priests, at midday, King, I saw on the way a Light from heaven, above the brightness of the sun, shining round about me & them that journeyed with me. When ‘we‘ were fallen to the earth, I heard a Voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, “Saul, Saul, why persecute Me? it is hard for thee to kick against the goad (i.e., picked-stick or rod used as spurs).” I said, “Who are Yu, Lord?“ The Lord said, “I am Jesus Whom Yu persecute. Arise, stand on yur feet: for this I appeared to yu, to appoint yu a Minister & Witness of how (what) yu saw Me, & in what I will appear to yu; delivering yu from the People, & from the Gentiles, to whom I send yu, to open their eyes, to turn from Darkness to Light & from the Power of Satan to God, to receive remission (forgiveness, release) of sins & inheritance among them sanctified by faith in (here, prepositions of on, into, for, to are not best for Grk ‘eis’) Me.“ King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly Vision: but declared to them of Damascus first & at Jerusalem, & throughout all the country of Judaea, also to the Gentiles, to repent & turn to God, doing works worthy of (commensurate with) repentance. For this the Jews seized me in the Temple, & attempted to kill me. Obtaining the Help from God, I stand to this day testifying both to small & great, saying nothing but what the Prophets & Moses did say should come; that the Christ (Messiah) must suffer, to be the 1st first by the Resurrection of the Dead (from Death) to proclaim Light to the People & to the Gentiles.“
As he made his defense, Festus saith with a loud voice, “Paul, yu are mad (insane, maniac, crazy); much learning is turning yu mad (insane, maniac, crazy). Paul replied, I am not mad, most excellent Festus; but speak forth words (sayings, sentences) of Truth & Soberness (Sense). The King knows of these things, to whom I speak freely: I am persuaded that none of these things is hidden from him; for this was not done in a corner. King Agrippa, believe yu the Prophets? I know that yu believe.” Agrippa answered Paul, “With little persuasion yu would easily make me a Christian.“ Paul replied, “I wish to God, whether with little or with much, not yu only, but all who hear me this day, might become such as I am, except these bonds.” The King rose up, & the governor, & Bernice, & they who sat with them: when they left, they spoke one to another, saying, “This one does nothing worthy of death or of bonds.” Agrippa said to Festus, “This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed to Caesar.“ (26:1-32)
When it was determined that we should sail for Italy (Rome Italy to Caesarea Judaea Israel distance is by land about 1,500 ms, by air about 1400 ms, by sea about 2,000 ms or 3,700 nms by Paul’s route), they delivered Paul & certain other prisoners to a centurion named Julius, of the Augustan band. Embarking in a ship of Adramyttium (i.e., from Mysia of Asia Minor between Troas & Pergamum, near Assos & across from the Island of Lesbos), which was about to sail to the places on the coast of Asia (between southern coast of Lysia (Myra, Patara, & Cnidus) & Island of Rhodes some 600 ms or 1,100 nms distance), we put to sea, Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being with us. Next day we touched at Sidon (c. 60 ms or 100 nms distance): Julius treated Paul kindly, gave him leave to go to his friends & refresh himself.
Putting to sea thence (Sidon), we sailed under the lee of Cyprus , because the winds were contrary (northern coast opposite the strong winds, some 100 ms or 180 nms distance sailing). When we had sailed across the sea which is off Cilicia & Pamphylia (southern coast sailing west), we came to Myra, a city of Lycia (about 250 ms or 450 nms distance sailing) (the 3 Roman Provinces in the southern coast of Asia Minor Turkey of some 400 miles east to west). There the centurion found a ship of Alexandria (Alexandria of north Egypt stopping at Myra on its way to Italy) sailing for Italy; and he put us therein.
When we had sailed slowly many days, came with difficulty opposite Cnidus (Knidus on the tip of the 50 mile long narrow Datca Peninsula, of Caria, Cape Krio, between Kos in the north & Rhodes in the south, it separates 2 gulfs), the wind not further suffering us, we sailed under the lee of Crete, over against Salmone (at the north-east coast of the Island of Crete 110 ms south-west of Knidus Datca Peninsula); with difficulty coasting along it we came to a place called Fair Havens; near to the City of Lasea. (From Cape of Salmone’s coast sailing south-east to the middle of the Crete Island on the southern coast some 100 ms). When much time was spent, the voyage was now dangerous, because the Fast was already past (Fast of the Day of Atonement in the Fall Season in the 7th month, Tishri, of Jewish Biblical Calendar; the sailing trips for many Jews occurs from Pentecost to Sukkot or Booths, some 6 or 7 months of safe sailing; here they were in the beginning of rough winds & dangerous sailing.), Paul admonished them, “Sirs, I perceive that the voyage will be with injury & much loss, not only of the lading (cargo) & the ship, & our lives.” The centurion gave more heed to the master (shipmaster, captain) & to the owner of the ship, than to what was spoken by Paul. Because the haven (Fair Havens) was not commodious to winter in, most advised to put to sea from thence, if by any means they could reach Phoenix (sailing the southern coast of the middle Crete to its south-eastern coast, about 70 ms sailing, or near half the island’s distance from east to west), & winter there; which is a haven of Crete, looking north-east & south-east.
When the south wind blew softly, supposing they had obtained their purpose, they weighed anchor & sailed along Crete, close in shore. After no long time there beat down from it a tempestuous wind, which is called Eurakulon (Euraquilo; north-east winds & storm): when the ship was caught, could not face the wind, we gave way to it, were driven. Running under the lee of a small Island called Cauda (Kauda, Clauda, Gaudos, Kastri; about 35 ms south-east), we were able, with difficulty, to secure the boat: when they hoisted it up, they used helps, under-girding the ship; fearing to be cast on the Syrtis (Gulf of Syrtis, Sidra, of Libya of north Africa, some 100 ms south), they lowered the gear, so were driven. As we labored exceedingly with the storm, the next day they began to throw the the freight overboard; the 3rd day they cast out with their own hands the tackling of the ship. When neither sun nor stars shone on us for many days, no small tempest lay on us, all hope we should be saved was now taken–away (stripped-away, removed).
After they were long without food, Paul stood in the midst of them, & said, “Sirs, you should have listened to me, & not sailed from Crete, to have this injury & loss. I exhort you to be of good cheer; there shall be no loss of life among you, but only of the ship. There stood by me this night God‘s Angel, Whose I am, Whom I serve, saying, “Fear not, Paul; yu must stand before Caesar (i.e., Nero): God granted yu those who sail with yu.” Men, be of good–cheer: I believe God, it shall be as it was spoken to me. We must be cast on a island.” When the 14th night came, as we were driven to & fro in the Sea of Adria (Adriatic Sea, Ionian, Mediterranean; Paul’s ship drifted westward into open deep sea in the middle distant land or countries of Libya north Africa, southern Greece & Italy), about midnight the sailors surmised they were drawing near to some country: they sounded, found 20 fathoms (1 fathom is about 6 feet, tips of middle fingers of outstretched arms of average man; 20 fath. = 120 ft or 40 yrds); after a little space, they sounded again, found 15 fathoms (90 ft or 30 yrds). Fearing ‘we’ be cast ashore on rocky ground, they let go 4 anchors from the stern (i.e., rear of the ship), wished for the day. As the sailors were seeking to flee out of the ship, & lowered the boat into the sea, under color (pretense, guise) as though they would lay out anchors from the foreship, Paul said to the centurion & to the soldiers, “Except these stay in the ship, you cannot be saved.“ Then the soldiers cut away the ropes of the boat, & let her fall off.
While the day was coming on, Paul besought them all to take some food, saying, “This day is the 14th day you wait & continue fasting, taken nothing. I beg you to take some food: it is for your safety: there shall not a hair perish from the head of any of you.” When he said this, took bread, he gave thanks to God in the presence of all; he broke it, & began to eat. Then were they all of good cheer, & took food. ‘We‘ were in all in the ship 276 souls. After they had eaten enough, they lightened the ship, throwing out the wheat into the sea. When it was day, they knew not the land: but they perceived a certain bay with a beach, they took counsel whether they could drive the ship on it. Casting off the anchors, they left them in the sea, at the same time loosing the bands of the rudders; hoisting up the foresail to the wind, they made for the beach. Lighting on (Reaching) a place where two seas met, they ran the vessel aground; the foreship struck & remained unmovable, but the stern began to break up by the violence of the waves. The soldiers’ counsel was to kill the prisoners, lest any of them should swim out to escape. The centurion, desiring to save Paul, stopped them from their purpose; commanded that they who could swim should cast themselves overboard, get first to the land; the rest, some on planks, some on other things from the ship. So they all escaped safe to the land. (27:1-44)
When ‘we‘ escaped, ‘we‘ knew (understood) the Island was called Melita. (Malta, uncertain origin, ancient Greeks & Romans called it Melite, Meli meaning ‘honey’. “Malta’s unique production of honey; an endemic subspecies of bees live on the island.” Honey Island.). The barbarians (i.e., primitive natives) showed us uncommon kindness; they kindled a fire, received us all, because of the present rain, & the cold. After Paul gathered a bundle of sticks & laid them on the fire, a viper came out by reason of the heat, & fastened on his hand. When the barbarians saw the venomous creature hanging from his hand, they said one to another, “No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he escaped from the sea, yet Justice allows him not to live.“ He shook off the creature into the fire, without harm. They expected he would be swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: when they were long in expectation nothing wrong came to him, they changed their minds, and said that ‘he was a god‘. In the neighborhood of that place were lands belonging to the Chief of the island, named Publius (Roman common name whence ‘Public’.), who received us, & entertained us 3 days courteously. The father of Publius lay sick of fever & dysentery (diarrhea, infection, disease): to whom Paul entered, prayed, laying his hands on him healed him. When this was done, the rest with diseases in the island came, & were cured: who also honored us with many honors; & when we sailed, they put on board such things as we needed. After 3 months we set sail in a ship of Alexandria which had wintered in the island, whose sign was The Twin Brothers. Touching at Syracuse (on the Island of Sicily, center of the ancient Greek Empire, some 90 ms north-east), we stayed there 3 days. Thence we made a circuit, & arrived at Rhegium (sailing around the eastern coast of the Island of Sicily some 80 ms through the passage at Rhegium & Messina & Scilla): and after one day a south wind sprang up, and on the 2nd day we came to Puteoli (Pozzuoli Naples, sailing through the passage to the eastern coast going north about 200 ms); where we found brothers, were entreated to stay with them 7 days: so we came to Rome (by sea & land some 100 ms north.). Thence the brothers, when they heard of us, came to meet us as far as the Market of Appius & the Three Taverns ( Appius Forum & Three Inns); whom when Paul saw, he thanked God, took courage. (“The Appian Way is one of the earliest & strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy. The road is named after Appius Claudius Caecus, the Roman censor who began & completed the first section as a military road to the south in 312 BC during the Samnite Wars.” Today it spans some 350 miles.)
When ‘we‘ entered Rome, Paul was allowed to stay by himself with the soldier that guarded him. After 3 days he called together those that were the chief of the Jews: when they came together, he said to them, “Brothers, though I had done nothing against the People, or the customs of our Fathers, yet was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem to the hands of the Romans: who, when they examined me, desired to set me at liberty, because there was no cause of death in me. When the Jews spoke against it, I was constrained to appeal to Caesar; not that I had anything to accuse my nation. For this cause did I entreat you to see & to speak with me: because of the Hope of Israel I am bound with this chain.“ They said to him, “We neither received letters from Judaea concerning yu, nor did any of the brothers come hither to report or speak any harm of thee. We desire to hear what yu think: as concerning this sect (heresy, cult, apostasy), it is known to us that everywhere it is spoken against.” When they appointed him a day, they came to him to his lodging in great number; to whom he expounded the matter, testifying God’s Kingdom, persuading them concerning Jesus, from the Law of Moses & from the Prophets, from morning till evening. Some believed the things which were spoken, some disbelieved. When they agreed not among themselves, they departed after Paul spoke one word, “Well spoke the Holy Spirit through the Prophet Isaiah to your Fathers, “Go to this People, say, “By hearing ye shall hear, & shall in no wise understand; seeing ye shall see, & shall in no wise perceive: this People’s heart is waxed gross, their ears are dull of hearing, their eyes they have closed; Lest, they should perceive with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their heart, should turn–again (repent, return, convert), & I should heal them.” (Isa. 6) Be it known to you, this Salvation of God is sent to the Gentiles: they will hear.“ [When he said these words, the Jews departed, having much disputing among themselves.] He stayed 2 whole years in his own hired dwelling, received all who went to him, preaching God’s Kingdom, teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with all boldness, none forbidding him. (28:1-31)
I submit & share the Book of The Acts of the Apostles by itself in RTF & PDF, then added to the Gospels to make a completed Part I. The Acts of the Apostles is clearly seen after careful reading & examination to be divided into two parts, from the beginning after the Lord’s Resurrection in Jerusalem to the Christians in Antioch of Syria, then the second half from the Antioch Missionary Ministry to Paul’s Testimony at Rome. The period of time is from the Resurrection to shortly before the Destruction of Jerusalem & the Temple in 70 A.D.. The Chronology occupies the span from 35 to 65 A.D. of some 30 or more years. The Two Ministries is that of the Twelve, led by Peter, to the Jews, the Circumcised People, & that of Paul with his companions to the Gentiles, the Uncircumcised. Where the Lord Jesus in the Gospels never traveled in His Public Ministry more than 100 miles in any direction for the 3 1/2 years, the Apostles traveled 1000s miles for some 30 plus years. After the Crucifixion & Resurrection there were a few thousands Disciples, after the Apostles’ death at the close of the 1st century & of the New Testament completion there were tens & hundreds of thousands Christians in the Roman Empire. The Acts is not completed as to Church History, but leaves off at the beginning the History of Christianity. With the Gospels & the Acts the rest of the New Testament is properly understood.
Final Notes to Part I of Christian Biblical Reflections of the New Testament: Text Analysis & Digest with Notes & Variant Renderings in Preparation for the Selections & Reflections.
This completes CBR Part I of the Text of the New Testament Four Gospels & Acts. Like the Old Testament it is intended as my Reflections as a Christian in consideration & exploration of the Bible as I have come to know & believe it. The New Testament will consist of 3 Parts: the 4 Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, & John, along with the Acts of the Apostles. Part II will consist of the 14 Epistles of the Apostle Paul from Romans to Hebrews. Part III will consist of the Catholic General Epistles of James, Peter, John, Jude, & the Book of Revelation or John’s Apocalypse of Jesus Christ. As said several times in sharing the installments, the work is not determined by any constraints to complete it, therefore no promises, but done as the Lord allows me by grace & health to progress & share. The Text will first be completed before the Selections of Books relevant to the Books of the New Testament Text. The Reflections will be written only after the Selections relevant to each Part. The Text Analysis & Digest is not a Translation or Paraphrase or Abbreviation of the Text to replace the Reading & Interpretation of the Text as generally received & used in the standard & common Translations as the AKJV of 1611 with its various revisions & modernization, & various Translations of the Reformation Period in many of the Modern Languages. The Revised Versions of the 19th & 20th centuries, along with many Versions of the 19th to 22nd centuries. Many of these versions are published & used as Study Bibles, with about a dozen in English & other languages of exceptional value. As the Wise Man said, there is no end to the Books written & published on the Bible Books. My Reflections only reflect my understanding & interpretation of the Text as I have encountered it over a 1/2 century as a Christian. It is my witness more than my work. The Text Analysis & Digest assures that the Text is really being considered & interpreted in the Reflections & Comments. I have not sought to predetermine a method or fixed rules to follow, & at times had fun in the pursuit, not taking myself or my work or my words to seriously, but only honesty. I am an uneducated man as to the schools, I am a Cobbler by trade, a booklover by obsession, & a Bible believer by God’s Grace. I have written for family, friends, & Bible readers & students. I only speak to scholars in what they speak to me, measuring them by their yardsticks. I have read hundreds of books, listened to about the same, the Bible likewise as often, I have owned & gotten rid of thousands, I have meddled with as many Biblical things as humanly possible in my limited time & money. That’s enough.
The readers will discover for themselves some of my peculiarities as capitals, colors for certain forms of speech, Divine & human, etc.. I have tried to keep in mind that many in other parts of the world, or some with older devices, are limited to what they can read properly, so I have tried to always, or almost always, transliterate rather than use foreign fonts which might be gibberish when received. I have restricted myself to QWERTY keys of the standard US keyboard, ignoring other characters or symbols using Unicode. I did not ignore the original language of the Text, nor completely ignore the Catholic Versions, or the Latin Vulgate. Not being a linguist I have restrained myself from teaching grammar or language as if I were an expert. I use as many helps as I am driven by the Text. I admire accomplished scholars, especially Biblical scholars, but despise presumptions of every sort in myself & others. Truth is never useless in love. -mjm.