Christian Biblical Reflections.35

CBR Book of Daniel. Selections: 7-10

     Its been one year occupied with the Book of Daniel in CBR, I had no idea that it would take such a turn. As I posts these submissions of Selections 5-25, having already shared 1-4, I am writing the Reflections & completing the Chronology to the Persian period overtaken by Alexander the Great. I cite my notice in Christian Biblical Reflections.33 Posted on February 29, 2020 to apply here & now, but I have updated within it to apply to the current state or status. The Links likewise I make no changes for now, but will after posting CBR on Daniel when completed. There are only 3 or 4 cases of the Selections or sub-selections where I needed copyright permission, which I was given freely & kindly. I will hereby now & hereafter express to those who have asked, and to all others, all that I write & publish in any media & at anytime is shared free & grateful to be of any help to those who seek God’s Christ, God’s Book, & God’s truth in the journey of life. I apologize & regret that I have not regularly interacted with others in my posts. Anyone is always welcome to email for my personal response & reply. I have tried very hard to limit the pages of this chapter, part, & section of volume two of CBR, but ‘que sera’ it has swelled to 1,000 pages for the Book of Daniel, thus requiring volume 2 to become volumes 2 & 3, the Poetic Books & Major Prophets as vol.2, Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets vol. 3. mjmselim, 2020.
     ((Not wishing to delay any further, and still several months (now several weeks as of July 2020) from completing the remaining Selections & the writing the Reflections on the whole, I share it with others who might have interest in this Key prophetic Book. The original in PDF of the Selections of Calvin’s & Newton’s & Lowth’s & many others of the 25 Selections, are from very old editions which typefaces that has caused considerable labor to edit. These 4 Selections, along with Selections 5-25 now shared in this & the other numbers, are of great importance to the later & modern interpreters & commentators of the Book. The Analysis & Digest was done months ago (now a year has passed; during which the doctors say I need a heart transplant, which I refuse; thus my times are marked; but God is good to me in this as in all things in Christ); the Chronology is incomplete (but I have added many names, dates, & details up to the end of the Persian Empire period, leaving the Greek & Roman period to be completed in the section of the 12 Minor Prophets), and to be completed when the Reflections are written. The Selections to be added are from the 19th-21st centuries, which all are dependent on these earlier Selections that are herein given. (Here is the list of the 25 Selections relevant to the Book of Daniel in CBR: 1-25: 1. Jerome. 2. Calvin. 3. Newton. 4. Lowth. 5. Stuart. 6. Barnes. 7. Auberlen. 8. Tregelles. 9. Japheth Ben Ali. 10. Rashi. 11. Darby. 12. Montagu. 13. Miller. 14. Folsom. 15. Smith. 16. Rule. 17. Pusey. 18. Keil. 19. Zōckler. 20. Driver. 21. Wilson. 22. Seder Olam Rabba. 23. Larkin. 24. 1st Maccabees. 25. Josephus.) If the Lord permits, the 12 Minor Prophets, being an Appendix to Daniel & the 3 Major Prophets, will follow. As in Ezekiel I’ve had to change my style in reflecting on this Book. mjm.Christian Biblical Reflections.33 Posted on February 29, 2020.))

The PDF is attached. The link to my One Drive files are:!AgcwUEJ0moRUhNUq0AKV13E9Ek3uNQ?e=AzqhtR!AgcwUEJ0moRUhNUolXrUk8DRG-3fXQ?e=VlNwPd!AgcwUEJ0moRUhNUukOnf3cpuJoWCJQ?e=DKFFqE (CBR4-5.Daniel)!AgcwUEJ0moRUhNUr33cfjhqfqsRETA?e=vx4ZcR (CBR.PublicFolder)

CBR files in PDF & Word:!AgcwUEJ0moRUg_Ua3IHBwOxi9NWARA?e=2b3BsD
Here is the link to my Internet library page for those interested:





  1. Auberlen.

The Prophecies of Daniel & the Revelation of St. John: Viewed in their Mutual Relations, with an Exposition of the Principal Passages Carl (Karl) August Auberlen (Dr. Phil., Licentiate & Prof. Extraord. of Theol. in Basil; Germ. Lutheran Theolog.); with an Appendix, by M. Fr. Roos; Translated from Germ. (1851 ed.) by Adolph Saphir. Edinburgh. T&T Clark.  1856.    

                {{ Preface:    I Venture to put these pages before the Christian and theological public, as a contribution towards the understanding of biblical prophecy. The substance of this book was completed in the year 1852, but it has been revised and re-written since, previous to its present publication.

     The Old Testament enjoys the testimony of more immediate Divine authority than the New, since our Lord Jesus and the apostles mention and quote it continually, and with reverence, as the word of the living God. But the manner in which the Old Testament is treated among us, clearly shows that, in its whole mode of conception and representation —in its whole view of God and the world— it differs as widely from views current among us, as a majestic primeval forest contrasts with the busy thoroughfares of our metropolitan cities. Rationalistic criticism directed its first attacks against the Old Testament, and seems to maintain here its ground longest, for, while we may regard it as almost entirely conquered in the field of dogmatic and New Testament exegesis, we see yet a,considerable number of distinguished theologians influenced in their views of the Old Covenant, more or less, by the principles of that adverse criticisrn. Now, is there any book in the Old Testament, where this is so much the case, as that of Daniel, which shares, in this respect, the fate of the Revelations of St John, that book of the New Covenant, which combines, in a peculiar manner, the characteristics of the Old and New Testaments. The ungenuineness of Daniel has become an axiom in modern theology, so that it is thought quite superfluous to adduce any proof for that assertion; and the most recent commentator says, accordingly, in a very short and explicit manner, “no sensible man” can entertain any doubt on the subject. It is necessary, from the nature of our investigation, that we should start from the statements of Daniel, and this, moreover, with special reference to the question raised by modern criticism. And this for the twofold reason, that this question is still occupying a prominent place in our present theology, and that the importance and value which are to be attributed to the apocalyptic prophecy of the Old, and, consequently, to that of the New Testament, depend on the answer given to that question…..

                In the present state of things it fills us with the greater joy to see what good beginnings are made on the other side, in the investigation of the biblical books, taking them simply as they offer themselves, and proceeding thus to the exposition of details, endeavouring thereby to seize the plan and connection of ideas in the book, and, finally, searching after the position and significance which are to be attributed to the book in relation to the whole organism of Holy Scripture. This is, moreover, the only right method of refuting false criticism.

                Our thirst for knowledge will not be satisfied by a refutation of individual objections; but if we are able to gain a deeper, a more living, organic and historical insight, not merely into individual passages, but into whole books, and thus by degrees into the whole of Holy Scripture, an insight unattainable by that criticism which is incapable (pneumatikös anakrinein and pneumatikois pneumatika sungkrinein) (1st Cor. 2:13,14), then it; will become evident to us, that the results of that criticism touch only the surface and the externals of the subject, and then light will conquer darkness. And, at the same time, the real gain which unbiblical criticism has brought, by suggesting many questions, by showing the great importance of the historical method, by many a salutary exhortation to a more thorough going investigation of the text, finally, also, by many acute observations and correct hints, will only, in this manner accrue, to the Church and theological science.

                Let me here acknowledge my obligations to Bengel’s school of theology. This school, more than any other, studied to view the Bible as a whole, and naturally turned to the prophetic parts of Scripture as to the most neglected portions of the Divine Word. Though many individual parts in their apocalyptic systems have not stood the test of time, and though, in many points, we must differ from their views, yet we acknowledge freely, that it was chiefly the gift and task allotted to the Bengel school, to open again to the Church the understanding of prophecy. To speak for myself, I have not met anywhere with more profound and correct views. The reader will find, in the following pages, quotations, not indeed from ‘Öetinger‘, but from ‘Bengel‘ himself, ‘Roos‘, the two ‘Hahn‘. Also the venerable Zurich theologian, ‘J. T. Hess‘, though he stood more under the influence of the age he lived in than the men of God named above, wrote a history of the kingdom of God, which is perhaps a little too prosaic, but accurate and intelligent, and deserves our attention. But I was filled with astonishment at the grandeur of thoughts which I saw in ‘Roos’’ book on Daniel, especially concerning the history of revelation. Besides the quotations introduced in this volume, ‘passim‘, we have given a larger specimen of his work in the Appendix. These men must be regarded as true models, unequalled by modern theologians, not with regard to the external scholastic form and scientific system (and yet they have a deeper insight into the organism of divine truth, than is to be found in many of the most elaborately perfected systems), but in the simple, clear, docile position, which they occupy, to the teaching of Holy Scripture, in the delicacy and persevering diligence with which they search its mysteries; in the holy discipline of truly scientific thought, and the spiritual and devout tone of their theology. Hence the depth and fulness of their knowledge, the solidity and abundance of sound theological fundamental ideas, their clear insight into God’s ways, and the plan of His kingdom. In reading the works of these men, we feel as if we had entered a temple.             

                Among modern theologians, I look upon Dr ‘J. T. Beck‘, in Tübingen, as most closely allied to Bengel’s school; and to him, more than to any other modern divine, I feel indebted, as regards the fundamental views of the present work.        It is well known, that the Reformers had only a partial insight into the Apocalypse and prophecy in general; the task and gift allotted to them concerned another portion of Scripture truth.  However, I consulted, to my edification and advantage, the commentaries of ‘Luther‘ and ‘Calvin‘ on Daniel. For, notwithstanding many difficult and obscure passages, the prophecies of this book are clear and distinct as to their essential meaning, so much so, that with all the defects of the older prophetical theology, there is scarcely a book of Holy Scripture, concerning the general import of which the Church of all ages has been so unanimous as this, until the last century affected also this book with its innovations……..}}

                Table of Contents:

Preface & Introduction:

  1. Peculiar Character of Daniel.
  2. Testimony of Holy Scripture.

III. Testimony of the Church.

  1. Present Aspect of the Question.
  2. Present Task.

First Section: Characteristics of the Book of  Daniel.

Chapter I.—History  of Revelation, or, Starting Point.

  1. Significance of the Babylonian Captivity.
  2. Position of Daniel:
  3. Position of the Prophet at the Babylonian Court.
  4. Position of the Book in the Hebrew Canon.

Chapter II.—Contents of the Book.

  1. Introduction & Division of the Book.
  2. First Part: Kingdom of God & Kingdom World in General.
  3. Second Chapter. Four Monarchies & Messianic Kingdom.
  4. Seventh Chapter, continuation.
  5. Remarkable Events in Daniel’s Life.

III. Second  Part: Kingdom or God & Kingdom of World: Their More Immediate Near Future.

  1. Eighth Chapter. Antiochus Epiphanes.
  2. Chapters X-XII, continuation.
  3. Ninth Chapter. Immediate Future of the Messiah.

Chapter III.—Apocalytic Form of Prophecy:

  1. Object of Apocalyptic Prophecy.
  2. In General.
  3. Apocalypses of the Old & New Testament Contrasted.
  4. Nature of Apocalyptic Prophecy.
  5. Subjective Form, the Dream, the Vision.
  6. Objective Form, Symbolism.

Second Section: Seventy Weeks.—Daniel IX.

Chapter I.—Messianic View Taken by the Church—

  1. Prophecy in its Context & Contents.
  2. Chronological Boundaries.
  3. Terminus a quo of the Seventy Weeks-Ezra & Nehemiah.
  4. Analysis of the Seventy Weeks.

Chapter II.—Modern Interpretations.

  1. Views of Ewald, Hofmann, Wieseler, & Hitzig.
  2. Criticism of These Views.
  3. Chronological Calculations.
  4. Exposition of the Details.

      III. Character of the Whole Chapter.

  1. a. Fundamental & Distinctive Characteristics of Prophecies Referring to Antiochus.
  2. b. Resemblance to the Prophecies Referring to Antiochus.

Third  Section: Beasts & Man.

Chapter I. Four Beasts & the Son of Man in Daniel.

  1. a. Present State of the Question.
  2. Criticism of Modern View.
  3. General Comparison of the Visions of the First & Second Parts.
  4. Seventh & Eighth Chapters Compared, Second & Third Monarchies.
  5. Fourth Monarchy, the Ten Horns.
  6. Positive. Biblical Prophetical View of History.
  7. Four Kingdoms of the World.
  8. Fourth Kingdom of the World, & its Relation to the Messianic Kingdom.

[Third Section: Chapter II. Beasts & Woman in Revelation of St John.etc.]

Appendix by M. Fr. Roos.

Index of Am’nons & Subjects.

Index of Passages in Daniel Explained.

Appendix by Magnus Friedrich Roos: 

                Sec. 1. The times of the world may be divided according to different leading ideas, either into the times before and after the birth of Christ, or into the times before and after the flood, or into the times before the giving of the law, the times of the law and the times of the New Testament, or in other ways still; but if we view the kingdom of God in connection with domestic and political institutions, it may be regarded as a good division, and useful in many ways, to divide the ‘times of the world into four periods‘, of which the first extends from Adam to the exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt; the second, from the exodus to the beginning of the Babylonian captivity; the third, from the exile to the beginning of the blessed thousand (1000) years (Rev. 20); and the fourth, which embraces the thousand (1000) years, and lasts to the end of the world.

                See. 2 and 3. For the first period of the world-times, God ruled at first all men, and subsequently the better portion of humanity, viz., the families of the patriarchs, and He ruled through the ‘fathers of families‘; for before Nimrod kingdoms were not known, and after him for a long period, world-kingdoms were rare on earth. Job, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, had no king or ruler over them, but were free people. Also in Egypt the children of Israel dwelt at first as strangers or guests (Ps. 105:23; Acts 7:29; Gen. 15:13), and not so much as  subjects; and for this reason, the tyranny which the kings of Egypt exercised over them, and the force wherewith they wished to hinder them from the exodus, were most unjust. Thus, up to the exodus, the government of the fathers of families was the chief rule established among men, although, sooner or later, there were established kingdoms among the heathens, which differed in magnitude and duration, and of which the tower of Babel was the first cause.

                Sec. 4. The second period of the world-times was the period of ‘the free and Old Testament Theocracy‘, or the free royal rule of God over His people Israel, according to the law of the Old Testament. God united at that time the children of Israel, who had become very numerous, that they should form one nation, and be His people and a priestly kingdom. He no longer left every father of a family to have the highest authority and governing power, but He gave laws and statutes for all the children of Israel, which Moses, the elders, the priests, the judges, and the kings, were to enact and to administer, without adding anything unto them or taking anything from them. But He himself wished to be Israel’s king. Thus, there was established a visible kingdom of God upon earth, which, with its holy laws and statutes, was to be a bright light unto the whole world, and was to allure all men to faith in Jehovah, “who is the God of the whole world.”

                Sec. 5. And the reason why I call this the time of the Old Testament Theocracy, is, because we hope yet for a New Testament Theocracy (see Sec. 7). Moreover, I call it free Theocracy, because the people of Israel was not to acknowledge the rule of another nation or king as legitimate. Although there were occasionally, during the period of the Judges, times of bondage, and hence times when Israel was subject to other nations, yet such times of servitude were of brief duration, compared with the times of liberty. They were an exception to the rule, which does not annul, but only limit the rule. The foreign kings who subdued Israel, were looked upon as robbers, who were allowed    by Divine permission to oppress the people for a while, but they were not regarded as legitimate rulers of Israel; and, therefore, whenever Israel repented, God called up judges, who drove away or put to death these robbers. In the times of the kings of Israel, no strange nation subdued the whole Jewish people, till the time of the Babylonian monarchy, or the fourth year of Jehoiakim. From that time the Theocracy did not, it is true, cease altogether, inasmuch as the Jews, after the return from Babylon, observed the Jewish law as far as possible, under the direction of their elders and priests, yet they remained subject to the Persians, Greeks, and Romans; and no repentance, no zeal in God’s service, no believing the words of the prophets, or even of Christ, brought them deliverance from this bondage, till at last the Theocracy was entirely suspended by the destruction of Jerusalem through the Romans.

                Sec. 6. The free Theocracy ceased in the first year of Nebuchadnezzar, and the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah; for at that time the Jewish people came, according to God’s holy will, under the supremacy of the Babylonians. In this year, which was the 3338 year of the world, commenced the seventy years of the Babylonian exile, as the blessed Doctor Bengel has demonstrated in his “ Ordo Temporum.” The three last kings of the Jews, Jehoiakim, Jechoniah, and Zedekiah, with the Jewish nation, were subjugated by the Babylonians; and when they made an attempt to revolt, it did not succeed, as before, in the days of King Hezekiah (2nd Kings 18:7); but because it was God’s will that they should serve the Babylonians (comp. Jer. 27:9-11), their resistance brought only bitter consequences, and they did not succeed, as must happen to all who do not submit to the ways of God, and are not willing to take heed to the signs of the times. From that time the Jewish people has remained subject to the Gentiles and dispersion. After the Babylonian captivity, which the seventy years of the Babylonian servitude rendered a very hard time, a portion of the Jewish people returned again to their country; yet the whole people was not gathered together, and the efforts and undertakings of the Maccabees to deliver Israel from the Greek dominion, was only a “ little help” (Dan. 11:34), and to be regarded as an exception to the rule. Thus the third period of the world-times is the period of the servitude and dispersion of the holy people.

                See. 7. In the fourth period of the world-times, the people of Israel shall be again converted, gathered, freed from all foreign supremacy, be visited by God in mercy, with many spiritual and temporal gifts, and be established as a ‘New Testament Theocracy‘, which is the greatest glory upon earth.

                Sec. 8. During the rule of the fathers of families, the ‘Redeemer‘ was promised by God, under the name of the Seed. For this was adapted to the times. Because to men, who are not living under civil institutions, nothing is more important than their seed. Father of a tribe and seed were then the two most important names upon earth. For this reason God said, to the joy of man, that Eve would have a seed who was to bruise the head of the serpent, that Abraham would have a seed in whom all families of the earth would be blessed. Yet Enoch, at a time when the wickedness of earth was exceeding great, prophesied of the coming of the Lord as a Judge (Jude 14,15); and Jacob, when prophesying about the future possession of the land of Canaan by his descendants, called in this prospect, the Redeemer a Shiloh, or Prince of Peace, unto whom shall be the gathering of the nations. But when Moses the prophet was the leader and captain of the Jews, he prophesied of the Messiah as a prophet (Deut. 18:18); and when the Davidic kingdom was flourishing, Christ was promised, in the Second Psalm, and in many other passages, as a King, although there was at that time also the prophecy of His eternal priesthood (Ps. 110:4), because the Levitical priesthood was then best regulated. The following prophets, who lived during the reigns of the kings of Judah and Israel, explained these prophecies more fully, and in this manner, that they praise and magnify the future Saviour as a king, almost throughout all their writings. The last prophets, Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, who had lived to see the end of the Jewish kingdom, called the Redeemer 9. Shepherd, an Anointed One, Angel, Zemach. They did not keep silence as to His kingship, but did not speak of it so frequently; moreover, they distinguished the times during which the kingdom was to come gradually, more distinctly, than the former prophets did, so that their prophecies are very necessary to teach us how to understand the older ones. At last the long expected Saviour came into the world, He who is the beginning and the end of all world-times, the salvation of the world, and the Restorer of fallen humanity, and accomplished the work of redemption. This appearing of life among the dead, of light among the blind, of the Saviour among sinners, makes the third period of the world-times, though bearing its name from the servitude and dispersion of God’s people Israel, a time of merciful visitation to all who know the things which belong to their peace. But it is in the fourth period of the world-times, that the Saviour will be revealed in glory among Israel, and thereby also among all nations. The fulness, or the whole multitude of the Gentiles, will then enter into the kingdom of God, and all Israel be saved (Rom. 11:25). Then Israel will arise and shine, for His light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon him. But the Gentiles shall come to his light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising (Is. 60:1-3).

                Sec. 9. Under the rule of the fathers of families, there were few institutions to check, by force, the progress of wickedness, or to inflict punishment on evil doers. For although it is clear, from Gen. 30:24, that Judah wished to punish his daughter-in-law, Thamar, with death, on account of fornication, and this in virtue of his being father of the family; yet it is not probable, that such capital punishment, or other severe measures, were employed frequently at that period, of which there is at least no mention made in Holy Scripture. In the kingdoms of the heathens, which had sprung up, there were indeed civil punishments, as appears in the course of Joseph’s history ; men likewise now began to carry on wars, but of short duration; in general men lived in great liberty. Extraordinary punishments from on High were, therefore, peculiarly necessary under this constitution of things. when the sword of government and of war was either not used at all, or very sparingly. And thus the first world was punished by the deluge, Sodom and Gomorrah with fire, the house of Pharaoh and Abimelech with plagues (Gen. 12:7), Egypt and Pharaoh before and after the exodus of the children of Israel, with very great plagues, and even death; and as the Theocracy was not yet firmly established in the wilderness, and the powers appointed by God could not yet properly wield the sword, God again and again sent extraordinary punishments. But under the free Theocracy, and during the time of the servitude of the holy people, the judgments of God have mostly assumed a different shape. The sword, which government bears, and is to unsheathe and use righteously, tyrants, who plague a sinful nation, and foreign, enemies, who invade a country, are now the ways in which, beside the ordinary plagues of famine and epidemics, God manifests His punishing justice to whole nations, and by which He accomplishes, what, by His command, the miraculous fire had to accomplish in the case of Sodom, the water in the case of Pharaoh and his hosts, and the earth in the case of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. During the free Theocracy of the Old Testament, the divine law, the Urim and Thummim, the word of the prophets sent by God, explained, threatened, or commanded to execute the judgments and punishments of God, but since the dispersion of the people of God, as it is now ruled by many rulers, and according to different heathen laws, or by the arbitrariness of mighty men, whom God uses as His instruments, the retributive justice of God, though it is immutable in its essence, reveals itself in a more concealed way. A cruel man falls into the hands of another, who is also cruel ; an unjust man is punished by the injustice of his fellow; pride oppresses pride, avarice impoverishes avarice, wherever it sees a possibility. The world is for the most part careless about the Word of God, and yet fulfils the same without either knowing or wishing it, as regards the threatenings it contains. But thanks to our Lord, He preserves still good laws and statutes in all countries, by which much wickedness, especially among the common people, is justly punished. We have hints concerning the judgments which are to take place during the last thousand years of the world in Isa. 60:12; 65:20; Zech. 14:17; Ezek. 38:19-23; Rev. 20:7. But of this time it is said (Isa. 60:18), “Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting nor destruction in thy borders: but thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Praise.” And Isa. ii. 4, “ They shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.” And Isa. liv. 14, “ In righteousness shalt thou be established: thou shalt be far from oppression; for thou shalt not fear: and from terror; for it shall not come near thee.”

                Sec. 10. In the same manner, as the judgments of God, by which evil is punished and checked, are executed in different ways in the different times and periods of the world, so, likewise, are the ways different by which God leads His children. We must first consider the ‘Revelations of God‘ in their different modes and gradations. During the government of the fathers of families, time of the Theocracy. In the whole book of Genesis we do not read anything about love to God, although the hearts of the patriarchs were not strangers to that love. But because there was, at that time, no written law of God by which men might see the zeal and hatred of God against sin, and because there was no ruler upon earth to punish and avenge sin as the representative of God, it is mentioned to the praise and honour of the patriarchs, that they feared God. Thus the angel said to Abraham, when he was about to sacrifice his son Isaac, Now, I know  that thou fearest God, Gen. 31:54; comp. ver. 42, and Gen.  22:12; 42:18. But after God had revealed himself on Mount Sinai as a jealous and terrible God, and filled men with great fear and awe, the commandment to love God was added expressly, lest men should go too far in their fear, and merely have a slavish terror of God; in the same way, afterwards, in the New Testament, when faith came, as St Paul says, Gal. 3:23, when the promised and expected salvation appeared in Christ Jesus, this faith, dwelling in the heart, is more tried, exercised, and brought forward. During the period of the fathers of families, God appeared by visiting them, thus adapting Himself to the institutions of that period. He came as a guest, accompanied by two angels, to Abraham; He gave names to Abraham, to Sara, and to Isaac, just as fathers usually give names to their children. He speaks to them about their seed. He appears to Jacob at the head of a ladder, which reached from earth to heaven as a staircase, and upon which the angels of God came down and went up, as is done in a house. He appeared, finally, to this same Jacob as a man, wrestled with him, and gave him the name Israel. From all which, may be seen, the friendliness and great condescension of God at that time, and it is therefore the more beautiful that the patriarchs feared God in their heart, and did not abuse His great mercy. But when God intended to establish a new institution among men, and to prepare them more especially for the knowledge of his Son, as their Redeemer, He revealed himself upon Sinai, without image or similitude, amid thunders and lightnings, as a holy and terrible God. Then it was manifest that the sinner is not only dust and ashes, as Abraham said, but is at a great distance from God, because he is a sinner; and that it was no light and easy matter to open and grant, to such a one, access to the holy God. For this purpose, the manifold institutions of the Levitical service were given to serve as types of Christ, that the people may be taught by them the holiness of God, the sinfulness and manifoldness of sin, and the necessity and nature of an atonement, and be thus led to understand Christ, and the redemption through His blood. But because God chose the people of Israel to be likewise a kingdom, He established, also, kingly institutions, gave kingly statutes and commandments, ordered the ark of the covenant, with the mercy-seat and cherubims, to be erected as a throne, and chose the city of Jerusalem as His residence. He is called king for the first time, Exod. 15:18, and when the people of Israel had to fight often afterwards, and became a warlike nation, He is called the Lord Sabaoth, the Lord of Hosts, which name occurs for the first time 1 Sam. 17:45. The Lord spoke very frequently of His kingdom by the mouth of His servant David. In the year of the death of King Uzziah, Isaiah saw the Lord as the immortal king of his orphaned nations, sitting on a high and lofty throne above the temple in Jerusalem. And when the time had come that this temple was to be destroyed, and the Jewish people sent into captivity, Ezekiel saw the Lord sitting on a throne above the cherubim, and departing from the temple, Ezek. 1:26; 10:19; 11:22,23. All these visions, and others, were adapted to the times in which they were vouchsafed, and very different from the appearances which the patriarchs, as fathers of families, saw. The royal throne was always connected with the temple, as is the case in the Apocalypse, Rev. 7:15, because Christ is to be a king on his throne and a priest (Zech. 6:13), and because the people, whose king the Lord is, cannot approach Him except by a priestly mediation. Every new manifestation and revelation of God, as also every declaration of a new name of God, was preceded by a time of great distress, because it was given, not to satisfy curiosity, but to comfort languishing and humble souls, and to teach them faith, patience, and hope. When afterwards the free Theocracy of God among men was suspended, and the people of God were given into the power of Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans, God did not cease to bear the name of king (comp. Zech. 9:9), even as our Saviour, in His deepest humiliation, confessed a good confession of His kingdom before Pharaoh, nor did the name of Lord Sabaoth disappear, but rather occurs the more frequently in the books of the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, who, doubtless, wished to counteract thereby the terror of the Jews, who, as a poor and despised nation, feared the power of the heathens, and to show them that the God in whom they believed, had hosts enough to protect them, although they themselves possessed no earthly power wherewith to resist and repel the enemy. Moreover, soon after this, the Son of God revealed himself among men, by taking upon himself our nature; He walked before their eyes, worked, taught, and performed miracles among them, ate and drank with them, went to the temple as the Angel of the Covenant, taught in it, and purified it, and finally finished His course before the eyes of men in His suffering and death, burial, resurrection, and ascension. This condescension of the Son of God to the children of men surpassed all the manifestations which had been given to the patriarchs. They also were visited by the Son of God in human shape, but only for a short while; they received comforting promises; but the work of redemption was not then accomplished, nor was the human form then assumed by the Lord, that human nature which He united to His divinity, and in which He was exalted to heaven, but only a figure and shadow of the same. But when, in the fulness of time, the Son of God became flesh, He dwelt among us thirty-three years, united humanity to His divinity inseparably, and accomplished the greatest of all works, the redemption. And as He said many things on earth, both in parables and without parable, concerning the kingdom of God, so John saw the throne of God (Rev. 4), and the Father, and the Lamb, and the Holy Ghost, and heard, at the same time, many things about the future reign of God. Thus the third period, though more abounding in affliction than any other, contains whatever was good in the two preceding ones. The merciful condescension of God towards the patriarchs, and the priestly, royal institution given to the people of Israel; in short, everything that had been revealed before, in a fragmentary manner, was summed up in the person of Christ; but, at the same time, everything became more heavenly, invisible, spiritual, so that a greater amount of faith is now required to take hold of it. The more the love of God reveals itself, the more it conceals itself from the eyes of reason. The outward glory and splendour which the types of Christ possessed, as, for instance, Melchisedec, Aaron, David, was not to be seen by human eyes in the person of Christ himself. His incomparable excellence, beauty, and majesty were invisible, and His outward appearance such as could not please the taste of this world, Isa. 53. The cross of Jesus, the preaching of the apostles, was, in the judgment of natural reason, more foolish than the preaching of Moses and Abraham, and yet it accomplished more than Moses’ and Aaron’s preaching. Because it was Christ’s will to appear upon earth in the humble form of a servant, He chose the third part of the world-times, which is the darkest of all as regards His people, and it is according to the spirit of this period that His apostles and disciples are held up, to this day, to be a folly and a curse, and that His kingdom exists and grows under the enmity and oppression of the world, in a hidden and wonderful manner. But, notwithstanding, the faithful people of God, also such as are descended from Gentiles have, in Christ, the fulness of mercy and truth. They are no longer strangers and aliens in the kingdom of God, but fellow-citizens of the holy Israelites, who, in times of old, during the Theocracy, had obtained grace to be citizens in the kingdom of God, and they are now of the household of God, as the patriarchs were, who walked before God in childlike humility and trust. But in the last thousand (1000) years of the world, this knowledge and enjoyment will be much greater, and more universal. Israel or Zion will then be the chief church of the earth; the glory of the Lord will be seen specially upon them; but the Gentiles, also, will walk in their light, and kings in their brightness. The priesthood of Christ will then be explained much more deeply and fully, both by the types and the writings of the New Testament, in that temple of which Ezekiel speaks. The Spirit of God will then bestow great gifts, and produce mighty effects. Then the Song of Solomon, which is now the most obscure book in Holy Scripture, will be clearly understood, and correspond more than any other with the experience of the Church, for the marriage-feast of the Lamb will be celebrated in heaven (according to Rev. 19), and on earth it will be a Solomonic period, peaceful, quiet, glorious, nuptial, not in a carnal sense, but in a spiritual, even as the Scripture of all the prophets testifies. Israel will then be again a Theocracy; it will be ruled, not according to worldly, but according to divine statutes; not by strangers, but by Israelites; however, there will be then no king, but a prince, and thus the blessed Sabbatic period of the Judges will return, not in the glory of the Old, but of the New Testament (Ezek. 45, etc; Isa. 1:26). Such will be the kingdom of the Lord, Obad. 21; Rev. 11:15.

                Sec. 11. God leads His people by the statutes which He gives to His believers, or by the rules according to which their conduct to others is to be ordered. The command of love is, and always must be, the holy law for all times, to which all men must conform, because it flows from the nature of God, who is love; but the outward manifestations of this love are different in different periods of the world. During the government of the fathers of families, the holy patriarchs had to suffer and overlook much evil, and could not check it, because they had not power for so doing, and the authorities, who possess such power, were not as yet instituted by God. Melchisedec was king of Salem, and at the same time a priest; but Abraham, and the patriarchs before him and after him, were not invested with such an oflice, and hence they could exercise the duties of love, and follow their zeal against evil, only in as far as their position of fathers permitted. If they were treated unjustly, their best course was to suffer and to yield, to escape and to flee, because there was no ruler to protect them, and they were not rulers themselves. (Gen. 26:22; 1st Cor. 6:7 ). Abraham’s expedition against the kings of the East was something extraordinary; and Abraham did not make any conquest or take any booty for himself; but God rescued Lot, and other prisoners, and their possessions, through Abraham, from the hands of their enemies, that all heathens might see that the faith of one man is stronger than the united might of many ungodly nations. After the establishment of the Theocracy, the elders, the judges, the kings, and, in extraordinary cases, even the prophets were invested with power to inflict capital punishment according to the divine law, and this not only for crimes referring to civil life, but also for such as refer to religion. For as God had established a visible kingdom on earth, why should He not inflict visible punishment of death on all who sin against Him their King, out of malice and wickedness? for no Israelite could plead ignorance, but all apostasy from their God and King arose from willfulness. Besides, the whole people of Israel had the right to conquer the Holy Land promised to them, by the edge of the sword, to exterminate the Canaanites destined to destruction by the express command of God, to defend themselves afterwards with the sword against all heathens who wished to disturb them in their quiet possession of the land and its liberty; not to submit to any foreign king, and if it should be subjugated for a while, and be forced to serve a foreign power, to take the first opportunity to shake off such a yoke, as an illegitimate one, and as opposing their privileges, even though this should make the shedding of blood necessary. But how different was everything after the Jewish people had come into the power of the Babylonians in the fourth year of King Jehoiakim. He had to obey the king of Babylon, and when he tried to shake off his yoke he came into great  distress. Jechoniah likewise had to surrender to the Babylonians ; Jeremiah gave the same advice to Zedekiah, who perished miserably because he did not follow it. After the Babylonian exile neither Zerubbabel, nor Mordecai, nor Nehemiah, made any attempt to liberate their nation; no prophet called them to do so, as Deborah called Barak, nor an angel, as in the case of Gideon. The Jewish people were to serve the Gentiles, hence Daniel, Haggai, and Zechariah, mention the year of the reign of the Persian kings as the dates of their prophecy, and this indicates that they are their subjects. God sent the Jewish people help against the tyranny of the Syrian kings in the Maccabaean heroes, and gave them some liberty for a short time, but it was of very short duration; and then the nations came under the rule of the Romans and the Herodians, and from that period all attempts to free the Jews from the rule of the Gentile nations only aggravated their sad condition. Hence our Saviour himself exhorted the Jews to give unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and commanded His disciples to take to flight, when the Jewish war, in which Jerusalem was destroyed, would commence, and not to take any part in the insurrection of the Jews. The apostles and primitive Christians obeyed most faithfully the heathen governments, although hated and persecuted by them, and for our own time also the following words are our rule: Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers (Rom. 13:1), and. “He that (wishes to defend and spread religion by outward force, and therefore) leadeth unto captivity shall go into captivity; he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints” (Rev. 13:10). Behold, thus the statutes of the saints vary with the times, but he who does not consider the character of the period in which he lives, will act foolishly, and do harm to himself. In the last thousand (1000) years of the world the people of Israel will be delivered out of the hands of its enemies by the Lord himself, without human weapons; for the Lord will utterly defeat Antichrist and his army. Then Israel will be a free nation, and no more have any occasion for war, even as all other nations will then give up warfare (Isa. 2). Hence, what is said, Isa. 11:14, about Israel ruling over Philistines, Edomites, Moabites, and Ammonites, and “spoiling them of the East,” does not refer to warlike violence, or unjust spoliation, but the meaning of it is, that the nations mentioned will acknowledge the pre-eminence of Israel, and freely be subject to the Jewish people in all things, and allow them to rule over them according to the royal law of love, and this is in harmony with the order which God has instituted in His Church, according to which the weak follows the strong, the disciple his teacher. Israel will spoil those of the East in the same way as you take a sharp knife from a child, exercising your parental authority for its good, or as one robs a kind friend of the gift which he gives freely, and out of his own accord. With regard to the temporal welfare of God’s people, which must also be considered in treating of God’s leadings, it seems that the patriarchs enjoyed it to a great extent. They lived long, they were highly honoured, they had sufficient land for themselves and their cattle. No government oppressed them; no war disturbed them. But they had also sufferings; and the word: The Lord chasteneth whom He loveth, was true at that time also. However, for a long time the dark paths of the cross, through which God leads His people, were not known upon earth, as appears from the history of Job, whose extraordinary and manifold afflictions —but not equal to those of the apostles— were a stumbling-block to himself and to his friends, who were in other respects wise men. Towards the end of the period of the fathers of families, tribulations became more frequent and heavy, and life shorter; thus we read that Jacob bad to suffer more than Isaac; Isaac more than Abraham. During the Theocracy there were many plagues, which fell on the just and on the unjust; for wherever the great majority of the people fell from God, war, famine, pestilence, tyranny, etc., were not kept back on account of the few righteous, but they being members of the kingdom, had to suffer with the wicked; the sufferings were a blessing to God’s people and a curse to the unbelievers. Afterwards, God showed what a people had to suffer from the great power of a godless man, who abuses it to persecute the just and to suppress the true worship of God; for example, in the case of Saul and of Ahab. From the example of David, and of all the prophets, the people were to learn the nature of salutary spiritual conflicts and troubles. During this period, it is likely that the people of God enjoyed earthly prosperity; whenever it was governed according to the laws of God, which are the most righteous and equitable of all laws, they experienced that, under the shelter of a divine form of government, they could lead a quiet and peaceable life in all soberness and honesty; moreover, the Old Covenant contained many and special promises of temporal blessings, of which God’s people took hold in faith, though they were exercised, and their patience sorely tried, and though they were sometimes chastised, or even put to death as martyrs. In the third period of the world, general and individual sufferings became more frequent and more severe. The two last destructions of Jerusalem, the Babylonian captivity, the Persian, Greek, and Roman servitude of the Jews, the distress which they had to suffer during the wars of the Syrians and Egyptians, the cruel religious persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, etc., were heavier afflictions than had been experienced in the preceding ages. Finally, the Lord Jesus Christ himself opened fully the path of sufferings and the cross, by His doctrine and blessed example; and the apostles, when they wished to glory, gloried in their tribulations, and rejoiced that they were allowed to suffer with Christ; and, indeed, their sufferings were heavier, and lasted longer, than those of the patriarchs and prophets, but the spirit of glory, and the rich blessing of God, rested on them. After the coming of Christ, His Church had scarcely any outward rest for two centuries, and many thousand Christians were persecuted, maltreated, and put to death. After that arose the Arian, Mohammedan, and Papal oppressions, in short, the distress signified in the Revelations of St John by the seven trumpets, and which will only end when the wrath of God has poured out the seven vials. The whole third period of the world abounds much more in afflictions than the others, and he who wishes to live aright in our times must try to understand the cross. Since the third year of Jehoiakim there has not been a time equal in temporal prosperity to that of the patriarchs, or judges, or David, Solomon, Asa, Jehoshaphat, etc. But there will be times of greater prosperity than the earth has ever seen. Temporal blessings and spiritual prosperity will go together in the millennium. Long life (Is. 65:20, 21,22), peace (Is. 2:4), honour (Is. 60:14, 15, 16), righteous government (Is. 54:14; 60:18) —all the rivers of blessings, which flowed in the periods of the patriarchs and the Theocracy, will meet, and the brightness of the New Testament, the spirit of grace and of supplication poured out abundantly, and the transcendent knowledge of Christ and His gospel will fill all hearts with peace and joy, and sanctify the enjoyment of all earthly blessings. Oh for the blessedness of the people who lived then to see the works of the Lord upon earth. But how great is the blessedness of them who will partake at that time of the marriage supper of the Lamb in heaven.

                Sec. 12. ‘The transition from one period to another‘ was always signalized by remarkable events. Judgment always begins at the house of God, after that even severer judgment is sent on His enemies. Israel was sorely afflicted in Egypt; but the Egyptians were plagued with ten plagues; Pharaoh and his hosts were destroyed, but Israel was delivered. In the wilderness the unbelieving Jews were destroyed, but soon after the Canaanites were exterminated. At the end of the second period, great judgments were sent on the Jews, as Jeremiah describes in his Lamentations. But, soon after the wrath of God came over Babylon, and the Jews received liberty to return to their land. But as the time of servitude was to continue for a long time, there arose always new enemies and persecutors of Israel and the Church, who end, without exception, in destruction. But finally, the Church will have to suffer grievously from the enmity of Antichrist, but will obtain perfect liberty after his downfall. In like manner, the last day will make a perfect end of everything evil, and transplant the whole Church into the glorious liberty of the children of God (Rom. 8:22). These two great and principal changes of the world are fully described in the prophetic word, in order that God’s people may be warned beforehand. God revealed the exodus to Abraham four hundred (400) years before it took place (Gen. 15:13, 14). Jacob prophesied concerning it and the condition of his descendants during the Theocracy (Gen. 48:21, and 49.) Joseph also spoke of the exodus (Gen. 4:25). Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other prophets, gave many prophecies concerning the Babylonian captivity and the return from this exile; and the same prophets, as well as those who lived during and after the exile, but especially the Revelations of St John, prophesy frequently the downfall of the New Testament Babylon, the destruction of the beast, and the deliverance of the Church of Christ. Holy Scripture speaks in many places of the final judgment. Thus the Holy Ghost revealed through the prophets the great changes, which are of peculiar importance to the chosen seed. If we take heed to these, we will interpret prophecy aright, whereas many mistakes are committed by attaching importance to this or that war and calamity, which, though they may be important for those immediately affected by it, do not cause a great change on earth. We remark, however, that at every one of these four great transition times, the Lord sends great men to guide and help His Church. Thus, He sent Moses at the exodus out of Egypt, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, at the commencement of the Babylonian captivity, and each one of these had a different mission; the first remained in the land of Israel, the second was in Babylon, the third at the Babylonian and Persian courts. Shortly before the destruction of Antichrist, the two witnesses, which are described, Rev. 11, will be sent of God. I do not know whether God will send such great men previous to the final judgment, but it is probable.

                Sec. 13. Moses, in his first book, describes the rule of the fathers of families; hence it is not strange that he narrates such apparently insignificant things, and includes marriages, quarrels between brothers, compacts and contracts between neighbours, buying and dividing of property, money affairs, births of children, stories of bond-servants and maid-servants, etc. Such were at that time the most important instances in which God revealed His power and mercy, love, and righteousness. The first book of Moses is the best family-book, from which we may learn what is necessary for a family. After families come kingdoms, therefore the Bible gives first the history of the former. But as the institution of families continues during the kingdoms, this book of Moses is useful in all times. The book of Job belongs to the same period, for his long life proves that he lived either in the time or before the time of Moses. We read in this book that Job, a good and upright man, was sorely afflicted in body and soul, house, and goods, honour and children; that Satan and earthly enemies, and inexperienced friends, and even his own wife, were united against him. Job was no king, and had no prince or ruler over him, therefore he could not ask anyone to protect him against the Chaldeans and Arabs, who had robbed him; and for this reason he does not complain that justice was refused him. He was the free ruler of his house and numerous servants as Abraham; but he had, moreover, “his help in the gate,” from which it is likely that he stood in connection with other tribes, with whom be judged people [as a Sheik] under the gate.

                Sec. 14. The history of the establishment of the Theocracy or the kingly government of God over His people, is described in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy; but its subsequent history is contained in the other books of the Old Testament, with the exceptions of the books of Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. The most flourishing part of this period was the time when there was no visible king, and everyone did as he thought right, when the people of Israel enjoyed the greatest liberty in serving God and obeying His commandments. At that time Israel enjoyed rest, a foretaste of heaven, whence the expression, “the land had rest,” is of such frequent occurrence in the book of Judges, whereas it occurs only once in the times of the kings, and then only as referring to ten years (2nd Chron. 14:1). The judges, which the Lord gave to the people by His immediate call whenever necessity required it, were not such burdens on the people as the kings proved afterwards, even as Samuel foretold them (1st Sam. 8). Moreover, in the time of the judges the people were more easily turned to repentance after they had departed from the right way, by chastisements and the authority of the judges, whereas, in the latter times of the kings, neither the severest afflictions, nor the prophets so frequently sent to them, nor even the kings (for example, 2nd Chron. 15:17) were able to lead the people back to the true worship of God after their falling into idolatry and all kinds of godlessness. Therefore, when God promised to the people of Israel, by His prophet Isaiah, the future better times, He says : “Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries and avenge me of mine enemies, and I will turn my hand upon thee, and purely purge away thy dross, and take away all thy tin, and I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counsellors as at the beginning; afterward thou shalt be called the city of righteousness, the faithful city.” (Isaiah 1:25, 23, 26).

                Sec. 15. ‘The book of Daniel‘ comprises the whole third period, or the whole time of the servitude and dispersion of the holy people. Hence the importance of this book, and its great use for our times. And surely this book will find many readers and investigators at this time, the end of the third period, who will find in it great wisdom, for during the fourth period of the world it will not be so necessary. But this period is described not only by Daniel, but also by Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi; also, the evangelists and apostles lived during this period, and both as prophets and teachers they speak of its peculiarities. There is, moreover, no book in the Old Testament in which mention is not made of this period, for all the prophecies of Christ’s incarnation, suffering, death, resurrection, and ascension, as also the prophecies relating to the dispersion of Israel, refer to this time. But Daniel has this advantage, that he lived at the beginning of this period, and that he described it to its end; some beautiful but passing glances into the last period of the world were likewise granted him.

                Sec. 16. ‘The Revelation of John, or rather of the Lord Jesus Christ‘, resembles in many ways the prophecies of Daniel, embracing as it does, a great part of the same period described by Daniel; but the two books differ in several respects. Daniel begins with an earlier period than the Revelations, for the latter does not speak of the Babylonian, Persian, and Greek kingdoms, which, at the time of John, belonged to the past (?). Whereas the Apocalypse extends into more remote times than Daniel, and also contains a description of the last thousand (1000) years of the world (the beginning and general character of which were revealed also to Daniel), as also the final judgment, the New Jerusalem, etc. The prophecies of Daniel refer, in the first place, to Christ and the Roman destruction of Jerusalem (Dan. 9). Then they describe the last Antichrist (11:36). But the great intermediate period from the destruction of Jerusalem to Antichrist, is filled up by the Revelations of St John, which extends to the times after Antichrist. Besides, a Daniel, who was a holy statesman, described the history of the people of God, viewed in relation to the four world-kingdoms. John, on the other hand, as an apostle and teacher of the Church, had to view history from the Christian or churchly aspect, though he mentions worldly kings and kingdoms occasionally. In the prophecies of Daniel, the four world kingdoms, which he saw represented by different symbols, form the thread which runs through the whole book, so that he prophesies the sufferings of the people of God under each of these kingdoms. It is quite different in the case of John. He saw and described the history of the Church during and after the fourth world-kingdom, but he did not see that kingdom itself under any symbol (?), whereas he saw the Church as a woman clothed with the sun (Rev. 12), which Daniel did not see apart from the kingdoms of the world. Thus, Daniel saw the last Antichrist as a horn growing out of the fourth beast or fourth kingdom, but John described it as a separate beast, having an individual existence. Daniel called him a king, and dwells at length on his worldly conquests and warfares; John looked more to his spiritual tyranny and seduction; for which reason he adds a second beast, the false prophet, who comes in the semblance of spirituality. Thus, Antichrist and his followers are described by the two prophets, Daniel, and Isaiah. Isaiah 29 and Joel 3, and Zechariah 12,13, and 14, describe more particularly the army of Antichrist or the heathens which came up against Jerusalem and Israel, but Antichrist himself is not mentioned in their prophecy. Thus, one prophet supplements the other, for they all prophesied only “in part.” What was obscure to the one was revealed to the other; what is only briefly described by the one is more fully prophesied by the other.

                Sec. 17. With regard to the ‘fourth period of the world‘, or the ‘thousand (1000)  last years of  the world‘, there is no book of the Bible which treats of them exclusively; but the promises referring to that blessed time are scattered throughout the Scriptures, and added as a source of consolation and hope to the prophecies concerning the dangers and afflictions of the Church. And let this suffice. In this order we must speak and write about it. It is revealed, not to satisfy curiosity, but to strengthen our faith and to quicken our hope. It is easy for us to bear good and joyful events whenever they come, though they were not circumstantially foretold; but it consoles a Christian, who is often grieved and distressed in these dark times, and who has a zeal for the honour of Jesus Christ and His kingdom, to look forward to the golden times, when all ‘pia desideria‘ will be fulfilled and realised, and to see them even now in the mirror of the divine word. }}

  1. Tregelles.

Remarks on the Prophetic Visions in the Book of Daniel, by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles. London.1847.

                {{ Preface:…..Nothing gives us any indication of the immediate introduction of the latter day, except this to which Christ directs us: –we might see many things to make us expect that the fig-tree would soon bud, but when we see the buds (and not till then) can we speak with certainty as to what is forthwith to come to pass. We might see attempts of the nations to set the Jews in the Holy Land; –this ought to make us look carefully to Jerusalem; –God might hinder those efforts, or He might allow the fearful closing scenes of this dispensation to issue out of them, and at length He will do.

                The importance of the ‘detail of prophecy’ is very great to the believer; it certainly is a sad thing to see this extensive portion of God’s truth overlooked and neglected. It is by the detail of prophecy that we learn how to walk in tile midst of present things according to God; it is thus we learn His judgment about them, and what their issue will be. Many Christians directed their minds much to this a few years ago; but it cannot, I believe, be denied, that this portion of revealed truth has more recently been neglected and overlooked: those who have done this have surely omitted to see bow important its present bearing is on the conscience and conduct: what other portion of revelation shews so clearly the separateness from the systems of men, to which believers are called?……..These Remarks on the Prophetic Visions ln the book of Daniel, are intended especially to direct the mind towards some of the important portions of the detail of prophecy with which the Scripture furnishes us. They have been written at various times, and amid various hindrances. I trust that the Remarks may be found helpful to Christian who desire to learn from the prophetic word, and that the Lord may vouchsafe to bless them to that end. Dec. 9, 1846, S.P.T. }}

                {{ Remarks on the Second Chapter of Daniel: …..We may divide this book into two parts; namely, that part which is written in the Chaldee language, and that which is written in Hebrew. While we see that the book has one general scope, namely Jerusalem given by God for a time into the power of the Gentiles who bear rule, –we may regard this in two ways; we may either look at Gentile power in the outline of its history, or we may look at those things relating to this power in their local connection with Jerusalem. Now the course, character, and crisis of Gentile power are taken up in this book in the Chaldee language, while those things which are limited in their application to the Jews and Jerusalem are written in Hebrew.

                There are very few portions of the Scripture which are written in Chaldee, –there are some parts of Ezra so written, which bring before us the children of Israel as being under the power of the Gentiles, –there are some parts of this book, and one verse in Jeremiah (10:11) which contains a message sent to the Gentiles. This passage occurs just as the gods of the nations had been mentioned in contrast with the living God. It is important that we should so bear in mind the inspiration of Scripture as to recognize that nothing respecting it can be looked on as accidental; whatever God has written, and however it be written: there must be in every circumstance a reason; whether we possess sufficient spiritual intelligence or not to apprehend it. Now it is important in such a case as the present to see that God has not made this difference or language without a very definite scope and object: –The Chaldee portion of Daniel commences at the 4th verse of the second chapter, and continues to the end of the seventh chapter: all the rest or the book is written in Hebrew. In the Chaldee portion we see power in the hands, or the Gentile presented before us as to its character, course, and consummation; and in the latter portion of the book we see the same power localized in connection with the Jews and Jerusalem. The Gentile power is in each part that which is prominently before us, although looked at in different aspects….. }}

                {{ Remarks on the Eight Chapter of Daniel: The prophetic scene becomes narrowed before us in this chapter; one definite portion of future history is here anticipatively written for as by God. The same is the way which God has taken in teaching us those things which were profitable for us to. know, as to the past, If we look at the history of man as given in Genesis, we have at first after the flood, the general statement in outline of all nations in their ancestry and first formation; and then afterwards a narrower scene is brought before us, –one family which becomes one nation, and with this we principally have to do in the remainder of the Old Testament. Just so in the prophetic visions of Daniel; we have Gentile power in its committal, course and crisis; also in its wideness of extent, its moral relations to God, and its actings with regard to those who belong to God; and besides, an account of who it is that succeeds to the dominion which has been forfeited by the last of the Gentile powers: and then comes the narrower scene, in which we see these things set before us in their connection with that same one nation, which had been so early taken up in history……

(Chapter 9:27-28. ….Seventy Weeks when Distributed into Portions, will then stand thus:

  1. From the Edict to the Building of the Wall, &c…. = 49 years.
  2. From the Building to Messiah the Prince, & His Cutting Off…… = 434 years.

     [Then an interval of unmarked length.[So far 2000 years.]]

III. Period of the Covenant of “the Prince that shall come,”…. = 7 years [In 2 Halves].)

                                                On the “Year-Day System.”

                Many have adopted a system of interpretation of those prophecies in which spaces of time are mentioned to which they have given the name of “the year-day system.”               This system may be stated thus: –that in such prophecies as treat of space of time in future events, the principle on which they are written is, that ‘a day’ stands as the representative of ‘a year’, and other spaces of time in the same proportion.                On this principle they would interpret three years and a half as meaning 1260 years; and they after speak of this period, and also of the 2300 ‘years’ of chap. 8.                Now it is certain that these prophecies do not state anything upon the face of them which can support such a mode of interpretation: –it is also clear, (or at least, it ought to be so) that no canon of interpretation ought to be laid down and pressed, unless it can be distinctly proved from the Scripture.

                Certain passages are commonly referred to in support of this hypothesis.

                Num. 14:34, “After the number of the days in which ye searched the land, even forty days, each day for a year, shall ye bear your iniquities even forty years.” This passage speaks of a denounced fact, but there is nothing that implies a principle of interpretation. They had searched the land forty ‘days’; God sentences them to wander the same number of ‘years’. In the prophetic part of the sentence year, are used of literal years, and not as the symbol of anything else. If the year-day system were applied to this passage, we should have to interpret the “forty years” in that way, and thus we should have a vast period of fourteen thousand four [hundred] (14,400 = 14×360; 14,600 = 14×365) years. This passage so far from upholding the year-day system in the slightest degree, supplies pointed evidence against it.

                Ezek. 4. “Lie thou also upon thy left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it : according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon it, thou shalt bear their iniquity. For I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, according to the number of the days, three hundred and ninety (390) days: so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the house of Israel. And when thou hast accomplished them, lie again on thy right side, and thou shalt bear the iniquity of the house of Judah forty (40) days: I have appointed thee each day for a year.”

                Now this is not a symbolic ‘prophecy’ at all, but simply a symbolic ‘action’, which was commanded by God; and unless there had been the express statement, we never could have known that what Ezekiel did, for so many days really represented the actions of the same number of years. It is true that this is an instance in which a day symbolically represents a year, but the way in which this is done is wholly different from any such ground being taken as though in prophetic language the one were used for the other.

                A third passage which some have used as a basis for this system is this latter part of the ninth of Daniel; –some however of the strenuous advocates of the year day principle (such as Elliott in his Horae Apocalyptical) fairly own that it has no bearing upon the question. It’s supposed connection arises from the word rendered “week” having been taken as though it must be simply in its literal meaning seven ‘days’. This might be called wholly a question of lexicography: –the word itself is strictly, ‘something divided into’ or consisting of seven parts. It bears the same grammatical relation to the numeral seven, as one of the Hebrew words used for ten  does to the other of similar meaning. Gesenius simply defines its meaning to be “a septenary number,” he then speaks of its use as applied sometimes to days, sometimes to years; –the word itself however defines nothing as to the denomination to which it belongs, whether the one or the other. In Ezek. 45:21 it is used almost entirely like a numeral, standing with a feminine plural termination in connection with a masculine noun, (according to the peculiar usage of numerals in Hebrew and the cognate languages;) and this passage is important as shewing its use. It is not to be denied nor yet to be wondered at that it should be more often used of ‘week’ than anything else, for this obvious reason, that of all things admitting a septenary division there is nothing so often spoken of as a week. In this sense however it more commonly takes the feminine plural termination.

                In the present passage it takes its denomination from ‘years’ which had been previously mentioned in Daniel’s prayer: it has here the masculine plural termination, which ‘may’ arise from year being ‘feminine’; but this could not be absolutely stated as the reason, for it is once used with the masculine plural joined to ‘days’.

                I am well aware that strong assertions have been made to this effect: –that if we follow the conventional reading (i.e. with points), it is simply “seventy weeks,” (i.e. of seven ‘days’) but that if we reject the points, it must mean “seventy seventies;” –this statement is very incorrect. I do read with the points, but the argument does not rest upon them. I do not admit that periods of seven days are necessarily indicated by the words itself. But if we paid no attention to the points we are not left to any such meaningless rendering as “seventy seventies;” –the fact must have been overlooked, that in verse 27, where the word occurs in the singular, it is twice written full, (i.e. with the letter Vau inserted,) and this, without any points to help us, decides the matter.

                In translating, I have used the word “week,” not at all conceding the point of the meaning of the Hebrew word, but simply for convenience sake, and as requiring less explanation and circumlocution than any other which I could think of. I believe that I need say no more to prove that this 9th of Daniel in no way upholds the year-day scheme.

                But it also supplies decisive evidence against it: –what on this scheme could be made, if the seventy ‘years’ foretold by Jeremiah? How could Daniel have known the time to be drawing then to a close? Seventy (70, LXX) years on this scheme would represent more than 250 ‘centuries’. It is certain that Daniel knew nothing of this principle of interpretation,

                Let the same be applied to Nebuchadnezzar’s madness, and it will be a period yet incomplete: apply it to the three days of our Lord’s burial, and we see its impossibility.

                I think that I need say no more to show not only that the “year-day system” is wholly unsupported by Scripture, but also that Scripture, supplies positive evidence against it.               If we were to admit a ‘non scriptural’ canon of interpretation, we should do much injury to truth; how much more must this be the case if we admit what is absolutely ‘anti-scriptural’: the one might be adding to the word of God, but the other would be even contradicting it.

                                On the 20th of Artaxerxes.

                Some have found a difficulty in making out the chronology of the seventy (70, LXX) weeks, because they have thought that the time from the 20th of Artaxerxes to the crucifixion of our Lord would not fully accord with that marked out in the prophecy. If it had been so, it need have surprised no one; whatever be the result of chronological calculations, the word of God is the same; we know that it is certain, and everything else must bend to it,

                But here I believe the difficulty to be wholly imaginary. It is true that we may find some from the date pointed in the margin of our Bibles; but the history of this date as it there stands is rather curious. Archbishop Usher drew up a scheme of Chronology which is commonly followed, rather from convenience, than from its absolute correctness being supposed. About a hundred and fifty (150) years ago Bishop Lloyd undertook affixing Archbishop Usher’s dates to our English Bibles; but ‘in this instance’ he made a considerable alteration, and substituted another date of his own so as to adapt the reign of Artaxerxes to his own theory.

                The date which stands in our Bibles for the 20th of Artaxerxes is B.C. 446; –this makes the commencement– of his reign B.C. 466: –but the authority of the best and most nearly contemporary historian will put the matter in a very different light. Thucydides mentions that the accession of Artaxerxes had taken place before the flight of Themistocles: this authorizes us to adopt Usher’s date, and place the commencement of the reign 473 or 474 B.C. This would give the date of 454 or 455 B.C. If we add to this the date of the crucifixion it will just give us the exact period of the sixty nine (69) weeks. In doing this we must remember that the birth of our Lord was about 4 years before the common era, so that the thirty third (33rd) year of his life, when he suffered, would correspond with 28 or 29 of our reckoning. I believe the former to have been the true date; first because of the day of the week on which the Passover commenced in that year, and also because of the consuls of that year having been mentioned by several writers as those of the year when our Lord was put to death.

                These Remarks do not affect the instruction given us by God in this chapter; they are points which I only notice for the removal of difficulties.

                                Note on the Rendering of Daniel XII: 2.  

                I do not doubt that the right translation of this verse is what has been given above: “And many from among the sleepers of the dust of the earth shall awake; these shall be unto everlasting life; but those [the rest of the sleepers, those who do not awake at this time]  shall be unto shame and everlasting contempt.” The word which in our authorized version is twice rendered “some” is never used in any another passage in Hebrew, as taking up distributively any general class which had been previously mentioned; this is enough, I believe, to warrant our applying its first occurrence to the whole of the many who awake, and the second to the mass of the sleepers who do not awake at this time. It is clearly not a general resurrection, “many ‘from among‘;” and it is only by taking the words in this sense that we gain any information as to what becomes of those who continue to sleep in the dust of the earth. This translation is given as undoubtedly correct in Gerard Kerkherder’s “Prodromus Danielicus.”

                I do not regard it as needful to make any remark upon the opinion, that such statements as these only relate to temporal deliverance or something of the kind. I will only ask, if such language is not declaratory of a resurrection actual and literal, is there such a thing as a resurrection spoken of in any passage of Scripture (or at least of the Old Testament) at all? How could our Lord have reproved the Sadducees for their ignorance?     

                This passage has been understood by the Jewish commentators in the sense that I have stated. Of course these men with the vail on their hearts are no guides as to the use of the Old Testament; but they are helps as to the grammatical and lexicographical value of sentences and words. Two Rabbis, Saadiah Haggaon (in the tenth century of our era) and Aben Ezra (in the twelfth) have commented on this prophet: the latter of these was a writer of peculiar abilities and accuracy of mind. He explains the verse in the following manner: –’those who rise are the dead of Israel who will be blessed under the reign of king Messiah’; he notices none as awaking at this time but the dead of Israel, and he regards it as a literal resurrection. This had been the view of Saadiah whom he often quotes. But Aben Ezra thought only of earthly blessing, for he speaks of their living in the land and feasting on Behemoth, Leviathan, &c. He is explicit as to there being a first and a second resurrection; though his doctrine as to this is directly contradictory to that of our Lord and His Apostles; –so much so, as to make it probable that the same notions bad been current among the Pharisees even in our Lord’s days. Aben Ezra says that the dead of Israel who shall rise, shall enjoy themselves in the land even to old age, that they shall die again, and rise again at the general resurrection. Our Lord says, “They which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world and the resurrection from tho dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage; ‘neither can they die any more’: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection” (Luke 20:35,36). “It is raised in incorruption.” “It is raised a spiritual body.” “This corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality” (1st Cor. 15) “Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection, on such the second death shall have no power” (Rev. 20). These are the truths which God has vouchsafed that we should know; but still in all their ignorance, the Jewish teachers did hold two resurrections, one of the just, and the other the only one in which the unjust should rise at all. It is marvellous with the words of Scripture before them mentioning “eternal life,” they could have thought that the participants in the first resurrection could die again: had they known Christ’s resurrection, they ‘could’ not have thus erred.

                Note on the Interpretation of the Former Part of Daniel XI, by Past History.

                Many have supposed that there has been so exact a fulfilment of the former part of Dan. 11 in the history of the royal houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy, that all the terms of the vision have been fully met; so that, to say the least, there is no need to look for any farther accomplishment. It has been thought that a continuous history runs on from the time of Alexander the Great, to Antiochus Epiphanes; and then, those who look for the glories of the Lord’s Millennial reign, and who see that a personal Antichrist precedes, have supposed that there is a transition to the times yet future. I have already remarked on the especial importance of seeing the application of the latter part of the vision, but still, it is well to observe what Scripture makes the true application of all the parts. If the chapter be so joined together, as I have sought to shew, then no alleged past accomplishment need detain our minds from looking onwards, and no testimony of past history ought to divert our minds from so doing.

                But what is this testimony drawn from past history? It is a series of events selected from the circumstances of the kingdoms of Syria and Egypt, and put together in order to meet, as well as may be, the terms of the prophecy. But even this is not continuous; for there is almost at the very beginning a break, and that too at the place, where I believe the long interval to be, in between verses 4 and 5. The kings of the north and south who are here first mentioned, are not the immediate successors of Alexander (upon the historical scheme), but one of each line, a generation or two down. Other breaks also exist upon this scheme, and events are passed by at least as marked and as important, as some of those that are mentioned. But farther, there are several points in which history and this chapter are directly at variance. I freely own that ‘if’ I saw this portion of prophecy did really belong to this past period, then all supposed discrepancies of every sort must be charged upon history and upon that only. For instance, “he that begat her” in verse 6, is directly contrary to the supposed history, and to make it suit, the incorrect rendering “whom she brought forth” is put in the margin. The description in verse 8, is much at variance with the history, as Jerome pointed out in bis answer to Porphyry long ago. I might go on pointing out these little variations; but there is one more only, which I would specify: –In verse 20 “the raiser of taxes” reigns “few days;” to force this to suit, resort has been had to the “year-day” system, and some of the explanations state this as a plain and simple fact; for instance, the authors of the “Universal History” had their minds so imbued with the idea, that they quote this verse, “within few ‘years’.”

                The idea that the past history of Alexander’s successors is the subject of this chapter first appears, I believe, in the first book of Maccabees (in itself a useful and interesting piece of history;)– the writer knew of what had just befallen his nation in the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes; he knew too, what Daniel had predicted, and he thought, naturally enough, that the one was the fulfilment of the other. He applied the Psalms which speak of the Jews in their latter-day trouble, to that time, and seemed to think that after the destruction of Antiochus, the promises of blessing would be accomplished. If it were taken as a fixed point that the pollution of the temple by Antiochus, is truly the “abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the prophet,” then, of course, the former part of the chapter would belong to what immediately preceded his reign.

                The first person who (as far as I know) tried to draw this out into a regular scheme was the great enemy of revelation, Porphyry. We know from Jerome a great deal of what Porphyry said, and the object of Jerome was not exactly to confute his application of the former part of the chapter, but to vindicate the latter, and to shew, whatever the former part meant, the latter spoke of the Antichrist. But still Jerome often remarks that such and such alleged events rest wholly upon Porphyry’s assertion and that others do not accord with facts. Indeed it is a simple fact that many of the things which Rollin and similar writers, bring forward as minute accomplishments of prophecy are points only gathered from the prophecy itself, without being known from any independent evidence, and therefore all depends upon the accuracy with which they have understood the application and meaning of the prophecies. Porphyry’s position was, that the book of Daniel was a spurious book, composed about the time of the Maccabees, and thus not a prophecy at all. But though I object to the supposition that Antiochus Epiphanes and his pollution of the temple, are here taught us, I most freely admit, that the deeds of Antiochus form a striking and solemn foreshadowing of what shall be in the days of the Antichrist. Antiochus set up, on the altar of burnt-offering an idol, and built an altar before it, upon which he sacrificed abominations. Fierce and bitter persecution was the treatment of those who abstained from participating in these pollutions. And yet the claims and conduct of the Antichrist will go beyond this. In reading (simply as a piece of uninspired history), the first book of Maccabees, we may form some idea of the more fearful display of evil, which is yet to be.

                Note on the Fourth Chapter of Daniel.

                Although the object of these “Remarks” has been to speak of those portions of Daniel, which are still, in a great measure, future, this chapter should not be wholly passed by; for here we have in the past accomplishment of a vision, an earnest of the exact and precise fulfilment which all of these visions must necessarily receive.

                The king Nebuchadnezzar saw the vision of the tree, (verses 10-12); it grew in the midst of the earth, it was great and fair; its fruit, much; and it afforded food for fowl and beast. But this, which was so splendid in the eyes of men, received sentence by the mouth of a watcher, and an holy one who came down from heaven; –”Hew down the tree, cut off his branches, shake off his leaves, and scatter his fruit: let the beasts get away from under it, and the fowls from off his branches. Nevertheless, leave the stump of his roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his portion be with the beasts in the grass of the earth; let his heart be changed from man’s, and let a beast’s heart be given unto him, and let seven times pass over him.” After the sentence, and its duration, the object is next stated; –”This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones; to the intent that the living may know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to        whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men.”

                This was interpreted to the king by Daniel; –Nebuchadnezzar was himself the tree, that had become great and had overshadowed the earth; the meaning of the hewing down of the tree, &c., is then explained: –”This is the interpretation, O king, and this is the decree of the Most High, which is come upon my lord the king; that they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will. And whereas they commanded to leave the stump of the tree roots; thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, after that thou shalt have known that the heavens do rule.” Daniel then advises the king as to the breaking off of his sins, bestowing his counsel in vain.

                All that had been spoken was exactly carried out The heart of Nebuchadnezzar was lifted up with pride, instead of owning the Most High as ruling in the kingdoms of men. The utterance of his heart was –”Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?” The sentence was then executed upon him to the very letter, and when the appointed period was accomplished, the promised restoration took place. “And at the end of the days, I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me; and I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honoured him that liveth for ever, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and His kingdom is from generation to generation. And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing; and he doeth according to his will in the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, What doest thou?” Then followed the restoration of the kingdom to him, and the record of these things, is the account, which he himself sent, in a public edict throughout his empire.

                Here we have not only an instructive illustration of the exactitude with which prophecy is accomplished, –but also a lesson to Gentile power– a lesson indeed, which has not been learned, but which ought to have been learned, that the Most High ruleth in the kingdoms of men. The very next chapter shews us how this was forgotten by Belshazzar, and how ‘his’ kingdom was utterly taken away; but still, the results in this book shew that power will never be held u from God and for God, until Christ takes it into his own hand. –God dealt with the first head of Gentile power for the instruction of those who should come after; but the result has only been the farther and farther estrangement from God, until this shall be fully exhibited in the Antichrist.

                Note on the Prophetic Interpretation in Connection with Popery.

                It has been alleged that it is a kind of palliation of Popish doctrine, if we do not apply the passages in Scripture, which speak of Antichrist, to the Popedom. The primary question always must be, what is it that the Spirit of God speaks of in such or such a passage. I have endeavoured to shew that the prophecies in Daniel chap. 7 & 8 are not applicable to the Pope; that they have in fact another meaning. But this does not affect the question as to what Popery and its doctrines are in the sight of God; and every one of those passages which sets forth the gospel of the grace of God, sets itself in full opposition to Romanism; –not, it is true, in opposition to Romanism merely, but also to everything else in which the doctrines of grace are not fully held and taught. There is such a thing as pride in being “Protestants,” and I doubt not that many have been using Scripture prophecy (rightly as they have thought) against the Church of Rome, while, as to the vital point, “How can a sinner be justified in the sight of God?” they have been as far from the truth as the Romanists themselves.

                But it is important to see that an abomination, worse than Popery, is to arise; and the adherents of it will be certainly lost: –”If any man worship the beast and his image, the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God.” And this shall draw into its vortex, all (except the elect of God) who are within the sphere of its influence; “All shall worship him, whose names have not been written in the Lamb’s book of life.” If this abomination were Popery, all would be saved who are not Roman-Catholics, –as though there were none wicked outside that pale. And all who are, or ever have been, within that pale would be lost: –and yet, the Reformers were originally Papists: –Luther himself was not only a Roman Catholic, but a priest, and also an Augustine monk. This searching for Popery in Scriptures which speak of a worse consummation, would thus lead to strange results; and the very declarations of the word of God, would have to be softened, because the mind feels that such statements cannot be fully applied to the consequences of Popery. If we admit that a person in the Church of Rome may possibly be saved, through faith in the blood of Christ (not through, but in spite of his system), and if one who renounces his errors, and leaves that system, accepting the gospel, may be saved, and used as an honoured servant of Christ, –then, in fact, the whole matter is conceded; –that a worse abomination than Popery is treated of in the word, and that it is no palliation of Popery to admit that such is the fact. But if I were to apply such Scriptures as 2nd Thess. 2 to the Popedom, I should feel that I were indeed palliating Romanism. What is meant by “the temple of God?” In Scripture this is 1st, the elect Church, or 2nd, the bodies of individual saints –the Holy Ghost dwelling in both, or 3rd, our Lord’s human body, or 4th, the actual temple of God, at Jerusalem. Has the Pope sat, or could he sit, shewing himself that he is God, in any of these four? If it be said that the Pope does this, as taking such a place as he does in the Church, then Popery is indeed palliated, and the line of demarcation between truth and falsehood broken down, by applying to that system a name which belongs to God’s elect people. Is the temple of God, St. Peter’s? Many have seemed to affirm this, and have talked about the Pope as enthroned on the high altar in that building (which is itself quite a mistake), as the fulfilment of the prophecy. But St. Peter’s is not the temple of God, but the temple of an idol, and the Pope may be there seen taking the place of an idolater as much as the meanest in the crowd. Papal claims and doctrine are alike fearful falsehoods; the word of God supplies the counteracting truths; but an indiscreet zeal may only have the effect of producing the result the very reverse of what had been intended. I utterly reject the charge of palliating the evils of Popery; and I might with truth cast it back upon those who acknowledge anything in which the Pope sits, as being “the Temple of God.” }}

                { 12:2. Resurrection.

                (werabbim miyesheney) –’Many of those who sleep‘.     ‘He does not say ‘all who sleep… because ‘all .. ‘.” would include all of mankind, and He made this promise only to Israel. Therefore he says, ‘many ...‘      ‘And when He says: ‘these for everlasting life and others for shame’.. .       His intent is not that among those who are resurrected some will be rewarded and some punished, for those who deserve punishment will not be resurrected at the time of the redemption. Rather He means that those who will awaken will have everlasting life, and those who will not awaken will be for ‘shame and for everlasting abhorrence‘. For all the righteous, (including) those who repented, will live; only the unbelieving and those who died without repentance will remain. All this will happen at the time of the redemption’ (R’ Saadiah Gaon in Emunos V’beos ch. 7. See Ibn Ezra).

                Rambam (Perush haMishnah to Sanhedrin 10) agrees with ‘R’ Saadiah Gaon’ that the resurrection is destined only for the righteous, and bases his belief on the ‘Midrash’: This is also the view of ‘Ramban’ and ‘R’ Chisdai Crescas’ (cited by ‘Abarbanel’); ‘Sha’ar haG’mul’ in ‘Kisvei HaRamban’, v. 1, p. 52 where the wording is ambiguous; see ‘Or Hashem’ 3, 4:4, p. 77). ‘Abarbanel’ (Mayenei Ha Yeshuah lla) disagrees with the above and believes that the resurrection will include all of mankind. He notes two purposes in this:  1) It would be most unfair to all the generations who hoped for the Messiah if only those who incidentally had the good fortune to be alive at the time of the redemption would be privileged to enjoy the benefits of his coming. Therefore ‘allthe dead will be resurrected: the righteous to enjoy the benefits they merited; and the ‘everlasting life and others for shameenemies of Israel will also come alive in order to witness their ultimate downfall.  2) The nations of mankind that will be resurrected will realize the folly of their beliefs and will all come to acknowledge the one true belief, as seen from the words of ‘Zephaniah’ (3:9): ‘For then l will turn to the nations a clear language that they will all call upon the Name of HASHEM to serve Him, in unison‘, and many other prophecies.

                An opinion which falls between these two approaches is adopted by ‘R’ Chisdai Crescas’ (‘Or Hashem’ 3, 4, 4, p. 77). Only the righteous (tzaddiqim(i) and the wicked (resha`im())) will be resurrected in order to bring to its culmination the process of Divine retribution (sekar we`onesh).     For many people however, the rewards of the world of the soul (gan `eden), ‘Paradise’, and whatever material benefits they have attained in their lifetimes suffice for their merits*.  [This short summary of views in no way pretends to exhaust this topic which deserves a volume in itself. The reader inclined to pursue this topic should study ‘Ma’amar haT’chiyah (Rambam); Sha’ar /10 Gemul (Ramban); Chidushei haRamah to Sanhedrin Perek Chelek; lgrot Ramah’, etc. See also footnote to 7:10.]

                This controversy is closely connected to a larger question basic to the fundamental tenet of retribution. ‘Rambam (Hilchos Teshuvah’, ch. 8) maintains that the principal place of retribution is the World of Souls (`olam haneshamoth) which every person enters following his death. To this ‘Rambam’ applies the term (`olam habbba‘), ‘World to Come’. It is therefore not necessary for everyone to be resurrected, since even without being resurrected they collect their reward (or punishment) in the World of Souls. The resurrection is then a ‘special reward for those singled out for it’ by virtue of their righteous conduct.

                Many rabbis disagree with this view and cite the words of the Sages to the effect that the main period of reward for the righteous will be after they are resurrected (‘Sha’ar Ha’Gemul’ quoted by ‘Perush’ on ‘Hilchos Teshuvah’ 9:2; ‘Yad Ramah’ beginning of ‘Perek Chelek’).

                (*Since the body, too, plays a role in earning the reward or punishment, Divine Providence demands that the body too, receive its just reward: hence resurrection. A Talmudic parable illustrates this. A blind man and a lame man both desired to raid a certain orchard, but their physical limitations precluded this. The lame man met the blind man and they formed a partnership. The blind man took the lame man upon his back, and the lame man directed him to the orchard. They then shared the fruits of their ‘ labors’. When they were caught by the owner of the orchard, the lame man protested that he himself could not have plundered the orchard. The blind man defended himself in the same manner. The owner then took the lame man, set him upon the blind man and administered punishment to them together (Sanhedrin 91b).            Man is composed of two ‘partners,’ body and soul, which collaborate for good or  ill. The righteous will arise to collect the material good due them for having utilized the body or good. The evil will stand up ‘for shame and for everlasting abhorrence’ for having turned the soul to the service of evil.)

                (yaqitzu) –’Shall awaken’. The dead will be resurrected (Rashi).   ‘Ravina’ said [We know the tenet of resurrection] from this verse, many of those who sleep in the dusty earth shall awaken (Sanhedrin 92b).   This verse is the most explicit of any in Scripture about the tenet of the resurrection of the dead (Mayenei HaYeshuah 11:9, citing Rambam).

(Reproduced from “Daniel/ A New Translation with a Commentary Anthologized from Talmudic, Midrashic, & Rabbinic Sources”.  ArtScroll, Mesorah Publications, Ltd. Translated & Commentary by author:  Rabbi Hersh Goldwurm, An Overview/ ‘Daniel –A Bridge to Eternity’ by Rabbi Nosson Scherman; with permission of the copyright holders, ArtScroll / Mesorah Publications, Ltd.  2nd Edition 2014. }

  1. Japheth Ben Ali.

A Commentary on the Book of Daniel by Japheth (Yefet) ben Ali, ha-Levi, the Karaite. Edited & Translated from Arabic by D S. Margoliouth, Laudian Prof. of Arabic, Univer. Oxford.. Anecdota Oxoniensia. Oxford, Clarendon Press. c. 1000 A.D. (950-980). 1889.

                {{ I: The book of Daniel. This book has been attributed to Daniel in particular because it contains an account of his history and prophecy. It comprises eleven chapters.

                If we add up the years occupied by this book, they make up a total of sixty-seven (67): [for seventy (70, LXX) years were occupied by the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar, Evil-Merodach, and Belshazzar; all of which come within our narrative, except the first seven years of Nebuchadnezzar, as we shall see below;] this leaves sixty-three (63) years, to which are to be added the one year of Darius and the three years of Cyrus; making a total of sixty-seven (67) years.

                1:1. It is to be observed that the reign of Jehoiakim was divided into three parts: a. ‘four‘ years during which he was subject to the king of Egypt; b. ‘three‘ years during which he was subject to the king of Babylon (2 Kings xxiv. 1); [c. three years during which he was independent.] During these three years the king of Babylon was occupied with his Eastern expedition; after he had rested a little, he attacked him (in the tenth year of his reign), besieged him with his army, took his city, took him prisoner, and carried away many captives with part of the vessels of the house of God (see here).

                ‘In the third year‘: not ‘in the tenth year,’ for the following reason. Jehoiakim had originally been subject to the king of Egypt; then he became subject to the king of Babylon. Thus seven years passed; and since after this he rebelled against the king of Babylon, and became an independent king, who paid homage to no other, the writer can say ‘in the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah‘, dating from the time at which he became independent. The proof of our theory of the division of Jehoiakim’s reign into three parts is the statement in 2nd Chron. 36:4, that the king of Egypt took Jehoahaz, brother of Jehoiakim, and sent him to Egypt, and made Jehoiakim king in his stead. Now we know that he remained subject to the king of Egypt four years, and that the king of Babylon came to the throne in the fourth year of Jehoiakim; see Jer. 25:1, where it is stated that the first year of Nebuchadnezzar was the fourth of Jehoiakim. In that year the king of Babylon fought with the army of the king of Egypt, which was encamped on the banks of the Euphrates (see Jer. I. c.), when Syria fell into his hands (2nd Kings 24:7), and Jehoiakim became subject to the king of Babylon in the fifth year of his reign.

                2:1. Just as we said of the ‘third year of the reign of Jehoiakim‘ that the phrase did not refer to his reign literally, so this again does not refer to Nebuchadnezzar’s ‘reign’, as Daniel is the person who interpreted the dream. Plainly it must refer to something else. Some have supposed it to be the ‘second year of Jehoiakim’s captivity‘, which is unlikely, because Daniel had no office till after three years; see 1:5, which shews that he licensed them after three years. Others have referred it to the ‘fall of Jerusalem‘, imagining that he did not consider himself king till he bad subdued Israel, which is not improbable. To my mind what is most probable is that it means [the second year] ‘after he had become king of the entire world‘ (inf. 2:38). Now it is well known that he took Jerusalem before he took Tyre: and Tyre before he took Egypt. It is most probable that he took Egypt in the thirtieth year of his reign. This is shewn by Ezck. 29:11, ‘neither shall it be inhabited forty years,’ etc. (cp. 13). Now it was God’s decree concerning the whole of the captives that they should remain in their present condition the whole seventy years, made up by Nebuchadnezzar, his son, and his son’s son (Jer. 25:11); none of them returning to his country till after the completion of these seventy years. Now Egypt was the last of his conquests, as no other king stood before him save Pharaoh; so that the words ‘in the second yearwill refer to the thirty-second year of his reign, thirteen years after the destruction of the Temple. In that year Ezekiel saw the form of the Temple (11:1); for Nebuchadnezzar took the Holy City and burnt the Temple in the seventeenth year of his reign; and if Nebuchadnezzar saw the dream in the thirty-second year of his reign, there must have passed since the destruction of the Temple thirteen years, and the appearance of the dream will have taken place in the fourteenth year [after its destruction].       

                2:37-43. …’That shall rule over the whole earth‘: to distinguish between the second and the third kingdoms; the second kingdom owned three quarters of the world, but the third four quarters; we shall give the reader all these explanations in full in the commentary on Daniel’s dream. Then he described the fourth kingdom, which he compares to iron, not meaning that it was inferior to the brass, but on account of its hardness (strong as iron), and because this kingdom should pulverize armies as iron pulverizes gold, silver, and brass. It ‘breaketh in pieces and subdueth all‘: i.e. it crushed the kingdoms of its time, as we shall explain on ver. 35. This is the kingdom of Rome, before the kingdom of Arabia arose. He makes the head the first kingdom, and the breast and arms the second kingdom, and the belly and thighs the third kingdom: and he makes the upper parts of the legs the fourth kingdom before the kingdom of Arabia. Now he does not say of the fourth kingdom ‘another,’ as he said of the second and third, because the Greeks are the founders of the kingdom of Rome, as we shall shew in chap. 8. ‘And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes‘: ‘feet‘ refers to the instep of the foot; then he mentions the ‘toes’, and tells us that the feet and toes of this image were like the feet and toes of a man, two feet and ten toes; probably, however, the statue resembled a human being also in its erect posture, its back, hips, legs, as well as feet and toes. He unites the ‘feet and toes’ in the sentence because they were all of the same material, iron, and clay (cp. ver. 33). The ‘iron’ represents the Romans, and the ‘clay’ the Arabs; and this is because the Romans reigned a hundred (100) years before the Arabs; then the Arabs began to reign, but the kingdom of the Romans remained, as is witnessed in our own day. He compares the kingdom of the Arabs to ‘clay’ because they have neither power nor force like those of the Romans. ‘A divided kingdom: i.e. from the time of the reign of the Arabs, inasmuch as the kingdom was first to the Romans only, then the Arabs reigned with them. ‘And part of iron: to shew that this iron which is mixed with the clay is no other than the former iron, but the same. The interpretation is that the kingdom of the Romans shall remain simultaneously with the kingdom of the Arabs, and that the Arabs shall be partners with them therein; hence, ‘and part of clay shall be therein‘. ‘Mixed with miry clay‘: not a mixture in which the ingredients mingle, as gold mixes with silver; as this is not possible between such substances as iron and clay; but a mixture like that of wheat and barley, or similar substances; part, therefore, of the instep of the foot is iron and part clay. This is possible because of the length of the instep. The same is the case with the toes. In the description of the toes, ‘part of iron and part of clay‘, probably this iron does not belong to the Romans, but is to be interpreted of the Arabs only. In the interpretation of this he says, ‘so the kingdom shall be partly strong and partly broken‘. Either he means that its beginnings were powerful (as we shall explain in the proper place in this book), and its end feeble; in which case the toes where they joined the instep must have been iron, and the ends clay. Or he may be referring to the kingdom of certain of the children of ‘the Master’ (Muhammad), who were powerful, and others who were to follow them and be weak like clay.  

                ‘And whereas thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay‘ does not refer to the mixture of the toes, since he does not use the word ‘mixture’ of them, but says only part of them were iron and part clay. This can only refer to the mixture of the feet, of which he had said forasmuch as thou sawest, etc. This is the mixture of the Romans and the Arabs; he tells us that just as they are associated in empire (a divided kingdom), so they shall be mixed in the matter of marrying and begetting children, neither party disapproving of this, as Israel does; for this reason, too, he said ‘they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men‘. For

the Moslem does not refuse to take a wife of the Christian religion, nor the Christian to take a wife of the religion of Islam.    ‘But they shall not cleave to one another: since they disagree with one another on the fundamental doctrines, the one [Muslim] confessing One God, and believing that ‘Isa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), was a mortal; whereas the others (Christians) believe that He is the Creator of the heavens and earth, as is well known concerning the Christian religion. Similarly do they differ about the Qiblah and many other subjects too long to explain. This is why he says ‘they shall not cleave one to another; which is explained in the words ‘even as iron‘, etc., i.e. as iron does not mingle with clay.

                So far for the description of the statue. Now for the interpretation of it. It means four kingdoms which are to arise in the world. The ‘first’ is the kingdom which laid waste Jerusalem and took the people captive from their homes. ‘After’ it came the kingdom of the Persians, which ordered the House to be built, and permitted the people to go thither, and gave the money and charges and offerings out of its treasures. The ‘third’ is the kingdom of the Greeks, which neither took the people captive nor laid waste their dwellings: however, harm was done the nation by them, as the Jews have handed down in their books and records, though the books of the Prophets do not expressly state it. As for the ‘fourth’, empire, it has carried Israel into captivity, as the first did, and gone further than it in enmity and injury; and as for the Arabs, they have not indeed acted like the others in exiling them and destroying them, but they have injured the nation in the way of contempt and scorn and humiliation, etc., of which we shall mention some specimens in the commentary on the dream of Daniel and his prophecy. He represents all these empires as attached to each other, because there was not a follower of the truth among them, though their systems differed: and he makes them all one piece.    After giving the interpretation of the image he gives that of the stone which was cut from the mountain and brake the image.

                2:44-45. He compared the four kingdoms to a wrought image, but the kingdom of Israel to a stone cut out of a mountain, because their kingdom is eternal: either it means the ‘nation‘, or the ‘Messiah’, who is of them, or of the seed of David. He said in the dream that it ‘brake the feet of the image‘, i.e. that they shall crush Edom (i.e. Rome) and Ishmael. Then he says, ‘then were broken in pieces together‘, inasmuch as the religion of each kingdom and some, too, of the people shall remain till the Messiah’s kingdom. He tells us that it shall break and destroy the remnants of the three previous kingdoms, them, and their religions; ‘it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms‘. He points out the difference between these four kingdoms and that of the Messiah. Of every one of these four kingdoms the dominion ceases, and is given to another: but this kingdom shall not pass away, nor be given to another. And he did not say of the image that God Almighty had set it up, as he says of the kingdom of the Messiah ‘the God of heaven shall set up a kingdom‘, because they are weak and few in number, and it is God who will raise them from the dust, and bring down the others from the height, since it was He who brought them down from the height (Lam. 2:12) and raised the empire of the others (ibid. 2:14); and He will do the same in the time to come, raising the estate of Israel and afflicting the empires (cp. Ps. 113:5)……

                9:24-27.  He tells him what is going to happen during the four kingdoms. Of these ‘seventy (70, LXX) weeks, seven’ passed in the kingdom of the Chaldees (47 years); 57 years the Persians reigned, 180 the Greeks, 206 the Romans; these are the special periods of the seventy weeks. These include the reigns of all four beasts; only the angel does not describe at length what happened to any of them save the history of the Second Temple during the time of Rome. These seventy weeks are ‘weeks of sabbatical years’, making 490 years; below they are divided into periods. ‘Are decreed upon thy people: decreed by God, like the 400 years decreed to Abraham, or the 70 years decreed to Babylon.                   ‘Upon thy people and upon thy holy place‘: in so far as there befell the people during this period different sorts of fortune, some commendable and others to be deprecated; six things are mentioned in this verse, three commendable, ‘to finish transgression, to make an end of sins, to make reconciliation for iniquity‘; and three are mentioned of a different aspect, ‘to bring in everlasting righteousness‘, and to ‘seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy‘: of these six some are to take place at the beginning of the series, others at the end of 300 years. ‘To bring everlasting righteousness and to anoint the most holy‘ refers to the first beginning of the building of the Temple; ‘to seal up vision and prophecy‘ took place during the reign of ‘the Greeks’,· ‘to finish transgressionetc. was done in the middle of the 70 years of Babylon.               ‘Transgressionrefers to the ‘worship of other ‘gods” and similar ‘abominations;’ ‘sins‘, to the misplacing of the sabbaths and the other feasts; ‘iniquity‘ includes the other sins committed by the people amongst themselves, i.e. offences against life and property or possessions. Others interpret differently; referring ‘to make reconciliation for iniquityto offerings: meaning that while they were in Babylon ‘to the conclusion of the Babylonian empire God obtained from them satisfaction for the debt they had incurred by their sins: referring to 2nd Chron. 36:21.                        Similarly, ‘to bring in everlasting righteousnessis supposed by some to refer to the High Priests, and to ‘anoint the most holyto the sanctuaries and the priests. Others again make ‘everlasting righteousnessthe offerings, and ‘the most holythe High Priest, referring to 2nd Chron. 33:13. Either way it must plainly take place at the building of the Temple. There remains ‘to seal up vision and prophecy‘: this must mean the cutting off of vision and prophets from Israel. ‘Visionrefers to prophecies relating to future time, such as those of Haggai or Zechariah of the future; and the ‘prophet(i.e. prophecy) is what is told relating to the present. According to some authorities the Holy Spirit was cut off from the time of Solomon; the ‘Singers’ remaining, who recited the Psalms (see 2nd Chron. 29:20). Or again he may mean by ‘to seal up vision and prophecy‘ that the Books of the Prophets were sealed and collected, twenty-four books, and fixed by ‘Massorahs’, and other institutions necessary for this purpose. He puts ‘to seal vision and prophecy‘ between ‘to bring everlasting righteousness and to anoint the most holy‘ because prophecy went on between the offering of the oblations and the anointing of the most holy.

                9:25. ‘From the going forth of the commandment‘: supposed to refer to Jer. 29:10, or to its ‘going forth’ from God; ‘to return‘: i.e. the captives with the sacred vessels; ‘unto the anointed one, the Khalif’: i.e. the High Priest, who is ‘anointed’ with the ‘oil of anointing,’ and is ‘the prince’ of the Lord’s house. Others make ‘the anointedthe High Priest, and ‘the princeZerubbabel son of Shealtiel. He tells him then that from the time of the destruction of the Holy Place and the captivity of the nation to the building of the Second Temple, is ‘seven weeks’, i.e. forty-nine years. Now the people did not cease dwelling in the city till the twenty-third year of Nebuchadnezzar; they are called (Ezek. 33:24) ‘inhabitants of waste places,’ and were taken captive by Nebuzaradan (Jer. 53:30). Now if twenty-three years be taken away from the sum total of the seventy years of Babylon, there remain forty-seven years plus one year for Darius and one year for Cyrus. This makes a total of forty-nine years; to which the ‘seven weeks’ refer.            ‘And threescore and two weeks it shall be built again: this is the duration of the Second Temple till the coming of ‘Titus The Sinner‘, king of Rome; ‘434 years‘, During this period, he tells him, Jerusalem will again be inhabited.       ‘Market-place: i.e. the fora of the judges.         Decision: i.e. the performance of legal sentences of death, etc.  ‘The dough of the times‘ (*Mistranslation for ‘even in troublous times.): referring, it is said, to the offering of the High Priest (Lev. 6:13). ‘Of the times‘: inasmuch as half was offered in the morning, and half in the evening.       The offering of the High Priest is mentioned separately, because so long as it was offered the altar continued in service.

                9:26. ‘And after the threescore and two weeks: at the close of these sixty-two   weeks this Anointed, spoken of in ver. 25, shall be cut off; referring to the cessation of priests from the altar.  ‘And shall have none‘: i.e. no son or successor in his place; or, the whole time of the Captivity they shall have no royalty.         ‘The city and the sanctuary‘: Jerusalem and the Temple of the Lord.   ‘Shall destroy‘: shall devastate and burn (Ps. 137:7).    ‘The people of the prince that shall come: the army of Rome with Titus.   ‘And his end shall be with a flood: i.e. such as are left of Israel after the massacre shall be ‘swept away’, i.e. carried away captive. This is the description of what befell the sanctuary, Jerusalem, and the nation.           ‘Until the end of war‘: i.e. till the end of wars, sc. ‘the wars of Gog’, Jerusalem and the cities of Judah shall lie waste as bas been witnessed up to our day.

                9:27. One week is left out of the seventy; he describes their condition therein. The enemy, he says, made a covenant with them for seven years, that he would not carry them away captive or harm them; when half the week had passed he betrayed them, and broke the covenant. Some suppose that what induced him to do this was that he saw that the people withdrew from the city in detachments, seeing that they must certainly otherwise be taken captive or fall before the enemy; and they said, ‘Let us withdraw of our own accord: it is better.’ Some say that the Israelites slew certain Gentiles that were in the city, who were Roman nobles; when they had done this the Romans broke faith with them, took the city, burnt the Temple, and put a stop to the offerings (he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease). The histories further tell us that he set up in God’s house an idol, and offered up swine on God’s altar.      ‘The wing of abominations‘: the army of the Romans, who are called ‘abominations;’ they are the devastators of the sanctuary (one that maketh desolate).  ‘Even unto the consummation and the determination: i.e. till God work aconsummation’ and a ‘determination’ by causing the nations to cease, and especially Edom. The first referring to the city [of Rome]; the second to the kingdom.          ‘Shall be poured out upon the wasted‘: i.e. the wrath of God upon this city, which shall be waste till Israel come and inhabit it. God shewed this to Daniel because he desired to know what would become of the people and the Holy Place in the time of the three kingdoms; for he knew that the Holy Place ‘must’ one day be inhabited, and the captives ‘must’ return; but they ‘might’ have continued in the condition in which they were during the time of the Persian and of the Greek empires. God shewed him that the city must again be wasted, and the people taken captive, that he might know it, and Israel might know it. Thereat his heart was pained, and be sickened.

                11:1.  1. Just as he had helped Michael to slay Cyrus, so he had helped him to slay Darius, or had killed him.                     Here we must pause a moment and briefly state some necessary ideas on the subject of angels. We are not justified in setting aside the literal meaning of the Word of God or of His prophets, save where that literal meaning is hindered or precluded as being contradicted by ‘the reason’ or by ‘a clear text’. In such a case it is understood that the first text requires an explanation reconciling it with the reason or with the other text; the words having been used in some metaphorical or improper [abstract] sense, as we have observed in a number of places in the Law and the Blessed Prophets. Ideas repudiated by ‘the reason’, are such as ‘God descended,’ ‘God ascended,’ etc.; precluded by the reason, because, if we take the verse literally, it follows from it that God must be a material substance, capable of inhabiting places and being in one place more than in another, moving and resting, all qualities of created and finite beings, and He must possess these attributes. Such texts must therefore be capable of being explained away, and the term indirectly interpreted may be either the ‘noun’ or the ‘verb’. The first is done in cases like ‘and God descended,’ ‘and God ascended,’ where we affirm the action of the person of whom ‘ascending’ and ‘descending’ are attributes; only the person intended is the ‘Angel of’ God, or the ‘Glory of’ God or the ‘Apostle of’ God, with the ellipse of a word. The second is done in cases like ‘God was glad,’ or ‘God was sorry,’ or ‘God was jealous;’ all of which are accidents not to be predicated of the Immortal Creator. This phrase must contain a sense to be evolved in whatever way the words will allow. The language has employed in such cases metaphors and inaccurate [abstract] expressions because the application of the reason can point them out. Where one text is precluded by another, the one which admits of two or more interpretations must be explained away. Now no clear text of Scripture denies the possibility of God’s having created angels; nor does the reason reject it. Nor can their existence be rejected, whether we hold that they are accidents, or whether we hold that they are created and destroyed. For we find in the Scriptures many places in which angels are mentioned, and in two different ways. Sometimes they appear sensibly and are witnessed by persons waking, like any other visible object; sometimes in dreams, and there too like other objects: instances of the first case occurred to Jacob, Moses, Balaam, Joshua, Gideon, Manoah, David, Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel; of the second to Abimelech (as some think), Jacob, and Balaam. Their voices too have been heard without their being seen, as by Hagar, Abraham, Samuel, David. These all occur in our Chronicles, and there is no ground for rejecting these texts. It is known that nothing, but ‘body’ can be perceived by the sense of the eye: and that an accident cannot exist by itself. An angel therefore must be a ‘body’. Now a body cannot bring itself into existence, but must have a Creator to create it; and it is a thing which admits of persistence. An angel therefore being created must be capable of persistence; and what is there to necessitate his annihilation? If anyone hold that an angel is only created for the moment, for the sake of a message or something similar, and that, when that is finished, there is no reason why he should endure, what, we ask, indicates that he is created at the moment, or created merely for the message or purpose which renders him for the moment necessary? If you say: ‘Then what has the angel to do besides delivering messages and similar tasks?’ We answer: To praise and glorify his Creator. Is not the prophet too chosen to deliver a message? but nevertheless he is not created merely to speak. We find, too, in our accounts that angels ‘do’ endure. Thus the Glory abode with the children of Israel nine hundred (900) years; and Daniel says of Gabriel, ‘and the man Gabriel, whom I had seem in the Vision at the beginning’, and there had elapsed between the two occasions a year. Nor can we suppose the second Gabriel was merely like the first, who had been created a year before and then destroyed; for that would not entitle the second to be [called] the same as the first. Again, there are the words of this angel who is speaking to Daniel, who says: ‘I have been some time in war, and am going to fight those who remain:’ see also 12:1. These verses point to their persistence: and after this discussion there may be a stop put to the assertions of those who maintain that they are created for a moment and annihilated. As for their orders, doubtless some are higher than others; see our Commentary on Ezekiel, chap. 1, and Ps. 106:1. Observe, too, that in this chapter he says of one ‘like the similitude of a man‘, and tells us that he came near him, and was not afraid, whereas he was terrified and alarmed by the ‘great angel’; such things are common in our books; and their powers are limited according as the Creator has given them. Observe that then Jacob wrestled with the angel, the angel was at the time unable to get rid of him (Gen. 32:26). Though their forms be terrible, yet God has given the children of men power to behold them, save the great and mighty Glory which the blessed Apostle asked God to shew him, when He said ‘thou canst not,’ etc. (Ex. 33:20).       This is a concise account of this matter; we should gladly elucidate what we have said on this subject in other places; it would not, however, be proper to introduce that subject in this place.

                11:4-5. 4.His kingdom shall be broken‘: the government was disturbed on Alexander’s death. ‘And shall be divided‘: with reference to the dispute between his generals, and the compromise by which each of the princes was to take one quarter of the globe; the reason of this being his having left no son (and not for his posterity).     ‘Neither like unto his  government‘: in spite of these four holding the four quarters of the globe, they had no royal control or might like Alexander’s.               ‘For his kingdom shall be broken: the kingdom of the Greeks, to which belonged the four quarters of the globe, shall be shattered, dynasty after dynasty springing up on the death of these four, until 180 years were completed, according to the historical records.        ‘And to others besides these: meaning that there arose after these a dynasty which discarded the traditions of its predecessors. These have been already mentioned in the words ‘when sin is completed.’ They were ‘sinners’, i.e. apostates, in respect of the traditions, [and usurpers] in respect of the government.     5. Observe that the kingdom was divided between four, each one taking a quarter, like those who were mentioned above. This is seen from the expressions ‘king of the north, king of the south’ (which we shall clearly explain lower down); although of the four none are mentioned save the king of the ‘north’ and the king of the ‘south’. Probably therefore the kings of the ‘west’ and of the ‘east’ remained quietly in their respective quarters, not seeking to acquire any other, and there was no war between them; whence the Scripture does not mention them; whereas it mentions the kings of the ‘south’ and of the ‘north’, because they were engaged in eventful wars. Or possibly the kings of the west and east were in dependence respectively on the other two kings.

                11:25-29. 25.And he shall stir up his power: this means that the king of the south had made no preparations, while he had with him only the handful of men who were with him at the beginning of his career (with a few men, ver. 23); but it came to pass that fresh people became Moslems continually, so that his army grew great.      This battle was fought between Omar ibn El-Khattab and the Romans in Syria. Omar, the historians say, entered Jerusalem, and the king of Rome made ready to fight with him, and they arrayed battle in the plain of ‘Amwas, near Jerusalem. Omar is said to have had a ‘mighty army’, and for this reason the king of the south met him also with a mighty army, but the Roman army was greater than the Moslem, as is implied by the additional words in the text.        ‘And he shall not stand‘: sc. the army of the king of the south. Indeed it took to flight as soon as they joined battle.                     ‘For he shall forecast’: his army shall. When they saw the Moslem general approach they abandoned the king of the south; even his chosen youths who were fed from his table destroyed him: for they were not true to him in the war.                Thereupon the Moslems became masters of the Romans, and slew a vast number of them (many shall fall down slain); and the Moslems took the land of Israel from the Romans, and hold it to this day.              27. He said above ‘they set not upon him‘ (ver. 21); and indeed so long as he had not taken the holy city from the Romans he does not call him their king. Now they have taken it, he calls him so.       ‘Both these kings‘: i.e. of Arabia and Rome.          ‘Their hearts shall be to do mischief‘: i.e. they shall do some harm to Israel, each of them, in some fashion as it is well known that the Moslems and Christians do.            ‘Against one table‘: to be referred, it is said, to Israel; called one table because Edom and Ishmael eat each other’s food. Compare 2:43 with comm. There he spoke of their mixing in marriage; no less do they mix in the matter of food; Isaiah speaks of both, chap. 66:17, where ‘they that sanctify themselves’ are the uncircumcised, who profess ‘sanctity’ and speak of ‘Saint’ So-and-so, and how the time of sanctification is come, and have ‘offerings’, and profess that they have holy priests, and baptismal water, and consequently do not wash off pollution. As for the Moslems they do not hold that view, but do wash after pollution, and consequently are called by the prophet ‘them that purify themselves’. Consequently the uncircumcised use the word ‘sanctity’, and the others the word ‘purity’. ‘To the gardens’ refers to the fact that both profess that the ‘Garden’ (i.e. Paradise) is for them, as is stated in their books and commonly declared by them. ‘Behind one in the midst’ refers to the fact that they all agree that the  ‘Law’ is superseded, and that another system has been delivered since, that system being a religion not to be superseded by another. So when Islam started, they said of the Law just what the Christians had said; further asserting that the Book of their founder had superseded the religion of the Christians with another. Then he informs us that the professors of sanctity eat ‘swine’s flesh’, while the professors of purity eat ‘abominations and the mouse’. For although Islam forbids swine’s flesh, still otherwise they do not abstain from eating the food of the uncircumcised, so that they may be said to eat at one table, whereas Israel form one table, since they eat neither swine’s flesh nor abominations nor the mouse. From this point of view therefore the words ‘at one tablerefer to Israel. If we can make ‘at one table’ signify two things, one will be that they ‘sit at one table’, the other that they ‘lie against’ God and His people.            ‘It shall not prosper‘: i.e. Israel; their affairs shall not prosper, and they shall be afflicted and abandoned.          ‘The end remaineth unto the time: i.e. until the end of the four kingdoms be accomplished; when Edom and Ishmael shall fail and turn back, and Israel prosper. The verse covers the long period from the rise of Islam to the end of the Captivity.

                11:28. The speaker returns to complete what preceded. (In the preceding verse the ruin and death which were to fall on the king of the south were mentioned.) He informs us how the ruler of Islam will return to the place where his station was; this is said to have been Damascus, whither therefore he returned, with ‘great riches’ plundered from the army of the king of the south.     ‘And his heartshall be to hurt Israel; cp. ver. 27a. The person alluded to is said to have been a bitter enemy of Israel (Omar ibn El-Khattab).               ‘And he shall do‘ his pleasure in Israel by decrees which he proclaimed against them. These are the Jews established in the holy city. After this he shall return to his own city.                     This was the battle which resulted unfavourably to the king of Rome at the holy city.

                11:29. With this verse ends the account of what happened at the rise of the power of Ishmael. From this verse commences the notice of what is to happen at the close of their power. In the previous verse he said, ‘the end remaineth unto the time‘, signifying that when that time appointed came, and he arrived at the end of his career, he should return, and come into the south, i.e. enter into the Roman territory. This began some years ago in the western direction, when the king of the west, who is now the king of Egypt, sent armies into the Roman territory. ‘But it shall not be aa the former‘ refers to what happened at the rise of his dynasty: (1) his overthrowing three thrones (chap. 7:5); (2) supra 25.                         ‘Or as the latterrefers to what shall be explained on ver. 40. The first battles were all advantageous to Ishmael and against the king of the south. The last shall be all advantageous to the king of the south and against Ishmael. This intermediate battle shall be unlike either, or of an intermediate kind.

                11:40. ‘And at the time of the end‘: this expression includes two things: (1) the ‘end’ of the success of this dynasty; (2) the ‘end’ of the indignation against Israel. In the end then the tables will be turned; at the first appearance of the ‘Little Horn’ it warred with the king of the south and took from him three thrones, as we explained at 7:24, viz. Syria and the capitals, and then took from the king of the north ‘Iraq and Khorasan; and went on conquering and taking city after city (cp. ver. 24) up to the Caspian Gates. But when his success shall have come to an end, these two kings –of the north and of the south– shall tum against him (here a and b). Some portion of the operations of the king of the south has been realised in our time: I refer to certain battles wherein he has taken from the Moslems ‘Antioch, Tarsus, ‘Ayn Zarbah’ and that region; but more events are still to come. The king of the north however has not as yet done anything. He says of the king of the south that he shall ‘push al him’, because he is near him, and shall come from near Syria; of the king of the north that he shall ‘whirl against him’, because he shall come from near the Caspian Gates.           We promised that when we came to this verse we would explain the import of the phrases ‘king of the north,’ ‘king of the south.’ Many scholars suppose the king of the north to refer to the ‘king of Arabia’, because the latter took from the king of the north Baghdad, which had been the royal city of the Magus. We shall shew how this difficulty can be solved.

                You must know that the four kingdoms mentioned in the dreams of Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel are divided as follows. The first is aworld-empire’; now the rulers of the whole world are not named after any particular quarter, but after their chief city, e.g. ‘king of Babylon;’ not ‘king of the east, west,’ etc.; no such phrase can be found used of the king of the Chaldees, nor of the kings of the Medes and Persians, nor of Alexander, the first king of the Greeks. Only after his death, when his kingdom was divided among his four scholars (11:4), does he begin to speak of a ‘king of the north’ or ‘of the south.’ Now if the empire of Islam were in any one of the quarters –north or south– he might very well use of it the terms ‘king of the north’ or ‘of the south.’ As however that empire has seized countries in all four quarters, it cannot be named after any one of them. This principle is obviously correct. The king of Islam then can be neither. Hence he says the king of the south shall ‘push at him’, sc. at the ‘king’ mentioned in ver. 36. If the king of the south ‘pushes at him, he’ cannot be the king of the south. Similarly he says with reference to him that ‘the king of the north shall whirl against him’, i.e. come against him like a whirlwind; it is clear then that the king of Islam cannot be king of the north.            ‘With chariots and with horsemen and with many ships’: he does not specify which of the two shall come with them; probably the king of the north will come to him ‘with chariots and horsemen’, while the king of the south does so on the sea with ships,- cp. Num. xxiv. 24.   Observe (luska) I come, not they, —which would have referred to both kings together, so that we should have supposed the two would assist each other against him. Now we should not know which will come from the words of Daniel; but this has been explained by another prophet, Joel son of Pethuel He has written three chapters (commencing respectively at 1:2, 2:1, and 3:9); the first of which refers to Nebuchadnezzar, the second to the king of the north mentioned here (2:20 ‘I will remove far off from you the northern’; we shall presently explain how this shall be), the third to Gog.

                The Islamic prince established at Baghdad –not the Abbasside– is from the north; now they were originally unbelievers, but will be associated with the Abbasside Caliph; and the chief of these ‘arms’ will certainly take that city, sc. Baghdad, and they will be repulsed before him, and perhaps he will kill some of them; after which they shall rise up against those before whom they were repulsed, and make for Babylon, as the prophets foretold. See Isaiah 13:1; Jeremiah 51. They say of them ‘they shall not regard silver or gold’, inasmuch as they will only desire to take vengeance for their sufferings at the hands of those who took their city, and shall gather together and come against them. They are referred to here in the words ‘and the king of the north shall sweep against him; and the words ‘he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass through’ indicate that he shall enter the realm of the king who took Baghdad from the hands of the Abbasside’s, and shall conquer the land of Babylon with the sword; at his arrival a number of Israelites shall go out, directing their steps to the land of Israel; cp. Jer. 1; 5. Then the king of the north shall direct his steps towards the territory of this king, and shall go out from Babylon to Syria, conquering every city he passes with the sword, it not being his primary intention to have a royal throne established for him, but only to destroy the cities that are under the sway of the lord of Islam. He will kill all whom he meets (he shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries‘); and he is to come to the land of Israel (‘he shall enter also into the glorious land‘).         ‘Shall be overthrown‘: i.e. most of the cities and villages in the land of Israel, and all the sea-coast.         ‘But these shall be delivered out of his hand’: ‘Edom‘, i.e. Djebel-eshshara, ‘Moab, and a portion of ‘the children of Ammon‘. We are not told the reason of this; he cannot pass them over through weakness, since these countries are not more powerful than Babylon and Egypt; rather be does not trouble himself about them, seeing that they have no state nor royalty nor wealth; he will not therefore regard them; many Israelites however will pass over thither (cp. Is. 16:4); and some have thought that they will pass over thither before this king; the Scripture moreover (Joel l.c.) shews that Israel will be in Zion at the time. Next he will pass over into the land of Egypt, that too being Islamic territory; and this is the only country which is said to be ‘plundered‘; owing to the treasures and riches which it contains (ver. 43).     ‘The Libyans and Ethiopians shall be at his steps: he will be ‘followed’ at the time by certain Ethiopians and Libyans; or, perhaps, on his sojourn in Egypt he shall ‘destroy’ the Ethiopians and Libyans, who are in Egyptian territory.

                11:44. ‘But tiding shall trouble him‘: when he comes to the western frontier of the province of Egypt, there shall reach him ‘tidings’ from the east and the north, sc. of the entrance of Israel from the wilderness into Palestine, as we shall explain at length afterwards; and when they enter it from the wilderness they will conquer it with the sword, and their enemies shall be repulsed before them. When this reaches the king of the north, who will at the time be at the extremity of Egypt, he will return to Syria to ‘destroy and utterly make away with many‘, i.e. Israel, who entered in large numbers. But when the news of his return reaches Israel, they will gather together on Mount Zion, and do what Joel says (chap. 2:1 and foll.). This they will do at the time when he ‘plants the tents of his palace‘; it is thought that he will pitch his tents at ‘Amwas; now between that place and Jerusalem are four parasangs; or else that he will encamp in the wilderness of Tekoa, which also is a vast plain. And when he spreads out his tents there, intending to come to them the next morning in Jerusalem, God will send His angel Michael, who shall destroy his entire army; they shall all die, and remain cast about and putrefying on the face of the plain till they decompose and stink (v. Joel l.c.). Thence we know that this section deals with the king of the north, and relates what will happen to Israel at his coming.

                12:1-4. 1.  ‘And at that timerefers to 11:40; and signifies the times specified in 7:25. ‘Shall stand(instead of ‘shall come’ or some similar word) shews that the ‘standing’ shall last three years and a half; and he ‘shall stand’ for two purposes: (1) to put an end to the monarchies (v. 10:21); (2) to deliver Israel from certain calamities that are to befall them. Before Michael was called ‘your prince;’ here ‘the great prince‘, shewing that he is a mighty angel.               ‘And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was sinceshews that there can have been nothing ‘like it’ since the confusion of tongues; not that there has been nothing of the same ‘kind’; since there never have been wanting famine, sword, plague, sickness, poverty, and the other things found in the world, nor religious persecution either (we have seen Nebuchadnezzar require Hananiah etc. to worship the image he had made); it can only refer to a state like that which Oded the prophet described to king Asa, when ‘there was no peace to him that went out,’ etc. (2nd Chr. 15:8; cp. Zech. 8:10). The chief source of these afflictions is that the ‘Arms’ will seek to take the kingdom of the Abbasside’s, coming from Babylon, as the learned tell us; and also that they will prevent the pilgrims from praying in Mecca, where they used to pray, and will destroy the remembrance of the Man of Wind; then the sword will come between them, and the ‘Arms’ will prevail against them, and will make mighty havoc among them; some of them will flee into the ‘forest in Arabia’ (Is. 21:13), hungry and thirsty; ‘for they fled away from the swords.’ The reason of their turning into that region is that they know it is impossible for them to return to their own cities because the ‘Conspirator’ has already taken possession of them; they will take counsel therefore to flee to their kinsmen, who assent to their opinions, and to stay with them; these will come to meet them with food and water, that their souls may live. From that time civil war shall commence in Ishmael. The ‘Conspirators’ however shall not get the empire, because their chief will require men to abandon their religion, a religion about four hundred years old, and indeed without any miracle, save the sword; the sword therefore shall fall among them, and at that time the sultan’s courts shall cease, there shall be no longer a royal throne, nor business on the roads, nor police and guardians in the cities, no shops open, no merchants travelling, no rain falling from the sky, no husbandman or vine-dresser, no man with any possible means of subsistence. Then shall be the great famine and the great plague, with the sword; and then shall be accomplished the ‘destruction and that decreed;’ only a few men will be left, the cities shall be wasted and the roads desolate, the nation occupied with each other; then shall Israel flee out from among them to the ‘wilderness of the nations.’ To this condition do the words of the text allude. The king of the north shall come to Babylon, and the Israelites come out from Babylon into their own land before the great confusion. At that time there shall be an arousing in the land of Israel (?) before they depart (cp. Jer. 51:55),       ‘Thy people shall escape: since the destruction will alight upon the Gentiles, as was said before; but from the addition ‘every one that shall be found written in the bookwe see that not every Jew shall escape, but those that are written, and those only; not the wicked among Israel who did not ‘repent at that time’ (2nd Chr. 2:16 and Deut. 4:30); those who repent shall survive; but those who do not repent shall perish by the sword by the hand of the enemy, or by the plague of God (Amos 9:10). Observe that Is. 65:10 uses the same phrase (written) of the works of the wicked, that is used of those of the righteous by Malachi 3:16. Plainly the phrase here cannot refer to both good and bad, but must be interpreted as above. This is explained by Isaiah 4:31 ‘Every one that is written unto life in Jerusalem;’ shewing that only those of them shall escape who are ‘written unto life’; adding afterwards, ‘when God shall have washed’ away the filth of the daughters of Zion, indicating that the persons ‘written unto life’ are those that are washed clean of filth and blood. [Of the others], those that are among the Gentiles shall fall by the sword; those that do not perish by their hand, but go out with the people to the ‘wilderness of the peoples,’ shall be slain by God Almighty (Ezek. 20:38). I cannot possibly give a full account of what will happen at that time, since that would require a book for itself; I have suggested in every book of the three portions of Scripture that I have explained as much as each passage allowed.

                12:2. ‘At that time many of the dead shall rise: ‘Many‘, as in Est. 8:17; not ‘all’ the dead shall rise, but only ‘some’; we have explained this on Ezek. 37 at length, and have said a little about it on Job 14:12; here let us add a little more. Let us observe, first, that he promises ‘the deliverance of the nation(ver. 1); and then the resurrection of the dead; indicating that the living and the dead both shall see the salvation. Now just as he divided the ‘living’ into two portions, one to survive and one to perish, so he divides those that are to rise from the dead into two portions, one to ‘everlasting life‘, and the other to ‘contempt‘. Ezekiel has shown that those who are to rise are people of the Captivity (37:11), ‘Behold, they say, Our bones are dried up, and our hope is lost,’ which is not the condition of those who died under the monarchy. Similarly, Isaiah says (26:19), ‘Thy dead shall live, ‘awakeand sing, ye that dwell in the dust,’ which is to be compared with the phrase here, ‘them that sleep in dust of the ground‘; only there the prophet confined himself to the mention of the saints of the nation, whereas here he speaks of both classes together.            ‘Shame  and everlasting contempt‘: see Isaiah ad fin.: ‘They shall look on the carcasses of the men who sinned against the ‘LORD’; a description of those who died during the Captivity, having offended God by capital transgressions.            ‘To shame and eternal contempt: shame‘, because they used to cast reproaches on the best of the nation, who sighed, and were troubled and vexed at what had befallen the nation and the house of God (cp. Ps. 69 throughout), and would eat and drink and let their time pass in amusement and enjoyment, which God has forbidden us (Hos. 9:1); nor was it sufficient for them that they did not do what God enjoined, but they must abhor those who obeyed Him, and reproach them for practicing the Law, mourning and fasting; hence, at the end of the Psalm quoted (ver. 22), he curses them(‘Let their table before them become a snare,’ etc.). Now when the Mount of Olives splits, and a vast gorge is formed between the halves, this gorge will become the place of punishment of these wicked ones; and whenever there is a sabbath-day or a new moon, Israel will go out on the first day of the week or on the second day of the month to these prisoners, and see what has befallen them; cp. Is. 65:15. These evil-doers used to reproach the saints wrongfully; they shall ‘reproach’ the evil-doers justly.       ‘Contempt: when they hear their bitter cry, because of the pain of the fire and the bite of the serpents, for ‘their worm shall never die’; and ‘eternal‘, because there is no end to it. Wherever the word ‘eternal’ occurs there is no proof, intellectual, or traditional, that there is an end; on the contrary, reason makes it necessary that the punishment of the wicked shall be everlasting, without term. We must now observe that whenever the text has an intelligible expression with a possible literal meaning, it is not allowable to explain it away by abandoning that literal sense; it is necessary therefore that the words ‘those that sleep in the dust of the earthmust be taken literally, and must not be referred to the people of the Captivity, who, during that captivity, might be compared to the dead; especially as there is nothing in this chapter but what is to be taken literally. We are familiar with the fact that when there was the Vision, which Daniel saw, Gabriel interpreted it to him because it had an allegorical meaning; but when he came to the words ‘two thousand three hundred,’ (2300)  etc., he said ‘the vision is true,’ meaning what we have ‘there stated; similarly, at the beginning of this section, he said’, ‘I will tell thee the truth‘; consequently the whole of this section is to be taken literally, so that this verse must be taken literally; nor is this refuted either by reason or tradition, as we have shewn. It stands beside in our records that God raised to life the child of the Shunammite, and likewise the dead man who touched the bones of Elisha; since, therefore, such a thing has happened and is no impossibility, that resurrection of the dead of Israel, which God has promised, shall be accomplished too. And since he says, ‘these to shame and eternal contempt‘, the state of the rewarded and of the punished alike shall be everlasting. God will raise the dead of the Captivity at the time of the Deliverance; the dead of the monarchy, on the other hand, when all the dead rise, to be rewarded or punished, which shall be at the ‘creation of the new heavens and the new earth’. Doubtless some great change will take place in this heaven and earth (see Is. 11:26). Job refers to the same (14:12): ‘Till there be no more heaven they shall not wake.’ It is well known among all mankind that the resurrection of the dead will take place when this takes place in the heaven and the earth (Job l.c.); the resurrection of the dead of Israel, however, shall take place before that. This is a mere fragment that we have given here; it was impossible for us to pass the passage without saying ‘something’ about it.

                12:3. He divides the living and the dead each into two companies, as we saw above. After that he says, ‘the wise‘, separating them from the multitude, to shew that their rank is higher than that of the rest of the nation. This all refers to those who will rise from the grave. The brightness of their faces, he says, will be like the colour of the firmament-marvellously bright, like the face of Moses. It is a light wherewith God will cover them, to shew their nobility, while at the same time they take pleasure in it.  ‘They that turn the many to righteousness: those that turned mankind from error to religion. ‘The many‘: so of the priests (Mal. 2:6), ‘And turned away many from iniquity.’ They directed men to religion by teaching them the Commandments of ‘Jehovah‘; and at the same time turned them from transgression by busying themselves with the Law of ‘Jehovah‘, and praying God to direct them to the knowledge of His statutes. They are ‘those whose way is perfect’: their prayer is recorded, and their words expressed in the twenty-two eight-lined stanzas; they are those who say to him that seeks instruction, ‘Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters’. In Isaiah 53 we are told that ‘by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many’; in that chapter the groaning of the wise, and his griefs, and his great knowledge and piety are recorded. These then are referred to in the words ‘the wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament‘, etc.        ‘Like the starsconveys two ideas: (1) light; (2) perpetuity and eternity; it shall not be cut off forever. This shall God do with them after he has shown them the ‘salvation of Israel’, and the rebuilding of Jerusalem. They shall abide a while till they have seen the sight thereof, and then God will remove them to the place of reward. Maybe they will be with the angels above (cp. Zech. 3:7), in return for their teaching Israel the Law, and turning them from their sins, and lamenting during the Captivity, and forcing themselves to grieve. Others than they engaged Israel in the study of traditions, and took their goods, and fattened their bodies with food and drink, and died merry, not doing their duty, but causing men to sin; teaching them what would make God angry with them: unquestionably therefore their punishment will be far severer than that of their followers. 

                12:4. Hitherto the angel bas been explaining what is to happen from the time at which be is speaking till the end of the world, as he said at the beginning of his discourse, ‘I have come to tell thee what shall be till the end of time‘.    ‘And thou Daniel close these words: i.e. leave them as they are. Do not ask for more to be revealed than has been told thee.And seal the book: ‘seal this book of thine at what has been told thee, and expect no more.’ Nothing else could be revealed to him about the matter. Therefore he said this, shewing him that there was nothing left to be told him.                   ‘To the time of the end: shewing that it should not be revealed to any one till the end of the Captivity; anyone who professes to know the end of the Captivity is a deceiver.           ‘Many shall run to and fro‘: i.e. the wise and the seekers of knowledge. This ‘running to and fro’ may be of two kinds: (1) They shall run over the countries in search of knowledge, because scholars will be found in every region; the seekers of knowledge, therefore, will go to and fro to learn from them; this is expressed by Amos (8:12). This shall be at the beginning of their career; when they seek so ardently, God will make revelations to them. (2) They shall ‘run to and fro’ in God’s Word like those who seek treasures, and thereafter ‘knowledge shall increase‘; knowledge of two things: (a) the ‘commandments’; (b) the ‘end’. God will not reveal the end until they know the commandments. They are the men that fear the ‘LORD’, who are ‘in possession of His secrets’, which cannot be had save by study and search and inquiry into the Word of God: compare the prayers ‘teach me, 0 ‘LORD’, the way of Thy statutes; open my eyes’. These and similar expressions shew the vanity of the profession of thetraditionalists’ like ‘EI-Fayyumi’, who have destroyed Israel by their writings; who maintain that the Commandments of God cannot be known by study, because it leads to contradictions; so that we must follow the tradition of the successors of the prophets, viz. the authors of the Mishnah and Talmud, all whose     sayings are from God. So he has led men astray by his lying books, and vouches for the veracity of anyone who lies against God. He shall be punished therefore more severely than they, and God shall take vengeance for his people from him and them that are like him,

                12:13.  We have explained this chapter in accordance with what we have heard from the teachers of the Captivity, or read in their books, so far as those theories seemed probable. God will forgive and pardon any slips or errors, in His goodness and gentleness. We shall now follow this with a statement of the views of others about these times and the end, that anyone who cares to know them may do so. The scholars who preceded Joseph ibn BakhtawI explained the 2300, 1290, and 1335 as ‘years’; the Rabbanites, too, spoke of the ‘end’, and fancied that from the third year of Cyrus to the ‘end’ would be 1335 years; the term is passed some years since, so that their opinion has been disproved, and that of their followers; similarly El-Fayyumi explained it years, and bas been proved false; he had however some marvellous inventions with reference to ‘the time and times’. He was answered by Salmon ben Jerucham; whom we need not in our turn answer, since his term is past, and the end not arrived. Certain of the Karaites, too, made the 2300 years date from the exodus from Egypt; that term too is past years ago, and their prophecy not come true. Salmon hen Jerucham, in his Commentary on Ps. 74:9, denied that it was possible to ascertain the ‘end’; but on Ps. 102:14 he offered a date which is passed and falsified. He agreed with many others in interpreting the 2300 and 1290 as days, but differed about the interpretation of the ‘time of the removal of the continual’, which, he thought, meant the ‘destruction ef the Second Temple’. Benjamin Nahawendi agreed with him in the latter point, but differed from him about the days being days and not years. Benjamin took a separate view in believing that they were years. Salmon hen Jerucham referred the 1290 to the three and a half spoken of in chap. 10:27 (‘for the half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease’).

                Each of the commentators has taken a different line, and all have gone wrong in making the days years. Benjamin Nahawendi, indeed, made the 2300 date from the destruction of Shiloh, and ‘from the time of the removal of the continual’ from the destruction of the Second Temple; this leaves still some 400 years; but this is a delusion. All these theories are confuted by two facts:

                (1) Their inventors profess to know the ‘end’, whereas the Scripture says that the matter is ‘closed and sealed’; any one therefore who professes to know it before ‘the time of the end’ is professing what cannot be true.

                (2) They make the days years. Now we know that where he speaks of ‘weeks of years’ he expressly distinguishes them from ‘weeks of days’; consequently none of the three sums mentioned (2300, 1290, 1335) can be years. All must be days. The one commentator who made them days supposed the three periods to follow one upon the other, i.e. he made the 2300 the first ‘time’, the 1290 the second, the 1335 the third. He fancied there was no statement of the number of days of the ‘half-time’; he suggested that it might be half of  the first ‘time’. Assuredly this is more probable than the views of the others.

                We have now given the views that seem to us clear or probable. Let us now ask God to pardon any slips or errors; for what we have given is not any positive opinion, but merely a probability. The Almighty Himself has said that ‘the words are shut up and sealed till the time of the end’. At that time it shall be revealed at the hand of the wise; ‘the wise shall understand’. God Almighty, in His mercy and lovingkindness, bring near their realization. Amen. }}

  1. Rashi.

                (    The Jewish Bible with a Modern English Translation and Rashi’s Commentary English translation of the entire Tanakh (Tanach) with Rashi’s commentary. This Hebrew Bible was edited by esteemed translator and scholar, Rabbi A.J. Rosenberg.) (Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki) has been known as the greatest Bible scholar in the history of the world. Generations of Bible scholars, commentators, great Rabbis and teachers, Torah students and laymen have been quoting Rashi and using his brilliant comments as the foundation of the authoritative Jewish understanding of the Book of Books. This is a real eye opener!     The most elaborate Bible commentary in the world! This valuable new program is truly a complete and powerful learning tool for studying and understanding the Bible. From the authentic Hebrew text to the authoritative English translation, from its dazzling array of full-color photographs and charts, to its useful display and printing capabilities, it is destined to become the premiere program of its kind.        Translation: This is the only CD-Rom available that contains the English translation of both the Tanach text and Rashi’s commentary on the entire Tanach. The translation was edited by the esteemed translator and scholar, Rabbi A.J. Rosenberg. You can view any verse in the Tanach, complete with Hebrew (including vowel points and cantillation marks), English translation, and Rashi’s commentary in both Hebrew and English, in separate, scrolling windows.     The Judaica Press Complete Tanach features dozens of illuminating charts, maps, drawings, and full-color pictures of Biblical sites, linked to the text, that can be printed directly from the program. Display and Printing: Tanach with Rashi offers the unique ability of viewing any verse in the Tanach, complete with Hebrew (including vowel points and cantillation marks), English translation, and Rashi’s commentary in both Hebrew and English, in separate, scrolling windows. You can actually study the text on screen, complete with commentary, and even print multiple texts on the same page. Search Engine: Tanach with Rashi features powerful search capabilities, for both Hebrew and English, which allow you to locate individual words or phrases within the text, quickly, and easily.)

                {{ Rashi Comments Daniel: 1-12

                1:1. In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim: Now is it possible to say so? Did he [Nebuchadnezzar] not reign in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, as is stated (Jer. 25:1) “in the fourth year of Jehoiakim son of Josiah, king of Judah that is the first year of Nebuchadnezzar?” So what is the meaning of “In the third year?” In the third year of his rebellion, as is stated (2nd Kings 24:1): “and Jehoiakim was his vassal for three years; then he turned and rebelled against him”; and in the third year, he overcame him, and that was the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar, for the master said (Seder Olam ch. 24): In his first year he conquered Nineveh, and in his second year he advanced and vanquished Jehoiakim, who served him for three years and rebelled against him for three years. That was the eleventh year of the reign of Jehoiakim: five years before he vanquished him, three years that he served him, and three years that he rebelled against him. And then Jehoiakim died under his hand, and in his stead, Nebuchadnezzar enthroned Jehoiachin, his son.

                1:21. And Daniel was there: in greatness in Babylon until the first year of King Cyrus. According to the one who says that Hathach (Esther; 4:5, 6, 9, 10) is Daniel; and why was he called Hathach? Because he was cut off (חֲתָכוּהוּ = chathakuhu) from his greatness; [according to his explanation] we must say that this is Cyrus I, who preceded Ahasuerus. But according to the one who says that all royal affairs were decided (נֶחְתָּכִים = nechetakim) by his orders, we must say that this Cyrus was Darius II, [who came] after Ahasuerus, and in the days of Darius the Mede, when they cast [Daniel] into the lions’ den, he was not demoted from his greatness, as it is said (6: 29): “And this Daniel prospered during the reign of Darius and during the reign of Cyrus the Persian.” We learn that during the days of Cyrus I he was [still] in his greatness.

                2:43. that they will mingle with the seed of men: They will intermarry with the other nations, but they will not be at peace and truly cleave to them wholeheartedly, and their laws will differ from the laws of the other nations.   as iron does not mix with clay: Is it not just as iron does not stick well to clay?

                2:44. And in the days of these kings: in the days of these kings, when the kingdom of Rome is still in existence.                the God Of heaven will set up a kingdom: The kingdom of the Holy One, blessed be He, which will never be destroyed, is the kingdom of the Messiah.    it will crumble and destroy: It will crumble and destroy all these kingdoms.

                2:45. Just as you saw: just as you saw that a stone was broken off the mountain, which crumbled the entire image. This is the interpretation that the fifth kingdom will destroy and shatter them all. what will be after this: what will be after this, after this kingdom of yours.      and its interpretation is reliable: for the Eternal of  Israel  neither  lies  nor  repents.

                5:1. King Belshazzar: He was his son, and he reigned after Evil-merodach, who reigned instead of Nebuchadnezzar, and (he) too was the son of Nebuchadnezzar.          made a great feast: We find in Josephon (Book 1, ch. 3) that he waged war by day with Darius the Mede and Cyrus and was victorious in the battle. So in the evening he made a feast, as Isaiah had prophesied about him: (21: 5) “Setting the table, setting up the lamp, eating, drinking. ‘Arise, princes, etc.’ ” For in the midst of the feast the enemies returned, waged war on the city and captured it.       as much wine as the thousand: The equivalent of one thousand (1000) men [was the amount] he was drinking [in] wine.

                6:1. And Darius the Mede received the kingdom at the age of sixty-two (62): Why does he count his years? To tell you that on the day that Nebuchadnezzar entered the Heichal in the days of Jehoiachin, his adversary, Darius, was born (Seder Olam ch. 28). From the exile of Jeconiah until now were sixty-two years, and the master said: They were exiled in the days of Jehoiachin in the seventh year counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, which is eight years after the beginning of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. There remained to Nebuchadnezzar’s reign thirty-seven years, for he reigned forty-five years, and twenty-three of Evil-merodach’s, as our Sages stated in Tractate Megillah (11b), and the two years of Belshazzar that passed, totaling sixty-two (62).

                6:18. And a stone was brought: lit. and one stone was brought. Throughout the entire land of Babylon there are no stones but bricks, as it is written: (Gen 11:3): “Let us make bricks.” We learn that there are no stones in Babylon, but for the occasion, angels brought it [a stone] from the land of Israel. If God stipulated with the Creation on the sea that it should split for the Children of Israel, and on the fire that it cool off for Hananiah and his colleagues, and on the lions that they should not hurt Daniel, He did not stipulate about casting stones or weapons that they should not hurt any man. So the king said, “From the lions I cannot take him away. I shall be careful with him that no man hurt him, and if the miracle comes, let it come.” This does not appear in some editions.      and placed on the mouth of the pit: [as translated,] and placed on the mouth of the pit.         with his signet ring: with his signet ring so that no one could move it from its place and cast stones upon him to kill him.       that his will about Daniel not be altered: so that his will should not be changed, i.e., so that they should not harm him against his [the king’s] will.

                6:29. and in the kingdom of Cyrus: who reigned after Darius, for Darius reigned only one year, and he was slain in battle, as it is written in the book of Joseph ben Gurion, and they crowned Cyrus his son-in-law in the midst of the battle.

                7:4. The first one was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle: It was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle; that is the kingdom of Babylon, which was ruling at that time, and so did Jeremiah see it (4:7): “A lion has come up from its thicket,” and he says also (48:40): “like an eagle he shall soar.”        until its wings were plucked: Its wings were plucked, which is an allusion to its downfall,      and it was taken from the earth: an expression of being removed from the earth, an allusion to the curtailment of the kingdom from the world.      and the heart of a mortal: Aram.( וּלְבַב אֶנָשׁ = ulbab ’enash), an expression of weakness, like (Psalms 9:21): “Let the nations know that they are forever mortal men (אֶנוֹשׁ = ’enosh)”.

                7:5. another: [as translated,] another.        second: that emerged second from the sea, resembling a bear: This represents the kingdom of Persia, which will reign after Babylon, who eats and drinks like a bear and is enwrapped in flesh like a bear.        resembling a bear: It is spelled (לְדֹב = ledob) [without a “vav,”] like (דִיבָא = diba’), the Aramaic for (זְאֵב = ze’eb, a wolf, for the kingdom of Persia was also called a wolf, as it is said: (Jer. 5:6): “Therefore a lion smote them, a wolf of the deserts spoils them.”        and it stood to one side: and it stood to one side, indicating that when the kingdom of Babylon terminates, Persia will wait one year, when Media will reign.    and there were three ribs in its mouth: Aram. (וּתְלָת עִלָעִין בְּפֻמַּהּ = uthelath ‘ila‘in bephummah), three ribs. Our Sages explained that three provinces were constantly rebelling against it [i.e., Persia] and making peace with it; sometimes it would swallow them and sometimes spit them out. That is the meaning of “in its mouth between its teeth,” sometimes outside its teeth, sometimes inside (Kid. 72a), but I say that the three (עִלָעִין = ‘ila‘in) are three kings who will rise from Persia: Cyrus, Ahasuerus, and Darius who built the Temple.         much meat: [as translated,] much meat.

                7:6. four wings… four heads: They are the four rulers to whom Alexander of Macedon allotted his kingdom at his death, as is written in the book of Joseph ben Gurion (Book 3, ch. 14), for this third beast is the kingdom of Antiochus, and it is called (נָמֵר – namer) because it issued decrees upon Israel [which were] spotted (מְנֻמָּרוֹת = menummahrot) and varied one from the other.      and dominion was given it: [as translated,] and dominion was given it.

                7:7. in the visions of the night: on another night. The first three he saw on one night, and this one on another night, because it is equal to them all. In Leviticus Rabbah (13:5).     and it had… iron teeth: [as translated,] iron teeth.      and crushed: It crushed and ground finely.       and… the rest: what it left over from its eating.       and… ten horns: Aram. (וְקַרְנַיִן עֲשַׂר = weqarenain ‘asar). The angel explained to him that these are the ten kings who would ascend [the throne] of Rome before Vespasian, who would destroy the Temple.

                7:12. But as for the other beasts, their dominion was removed: And from the other kingdoms, their dominion was removed by Heaven.       and they were given an extension of life: And He gave them time to live until a set day in the future, the wars of Gog and Magog. an extension: Aram. (אַרְכָה = ’ar’bah), waiting.

                7:13. one like a man was coming: That is the King Messiah.      and… up to the Ancient of Days: Who was sitting in judgment and judging the nations.   came: arrived, reached.

                7:14. And He gave him dominion: And to that man He gave dominion over the nations, for the heathens he likens to beasts, and Israel he likens to a man because they are humble and innocent.           which will not be removed: [as translated,] will not be removed.

          7:24. And the ten horns: And its ten horns that you saw-this is its interpretation.    from that kingdom: [as translated,] from that kingdom.       and the last one will rise after them: and the last one will rise after them-that is Titus.    

                7:25. against the Most High: [as translated,] against the Most High.         and he will oppress the high holy ones: He will burden and oppress Israel.         and he will think to change the times and the law: He will plan in his heart to cause them to transgress all their appointed times and their laws.       until a time, two times, and half a time: This is an obscure end, as was said to Daniel (12:4): “And you, Daniel, close up the words and seal,” and the early commentators expounded on it, each one according to his view, and the ends have passed. We can still interpret it as I saw written in the name of Rav Saadia Gaon, that they are the 1,335 years stated at the end of the Book (12:12): “Fortunate is he who waits [and reaches the days one thousand three hundred and thirty-five],” and he explains the appointed time as until the time of two times and a half time, and he [Rav Saadia Gaon] said that the times are 480 [years], which is the time from the Exodus from Egypt until the Temple was built, and 410 [years], [which are] the days of the First Temple, totaling 890, and another half of this time, 445, totaling 1,335. Figure these from the time the daily sacrifice was discontinued until the daily sacrifice will be restored to its place; it was discontinued six years prior to the destruction, and there is somewhat of a proof in this Book. [See Rashi to 8:14.] Others bring further proof to this computation, namely that (Deut. 31: 18): “And I, will hide My face” [the words] (הַסְתֵּר אַסְתִּיר = hassetter  ’asettir)  add up in gematria to 1,335.

                8:3. and it had horns: symbolizing the kingdom of Persia and Media.       and one was higher than the other: symbolizing the kingdom of Persia, which was greater than the kingdom of Media, for the kingdom of Media existed for only one year, as it says (9:1): “In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus of the seed of Media,” and we learned in Seder Olam (ch. 28): “We do not find any year ascribed to Media in the Holy Writ but this one only.” and the higher one sprouted last: This symbolizes that the kingdom of Media will precede the kingdom of Persia.

                8:8. an appearance of four: an appearance of four horns.

                8:9. And from one of them: and from one of these kingdoms.       emerged a… horn: The kingdom of Titus emerged from it.       small: A small and despised kingdom, as he calls it above one small horn, and that is in the manner of (Obad. 1:2): “… you are very despised.”  and it became very great: Heb. (וַתִּגְדַּל מְאֹד = wattig’dal me’od) to the south: That is Egypt, which is to the south of the land of Israel.    and to the coveted land: Heb. (הַצְבִי = hatz’bi) The land of Israel, called (אֶרֶץ הַצְבִי = ’eretz hatz’bi), the coveted land [or the land of beauty] after the manner of (Jer. 3:19): “an inheritance of the beauty of hosts of nations.”

              8:10. until the host of heaven: They are Israel, who were compared to the stars.

                8:11. And until the Prince of the host: That is the Temple, which is the House of the Holy One, blessed be He, the Prince of the host. He blasphemed the Holy One, blessed be He.     and through him the daily sacrifice was removed: And through his troops and his armies, which he sent to Jerusalem, the daily sacrifice was abolished, for he sent there Nero Caesar, his general, as our Rabbis relate in Gittin (56a) and in Gorion.

                8:12. And a time will be given for the daily sacrifice: A set time will be given for the daily sacrifice to be discontinued because of transgression.       And a time: Heb. (וְצָבָא = wetzaba’), time, like (Job 7:1): “Is not man on earth for a limited time (צָבָא = tzaba ’)”?   and it will cast truth to the earth: It humbled the Torah of truth.

                8:13. one holy one: one of the angels.       and said: that angel.        to the anonymous: Heb. (לַפַּלְמוֹנִי = lappalmoni). This word is like two: (פְּלוֹנִי אַלְמוֹנִי = peloni ’al’monin), and Jonathan ben Uziel translated it in the Book of Samuel (I 21:3): “covered and hidden,” like (Deut. 17:8): “If a matter be hidden (יִפָּלֵא = yippale’) from you.” (אַלְמוֹנִי =  ’al’moni) means a widower (אַלְמָן = ’al’man) without a name, [i.e., bereft of a name] for he [the angel] did not explain to him what he was and what his name was.          to the anonymous one who was speaking: to the angel who was speaking and issuing decrees, viz. “And a set time will be given for the daily sacrifice because of transgression.        How long will be the vision: this [vision] which concerns the daily sacrifice, that it should be discontinued, and the silent abomination will be placed in its stead. The silent abomination is an idol worshipped by the pagans, which was like a mute stone, and so it is called in this Book in many places, as it says (12:11): “And from the time the daily sacrifice was removed, and the silent abomination placed.”     mute: Heb. (שֹּׁמֵם = shomem), an expression of being mute and silenced, like (4:16): “was bewildered (אֶשְּׁתּוֹמַם =  ’eshsh’tomam) for a while;” (Ezek. 3:15): “and I sat there seven days bewildered (מַשְּׁמִים = mash’mim) among them,” like one who is dumb.       permitting the Sanctuary and the host to be trampled: to make the base of the Sanctuary and the host of heaven, which he cast down to the earth, to be a trampling for his feet, as is stated above (verse 10): “and it cast down to the ground some of the host and some of the stars.”         the Sanctuary and the host: Heb. (וְצָבָא וְקֹדֶשּׁ = wetzaba’ weqodesh). The “vav” [of וְקֹדֶשּׁ = weqodesh] is superfluous, and there are many such instances in Scripture, e.g. (Ps. 76:7): “chariot (וָרֶכֶב = warekeb) and horse were stunned,” and also, in the language of people, some speak that way.

                8:14. Until evening and morning, two thousand and three hundred: I saw an interpretation in the name of Rav Saadia Gaon for this matter, but it has already passed, and he interpreted further “until evening and morning,” that evening about which it says (Zech. 14:7): “and it shall come to pass that at eventide it shall be light,” and we are confident that our God’s Word will stand forever; it will not be nullified. I say, however, that the (עֶרֶב = ‘ereb) and (בֹּקֶר = boqer) stated here are a gematria, and there is support for this matter from two reasons: 1) that this computation should coincide with the other computation at the end of the Book, and 2) that Gabriel said to Daniel later on in this chapter (verse 26): “And the vision of the evening and the morning is true.” Now, if he had not hinted that the computation was doubtful, why did he repeat it to say that it was true? And the seer was commanded to close up and to seal the matter, and to him, too, the matter was revealed in a closed and sealed expression, but we will hope for the promise of our king for end after end, and when the end passes, it will be known that the expounder has erred in his interpretation, and the one who comes after him will search and expound in another manner. This can be interpreted [as follows]: namely, that (עֶרֶב בֹּקֶר = ‘ereb boqer) has the numerical value of 574, ע = 70; ר = 200; ב = 2; ב = 2; ק = 100; ר = 200 (= ereb boqer). Added together, this equals 574; plus 2,300, we have 2,874.        and the holy ones shall be exonerated: The iniquity of Israel shall be expiated to bring an end to the decrees of their being trodden upon and crumbled since they were exiled in their first exile to Egypt, until they will be redeemed and saved with a perpetual salvation by our king Messiah, and this computation terminates at the end of 1, 290 years from the day the daily sacrifice was removed, and that is what is stated at the end of the Book (12:11): “And from the time the daily sacrifice is removed, and the silent abomination placed, will be 1,290 years,” and no more, for our king Messiah will come and remove the silent abomination. The daily sacrifice was removed six years before the destruction of the Second Temple, and an image was set up in the Heichal. Now that was the seventeenth day of Tammuz, when Apostomos burned the Torah, put an end to the daily sacrifice, and set up an image in the Heichal, as we learned in Tractate Ta’anith (26b), but for the six years that I mentioned, I have no explicit proof, but there is proof that the daily sacrifice was abolished less than a complete shemittah cycle before the destruction, for so did Daniel prophesy about Titus (9:27): “… and half the week of years [shemittah cycle] he will curtail sacrifice and meal-offering,” meaning that a part of the week of years before the destruction, sacrifices will be abolished. So it is explained below in this section. Let us return to the earlier matters, how the computation of “evening and morning, two thousand and three hundred(2300),” fits exactly with the time commencing from the descent to Egypt to terminate at the end of 1,290 years until the day that the daily sacrifice was abolished: 210 years they were in Egypt. 480 years transpired from the Exodus until the building of the Temple. 410 years the Temple existed. 70 years was the Babylonian exile. 420 years the Second Temple stood. 1,290 should be added until the end of days, totaling: 2,880. Subtract six years that the daily sacrifice was removed before the destruction, for Scripture counted 1,290 years only from the time that the daily sacrifice was removed. Here you have the computation of “evening and morning, and 2,300” added to the computation. Fortunate is he who waits and reaches the end of days 45 years over 1,290 [years]. We may say that the king Messiah will come according to the first computation, and he will subsequently be concealed from them for forty-five years. Rabbi Elazar HaKalir established (in the concluding poem of the portion dealing with the month of Nissan): in the foundation of his song: six weeks of years, totaling 42. We may say that the three years that did not total a week of years he did not count. And I found it so in Midrash Ruth that the king Messiah is destined to be concealed for forty-five years after he reveals himself, and proof is brought from these verses.

                8:15. that I sought understanding: I was longing that they should enable me to understand [the vision] from heaven.

                8:16. in the midst of the Ulai: in the midst of the river.        and he called: i.e., the man. and said: to the angel, “You, Gabriel.”       enable this one to understand the vision: explain the vision to this one.      this one: Heb. (לְהַלָּז = lehallaz), an expression of esteem, as he called him חֲמוּדוֹת, one of desirable qualities. Wherever it says הַלָז it refers to a person of form, and from here they learned in the Aggadah: Isaac resembled his father in form and in likeness, for he is called הָאִישּׁ הַלָז in the section commencing, “Now it came to pass when Isaac was old.” (Gen. 39: 6): “… and Joseph was fair in form and fair in appearance.” This is the beauty enumerated among the five things that a father merits for his son.

                8:17. to the time of the end.: For many days this vision will come about.

              8:18. I fell into a sound sleep: An expression of slumber and bewilderment.  and stood me up where I had been standing: Where my feet were standing.

                8:19. for it is the end of the time: for it is at the time of the end of many days.

                8:20. The kings of Media and Persia: The two horns represent two ruling nations, as I explained above.

                8:21. the first king: He is Alexander of Macedon who slew Darius, the son of Esther, as we find in the book of Josiphon (ch. 9).

                8:22. And the broken one: that you saw being broken.        in whose stead stood four: as is written in the narration of the dream above (verse 8), [there] are four kingdoms which will arise from that nation, for Alexander of Macedon divided his kingdom upon his death [into parts for] four youths, and Joseph called them four heads of a leopard in his book, and they were not the sons of the king.       but not with its strength: The last ones will not be as strong as the first king, but they will be weaker than him.

                8:23. And at the end of their kingdom, when the transgressors have been destroyed: When the end arrives, and the wicked of Israel in the Second Temple will be finished, a brazen-faced person will rise; he is Titus.

                8:24. And his power will become strong: and not with might but with smooth talk, as is explained at the end of the Book (11: 21).     and he will destroy wondrously: and with wonder upon wonder, he will destroy.        and he will prosper and accomplish: his desire.  and he will destroy the mighty: many nations.     and the people of the holy ones: Israel, who believe in the Torah.

                8:25: And through his intellect, he will cause the deceit in his hand to prosper: And because he is clever wherever he turns and [because] he will prosper, he will hold onto deceit with his hand.     and in his heart he will become proud: Heb.(יַגְדִּיל  =  yag’dil), lit, he will grow larger.     and in tranquility he will destroy many: With guile and with smooth talk he will destroy many who dwell with him with a covenant and in peace.        and over the Prince of princes he will stand: He will speak blasphemously about Heaven. This is the meaning of the dream written above (verse 11): [“And until the Prince of the host it grew.”]        and without strength he will be broken: And without strength he will be broken, through a mosquito, the weakest of creatures, which entered his nose, as we learned in Tractate Gittin (56b).

                8:26. And the vision of the evening and the morning: which was said to you in the preceding dream, is true.       and you close up the vision: Do not explain it, but close it up in your heart, for it will come about in many days.

                8:27. became broken: Heb. (נִהְיֵיתִי = nih’yiti), an expression of calamity (הוָה = huwah) and breach; i.e., I was pained because of this trouble and I was depressed.      the king’s work: for I was appointed over the assignment of the work of the government of Belshazzar’s kingdom, for Nebuchadnezzar his father had appointed him, as is written in the beginning of the Book (2:48): “… and gave him dominion over all the capital cities of Babylon.”    and I was terrified about the vision: Heb. (עַל הַמַרְאֶה וָאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵם = ‘al hamar’’h wa’esh’tomem).         but no one realized: that I was terrified because I restrained myself before the princes.

                9:1. In the first year of Darius, the son of Ahasuerus: This is not the Ahasuerus of the days of Haman, for he was the king of Persia, whereas this one was Darius the Mede who was crowned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans when Belshazzar was slain, as is written above (6:1): “And Darius the Mede took (sic) the kingdom.”          

                9:2. Contemplated the calculations: Heb. (בִּינֹתִי בַּסְפָרִים = binoti bas’pharim).          the number of the years, etc.: I contemplated the calculation of the years, for I thought about what Jeremiah (29:10) prophesied: “For at the completion of seventy years of Babylon I will remember you,” and I thought that this remembrance is the building of the Temple, and that the seventy years end in the first year of Darius the Mede, since the kingdom of Babylon stretched forth a hand upon Israel, when Nebuchadnezzar vanquished Jehoiakim to be his slave. Now that was in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign, as the master said (Meg. 11b): “In the first year he conquered Nineveh; in the second year he went up and vanquished Jehoiakim.” Figure from that year until now, and you will find them [the 70 years]. This calculation is found also in the Mishnah of Seder Olam (ch. 28), and we learned there that in the year of Belshazzar’s death were 70 years from the day that Nebuchadnezzar ascended the throne: seventy minus one since the day that he conquered Jehoiakim, and yet one more year for Babylon, which Darius completed. And when I [Daniel] saw that the redemption was not hastening to come, I contemplated and put my heart to the calculation, and I knew that I should not have counted according to the conquest of Jehoiakim but [according] to the destruction of Jerusalem, when 70 years will be complete from the exile of Zedekiah, when Jerusalem was destroyed. And there are yet 18 years to come, for this exile was in the eighteenth year counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, as we learned in Seder Olam: “They were exiled in the seventh year; they were exiled in the eighth year; they were exiled in the eighteenth year; they were exiled in the nineteenth year.” Our Sages in Tractate Megillah (11b) explained that they were exiled in the exile of Jeconiah in the seventh year, counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, which is the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. They were exiled a second time in the eighteenth year, counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, which is the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.

                9:1. In the first year of Darius, the son of Ahasuerus: This is not the Ahasuerus of the days of Haman, for he was the king of Persia, whereas this one was Darius the Mede who was crowned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans when Belshazzar was slain, as is written above (6:1): “And Darius the Mede took (sic) the kingdom.”          

                9:2. Contemplated the calculations: Heb. בִּינֹתִי בַּסְפָרִים = binoti bas’pharim).          the number of the years, etc.: I contemplated the calculation of the years, for I thought about what Jeremiah (29:10) prophesied: “For at the completion of seventy years of Babylon I will remember you,” and I thought that this remembrance is the building of the Temple, and that the seventy years end in the first year of Darius the Mede, since the kingdom of Babylon stretched forth a hand upon Israel, when Nebuchadnezzar vanquished Jehoiakim to be his slave. Now that was in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign, as the master said (Meg. 11b): “In the first year he conquered Nineveh; in the second year he went up and vanquished Jehoiakim.” Figure from that year until now, and you will find them [the 70 years]. This calculation is found also in the Mishnah of Seder Olam (ch. 28), and we learned there that in the year of Belshazzar’s death were 70 years from the day that Nebuchadnezzar ascended the throne: seventy minus one since the day that he conquered Jehoiakim, and yet one more year for Babylon, which Darius completed. And when I [Daniel] saw that the redemption was not hastening to come, I contemplated and put my heart to the calculation, and I knew that I should not have counted according to the conquest of Jehoiakim but [according] to the destruction of Jerusalem, when 70 years will be complete from the exile of Zedekiah, when Jerusalem was destroyed. And there are yet 18 years to come, for this exile was in the eighteenth year counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, as we learned in Seder Olam: “They were exiled in the seventh year; they were exiled in the eighth year; they were exiled in the eighteenth year; they were exiled in the nineteenth year.” Our Sages in Tractate Megillah (11b) explained that they were exiled in the exile of Jeconiah in the seventh year, counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, which is the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. They were exiled a second time in the eighteenth year, counting from the conquest of Jehoiakim, which is the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.

                10:2. had been mourning: when he saw that Cyrus had curtailed the construction of the Temple, for he had ordered to commence it, and he reneged because of the missive of the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin: Rehum the adviser and Shimshai the scribe, as is written in the Book of Ezra (4:5).        three weeks of days: twenty-one years. They are eighteen years from the one year of Darius the Mede, when he [Daniel] put to his heart to calculate the seventy years of the exile, as it is written: until the second year of Darius the Persian, the son of Esther, who built the Temple. As for the three extra years, I do not know whether he started to fast before them or whether the duration of the acceptance of the vow of his fasts terminated three years after the building.

                10:20: And now I shall return to battle with the prince of Persia: and I know that I will be victorious, but when the time of the kingdom of the heathens [Greece Malbim ed., Antiochus Vilna ed.] arrives, I know that I will leave, and he will enter after thirty-four years of the existence of the Temple. Alexander of Macedon will rise, for although Israel was subjugated by the kings of Persia in those days, they exacted a light tribute from them, and they did not burden them heavily because the Holy One, blessed be He, caused them to have mercy on them. But the kings of the heathens [Greece, Antiochus] laid a heavy yoke upon them.

                11:1. As for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede: when the kingdom of Babylon fell, and the rule of Media and Persia commenced, and the princes of Media and Persia entreated the Omnipresent to make the yoke of their frightful rule heavy upon you, I, Gabriel, stood as a supporter and as a stronghold for Michael, your prince.

                11:2. Behold three more kings: Our Sages of blessed memory in Seder Olam (ch. 28) said: “This refers to Cyrus, Ahasuerus, and Darius who rebuilt the Temple. Now what is the meaning of fourth’? The fourth, counting from Media.” In the book of Joseph Ben Gorion, however, it is written that Cyrus had a son who succeeded him before the reign of Ahasuerus, named Cambyses.       and when he becomes strong: i.e., Darius.      with his wealth, he will arouse: his entire kingdom to wage war against the kingdom of the heathens.

                11:3. And a mighty king will arise: in Greece, viz. Alexander of Macedon.       and do according to his will: with Darius the king of Persia, and he will slay him and receive his kingdom, and the Persians will be enslaved by the heathens [the Greeks.

                11:4. And when he arises, his kingdom will be broken: When he becomes very strong and reaches the height of his strength, his kingdom will be broken, meaning that he will die. and it will be divided to the four directions of the heavens: It is written in the book of Ben Gorion (ch. 14) that he divided his kingdom between the four heads of his family; they are the four heads of the leopard that Daniel saw (above 7:6): “And behold another one, like a leopard, and it had four wings of a bird on its back, and the beast had four heads.” He gave this one dominion in the east, this one in the west, this one in the north and this one in the south, and so in the first vision (8:8): “an appearance of four sprouted in its stead,” concerning the horns of the he-goat.         but not to his posterity: The dominion will not come to his sons but to his family members. [The word] אַחֲרִיתוֹ coincides only with the expression of sons, and so Scripture states (Amos 4:2): “and you shall be borne on shields and your posterity (אַחֲרִיתְכֶן = ’atharith’ken) in fishing boats,” which Jonathan renders: and your sons (sic) and daughters in fishermen’s boats.          and not like the dominion that he ruled: but the kingdom of these will not be as strong as that of Alexander.       for his kingdom will be uprooted: to divide to these four heads and to others besides these.

                11:5. And the king of the south will overwhelm: The head who will reign in the south will be stronger than the head opposite him who reigns in the north, and [stronger] than his officers.

                11:6. to make a compromise: a compromise of peace between him and her father.  will not retain, etc.: The king of the north will capture her, those who brought her, and her father who begot her and supported her in her time of trouble.       will not retain: The arm of those who brought her [will not retain] strength to stand, [and her father will not prevail] before him, neither he nor his arm, meaning his mighty men.         will be surrendered: into the hands of the king of the north, she and those who brought her, and he who begot her, i.e., her father.

                11:7. A scion of her roots will arise: a son sitting on his position, on the throne of the kingdom.         and he will come to the army: to the king of the north.         into the stronghold of the king of the north: i.e., in the cities of his strength, in his fortresses.      and he will succeed in them: Heb. (וְעָשָׂה בָהֶם = we‘asah bahem), lit. and he will succeed against them.           and take hold: and he will conquer them.

                11:8. their princes: [as translated,] their princes.

                11:9. And he will come into the kingdom of the king of the south: Through the kingdom of the king of the south, who was her father’s father, he will return to his land, which is Egypt, as is stated above: “will bring in captivity to Egypt.”

                11:10. And his sons: [i.e., the sons] of the king of the north will agitate.        and he will come: Heb. (וּבָא בוֹא = uba’ bo’), like (וְהוֹלֵך הָלוֹך = weholek halok). The son of the king of the north will come and pass to the land of the south.         and he will return and agitate: against the king of the south.         until his stronghold: his fortified city.

                11:11. will wage war: will fight against the people.       and the multitude will be given into his hand: [i.e., the multitude] of the king of the north [will be given] into his hand.

                11:12. And the multitude will be raised up: that of the king of the north, to become very haughty, for they planned in their hearts to be victorious in the war.       and he will fell myriads: many of the army of the king of the south.          but he will not prevail: Nevertheless, the victory of the war will not be his.

                11:14. and the sons of the renegades of your people will exalt themselves to bring about the vision: I saw in the name of Rav Saadia Gaon that they were the renegades of Israel and their company.

                11:15. and the people of his chosen ones: will be in the war.        will have no strength to stand: before the king of the north, and although there is a superfluous “wav” here, it is customary for Scripture to speak in this manner as in, for example: “As for its nobles, there are none (וְאֵין = we’ein) who proclaim the kingdom,” Isaiah (34:12).

                11:16. will do: The king of the north, who comes to the king of the south, [will do] as he wishes.           in the land of beauty: in the land of Israel.           and he will destroy it: He will destroy the land with his army.

                11:17. And he will set his face: i.e., the king of the north, to come into the strength of the entire kingdom of the king of the south.       and the upright will be with him: and Israel will be with the king of the south. Also with them will the king of the north battle in those days.        and he will succeed: Heb. וְעָשָׂה = we‘asah) , lit. and he will do.       Now the daughter of the women he will give him to destroy her: This is the nation of Israel, [referred to in Song of Songs 1:8 as] “the fairest of women.” The king of the north will command the general of his army to destroy her. I say that he is Antiochus, the king of Greece, who issued decrees against Israel, and he commanded his general, Phillip, to kill whoever identified himself as a Jew, as is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 18).       but it will not stand: this counsel of his.     and she will not be for him: the daughter of the women, for Mattathias the son of Johanan will rise and break off his [Antiochus’s] yoke from Israel.

                11:18. and the Prince will terminate his blasphemy to Him: His reproach and his blasphemy, with which he blasphemed the Holy One, blessed be He, and Israel, as is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 20), and He punished him, for He smote him with evil boils while he was in transit, for he went to besiege Jerusalem, and his flesh became putrid, his limbs fell off and he ordered his slaves to bring him back to Antioch, but he did not manage to get there before he died of evil illnesses.

                11:19. to the strongholds of his land: to return to his fortified city.

                11:20. And one who removes the oppressor will stand on his base: and Mattathias the son of Johanan, who removed the oppressor from Israel, and who is the glory of the kingdom of Israel, will strengthen himself on his base on Mt. Modin, for he will be a prince and a mighty man, he and all his descendants after him, viz. the Hasmoneans.        in a few days it will be broken: In a few days, their kingdom will be broken.         but not with anger: of another nation.       and not with war: but from themselves and with themselves, that Hyrcanus and Aristobulus will be jealous over the throne.

                11:21. And a contemptible person will stand on his base: Then the kingdom of Rome will strengthen itself on its stand, as it says (Obad. 1:2): “you are very despised,” and the Romans will rise and take the kingdom from the Greeks.

                11:22. And the arms of inundation: And the mighty of the kingdom, who previously were inundating and powerful, will be inundated before the Romans and be broken.     and also the king with whom they made a covenant: Also the king of Israel, who will form a treaty with them, will ultimately be inundated from before him, for [the Romans] will violate the treaty and betray them, as our Sages of blessed memory said: “Twenty-six years they kept their trust with Israel, but later they subjugated them.”

                11:23. And from the alliance with him he will work deceitfully: And from the alliance that Rome will make with Israel, he will work deceitfully, for he will not reveal his evil plan, and he will go up: from his place.        and overpower: in all places around the land of Judea: in Edom, in Ammon, and in Moab.        with few people: He will not require a massive army, for the king of Judea will aid him, and so it is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 23).

                11:24. plunder and spoils and belongings he will distribute to them: He will distribute to those who accept their yoke upon themselves until they conquer all with flattery and smooth speech.       will distribute: Heb. (יִבְזוֹר = yib’zor, like יִפְזוֹר = yiph’zor). and so (Ps. 68:31): “he scatters (בִּזַר = bizar) peoples.”         and about the fortresses: of the nations he will devise in his plans-to station [in them] the heads of his troops until the time that all will be conquered under them.

                11:25. and he will not stand: the king of the south.        because they will devise plans against him: They will plot against him to fell him through the bribery that they will bribe his officers to betray him, as he concludes: “and those who eat his food will break him.”

                11:26. his food: Heb. (פַּתבָּגוֹ = pathbago), his food; one who takes a portion from his table.

                11:27. As for the two kings: the officer of the Romans and the king with whom they made to covenant, which is mentioned above. That is Hyrcanus, who will form an alliance to aid him so that he, too, will aid him against Aristobulus his brother, ruling in Jerusalem.    their hearts are to do evil: to the people of your nation, to harm Judea.     and on one table: They will murmur lies about the kingdom of Aristobulus.          but it will not succeed: for Israel will not be surrendered to destruction in those days.     for there is still an end to the appointed time: of the destruction, at the end of sixty two weeks [of years], stated in this Book (9:25), and that appointed time is in the days of Agrippa, the son of Agrippa of the seed of Herod.

                11:28: And he will return: The Roman king [will return] to his land from [fighting] with the king of the south with many possessions.       and his heart is on the covenant with the holy ones: to abrogate his treaty with Israel.                   and he will succeed: Heb. (וְעָשָׂה = we‘asah), lit. and he will do, i.e., and he will succeed and return to his land.

                11:29. After a time: Heb. (לַמּוֹעֵד = lammo‘ed), after a time, but this coming will not be as successful as the first one mentioned above (verse 7): “A scion of her roots will arise etc.,” in which the king of the north succeeded over the king of the south, or like the last, meaning this second time, about which we said: “and he will return to his land” with many possessions.

                11:30. will come upon him: to battle with him.          companies: Heb. (צִיִים = tziyim).      Kittites: Romans, troops from the kingdom of Rome who will rebel against him.        and he will be crushed: He will be slightly broken.             and he will return and be wroth with the holy covenant: And he will return to his land and abrogate the treaty he had made with Israel.   and he will return and contemplate those who abandoned the holy covenant: He will put his mind to it and contemplate that Israel has abandoned the holy covenant (and law), and unwarranted hatred and controversy will increase in the Second Temple [era], as is written in the book of Josiphon (ch. 45), and they will shed innocent blood, and he will rely on this and know that he will succeed, and he will abrogate his treaty with them and provoke them.

                11:31. And arms from him will stand: He will send his officers and his mighty men to Jerusalem.           and they will profane: the stronghold of the Temple.

                11:32. And those who deal wickedly against the covenant: The renegades of Israel, who will join him and deal wickedly against their covenant with their fellows, he will flatter with smooth speech.        but the people that knows its God: but the devout of Israel, who will adhere to the fear of their God will grasp it and not abandon it.        and perform: their Torah.

                11:33. And the wise of the people: the wise among them, such as the household of Rabbi [Judah Hanasi] and the sages of the generations.         will allow the public to understand: They will preach the Torah to the common people and encourage them to adhere to it.        will stumble: in their exile by the sword and by flames, etc.

                11:34. they will be helped with a little help: Through bribes and the money that they will pay tribute to their enemies, they will be helped.

                11:35. will stumble to clarify some of them: They will stumble in the calculations of the end, for they will put their mind to refine them and to resolve them to know them, but they will err concerning them.

                11:36. And the king will do as he wishes: the kingdom of Rome.       and he will succeed until the fury is spent: until the wrath of the Holy One, blessed be He, returns from Israel.          when it will be finished and executed: when His decree will be finished. (כִּי = ki) is like (כַּאֲשֶׁר = ka’asher), when.

                11:37. And he will not contemplate the gods of his fathers: he will not put his mind to the Holy One, blessed be He, Who is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, his [i. e., Israel’s] forefathers.          the most desirable of women: the nation of Israel, [called] fairest of women.

                11:38. But the god of the strongholds: the god of the cherubim who will make a treaty with him.         on its base he will honor: for he will flatter the nations to be subservient to him.

                11:39. And he will construct: buildings.         for the fortresses of the strongholds with a foreign god: i.e., in honor of a foreign god.       whomever he will recognize, he will honor increasingly: He will increase the honor [and greatness] of those princes whom he will see fit to recognize their faces and to flatter.       and he will apportion: to them.     for a price: for little money.

                11:40. And at the time of the end: when our redemption draws near.      and the king of the north will storm over him: over the king of the south.

                12:1. Now at that time, Michael… will be silent: He will be silent like a mute person, for he will see the Holy One, blessed be He, judging by Himself and saying, “How will I destroy a great nation like this for the sake of Israel?”      and it will be a time of distress: in heaven there will be accusations against Torah scholars, [and there will be] plunderers and plunderers of plunderers, as our Rabbis said in the Aggadah in the last chapter of Kethuboth (112b).     your people will escape: The kingdom of Gog will be destroyed, and Israel will escape.      everyone who is found inscribed in the book: This is a short verse, [meaning] whoever is found inscribed in this Book, through the dreams inscribed in it (7:11): “until the beast is slain” ; (verse 18): “and the high holy ones will receive the kingdom.” All will be fulfilled.

                12:2. And many who sleep in the dust of the earth will awaken: The dead will come to life.

                12:3. And the wise: who engaged in the Torah and in the commandments, will shine like the brightness of the sky.

                12:7. and when they have ended shattering the strength of the holy people: Heb. נַפֵּץ( יַד = yad naphetz) , lit. shattering the hand. When Israel’s strength terminates, [similar to] (Deut. 32:36): “that power has vanished (אָזְלַת יַד = ’azelath yad) and nothing left to keep or abandon.”

                12:8. but I did not understand: I did not know what “the time of two times and a half” means.       what is the end of these: the end of these calculations.

                12:9. until the time of the end: until our redemption draws near.

                12:10. They will be clarified and whitened: [i. e.,] these calculations.        and… will be purified: [i.e.,] many [will be purified] by them to understand them.           and the wicked will pervert: the calculations by computing them incorrectly, and when they terminate, they will say that there is no more redemption.          will not understand: All the wicked [will not understand] them.            but the wise will understand: them when the time of the end arrives.

                12:11. And from the time the daily sacrifice was removed: in order to place a silent abomination in its stead, are days of one thousand two hundred and ninety years since the daily sacrifice was removed until it will be restored in the days of our King Messiah, and this calculation coincides with the calculation of (8:14): “evening and morning, two thousand and three hundred (2300)” from the day of their exile to Egypt until the final redemption: Egyptian exile 210; From their Exodus until the First Temple 480; First Temple 410; Babylonian exile 70; Second Temple 420; Totaling 1590. The daily sacrifice was removed six years before the destruction, which equals 1584. Add 1290, and the total sum is 2874; like the numerical value of בֹּקֶר עֶרֶב [574] plus 2300 [2874].

                12:12. Fortunate is he who waits etc.: Forty five years are added to the above number, for our King Messiah is destined to be hidden after he is revealed and to be revealed again. So we find in Midrash Ruth, and so did Rabbi Eleazar HaKalir establish (in the concluding poem of the morning service of the portion dealing with the month of Nissan): “and he will be concealed from them six weeks of years.”

                12:13. go to the end: You will depart to your everlasting home.      to your lot: to receive your portion with the righteous.         at the end of the days: Heb. (לְקֵץ הַיָמִין = leqetz hayamin), like (הַיָמִים בְּאַחֲרִית = hayamin be’acharith). We cannot interpret (הַיָמִין = hayamin) as an expression of the right hand, because it is mentioned in the Large Massorah among the six words that are unusual because they have a final “nun” at the end of the word, which serves instead of a “mem,” and there is none like them, e.g. (Job 31:10): “and may others (אֲחֵרִין = ’acharin) kneel upon her;” (ibid. 24:22): “and he is not sure of life (בַּחַיִין = bachayin) ” (Ezek. 4: 9): “take yourself wheat (חִטִין = chitin)”; (ibid. 26:18): “Now the isles (הָאִיִן= ha’iin) will tremble;” (Prov. 31:3): “to the pleasures of kings;” (here): “to the end of the days (הַיָמִין = hayamin).”}}

About mjmselim

Male, 68 in Oct., born in Jamaica, USA since 1961, citizen in 2002; cobbler for 40 plus years, retired, Christian since 1969; married to same wife since 1979; 6 daughters and 2 sons, with 8 grandkids. Slowly adapting to the digital world of computers and internet; hobby in digital editing.
This entry was posted in Bible & Scripture, Bible Reflections, Book of Daniel, Christian Doctrine, Christian Reflections, Prophecy. Bookmark the permalink.

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