Christian Biblical Reflections.29

(Christian Biblical Reflections.29. Here is submission or part 29 of CBR, pages 271-320 , of the Book of Ezekiel. mjmselim. Dec. 2019.)
Here is the Link in my OneDrive to the Adobe, Word 635, & WordPad files of the completed Major Prophets Chapter IV. These files will show the original format of the work, which is not able to be replicated in WordPress. I have also put the two files, pdf & word of volume 1 in the folder. In Ezekiel of have used the colored texts more frequent than in Isaiah or Jeremiah, as very helpful to follow the prophetic word of the Son of Man. I have again gone through the chapter to correct errors. I had circulated a few weeks ago a Chronological Chart of 100 years to answer I question sent to me; that chart I fond later had many errors, and some of a serious kind; they are corrected in this completed work. I encourage those who I sent the chart to replace it with what is in this work.
I tried to complete the work by December 7th, my 50th year in Christ. I expect to finish Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets (Chapter V, the last chapter of the Old Testament Books) within 3 months. If my health permits in the will & grace of God I would like to finish the entire New Testament within 6 months after chapter 5. I have again altered my style in Ezekiel as a necessity. I have tried to limit any speculative comments or views from this Book.

CBR files in PDF & Word:
https://1drv.ms/u/s!AgcwUEJ0moRUg_Ua3IHBwOxi9NWARA?e=2b3BsD

Here is the link to my Internet Archive.org library page for those interested:
https://archive.org/details/@mikemjm

 

Reflections on the Book of EZEKIEL & Summary of the Three Major Prophets:

It’s been a long journey to complete the Book of Ezekiel in our Reflections. I almost doubted if I would complete this 4th Chapter of Isaiah with Jeremiah & Ezekiel. I again found myself adapting to this new style of prophecy in Ezekiel, as I had to yield to that of Jeremiah, and Isaiah before him. I would be pleased if I am allowed to live to complete the Old Testament as the 5th Chapter of Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets, this completing one of the two Divine Hands of the Bible, namely the Old Testament, or the Hebrew Covenant, the TaNaKh. I almost feared the fate of Calvin & Grant (see the Selections) who both died leaving their work on the Book of Ezekiel unfinished. It is no longer certain if I might see the completion of the 3rd volume of Christian Biblical Reflections of the New Testament, the Christian Covenant, the 2nd Divine Hand of the Bible with focus on the 5 Key Books. But I do rejoice that on the 7th of this month I reached my 50th year in Christ, to Whom & for whom we owe all.
Ezekiel is dependent on Jeremiah and those before him; Jeremiah was contingent on Isaiah; Isaiah continued from the Poetical Books, especially David’s Psalms which King Hezekiah with Isaiah’s ministry completed in the form we now have. The 3 Major Prophets advanced from the Poetical & Historical Books; Isaiah on the Psalms & Deuteronomy. Genesis is the historical foundation for the God’s work in man, and as such the Law of Moses is built on that Foundation of God’s creation, His judgments, and His salvation of humanity, and of focus on His chosen & called people, the Israelites. We have from Genesis to Jeremiah drawn attention to these matters for the reader & believer, so we will not linger on those things at this moment. The Major Prophets are preparatory to Daniel & the Minor Prophets as the consummation & conclusion to the old dispensation, and the inauguration of the new economy & testament. The Intertestamental period, books, & history are transitional from the old to the new, and are of secondary but essential importance or value. The Major Prophets present a triple picture of the same thing; in like manner as the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew – Mark – Luke), being distinct from John’s Gospel; and so Daniel if added to the Major Prophets, is distinct from them. The names Isaiah & Jeremiah is related to Jehovah or Yah, whereas Ezekiel & Daniel is with Elohim or El. They all deal with the same message & vision, namely of God’s creation, judgment & salvation in relations to Israel & the Gentiles. We need to examine the Book of Ezekiel based on our previous digest & paraphrase, our targum, of the Text as presented above. The reader is encouraged to read & reflect on the Selections that we have added to the Reflections.

The Prophet-Priest Ezekiel, who will be introduced to us the Son of Man throughout the entire Book, which is a unique designation of his prophetic ministry, with important Messianic meaning. Though a Priest he is called to be a Prophet as a significant indicator of Israel’s state. Though Jeremiah was also of the priest family & tribe, he is no-where called a priest, but repeatedly ‘the Prophet’; whereas Ezekiel is called both Priest & Prophet, and as we said a moment ago, Son of Man. When he was about 25 years of age he was taken to Babylon, in the 11th year of Judah’s King Jehoiakim’s reign, which was the 8th year of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Daniel & his Hebrew companions had been now 7 years in Babylon. It’s important for us to note that Ezekiel & Daniel were contemporaries in the Captivity (with some overlapping of Jeremiah with them, since Jeremiah was some 45 years old when they were born, and his prophetic ministry lasted till the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity when they were in their twenties), unlike Jeremiah & Isaiah, who were separated by 4 generations (80 years). He is married at his calling & the 1st Vision; but no children are mentioned, as in Isaiah. King Jehoiachin was enthroned at the death of Jehoiakim in his 11th year, now five years later, Ezekiel is shown the Visions of God’s Glory.
The Vision of the 4 Living Creatures as 1 Living Creature with a Human form composed of Animals, or the Human-like Creature with the 4 faces of creatures of the creation, of man, lion, ox, & eagle. The details, the description, the appearance is a unique picture of a composite creature not seen before or after. Their movement is unique, energized by the Spirit of Life; their 16 faces & 16 wings defies our imagination; their wings & wheels & eyes are mysterious. But above the Living Creatures’ heads was a vision of a Man in splendor of fiery brightness & rainbow effulgence. This vision is said: “This was the appearance of the likeness of the Glory of Jehovah”. We must note that the Living Creatures are not here called Cherubim or Cherubs, later in chapter 10 Ezekiel will tell us they are Cherubim, or if you wish, Cherubims. If we wonder what this Vision is & what it means we must read on & look back, for it is all connected. After being shocked at the Vision, he hears the Lord’s Voice, and surely this is the Man enthroned above the Living Creatures or Cherubim. The Voice reveals to Ezekiel that the Nation of Israel, the Lord’s People, are a Rebellious House, and have continued in rebellion for generations. The Lord will attempt another time to recall them to Himself in obedience through the prophetic ministry of the Prophet Ezekiel as the Son of Man. To do this Ezekiel has the Spirit within to strengthen him, but he needs the food for that energy to operate; so he is given the Book or Scroll to eat, which will become his prophetic message of lamentations, mourning, & woe from the Lord to His People, though the word was sweet as honey in his mouth, but bitter in his stomach. The Book will continue to unfold as the third essential development of the Divine Purpose & Desire: as we have said: the Land, the Man, & the Book.
The Lord had reached a point with Israel that He was almost certain that the nation would not heed this call of repentance, even in their Captivity. In fact He stated that the Gentiles, of a strange speech, would more readily hear & heed the message than the Jews; as in the case of Nineveh or Persia. In the Exile & Captivity in Babylon, scattered throughout the empire, the Jews were to learn from their punishment the full meaning of their disobedience & violations against the Lord and His Covenant, as it was described in Deuteronomy, the which was only a generation ago re-discovered & re-covenanted in the 18th year of Judah’s King Josiah. Yet by the time King Josiah died in battle, in the middle of Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry the nation was reverting back to their perpetual rebellion. Now 10 years later Ezekiel is sent to reason with them, as did Isaiah; or plead with them, as did Jeremiah; but to no avail. So the Lord, in Ezekiel as the Watchman to the House of Israel, attempts anew with the prophetic call to His People in their Captivity, to preserve them till the judgment was finished, and the time came for their restoration. A dispensational responsibility was committed to Ezekiel as the Son of Man in order that the Divine Testimony to the world in the Gentiles might be made sure & clear, of which Daniel would take up in a fuller way. The Prophet would encounter rejection like the prophets before him, he would be persecuted; in this suffering he must seek to faithful to the Lord, as well as to stay alive. The nation in their leaders from kings, princes, nobles, priests, prophets, scribes, & scholars, all contributed to the Rebellious House, for which the Jews were now in Exile & Captivity.
To illustrate the pending doom, and the state leading to it, the Prophet, as Son of Man, must a Sign & living Parable to the nation. Jerusalem will be besieged & destroyed as retributive justice in order that some might be rehabilitated. The Prophet must lay on one side for 390 days, then on the other side for 40 days, he is to enact symbolically the siege of Jerusalem, he is not to turn from side to side, and must prepare his own limited bread and provide a limited amount of water for the entire 390 days, which he is told represents 390 years, and the 40 days is 40 years. He must cook it in an unclean manner, to which as a priest he objected, so cow’s dung was allowed in place of human dung (feces, shit). The 390 days of years is the period from the Divided Kingdom of King Jeroboam the 1st of Israel’s 10 tribes, who rebelled against the House of David over excessive taxes; and King Rehoboam of Judah, with Benjamin and the Tribe of Levi, who was an unwise son of Solomon, in his refusal to address the grievance of the people. The 40 days of years is the remaining years of the Captivity before the restoration. The limited bread & water is the experience of suffering for the Jews in Exile & Captivity. Another sign is given to them in Ezekiel, as Son of Man, shaving off his hair & beard, dividing it into 3 parts and in 3 acts of burning, striking, & scattering, to show & testify of the Divine Retribution for their abominable crimes against the Lord, against His Covenant, & His Sanctuary. But His justice & righteousness is fair, and seasoned with mercy, ready to change His Heart & Mind at the least sign of genuine repentance.
The Prophet continues in warning the People as a faithful Watchman. The Land of Israel & Judah will not be spared in the invasion of the coming power. The idolatry & immorality committed everywhere & in every form will be abolished. Though a Remnant will survive, it will be in fear, shame, & hiding. The Lord at any time could & would reverse or alter or mitigate the disaster soon to occur; but His People refuse; so in turn He must vindicate Himself, His Name, His Word, His Promises, and all that He involved Himself in with Israel & Judah. Ezekiel was called in King Jehoiachin’s 5th year of Captivity, the next date recorded is the 6th year, which we must believe to follow from the 5th year, so understand this is the 6th year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity in Babylon, still regarded by God & man as the rightful heir to the Throne of Judah & Jerusalem. God was still dealing with Israel in relations to its headship, despite the vassal King appointed by the Babylonian King to sit on the Throne in Jerusalem, namely Jehoiachin’s uncle Mattaniah, renamed by the Babylonian King, Zedekiah. Once King Zedekiah was killed, Jehoiachin continued to be the rightful regal heir to David’s Throne, a King in exile, the Davidic Kingdom in suspension or abeyance. The lawful or rightful King from Zedekiah to the present has never succeeded (and that includes John Hyrcanus the Maccabean (Priest-King) or King Herod 1st, the Great, the Idumean, client-king of Rome), since Judah & Israel have become Lo-Ammi, a non-people to the Lord. Nor is the Kingdom or the Throne abolished by God, put all is pending a dispensational change yet to be manifest & realized.

Ezekiel was at home, visiting him were Judah’s Elders, the Lord also decides to visit him. The Prophet’s Vision was of that Effulgent & Radiant Man of Burning Splendor enthroned above the Living Creatures that he saw in the Plain near the River Chebar. Here the Lord of Glory appears to judge the Elders & Leaders, the Priesthood & Monarchy. He was in spirit, in the ‘visions of God’, by the Lord transported to Jerusalem, while the Elders in his home was sitting there wondering. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, look toward the north and see at the entrance of the gate of the Altar this Image of Jealousy. Again, Son of Man, see their deeds; the great abominations Israel’s House do, that I should desert My Sanctuary?’ The Lord leads the Son of Man through Jerusalem’s Temple & City, showing him the abominations, idolatry, & violence in offence & insult to the Lord for which reason He must destroy them, and abandoned His House. The Lord must go deeper. He turns the Prophet’s attention to a slaughter of the Jews at the Altar, led by a Man clothed in white linen, with a writer’s inkhorn, a scribal pen at His side. The Glory of the God of Israel moved from above the Cherub to the House’s doorway. The Lord instructed the Man with the inkhorn to go through Jerusalem and mark those who are visibly repentant, the other men who carried weapons of slaughter were told to follow Him in Jerusalem, beginning at God’s Sanctuary, and slaughter anyone & everyone without pity who are not marked as repentant; and defile Jerusalem with the corpses. Ezekiel shocked at the massacre, prostrate pleaded to the Lord; the Lord tells him that the nation, both Israel & Judah, have done this very thing in the Land in defiance to the Lord, and He must punish them with their own ways & deeds. This was a horrific visual vision for the Prophet to see & relate to Leaders & Elders of Judah. We are being trained by the Word to understand the nature of prophetic visions & divine prophecy, both as to what the prophet saw & heard & experienced in spirit & mind. The Spirit of God operating in such a way to bring Ezekiel into spiritual things of a spiritual world. All prophecy is of such nature, though the methods & messages may change. False prophecy seeks to imitate this in a poor & bizarre way.
The Prophet sees another Vision of the Throne above the Cherubim, from which the linen clothed Man to retrieve from below the Cherub burning-coals in His Hands to sprinkle over the City of Jerusalem. Ezekiel continued to see in visions a spectacular picture revealed to Him of God’s Glory & His Movements, which we will also be awestruck in contemplating what is written. The sound of the Cherubs’ wings was as the Voice of God, Shaddai, when He speaks. In the describing the 4 faces of the Cherub, three are repeated as in the 1st Vision, human, lion, & eagle; but the Ox is not named, but instead it says: ‘1st was of Cherub (ox-shaped, calf-like, bull-form)’This informs us that the distinct (I was about to write ‘natural’) face of a Cherub is ox-like, which is often overlooked by so many for so long. The entire Vision of the Cherubim or Living Creatures is that of Creation as it pertains to Judgment & Salvation. The Spirit then transported the Prophet in spirit to East Gate of Jehovah’s House, showing him the Remnant who refuse the Words of Jeremiah as to submission to & cooperation with the King of Babylon, but they are determined to save themselves in the sins & disobedience. So the Lord must reduce the Remnant to a smaller Remnant in His judgment on the nation. The City is a large Kettle and they are the meat being boiled. Again in shock at the vision he prostrates pleading with the Lord concerning the Remnant. The Lord’s Word to him was that the Remnant will survive even after full judgment, that they will be restored & renewed after their repentance, that they will live with God in a New Covenant. At that point: ‘The Cherubim raised their wings, the wheels beside them; and God’s Glory was above them. Jehovah’s Glory moved out of the City and stood on the mountain east of the City’. ‘The Spirit raised him, transported him in the Vision by God’s Spirit to the Captivity Remnant in Chaldea. The Vision vanished. Ezekiel related to the Captivity Remnant Jehovah’s Visions’.
The Son of Man lives in a House of Rebels, estranged from God. The Lord instructs him to act out a scene of the departing exiles, with a few stuff, trying to escape by the night. This signifies & illustrates the Prince in Jerusalem (King Zedekiah), and the Remnant of the Jews with him will be exiled in shame & confusion, taken to Babylon to be killed. The nearby nations in their small bands that helped the Jews will likewise be punished in their resistance to Babylon. Yet the Lord will spare a Remnant to survive unto Himself & and a testimony to the Gentiles concerning their crimes. The end is a desolate Land of her people. The word & vision is sure, and it will now quickly be executed to its fulfillment.
The false prophets are a primary cause for the state of things with the Jewish Remnant, telling them the Lord says everything is OK, that it will soon be over, that peace is at hand. They are like builders who cheapen their work by untempered mortar, by falsification of the quality of their material. These daubers are deceiving the Lord’s People, destroying the Jews, and encouraging the Remnant to persist in their sins of idolatry, wickedness, and immorality. But soon they will be shut up for good.
The Lord then opens the eyes of the Son of Man, in the 7th year of Jehoiakim’s Captivity, to see the Elders of Judah seeking from the Prophet what he’s seen & heard from the Lord, yet in their heart set in idolatry & deceit. The Lord will treat them with priority of judgment & condemnation. The idolater & deceiver will both be led to complete ruin, and cut off from the Lord’s People. The House of Israel will soon be purged to return to the Lord, never again to stray or betray. In the day of Divine Retribution only the righteous like Noah, Daniel, & Job will barely escape judgment or destruction. The severe punishment on Jerusalem will not exterminate or annihilate the Remnant in Exile & Captivity. The nation has become a useless fruitless vine-tree, not even good fire-wood; but they must be consumed in divine wrath. The Son of Man is shown the history of Jerusalem with the Lord. She was an unclean child from birth in Canaan, having an Amorite father & a Hittite mother; she was abandoned as an abortion, whose navel-cord was left uncut; she laid as a babe in blood, alone in the field to die (in Egypt). The Lord came by and had pity on the child, and commanded her to live. She grew in her care, she became beautiful, an attractive young virgin; her breasts were developed, her hair was long; yet she still was naked without clothes. Again, the Lord noticed her, and He pitied her; He saw she was now an appealing beauty; he proposed to her with His robe to cover her, and He espoused her to Himself in covenant & vow, bathing her, clothing her, anointing her, adorning her with fineries, jewels, costly & imported items; He made her astonishingly beautiful in a royal estate. Her fame spread far and wide among the Gentiles, she was desired as a most beautiful perfect woman. She was so self-absorbed she played the Harlot with her fame & shame, treated as a sexual object with every visitor that wanted her. She revealed as a popular prostitute for the lovers of her beauty & her body; she perfected the art of prostitution, inventing her own craft as a one-of-kind whore. She had used & abused her Husband’s gold, silver, & jewels; His clothes, food, & His children, who she sacrificed to idols. She forgot her past, and His mercy & kindness; but continued in or shameless fame to teach others her ways; her brothels were everywhere. She was insatiable: the huge Egyptians did not satisfy her, nor the Assyrians, nor the Chaldeans. She no longer needed their gifts & money in payment for her prostitution & immorality, but she continued in her disgusting sexuality by paying her lovers. But the Lord, as a jealous vindictive Husband will cause her lovers to turn on her as her haters, despising her whoredom, disgusted with her immorality; they will destroy her, strip her, and cast her out. She is just like her mother, just as her sisters in her adultery, but desired to reach greater fame in becoming worse than them, in fact more shameless & defiling than any other woman. The Lord will cure her of this disease and restore her to a former purity & health, re-establish His Covenant with her, make her forever ashamed of her past, her sisters, and herself. With this vision of Israel before the eyes of the Son of Man, the Prophet’s mind & spirit would be traumatized into a paralyzing silence.
The Lord must now turn from Israel as an Unfaithful Wife to the nation among the Gentiles. So the Prophet is given a Riddle & Parable in Vision concerning the Two Great Eagles & the Cedar Trees & the Vine: The King of Babylon as the Great Eagle came to Jerusalem (the Cedar Tree) and took the King & the princes, (the Twigs) with many other captives to Babylon to reduce Jerusalem to a lowly kingdom as vassal to Babylon; he took of the Royal Seed (the Twig) in covenant & oath replanted it in Babylon by the rivers; it grew & flourished in the city of commerce, it was seeded & planted in a good soil, to grow as a Willow Tree. It grew into a spreading Vine rooted & leaning towards the King of Babylon. But Jerusalem’s King rebelled against the King of Babylon, breaking covenant; as a well-watered Vine its roots spread towards a 2nd Great Eagle (Egypt) to be watered thereby & to be valued by it, and be supplied with weapons & warriors, to resist & escape the King of Babylon. But it will not prosper, the Lord will make the King of Babylon destroy both Jerusalem & Egypt. King Zedikiah & the Jewish Remnant will be destroyed by Babylon; but a Remnant will be replanted in Israel to prosper & grow to a fine cedar tree among all the trees of the field, never again to be over exalted or under abased: ‘The trees of the field will know Jehovah cut down the tall tree, exalted the low tree, dried the green tree, and made the dry tree flourish’.
Another prophetic lesson concerns the parable of the ‘fathers sour grapes, setting the children’s teeth on edge’. This is wrong; the father’s sins must not be paid by his children, nor the children’s crimes paid by the parents. Every sinner who sins in any evil thing of any violation of the Mosaic Law or God’s Covenant must pay for their own personal sins & crimes. If the parents are sinners like the children, or the children sinners like the parents, only then they must all pay. But Israel objects to the Lord’s judgment that the one shares the guilt & price of the other. The Lord responds that that is wrong; the righteous must be treated as righteous, the wicked as wicked. So he deals with His People; and He pleads for them to repent & live, for ‘He takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked’.
Another prophetic lesson is in a Lamentation for the Princes of Israel concerning Mother Israel as a Lioness & a Vine. As a Lioness she made one of her cubs to be a terrifying Young Lion, till the Gentiles heard about him, and caught him in their pit, and with hooks dragged him to Egypt. So she took another cub to become another terrifying Young Lion; but again the Gentiles heard, snared him, and dragged him to Babylon, and caged him, never again to roar in Judah. Mother Israel as a Vine well-watered & very fruitful , desirable rods for the Gentiles’ scepters, she was exalted; but they turned against her, uprooted her, tossed her to the ground, she withered dry, her rods broken and thrown in the fire; she was replanted in a waterless place, she is destined to the fire, her fruit devoured, they will no longer desire her rods for their scepters: “This is a Lamentation of Lamentations .”

In King Jehoiachin’s 7th year of Captivity, some of Israel’s Elders were sitting with Ezekiel to seek info from the Lord. The Son of Man is told to judge the Leaders of Israel as unfit to inquire of the Lord because of all their sins, crimes, & abominations. The Lord rehearses Israel’s history from the Exodus to Wilderness to the Promised Land, that He demanded of them to forsake their idolatry, but they refused. He had covenanted with them, given them His Law & His Sabbaths to preserve His Name & Testimony among the Gentiles. Israel was uncooperative, ungrateful, & unconcerned with His Holiness. Their ways enraged Him to destroy them, to exile them to captivity among the Gentiles. They became so vile & cruel that they sacrificed babies to their idols; they polluted themselves & others with their whorish ways; they said: ‘We’ll be as the Gentiles, as the families of the countries nearby, to serve wood & stone.’ He will regather them for judgment, to rid them of adultery & idolatry; He will consume them in His fire. But to all this the House of Israel & the Jews of Jerusalem said: ‘Is he not a speaker of parables’? The prophecies continue in the Son of Man’s prophecy against Jerusalem’s Sanctuaries with an unsheathed sword for their state. The sword of slaughter & vengeance is determined & sent upon the wicked & the righteous, the People will not be spared till the Lord’s Wrath is exhausted. The sword of Babylon may come by two ways, one to Rabbah of the Ammonites, the other to Judah’s fortified Jerusalem. All the crimes, violations, iniquities & sins are remembered; no one will escape except to death or captivity. The Prince of Israel in Jerusalem must be dethroned & abased; the Monarchy & Covenant or Dispensation must be overturned, until the Rightful One comes. As with Israel, so with Ammon in judgment.
The prophetic word against the murderous City is given in details of her sins & abominations: murder, idolatry, dishonor to parents, oppression of strangers; mistreatment & neglect of orphans & widows; profanation of Holy Things & the Sabbaths; slander, immorality, filthiness, impurity; sexual perversity & vice, adultery & fornication, rapes; bribery, usury, racketeering, dishonesty, and much more. For which reason the Lord turns against them, and scatters them among the Gentiles. The House of Israel is Dross to the Lord of the residue from the melting of the metals in the furnace. Jerusalem is the furnace, the Jews are the melting metals, only a remnant or dross survives. The fire of the Lord’s Wrath, Anger & Rage is poured out on His People. Likewise is she an uncleansed Land, dry for judgment. Her prophets devour her, they rape, conspire & prey, confiscate valuables & impoverish widows. Her priests distort the Law & pollute Holy Things, they’re hypocrites & deceivers, they confuse & profane sacred things. Her people oppress the Land, rob, vex the poor & needy, mistreat the strangers & immigrants. The Lord said: ‘I sought a man among them to build the wall, stand in the gap before Me for the Land, that I do not destroy it, but found none. I poured out My Indignation on them, I consumed them with the fire of My Wrath: I repaid them with their own way .’
The Son of Man is given another prophetic word concerning Israel as Two Daughters, Egyptian Harlots, named Oholah & Oholibah. They were young virgins given to teasing & pleasing the Egyptians when they Lord took them to Himself, they birthed to Him children. Oholah was Samaria the older sister; Oholibah was Jerusalem the younger sister. Oholah was an adulteress harlot wife with her lovers the Assyrians, who she desired as fine young men, big & strong; she prostituted herself with the best of them; even as she had done in Egypt. He rejected & deserted her to her Assyrian lovers, who turned against her, using & abusing her till she was nothing. Oholibah knew all this, yet she too solicited the Assyrians, those desirable & satisfying youths, and she became more perverse & immoral than her older sister, She lusted after the Chaldeans of Babylon, she offered herself easily & freely to her lovers; made herself a sex-object; she was insanely insatiable with sex, she stripped as a whore & played as a slut; she perfected her craft that learned in the days in Egypt; her lovers where like donkeys & horses to her. But they too will turn against her to destroy her, enslave her, use & abuse het till she is nothing. She will be tossed among the Gentiles to take her & then toss her; as her sister was destroyed as a shameless harlot, so too will Judah & Jerusalem & the Jews come to the same tragic end by the Gentiles because they forgot & forsook the Lord in adultery & idolatry. They must be judged for their countless crimes, violations, travesty, treachery, against Lord, His House, Sanctuary, Sabbaths, and more. They must ‘bear the sins of their idols’.

In the 9th year the prophetic word the day that the siege of Jerusalem began by the Babylonian King, namely the 10th day of the 10th month. The word is in a parable of the Rebellious House of a rusty old Caldron of water with various butchered meat to boil. The meat is boiled to a broth then removed, but the Caldron remains on the fire till it melts. So is Israel the fire of judgment. The judgment continues in Ezekiel’s wife dying, but he must not mourn for with any outward signs. He tells the People this is the Sign of the Sanctuary being profaned by Babylon, that the People are slaughtered, that they are captured, exiled, & imprisoned. All will be doomed.
The Son of Man is told to face toward the Ammonites & prophesy against them. In their mockery of the Sanctuary profaned, the Land made desolate, and the Jews going into Captivity, they will be invaded by the Children of the East (Easterners), they’ll be destroyed & be spoil for the nations. As the Easterners did to the Ammonites so they are forgotten among the nations, so will they do to Edom & Seir for how they mistreated Israel. So also is the Lord’s judgment on the Philistines.

In the 11th year the prophetic word was concerning Tyre who spoke revenge against Jerusalem. The nations will come against Tyre to destroy its walls, city, & people. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, the King of Kings from the north, with a great army, will invade & destroy Tyre completely to be a perpetual ruin. They’ll lament Tyre with a lamentation concerning her greatness, her commerce, her influence, her power, her city & her people. Another prophetic lamentation is given concerning Tyre. The great coastal City boasts: ‘I’m perfect in beauty .’ Her importance as a global or international commercial center is well-known by the nations. She traded with the major powers of the day; her fame was wide-spread; they talked of her army, or ships, or products, her skill craftsmen, her wise men & scholars, her technology & innovation, and much more. But the hew song & lamentation will be: ‘Who is like Tyre, brought to silence in the sea .’ So too is the prophetic word against Tyre’s Prince who boasts: “I’m God, I sit in God’s Seat, in the midst of the seas .’ He is man not God, though he is wiser than Daniel, he understands mysteries, wise, wealthy, and boasts a god; yet he’ll be destroyed with a shameful death.
The prophetic word continues against the King of Tyre with a lamentation: He is perfect, wise, beautiful; he dwelt in Eden, God’s Garden, adorned with precious stones & gems; the Anointed Cherub appointed by God on His Holy Mountain. In short, he was unique, majestic, talented, charming, powerful, & exalted. But his beauty & wisdom ruined him; he changed from light to darkness, from servant to god. His boast will be exposed & deflated; he will come to a shocking end to wonder to all, never again to be a terror. Likewise the prophetic word is against Sidon in her judgment & destruction, shamed & brought to nothing, when the Lord gets His Honor & Holiness in her judgment.

In the 10th year, in the 12th month, the prophetic word is set against King Pharaoh of Egypt: He is the Great River Monster who boasts: ‘My river is mine alone, I’ve made for myself.’ The Lord will hook & drag him, with all the fishes of his rivers, into the desert to die, and become food for the wild animals & birds. Egypt’s boast will end in destruction, and 40 years of desolation; they’ll be exiled & captives among the nations & countries. The Lord will restore them to their land after the 40 years have ended; but never again will they be exalted to rule over the nations, but will be a lowly kingdom; Israel never again turn to Egypt for safety. They all will know I am Jehovah.

In the 27th year the prophetic word was concerning King Nebuchadnezzar’s campaign against Tyre; his army needed food supply, the Lord surrendered Egypt to feed his army. Another prophetic word concerning the coming Day of the Lord, a time for the Gentiles. Egypt & Ethiopia & their neighbors & allies are slaughtered; the Lord will put an end of the idols of Egypt by the sword of Babylon.

In the 11th year the prophetic word was concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: The Lord broke his arm, it was not bandaged or treated; the Egyptians will be scattered among nations & countries by Babylon.

Again in the 11th year the prophetic word was against King Pharaoh of Egypt & the Egyptians: He is incomparable in greatness among the nations, but not as great as the Assyrian King who was a Cedar-Tree in Lebanon with large branches, spreading far & wide & deep & high; he was well-watered; the birds nested above, the wild-animals rested below to birth their young. The cedars in God’s Garden could not compare to it in beauty, they envied it. But Pharaoh is exalted & inflated above the other trees. But the King of Babylon will deal with him; the Lord drove him out for wickedness, he’s cut off, deserted; the birds & beasts feast on him, he’s abased; he descends to hell, he rests with the dead; he is mourned & despised, his companions descend with him. The incomparable Cedar-Tree in glory & greatness among Eden’s trees, is tossed into hell with despised & slaughtered dead. This is Pharaoh & his people.

In the 12th year the prophetic word is another Lamentation concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: Pharaoh is compared to a Young Lion among the nations, a Sea Monster; he made his rivers flood, he stirred & dirtied the rivers, The Lord will catch him in His Net by many bands he’ll be dragged to shore, tossed in the field, the birds will rest on him, the beasts will feast on him, his remains will be everywhere. The sun & moon will be hidden, darkness is over the Land. Nations will hear of Pharaoh’s ruin; they’ll be shocked & confused; terror from the sword; Egypt’s pride is vanquished; his people destroyed. The rivers will again be clear, the land empty, the people gone. This is their lamentation with the daughters of the nations over Egypt & her people.

In the 12th year the prophetic word again is against the Egyptians: Wail for the daughters of great Egypt, toss her down to the lowest hell, she the most beautiful. There are those slain with sword, her helpers in war, the uncircumcised, the terror in the land of the living; there are her allies in shame, dishonor in the cemetery of the uncircumcised. The Son of Man’s prophetic word from the Lord to the Israelites & Jews: The Watchman of a City or People must warn the people of the approaching enemy; if he warns and they heed not he’s blameless; if he neglects to warn and the enemy captures anyone, then the Lord will deal with that guilty Watchman. So its is with Ezekiel as the Son of Man, the Prophet to Israel & Judah. He is to tell those way say: ‘ Our transgressions & our sins are on us, we pine away in them; how can we live’? The Lord takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked, rather He desires them to repent & live. The righteous will not escape in the day of their crimes; the wicked must not ignored in his repentance. The righteous who commits crime must die; the wicked who repents, does right, he must not die. But the Lord’s People say: ‘the Lord’s Way is unfair’. But the Lord will judge the House of Israel, each one for his ways.

In the 12th year of our Captivity, a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: ’The City is smitten’. The prophetic word in response to the news: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s inhabitants of the wastelands say: ‘Abraham was one, and he inherited the Land: we are many; the Land is our inheritance’. Tell them for Me: You eat with blood, you lift your eyes to idols, you shed blood: will you possess the Land? You stand with yur sword, you work abomination, you defile another’s wife: will you possess the Land? Tell them for Me: Those in the wastelands will fall by sword; I’ll give the one in the open field to the wild animals to be devoured; those in strongholds & caves will die by pestilence. I’ll make the Land desolation & astonishment; her proud power will cease; Israel’s mountains be desolate; none will pass through. They’ll know I’m Jehovah when I’ve made the Land desolation & astonishment for their abominations practiced. Son of Man, the children of thy people talk about yu at the walls & doors of the houses, talking one brother to another to ‘please listen to what Jehovah says’. They come to yu as a seeking people, they sit with yu as My People, they hear yur words, but refuse to obey; with their mouth they show much love, but their heart goes after gain. Yu are to them a lovely song of a pleasing singer, who plays an instrument well; they her yur words but do nothing. When these things come about, they’ll know a Prophet was among them’.
Another prophetic word against the Shepherds of Israel: They feed themselves and neglect the Lord’s sheep, those who are hungry, sick, injured, persecuted, lost; instead rule them with force & severity. They were scattered and became food for the wild-animals, because they had no shepherd. The Lord will require His sheep from the shepherds, He’ll deliver them from these useless shepherds, He’ll never again let them shepherd His sheep. The Lord will seek His lost sheep & scattered flock; He’ll deliver them from the Gentiles, near & far, He’ll regather & restore them to their Land of Israel. He’ll judge between His sheep & His flock; between sheep & sheep, between goats & goats. He’ll judge those who eat & drink well, then trample the pastures with their feet, muddy the waters after they drink. He’ll judge between those who are fat & the lean; those who push with their horns and scatter the flock. The Lord as the Good Shepherd will save His sheep from death, from false shepherds, from persecution. He will appoint One Good Shepherd over them, David, His Beloved, His Servant, to feed & lead them. The Lord will be their God, David, His Beloved, will be their Prince; He’ll make a New Peace Covenant with them, free their Land of wild beasts, from evil men; they will live securely, rest safely; with blessings & they’ll flourish. Their enemies will be broken, the Gentiles beasts will never again prey on them or enslave them; they’ll never again bear the shame of the Gentiles: ‘They’ll know I, Jehovah, their God am with them, and Israel’s House are My People. You are My Sheep, the Sheep of My Pasture, I’m your God’.
Another prophetic word against Mount Seir: The Lord will desolate Mount Seir’s cities, because of their perpetual enmity against Israel, allowing the sword to bring calamity to them, refusing to help in war because they hate bloodshed. The Lord will prepare their bloodshed by her pursuers; Seir will become a perpetual desolation, with her mountains filled with her slain. She boasted: ‘These two nations & two countries will be mine, I’ll possess it’. The Lord will respond to Seir’s hatred to Israel and to their words: ‘They’re laid desolate, they’re given us to devour’. All of Mount Seir & Edom will be desolate.
The Son of Man’s prophecy against Israel’s Mountains: The enemy (Edom) has said: ‘The ancient places are our possessions’; because Israel was desolated on all sides, to be possessed by the other Gentiles, because she was the talk of the nearby countries, the Lord says to Land & People of Israel: Because Israel & the Jews have been desolated, derided, bearing Gentiles’ shame; the Lord will make them bear their own shame. He will restore the Land & the People according to His Word in the Book; the Land will flourish & be productive; the People & animals will multiply, Never again will they say: ‘Yu are a devourer of men, a bereaver of yur nation’. ‘Never again will yu (the Land) devour men, or bereave yur nation; I’ll never again let yu hear the shame of the Gentiles, or the reproach of the peoples, or cause yur nation to stumble’. Another prophetic word concerning the House of Israel: The House of Israel formerly dwelt in their own Land. They defiled the Land with their ways & deeds; they became as an unclean woman in her impurity. In My Wrath I repaid their bloodshed, their defiling idolatry; He scattered & dispersed them among the Gentiles. Still they profaned His Holy Name among the Gentiles, who said: ‘These are Jehovah’s People exiled from His Land’. The Lord must act to preserve & sanctify His Holy Name among the Gentiles despite Israel’s profanation & poor testimony. The Lord will regather them from all the countries of the Gentiles of their exile, return them to the Land of Israel, restore them, cleanse them, give them a new heart & spirit that they may walk in His Covenant in the Law of Moses according to Deuteronomy. He will bless them, multiply them, prosper them; never again will they forget their evil ways, their sins & crimes; He’ll renew & refresh them in the restitution of a new relationship. The desolate Land will become a Garden of Eden; the Gentiles will know it’s the Lord’s doings. ‘As the flock for sacrifice, as Jerusalem’s flock in her appointed feasts, the waste cities be filled with flocks of men; they’ll know that I’m Jehovah’.
The Lord’s Hand was on Ezekiel: He brought him out in the Lord’s Spirit, set him down in the valley, full of dry bones. He led him by them all around, there were many in the open valley; they were very dry. The prophetic was concerning the Dy Bones, if they can live: Ezekiel was told to prophesy to the Dry Bones to live: ‘Ezekiel prophesied as commanded: as he prophesied there was a noise & an earthquake; the Bones came together, bone to bone; with sinews, flesh, skin; but no breath in them. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Prophesy to the Wind, Son of Man: Come from the four Winds, Breath, and breathe on these slain to live’. He prophesied as commanded, the breath came, they lived, stood on their feet, a great army. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, these Bones are the House of Israel: they say, ‘Our bones are dried up, our hope lost; we’re cut off’. Prophesy: I’ll open your graves, cause you to come out of your graves, My People, I’ll lead you to Israel’s Land. You’ll know I’m Jehovah after I’ve opened your graves, caused you to come out of your graves, My People. I’ll put My Spirit in you, you’ll live, I’ll place you in your own Land: you’ll know I, Jehovah, spoke it & performed it’.’ Again, the prophetic word concerning Two Sticks become One: ‘Son of Man, take one Stick, write on it for Judah & for his Companions the Children of Israel; take another Stick, write on it for Joseph, the Stick of Ephraim, & for his Companions the House of Israel: join the Two Sticks as One to be One in your hands. When the children of yur People ask, ‘Tell us what this means’? tell them for Me: I’ll take the Stick of Joseph, in the hand of Ephraim, & his Companions, the Tribes of Israel; I’ll join it to the Stick of Judah to make One Stick, to be One in My Hand. The Sticks yu wrote on, will be in yur hand in their sight. Tell them for Me: I’ll take Israel’s Children from among the Gentiles, in their diaspora, regather them, and return them to their own Land: I’ll make them One Nation in the Land, on Israel’s mountains; One King will be King over them; never again be Two Nations, never again be divided into Two Kingdoms; never again to defile themselves with their idols & detestable things & their crimes; I’ll save them from their dwelling-places, where they sinned, and will cleanse them: they’ll be My People, and I’ll be their God. My Servant David (the Beloved) will be King over them; they’ll have One Shepherd: they’ll walk in My Ordinances, observe My Statutes, to practice them. They’ll dwell in the Land I’ve given to My Servant Jacob, in which their fathers dwelt; there they’ll dwell forever with their children, and grandchildren: My Servant David (the Beloved) will forever be their Prince. Also, I’ll make a Covenant of Peace with them; it will be an Eternal Covenant with them; I’ll resettle them & multiply them, I’ll set My Sanctuary forever in their midst. My Tabernacle will be with them; I’ll be their God; they’ll be My People. The Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah Who sanctifies Israel, My Sanctuary will be always be in their midst’.
The prophetic word against Gog (uncertain), of the Land of Magog (Japhetic, Scythians), the Prince of Rosh (chief, first, head), Meshech (Japhetic), & Tubal (Japhetic). ‘Prophesy against him: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll surround yu, put hooks in yur jaws, I’ll drag yu out, with yur army, horses & horsemen, clothed in full armor, a great company with buckler & shield, handling swords; with them Persia, Cush (Hamitic), & Put (Hamitic), with shield & helmet; Gomer (Japhetic) with his hordes; the House of Togarmah (Japhetic) in outskirts of the north & his hordes; many peoples with yu. Be prepared with yur companies gathered to yu, be guard to them. After many days yu’ll be visited: in the later days yu’ll invade the Land that is restored from the Sword, gathered out of many peoples, on the mountains of Israel, which has been a continual waste; but delivered from the peoples, they’ll dwell safely. Yu’ll ascend, yu’ll come like a storm, like a cloud to cover the Land, yu, & yur hordes, with many peoples. On that day, things will come to yur mind, yu’ll devise an evil device: yu’ll say, I’ll ascend to the Land of unwalled villages; I’ll go to them at rest, dwelling securely, without walls, neither bars or gates; to take spoil & prey; to turn yur hand against the wastelands reinhabited, against the people regathered from the Gentiles, having cattle & goods, dwelling in the Land (eretz, dry-land, ground, earth). Sheba & Dedan (Shemitic, Semitic, Arabia), & Tarshish’s (Spain or Cilicia) merchants, with their young lions, & ask yu: ‘Have yu come to take spoil’? Son of Man, prophesy, tell Gog for Me: In the day that My People dwell securely, will yu know it? Yu’ll invade from yur place in the furthest North, yu, and many peoples with yu, riding on horses, a great company & mighty army; yu’ll come against My People Israel, as a cloud to cover the Land: in the later days I’ll lead yu against My Land, that the Gentiles know Me, when I’ll be sanctified in yu, Gog, in their sight. Are yu the one I spoke of in earlier time by My Servants the Prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for years that I would lead yu against them? In that day, when Gog will come against the Land of Israel, My Wrath will come up into his nose. In My Jealousy & the fire of My Wrath I spoke, In that day there be a great shaking in the Land of Israel; the fishes of the sea, the birds of the skies, the wild-animals of the field, creeping things on the earth, and men on the earth, will shake at My Presence, the mountains will be thrown down, steep places will fall, every wall will fall to the ground. I’ll call a sword against him to the mountains: each man’s sword against his brother. I’ll enter judgment with him with pestilence & blood; I’ll rain on him, on his horses, on the many peoples who are with, an overflowing shower, and great hailstones, fire, & brimstone. I’ll magnify Myself, & sanctify Myself, I’ll make Myself known in the eyes of many Gentiles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.
‘Son of Man, prophesy against Gog: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll turn yu around, I’ll lead yu on, I’ll cause yu to ascend from the furthest North; I’ll lead yu on Israel’s mountains; I’ll strike yur bow out of yur left hand, I’ll cause yur arrows to fall out of yur right hand. Yu’ll fall on Israel’s mountains, yu, & yur hordes, & yur peoples: I’ll give yu to the ravenous birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field to be devoured. Yu’ll fall on the open field; I’ve spoken it. I’ll send a fire on Magog, on those dwelling securely in the isles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. My Holy Name I’ll make known in My People Israel; I’ll never again permit My Holy Name to be profaned: the Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah, the Holy One in Israel. It’s coming, it will be done; this is the day of which I’ve spoken. The dwellers in the cities of Israel will go forth, they’ll make fires of the weapons & burn them, both shields & bucklers, bows & arrows, hand slaves, spears, they’ll make fires of them 7 years; so that they’ll take no wood from the field, neither out of the forests; they’ll burn weapons; they’ll plunder those that plundered them, rob those who robbed them. In that day, I’ll give Gog a burial place in Israel, the valley of travelers on the east of the sea; it will prevent travelers: there they’ll bury Gog & his multitude; they’ll call it the Valley of Hamon-Gog. 7 months Israel’s House will be burying them to cleanse the Land. The people of the Land will bury them; it’ll be to them renown in the day I’ll be glorified. They’ll employ workers full time to search for those to bury who remain unburied on the Land to cleanse it: after 7 months they’ll search. The travelers will travel; when anyone sees a man’s bone, he’ll set up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in the Valley of Hamon-Gog. Hamonah will be the City’s Name. The name of the city is Hamonah. They’ll cleanse the Land. Son of Man speak to the Birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field: Assemble yourselves, come gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice on Israel’s mountains to eat flesh & drink blood. You’ll eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, lambs, goats, bullocks, of fatlings of Bashan. You’ll eat the fat till you are full, and drink the blood till you are drunk, of My Sacrifice which I’ve sacrificed for you. You’ll be filled at My Table with horses & chariots, mighty men & men of war. I’ll set My Glory among the Gentiles; the Gentiles will see My Judgment I’ve executed, and My Hand I’ve laid on them. Israel’s House will know I’m Jehovah their God, from that day & forward. The Gentiles will know that Israel’s House went into Captivity for their iniquity; they trespassed against Me, I hid My Face from them: I gave them into the hand of their adversaries, they fell by the sword. According to their uncleanness & transgressions I treated them; I hid My Face from them. I’ll reverse Jacob’s Captivity, have mercy on the whole House of Israel; I’ll be jealous for My Holy Name. They’ll bear their shame & trespasses they did against Me; they’ll dwell safely in their Land unafraid; when I’ve restored them from the peoples, and regathered them from their enemies’ lands, and I’m sanctified in them in the Gentiles’ sight. They’ll know I’m Jehovah their God, Who caused them to go into Captivity among the Gentiles, and regathered them to their own Land; I’ll never again abandon them there; never again will I hide My Face from them; for I’ve poured out My Spirit on the House of Israel’.

In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day, Jehovah’s Hand was on Ezekiel, and He transported him to there. In the Visions of God, He transported him to the Land of Israel, and set him down on a high mountain, on which was as if the frame (form, structure) of a city on the south. He transported him there; there was a Man, Whose Appearance was like the appearance of brass, with a line of flax in His Hand, and a measuring read; He stood at the gate. The Man said: ‘Son of Man, see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears, set yur heart on all that I’ll show yu; for this reason yu were brought here, that I may show to yu: declare all that yu see to Israel’s House’. A Wall was outside of the House all around it; in the Man’s Hand a measuring reed 6 cubits long, equal to 1 cubit & 1 handbreadth each cubit (cubit= 18″ or 1 1/2 feet; handbreadth= 4” wide; total reed-cubit= 22″ or 21″ plus or minus; measuring-reed= 6×22″= 132″ or 12 feet; if we make the sacred or great or angelic cubit 24″ then conversion to feet is simple: 2×12″= 24″= 2′; if we make the sacred or great or angelic handbreadth 6″ then it equals 1/2 foot; we then have the sacred reed= 6×24’= 144″ or 12 feet): The chapters from 40-48 give a detail description of the House of God and those things, persons, and places which pertains to it, its structure, form, dimensions, compartments, walls, gates, courts, posts, chambers, cherubims, palm-trees; its order, furnishings, altars, table, Sanctuary; its order, priesthood, charges, feasts; the land, location, divisions, order; the city, offerings, sacrifices, entrances, exits, doors, windows, borders, lots, tribes, etc.
We have already examined in great detail the Text, and have given a digest & summary of all its details recorded; here we will only cite those words & verses which explain very important matters of the House as the Sanctuary, Dwelling Place, Building, Temple, Tabernacle of the Lord God, Jehovah-Elohim. We have already explained the measurement of the cubit & reed, and later that of the ephah, homer, etc. We will number theses selections for the reader:

1. The Man & His Hand Who measures, leads, speaks, etc.
2. He told Ezekiel: ‘This chamber, facing southward, is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the House; the chamber facing northward is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the Altar: these are the sons of Zadok (BeniZadok), who are from the sons of Levi (BeniLevi) who approach Jehovah to minister to (serving) Him’.
3. He said to him: This is the Most Holy Place.
4. He said told Ezekiel: ‘The north & south chambers, before the separate place, are the Holy Chambers, where the Priests near to Jehovah eat the Most Holy Things: they’ll lay the Most Holy Things, the meal-offering, sin-offering, & trespass-offering; for its a Holy Place. When the Priests enter, they must not leave the Holy Place to enter the Outer Court, they must lay there their ministering clothes, for they are holy: they must change to other clothes, to approach to what pertains to the People’.
5. He led Ezekiel to the Gate facing eastward. The Glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: His Voice was like the sound of many waters; and the earth (Land) shined with His Glory. It was like the appearance of the vision which he saw, according to the vision he saw when he (He) came to destroy (the destruction of) the city; the visions were like the vision he saw by the River Chebar; & Ezekiel fell prostrate. Jehovah’s Glory came into the House by the way of the Gate facing eastward. The Spirit lifted Ezekiel, transporting him into the Inner Court; & Jehovah’s Glory filled the House. Ezekiel heard One speaking to him from the House; a Man stood near him: He told him: ‘Son of Man, the Place of My Throne, & the Place of the Soles of My Feet, where I’ll dwell amidst the Children of Israel forever. The House of Israel will never again defile My Holy Name, neither they, nor their kings, by their whoredom, and by the corpses of their kings (in, and) their High Places; in their placing their doorway next to My Doorway, their door-posts next to My Door-posts, with only a wall between Me & them; they defiled My Holy Name with their abominations they practiced: so I’ve consumed them in My Anger. Let them put far away from Me their whoredom, the corpses of their kings; and I’ll dwell amidst them forever. Son of Man show the House to Israel’s House, that they be ashamed of their iniquities; let them measure the pattern. If they be ashamed of all they’ve done, reveal to them the form of the House, & its fashion, its egresses, its entrances, its structures, its ordinances, its forms, and its laws; write it in their sight; that they may keep all its form, and all its ordinances, to do them.
6. This is the Law of the House: on the top of the mountain the its whole area enclosed will be holy: this is the Law of the House.
7. He told Ezekiel, ‘Son of Man, Jehovah says: These are the ordinances of the Altar in the day they offer burnt-offerings on it, to sprinkle blood on it. You must give to the Priests the Levites from the seed of Zadok, who approach Me, to minister to Me, a young bullock for a sin-offering. Yu must take of its blood, put it on its 4 horns, on the 4 corners of the ledge, & on the border around it: thus, yu’ll cleanse & atone for it. Yu must take the bullock of the sin-offering, and it shall be burnt in the appointed place of the house, outside the Sanctuary. The 2nd day yu must offer a male-goat without blemish for a sin-offering; they’ll cleanse the Altar, as they cleansed it with the bullock. After yu’ve cleansed it, yu must offer a young bullock without blemish, and a ram from the flock without blemish. Yu must bring them near before Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them up for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. Yu must bring them near to Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. 7 days yu must atone for the Altar & purify it; so, must they consecrate it. When they’ve accomplished the days, on the 8th day, & forward, the Priests must make your burnt-offerings on the Altar, and your peace-offerings; and I’ll accept you’.
8. He led Ezekiel by the way of the Outer Gate of the Sanctuary, facing eastward; it was shut. Jehovah said to him: ‘This Gate must be shut; it must not be opened, neither must any man enter it; for Jehovah, the God of Israel, entered in by it; it must be shut. The Prince must sit in it as Prince to eat bread before Jehovah; he must enter by way of the porch of the Gate and exit by the same way’.
9. Jehovah told Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, mark & see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears what I tell yu concerning the ordinances of Jehovah’s House and its Laws; make note of the House’s entrance, and the Sanctuary’s egress. Tell the Rebellious House of Israel for Me: House of Israel, be content with yur abominations, in bringing in foreigners, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, to be in My Sanctuary, to profane it, My House, offering to yur abominations My Bread, the fat & blood, breaking My Covenant. You haven’t kept the charge of My Holy Things; you’ve set keepers of My Charge in My Sanctuary for yourselves. No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, must ever enter My Sanctuary, of any foreigners among the Children of Israel. The Levites who deserted Me, when Israel went astray from Me after their idols, they must pay for their crime. Yet they must be ministers in My Sanctuary, having oversight at the Gates of the House, and ministering in the House: they must slaughter the burnt-offering & sacrifice for the People, they must stand before them to minister to them. Because they ministered to them before their idols, becoming a stumbling block of iniquity to Israel’s House; I lifted My Hand against them, they’ll pay for their crime. They must not approach Me, to execute the office of priest to Me, nor approach My Holy Things, to the Most Holy Things, they must bear their shame, their abominations they’ve committed. But I’ll make them keepers of the charge of the House, for its service, for what is done in it. The Levitical Priests, Zadok’s Sons, who kept the charge of My Sanctuary when the Children of Israel deserted Me, they must approach Me to minister to Me; they must stand before Me to offer to Me the fat & blood. They’ll enter My Sanctuary, they’ll approach My Table, to minister to Me, they’ll keep My Charge. When they enter in at the Gates of the Inner Court, they’ll be clothed with linen garments; no wool must be on them, while they minister in the Gates of the Inner Court, and inside. They must wear linen turbans on their heads, they must have linen breeches on their loins; they must not gird themselves with anything causing sweat. When they go out into the Outer Court of the People, they must remove their clothes in which they minister, lay them in the Holy Chambers; they must put on other clothes, that they don’t sanctify the People with their clothes. They must not shave their heads, nor let their locks to grow long; they must only have hair-cuts. The Priests must drink no wine when they enter the Inner Court. They must not marry a widow for wives or divorcee; they must marry virgins of the seed of Israel’s House, or a Priest’s widow. They’ll teach My People the difference between the holy & the common and help them to discern between the unclean & the clean. In a controversy they’ll stand to judge; according to My Ordinances they must judge, they must keep My Laws & Statutes in all My appointed Feasts; they must sanctify My Sabbaths. They must not go near a dead person to defile themselves; they may defile themselves for father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or an unmarried sister. After he is cleansed, they’ll reckon to him 7 days. The day he enters the Sanctuary, into the Inner Court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he must offer his sin-offering. They’ll have no inheritance: I’m their inheritance; you’ll give him no possession in Israel; I’m their possession. They’ll eat the meal-offering, the sin-offering, & the trespass-offering; and every devoted in Israel will be theirs. The first of the first-fruits of everything, and every oblation of everything, of all your oblations, will be the Priest’s: you’ll also give to the Priests the first of your dough, to cause a blessing to rest on your house. The Priests must not eat anything that dies of itself, or is torn, whether of bird or beast’.
10. When you divide the Land by lot for inheritance, you shall offer an oblation to Jehovah, a Holy Portion of the Land; the length must be 25,000 (perhaps reed, then x 12′ = 3000,000′ = c.60 miles) long, the width 10,000 (if reed, x 12′ = 120,000′ = 24 miles): it’ll be holy in all its border around. From this must be the Holy Place 500 by 500, square around; 50 cubits (100′) for its suburbs around. From this measure yu must measure a length of 25,000 by 10,000 wide: in it shall be the Sanctuary, which is Most Holy. It is a Holy Portion of the Land: it must be for the Priests, the Sanctuary’s ministers, that approach to minister to Jehovah; it must be a place for their houses, a Holy Place for the Sanctuary. 25,000 long by 10,000 wide, for the Levites, the House’s ministers, for a possession to themselves: 20 chambers. You must allot the City’s possession 5,000 wide by 25,000 long, side by side with the oblation of the Holy Portion: it’ll be for all the House of Israel. For the Prince: on both sides of the holy oblation and of the possession of the City, in front of the holy oblation & in front of the possession of the City, on both westside westward & eastside eastward; in length corresponding to the portions, from west border to east border. In the Land it will be to him for a possession in Israel: My Princes will never again oppress My People; but they’ll give the Land to the House of Israel according to their tribes. Thus says the Lord Jehovah: Let it be enough for you, Princes of Israel: remove violence & spoil, execute justice & righteousness; take away your exactions from My People. You must have just balances, just ephah (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer), & just bath (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer). The ephah & the bath (quarts & gallons) shall be one measure, the bath contains 1/10th a homer, the ephah 1/10th a homer: its measure is after the homer (10 times the ephah & bath). The shekel equals 20 gerahs (ounces or pounds); 20, 25, & 15 shekels will be your maneh (50 shekels). This is the oblation you must offer: 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of wheat; you must give 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of barley; the set portion of oil, of the bath of oil, 1/10th of a bath out of a cor (equals homer, 10 times the ephah or bath): 10 baths or ephah (10 baths equals an homer); 1 lamb from every 200 of the flock, from the well-watered pastures of Israel: for a meal-offering, burnt-offering, peace-offerings, to atone for them. The People of the Land must contribute to this oblation for the Prince in Israel. It will be the Prince’s part to give the burnt-offerings, meal-offerings, & drink-offerings, in the feasts, on the new moons, & on the sabbaths, in all the appointed feasts of Israel’s House’.
11. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘In the 1st, on the 1st of the month, you must take a young bullock without defect to cleanse the Sanctuary. The Priest must take the blood of the sin-offering, put it on the door-posts of the House, and on the 4 corners of the ledge of the Altar, and on the posts of the Gate of the Inner Court. Thus you must do on the 7th of the month for those who err, and for the simple: so you’ll atone for the House. In the 1st, on the 14th day of the month, you’ll have the Passover, 7 days feast; unleavened bread must be eaten; on that day the Prince must prepare for himself & for the People of the Land a bullock for a sin-offering. The 7 days of the feast he must prepare a burnt-offering to Jehovah, 7 bullocks & 7 rams without defect daily 7 days; a male-goat daily for a sin-offering. He must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, and a hin (2 gallon or 8 quarts) of oil to an ephah. In the 7th , on the 15th day of the month, in the feast, he must do like in the 7 days; according to the sin-offering, burnt-offering, meal-offering, according to the oil’.
12. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘The Gate of the Inner Court facing eastward must be shut the 6 working days; on the sabbath day it must be opened, on the day of the new moon it must be opened. The Prince must enter by the way of the porch of the Gate outside, and must stand by the post of the Gate; the Priests must prepare his burnt-offering & his peace-offerings, & he’ll worship at the entrance of the Gate: he shall exit; but the Gate must remain open till evening. The People of the Land must worship at the door of that Gate before Jehovah on the sabbaths & new moons. The burnt-offering that the Prince must offer to Jehovah must be on the sabbath day: 6 lambs & 1 ram without defect; the meal-offering must be an ephah for the ram, and the meal-offering for the lambs as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah. On the day of the new moon it must be an ephah for the bullock without defect, 6 lambs & 1 ram, without defect: he must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for the bullock, an ephah for the ram, and for the lambs as he’s able, an hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince enters, he must go by way of the porch of the Gate, and go out by its way. When the People of the Land approach Jehovah in the appointed feasts, he who enters by the way of the North Gate to worship must exit by way of the South Gate; he must not return by the Gate he entered, but he must continue straight ahead. The Prince, when they enter, must enter in their midst, when they exit, they exit. In the feasts and solemnities the meal-offering must be an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, for lambs as he is able, & a hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince prepares a freewill-offering, a burnt-offering or peace offerings as a freewill-offering to Jehovah, someone must open for him the Gate facing eastward; he must prepare his burnt-offering & peace offerings, as he does on the sabbath day: then he must exit; and after his exit someone must shut the gate. Yu must prepare a lamb a year old without defect for a burnt-offering to Jehovah daily: every morning yu must prepare it. Yu must prepare a meal-offering with it every morning, 1/6th of an ephah, 1/3rd of a hin oil, to moisten the fine flour; a meal-offering to Jehovah continually by a perpetual ordinance. They must prepare the lamb, the meal-offering, & the oil, every morning, for a continual burnt-offering. If the Prince give a gift to his sons, it is his inheritance, it belongs to his sons; it is their possession by inheritance. If he give of his inheritance a gift to his servants, it is his inheritance to the year of jubilee; then it returns to the Prince; but his inheritance must be for his sons. The Prince must not confiscate the People’s inheritance, to force them from their possession; he must give inheritance to his sons from his own possession, that My People are not scattered from his own possession’.
13. He led Ezekiel through the entrance at the side of the Gate, into the Holy Chambers for the Priests, facing northward: there was a place in the back westward. He said to Ezekiel: ‘This is the place where the Priests must boil the trespass-offering & the sin-offering, where they must bake the meal-offering; that they don’t bring them out into the Outer Court, to sanctify the People. He led him out to the Outer Court, causing him to pass by the 4 corners of the Court, at every corner of the Court was a Court. In the 4 corners of the Court were enclosed Courts, 40 long by 30 wide: these 4 in the corners were of one measure. There was a Wall around in them, around the 4, and boiling-places were made under the Walls around’. He said to him: ‘These are the boiling-houses, where the ministers of the House must boil the sacrifice of the People’.
14. He led Ezekiel back to the door of the House; waters issued out from under the doorway of the House eastward;…. When the Man went forth eastward with a line in His Hand,… He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, have yu seen this’? He caused him to return to the river’s bank, where on the river’s bank were many trees on both sides. He told him: ‘These waters flow toward the eastern region, flowing into the Arabah (desert, wilderness, south of the Dead Sea); flowing toward the sea which issued forth from it; healing waters. Every living creature which swarms, wherever the rivers flow, will live; there will be a great multitude of fish; for these waters flow there to heal, everything will live wherever the river flows. The fishers will stand near: from En-gedi (near the Dead Sea) to En-eglaim (perhaps continuing south in the Arabah towards the Gulf of Aqabah; if northward, then perhaps to the Sea of Galilee) will be a place for the spreading of nets; their catch will be fishes of every kind, as the fish of the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), so many. But its wetlands & marshes will not be healed; they’ll be given to salt. By its riverbank, on both sides, will grow every tree for food, whose leaf will not whither, neither its fruit fail: it will produce new fruit every month, because its waters flow from the Sanctuary; its fruit will be for food, its leaf for healing.
15. The border to divide the Land for inheritance according to the 12 Tribes of Israel: Joseph’s portions: You will inherit it, one each; for I swore to give it to your fathers: this Land will fall to you for inheritance. The border of the Land: On the North side, from the Great Sea, by the way of Hethlon, to the entrance of Zedad; Hamoth, Berothah, Sibraim, between the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauran’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazer-enon at the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauron’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazar-enon at Damascus’ border; on the north northward is Hamoth’s border. This the North side. The East side, between Hauran & Gilead, and the Land of Israel, will be the Jordan; from the border to the East Sea (Dead Sea) you’ll measure. This is the East side. The South side southward be for Tamar to the waters of Meriboth-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the South side southward. The West side will be the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), from the border to the entrance of Hamath. This the West side. So you’ll divide this Land to you according to the Tribes of Israel. You must divide it by lot for an inheritance to you & to the strangers who reside among you, who birth children among you; they must be the same as the native Children of Israel; they must have inheritance with you among the Tribes of Israel. In wherever Tribe the stranger resides, there you must give him his inheritance, says the Lord Jehovah’.
16. These are the names of the Tribes: From the North end, by the way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, Hazar-enan at the border of Damascus, northward beside Hamath, (having both sides of east & west), Dan: 1.
Bordering Dan: east side to west side, Asher: 1.
Bordering Asher: east side to west side, Naphtali: 1
Bordering Naphtali: east side to west side, Manasseh: 1.
Bordering Manasseh: east side to west side, Ephraim: 1.
Bordering Ephraim: east side to west side, Reuben: 1.
Bordering Reuben: east side to west side, Judah: 1
Bordering Judah: east side to west side, will be the oblation which you must offer, 25,000 wide, and in length as one of the portions, from east side to west side: the Sanctuary will be in its center.

17. The oblation you’ll offer to Jehovah must be 20,000 in length, 10,000 in width. These for the Priests will be the Holy Oblation: northward: 25,000 in length; westward: 10,000 in width; eastward: 10,000 wide; southward: 25,000 long: the Sanctuary is in the middle. It’s for the sanctified Priests of Zadok’s sons, who kept My Charge not straying when the Children of Israel strayed, as the Levites went astray. It’s their oblation from the oblation of the Land, a thing Most Holy, by the border of the Levites. Corresponding to the Priests’ border, the Levites must have 25,000 in length, and 10,000 in width. They must not sell a part of it, nor exchange it, nor must the first-fruits of the Land be alienated; for its Holy to Jehovah. The 5,000 remaining of the width, in front of the 25,000, must be for common use, for the City, for welling & for suburbs; the City is centered in it. These are its measurements: the North side, the South side, the East side, & the West side must be 4,500 each. The City must have suburbs: northward, southward, eastward, & westward must be 250 each. The remnant in the length, matching to the Holy Oblation, must be 10,000 eastward& 10,000 westward; it must be matching to the Holy Oblation; and the surplus must be for food for the City workers. The City laborers from the Israel’s Tribes must till it. The oblation must be 25,000 by 25,000: you must offer the Holy Oblation four-square (25,000 x 4 = 100,000), with the City’s possession. The remnant must be for the Prince, on both sides of the Holy Oblation & the City’s possession; in front of the 25,000 of the oblation toward the East border, and westward in front of the 25,000 toward the West border, matching to the portions, it must be for the Prince: and the Holy Oblation & the Sanctuary of the House must be in its center.
Also, from the possession of the Levites, and from the City’s possession, being in the center of what belongs to the Prince, between the border of Judah & the border of Benjamin, it must be for the Prince. As for the rest of the Tribes: east side to west side, Benjamin: 1.
Bordering Benjamin: east side to west side, Simeon: 1.
Bordering Issachar: east side to west side, Zebulon: 1.
` Bordering Zebulon: east side to west side, Gad: 1.
Bordering Gad: at the south side southward, the border must be from Tamar to the waters of Meribah-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the Land which you must divide by lot to the Tribes of Israel for inheritance, these are their individual portions, says the Lord Jehovah. These are the egresses of the City: On the north side: 4,500 by measurement; the Gates of the City must be after the names of the Tribes of Israel:
3 Gates northward: Reuben’s Gate: 1; Judah’s Gate: 1; Levi’s Gate: 1.
East side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Joseph’s Gate: 1; Benjamin’s Gate: 1; Dan’s Gate: 1.
South side: 4,500 by measure: 3 Gates: Simeon’s Gate: 1; Issachar’s Gate: 1; Zebulun’s Gate: 1.
West side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Gad’s Gate: 1; Asher’s Gate: 1; Naphtali’s Gate: 1. It must be 18,000 around:

18. ‘the Name of the City from that day will be: Jehovah Shammah (The Lord is There)’.
Conclusions & Further Reflections on Ezekiel & the Major Prophets:

The Book of Ezekiel is divided by its dates, 14 dates of the years of Ezekiel’s prophetic word or message. These 14 dates are:
1. In the [his, my] 30th year, 4th month, 5th day,…
2. In the 5th of the month of the 5th year of King Jehoiachin’s Captivity (& coincides with Nebuchadnezzar’s 9th Regal Years, and the 9th Year of the 70 Years Captivity (the two always matching).
3. In the 6th year, in the 6th, on the 5th of the month
4. In the 7th year, 5th month, 10th day
5. Again, in the 9th year, the 10th month, the 10th of the month
6. In the 11th year, the 1st of the month
7. In the 10th year, on the 10th, in the 12th of the month
8. In the 27th year, in the 1st, on the 1st of the month
9. In the 11th year, in the 1st, on the 7th of the month
10. In the 11th year, in the 3rd, on the 1st of the month
11. In the 12th year, in the 12th month, on the 1st of the month,
12. In the 12th year, on the 15th of the month
13. In the 12th year of our Captivity, in the 10th, on the 10th of the month, that a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: The City is smitten.
14. In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day,

There are several ways to divide the Book as to its contents, such as in the Selections we have given below. But the recorded dates are the intended divisions of Ezekiel’s prophecies. A careful & reading of the Text will easily convince the reader that there is reason & relation to the messages to the dates. We have divided the content of the Book by any other method than the 14 dates. The undated messages of Ezekiel’s prophetic word are given as a sub-division to the dated ones. It is seen in the first two & the last dated messages: numbers 1 & 2 includes chapters 1-7; number 14 includes chapters 40-48. Whether Ezekiel structured these messages or divisions as we know them, in their various order in various versions or manuscripts or copies, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin & other ancient languages, is not our concern in understanding the Text as it is commonly received. As we have said elsewhere that the order of the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, the Old Testament is arranged different than our Bibles, and the Latin Vulgate & the Greek Septuagint (LXX) adds the Apocryphal Books. Our interest is to discover what the Text reveals to our understanding of the Divine Word handed down to us. As with other divisions of the Sacred Scriptures, there our various types of divisions, such as the Generations of Genesis, as the 5 Books of Moses (the Pentateuch, the Chumash Torah); or the Bible, in Old Testament, divided into the Historical Books, Poetical, and Prophetic. These divisions may or not be helpful or accurate in some details, but are all instructive aspects of the Inspired Text.
In each Book of the Bible there is a peculiar property of its own, of which we labor to see & know. In the Books of the Three Major Prophets, are also distinct similarities & differences. Isaiah & Jeremiah are never called ‘the Son of Man’, but Ezekiel is called Son of Man some 90 times. The poetic style differs in each, Isaiah the most, then Jeremiah (excluding his Lamentations), then Ezekiel. But in all three the Parallelism as seen in the Poetic Books of Psalms – Solomon’s Songs is distinctly used as essential to Hebrew poetry. To understand the prophetic word of the prophets, we must notice & understand the poetic words & lines & verses. In contrast Isaiah & Jeremiah, the Messianic types & figures are more concealed, Ezekiel by his prophetic name prefigures the Christ as the Son of Man. The predictive aspect of his prophecies are fewer than the former two prophets. As with the former two the historical elements of the prophetic word in this Book continues as theirs. Ezekiel like Daniel deals with the Babylonian power as a dispensational change of divine government. The Assyrian power still continued, but God was involved with Babylon because it was the power used to judge the Monarchy of Judah in the Davidic Throne. As Babylon expanded its imperial arm, first against Assyria then Egypt, it swallowed up Israel & Judah, along with all the bordering countries. God was not impeding this nation, but on the contrary had predicted Babylon’s King to be His Servant upon all the Gentiles & His People. The entire global ministry of the Gentiles subjugation of the Jews was only retributive punishment of deserved justice & judgment.
To illustrate & compare the dimensions of cubits or reeds I’ve made this Chart or Table:

Chart: Cubic or Reeds: (Cubic = 2 Feet; Reed = 12 Feet) Each: . = cubit or reed; : = 5 cubits or reeds.

[In WordPress this chart is not properly reproduced; the reader must go the the PDF or Word to see it displayed properly, as well as the colors, etc.]
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We must here consider in our Reflection the Gentile Times & Power in a larger manner, as it is revealed in the Major Prophets. The trine nature of the divine purpose in God’s interest in humanity is intrinsic to His original creation of man (Adam). It is again taken up in the Three Sons of Noah as the Gentiles or Nations. The Covenant made, as we have often said, was a new dispensation that would continue to the end of the Bible, although undergoing changes. The trine humanity in the world developed slowly, with countless variety of shapes, colors, sizes, forms, abilities, etc. The world was a Gentile world spread everywhere. The Hebrews descending from Abraham, descendant of Shem of Noah of Adam of God. He choose Abram of Ur of the Chaldees; through him by union with a Hagar the Egyptian (his wife’s maid or slave); with Sarah is wife & half-sister; with Keturah his concubine after Sarah’s death, the descendants of this union were the Arab tribes. The Middle-East is the Semitic & Hebrew center of the earth. The ancient or earliest Mesopotamians in Shinar, the ancient Egyptians & their neighbors; and other ancient centers of people from whom the present nations, races, peoples, and such, are derived. Likewise the global languages starting as on simple communication from a primal tongue or speech, became branches innumerable with certain clear recognizable relations & history.
From Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob (Israel) came the Israelites in 12 Tribes led by Moses out of Egypt. This people & nation were chosen by God (Jehovah Elohim) to be His special children, and constituted by miracles, laws, customs & traditions, to be a theocratic society governed by visible written word, as a code of laws & the like. The original institution of the Tabernacle, priesthood, the Ten Commandments, the Mosaic laws & requirements would also undergo changes in the Old Testament, and continue through the New Testament. The Temple as God’s House, His Sanctuary & Dwelling place, was an enlargement of the Tabernacle, with many changes. In the return exiles from their Babylonian Captivity rebuilt a Temple that was inferior to King Solomon’s great Temple (the Jews say in at least 5 points: Ark of the Covenant, Shechinah, Urim & Thummim, Holy Fire upon the Altar, & Spirit of Prophecy.); this 2nd Temple is called Zerubbabel’s Temple, finished at the close of the Old Testament, whose later history is uncertain many ways, till we get to the so-called 3rd Temple of Herod the Great, the Idumean as we encounter in the New Testament. It was not a new Temple but a rebuilt one, with many changes, some superior to the 2nd Temple, but inferior in other ways, lacking more items of Solomon’s Temple. But in Ezekiel in chapters 40-48 is revealed a New Temple, the Third Temple with distinct designs & new features. This 3rd Temple has never been built, not even attempted. The conditions to build such a Great & Holy Temple were never ever met by Israel. It was ever an Ideal Temple to shame the Jews of ways that led to the destruction of Solomon’s Temple. There are those who sigh to build such a Temple, but it is a useless sigh & expectation. It was Plan & Pattern never used or constructed. To say more of this at this point of our Reflections is unwise.
The prophetic word concerning & against Gog of Magog, & his allies or companions is of similar instance; predictive features must be balanced by the responsive rule of the relations to Lord & to Israel. The northern alliance to the distant north first northern Syria, then Turkey, then Russia; the land & people of ancient Turkey (Anatolia or Asia Minor & Thrace); and the land of Syria or Assyria have been the primary northern powers against Israel for several hundred years. The slow but steady southern migration of the northern tribes & people were always a pending threat, in time they descended as a power as with the Assyrians. The geography was the regions south of the Black Sea, spreading east & west as they migrated down or invaded. Those who see Russia as the Northern Power have much to explain both historically & biblically. The Medes & Persians were the newest power that dominated the Middle East at the close of the Old Testament. The primary message was directed against Israel & Judah, & her neighbors near & far. At any time the doom cold be averted by Divine Intervention, and that was the ministry of the Major Prophets in fuller manner than some of the earlier Minor Prophets.

A few final words as to the Major Prophets preparatory to the close of the Old Testament in laying the foundation of Daniel & the later of the Minor Prophets. Daniel being the last of the Old Testament prophets ‘Son of Man.’; and only once. Ezekiel had already signaled out Daniel in his Book; as also the Lord Jesus would in the Gospels. But it was the Gentiles’ place that the Major Prophets revealed in relations to Daniel International & Global concerns. I have no intention to write a commentary, degerming for the reader the meaning of the Text; rather a desire to share my results of the 50 years in reflections, meditations, study, research, & reading of the Bible. I am thankful to have reached this far in Old Testament Books. We are now ready to conclude the Old Testament in the Book of Daniel and the Books of the Minor Prophets.
Selections relevant to the Reflections on the Book of Ezekiel:
Ezekiel Selections (13): Calvin, Greenhill, Lowth, Fairbairn, Hengstenberg, Keil, Wordsworth, Lange, Redpath, Gaebelein, Bennett, Sulley, Smith, & Grant.
(1)
Commentary & Lectures on Book of Prophet Ezekiel, Chapters 1-20, Lectures 1-65. Volume 1 & 2. Jean (John) Calvin. 1st Translated from Original Latin, Collated with French Version, Thomas Myers, Vicar of Sheriff-Hutton, Yorkshire. (1560.1849.1850.2010). gs.as.ccel.org & bibletruthforum.com

{{“Translator’s Preface: “An Interest of no ordinary kind is excited in the mind of the Biblical Student by the mention of ”Calvin’s Lectures On Ezekiel.” The last Work which a great man leaves unfinished, because arrested by the hand of death, becomes at once an heirloom to posterity. After the lapse of nearly three hundred years, we read this affecting sentence with a tear and a sigh: (“After finishing this last Lecture (65th, Chapter 20), that most illustrious man, John Calvin, the Divine, who had previously been sick, then began to be so much weaker that he was compelled to recline on a couch, and could no longer proceed with the explanation of Ezekiel. This accounts for his stopping at the close of the Twentieth Chapter, and not finishing the work so auspiciously begun. Nothing remains, kind Reader, but that you receive most favorably and graciously what is now sent forth to the world.”) “….”As to the Genuineness Of Ezekiel’s Writings, it has never been seriously called in question by the learned, either Jew or Christian. Some self-sufficient Critics have impugned the last nine chapters: Their valueless arguments will be found, by those who wish to search for such unsatisfactory materials, in Rosenmuller, while their refutation is completed by Jahn, in his Introduction to the Sacred Books of the Old Testament, and is rendered accessible to the mere English reader by Hartwell Horne. So little weight, however, is attached to such opinions, that even Gesenius allows a “oneness of tone” to be so conspicuous throughout Ezekiel’s Prophecies, as to forbid the suspicion that any portions of them are not genuine. This Book formed part of the Canon in the Catalogues of Melito and Origen, of Jerome and of the Talmud. Josephus, indeed, refers to two Books of Ezekiel, probably dividing his ‘prophecies’ into two parts. His language has necessarily given rise to some discussion, which Eichhorn has set at rest as satisfactorily as the data will allow. The Arrangement Of The Various Predictions has been the subject of a variety of opinions. Some have supposed that Chronological Order has been interfered with, and that different collections of the separate Prophecies might be made with advantage. But Havernick, in his valuable Commentary, published as late as 1843, maintains that the present arrangement is correct. It proceeds, he asserts, in the order of time, and connects, as it ought to do, the Prophecies against foreign nations with those against Israel and Judah. Hence he divides the Book into the following nine Sections: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Call to Prophetic Office. (1-3:15).
2. Symbolical Representations Foretelling Destruction of Judah & Jerusalem. (4:16-7).
3. Series of Visions, Year & 2 Months Later than Former: Temple Polluted by Worship of Adonis, Consequent Vengeance on Priests & People, & Prospect of Happier Times & Purer Worship. (8-11).
4. Series of Reproofs & Warnings Against Prevailing Sins & Prejudices of his Day. (12-19).
5. Another Series of Warnings, One Year Later, still Announcing Coming Judgments. (20-23).
6. Predictions, 2 Years & 5 Months Later, Announcing Very Day of Siege of Jerusalem, & Assuring Captives of its Complete Overthrow. (24.)
7. Predictions Against Foreign Nations. (25-32.)
8. After Destruction of City, Future Triumph of Kingdom of God on Earth. (33-39).
9. Symbolic Representations of Times of Messiah, & Prosperity of Kingdom of God. (40-48).
There is a negative merit in Calvin’s Lectures, which has not been imitated by some later Commentators. He never makes those observations on Ezekiel’s Style & Diction which would reduce him to the level of a merely human writer. Grotius & Eichhorn, Lowth & Michaelis dwell on his erudition & genius, and assign him the same rank among the Hebrews which Aeschylus holds among the Greeks. They praise his knowledge of architecture, and his skill in oratory. They call him bold, vehement, tragical; “in his sentiments elevated, wars, bitter, indignant; in his images fertile, magnificent, harsh, and sometimes almost deformed; in his diction grand, weighty, austere, rough, and sometimes uncultivated; abounding in repetition, not for the sake of ornament & gracefulness, but through indignation & violence.” Such language as this clearly implies a very different view of the Prophet’s character & mission from that taken by Calvin. He looked upon him as a grand instrument in the hands of the Most High, and would have instinctively felt it to be profane thus to reduce him to the level of the Poets & Seers of heathenism. In this feeling we ought to concur. The modern method of criticizing the style & matter of the Hebrew Prophets deserves our warmest reprobation. They are too often treated as if their thoughts & their language were only of human origin. Their visions, their metaphors, & their parables, are submitted to the crucible of a worldly alchemy, in entire forgetfulness that these men were the special messengers of God.”…… “Comparing the Interpretations of Calvin with those of modern Continental Divines, we have no reason to conclude that the views of the great Reformer have been superseded. The progress of Biblical Criticism during the last 800 years has indeed been accompanied with some clearer views of the details, but the fundamental principles of these ‘Lectures on Ezekiel’ have never been successfully impugned. The Miracles of the Old Testament have been boldly assailed, both at home & abroad, and no slight outpouring of infidel wrath has fallen upon the Calvin interpretation of those of Ezekiel. Germany, the birthplace of the Reformation, has been also the seed-bed of spurious Rationalism. The novelty of any opinion on Biblical subjects has now become a sufficient atonement for its absurdity, and he receives the greatest applause from the many, who casts farthest from him whatsoever has commanded the veneration of ages. The direct interposition of Jehovah’s power in the affairs of men, as related in the writings of the Hebrews, has lately exercised the ingenuity of German skeptics to an almost incredible extent. The mysticism of the School of Schelling has rivaled the extravagancies of the theory of accommodation proposed by the celebrated Semler.”” ……}}

Lecture: Commentary:
{{Ezekiel 1:1-2: “We see that the Prophet was called to the office of a Teacher in the fifth (5th) year after Jehoiachin had voluntarily surrendered himself to the king of Babylon, (2nd Kings 24:15); and had been dragged into exile, together with his mother: for it was, says he, “in the thirtieth (30th) year.” The greater part of the Commentators follow the Chaldee Paraphrast, and understand him to date from the finding of the Book of the Law. It is quite clear, that this year was the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah; but in my computation, I do not subscribe to the opinion of those who adopt this date. For this phrase –“the thirtieth year (30th),” would then appear too obscure and forced. We nowhere read that succeeding writers adopted this date as a standard. Besides, there is no doubt that the usual method among the Jews was to begin to reckon from a Jubilee. For this was a point of starting for the future. I therefore do not doubt that this thirtieth (30th) year is reckoned from the Jubilee. Nor is my opinion a new one; for Jerome makes mention of it, although he altogether rejects it, through being deceived by an opposite opinion. But since it is certain that the Jews used this method of computation, and made a beginning from ‘Jobel’, that is, the Jubilee, this best explains the thirtieth (30th) year. If anyone should object, that we do not read that this eighteenth (18th) year of king Josiah was the usual year in which everyone returned to his own lands, (Leviticus 25) and liberty was given to the slaves, and the entire restoration of the whole people took place, yet the answer is easy, although we cannot ascertain in what year the ‘Jobel’ fell, it is sufficient for us to assign the Jubilee to this year, because the Jews followed the custom of numbering their years from this institution. As, then, the Greeks had their Olympiads, the Romans their Consuls, and thence their computation of annals; so also the Hebrews were accustomed to begin from the year ‘Jobel’, when they counted their years on to the next restoration, which I have just mentioned. It is therefore probable that this was a Jubilee year –it is probable, then, that this was the Jubilee. For it is said that Josiah celebrated the Passover with such magnificent pomp and splendor, that there had been nothing like it since the time of Samuel (2nd Chronicles 35:18). The conjecture which best explains this is, not that he celebrated the Passover even with such magnificence, but that he was induced to do so by the peculiar occasion, when the people were restored and returned to their possessions, and the slaves were set free. Since, then, this was the Jubilee, the pious king was induced to celebrate the Passover with far greater splendor than was usual –nay, even to surpass David and Solomon. Again, although he reigned thirteen (13) years afterwards, we do not read that he celebrated any Passover with remarkable splendor. We do not doubt as to his yearly celebration; for this was customary (2nd Kings 23:23). From this we conclude that the celebration before us was extraordinary, and that the year was ‘Jobel’. But though it is not expressed in Scripture, it is sufficient for us that the Prophet reckoned the years according to the accustomed manner of the people. For he says that this was “the fifth (5th) year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity:” who is called also Jehoiakim; for Jehoiakim succeeded Josiah, and reigned eleven years. The thirteen (13) years which remain of Josiah’s reign and these eleven (11), make twenty-four (24) (2nd Kings 23:36). Now, “his successor,” Jehoiachin, passed immediately into the hands of king Nebuchadnezzar, and was taken captive at the beginning of his reign, and reigned only three or four months (2nd Kings 24:8). After that, the last king, Zedekiah, was set up by the will of the king of Babylon. We see, therefore, that nine (9) years are made up: add the space of the reign of Jehoiachin: so it is no longer doubtful as to the reckoning of “the thirtieth (30th) year” from the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah. It is true that the Law of God was found during this year, (2nd Chronicles 34:14,) but the Prophet here accommodates himself to the received rule and custom.”……”Before I proceed any farther, I will briefly touch on the subjects which Ezekiel treats. He has all things in common with Jeremiah, as I have said, with this peculiarity, that he denounces the last slaughter against the people, because they ceased not to heap iniquity upon iniquity, and thereby inflamed still more and more the vengeance of God. He threatens them, therefore, and that not once only, because such was the hard-heartedness of the people, that it was not enough to utter the threatenings of God three or four times, unless he should continually impress them. But, at the same time, he shows the causes why God determined to treat his people so severely; namely, because they were contaminated with many superstitions, because they were perfidious, avaricious, cruel, and full of rapine, given up to luxury and depraved by lust: all these things are united by our Prophet, that he may show that the vengeance of God is not too severe, since the people had arrived at the very last pitch of impiety and all wickedness. At the same time, he gives them, here and there, some taste of the mercy of God. For all threats are vain, unless some promise of favor is held out. Nay, the vengeance of God, as soon as it is displayed, drives men to despair, and despair casts them headlong into madness: for as soon as anyone apprehends the anger of God, he is necessarily agitated, and then, like a raging beast, he wages war with God Himself. For this reason, I said, that all threats are vain without a taste of the mercy of God. The Prophets always argue with men with no other intention than that of stirring them up to penitence, which they could never effect unless God could be reconciled to those who had been alienated from Him. This then is the reason why our Prophet, as well as Jeremiah, when they reprove the people, temper their asperity by the interposition of promises. He also prophesies against heathen nations, like Jeremiah, especially against the children of Ammon, the Moabites, the Tyrians, the Egyptians, and the Assyrians (Jeremiah 26-29). But from the fortieth (40th) chapter he treats more fully and copiously concerning the restoration of the Temple and the city. He there professedly announces, that a new state of the people would arise, in which both the royal dignity would flourish again, and the priesthood would recover its ancient excellence, and, to the end of the book, he unfolds the singular benefits of God, which were to be hoped for after the close of the seventy (70) years. Here it is useful to remember what we observed in the case of Jeremiah: (Jeremiah 28) while the false Prophets were promising the people a return after three or five years, the true Prophets were predicting what would really happen, that the people might submit themselves patiently to God, and that length of time might not interrupt their calm submission to his just corrections. As we now understand what our Prophet is treating, and the tendency as well as the substance of his teaching, I will proceed with the context.” ……}}

Notes & Comments by Editor: Promised Contribution: Complete Apparatus Criticus Arranged (See Translator’s Preface, Volume 1): Sections:
1-3: Indexes: End of Vol. 4-7: Follow One Another. Vol. 8: Is Preceded By Its Own “List of Contents.”
Complete Synopsis of Contents of Whole of Ezekiel’s Prophecies: 1. Prophet’s Commission.
2. Prophet’s Utterances. 3. Prophet’s Consolations.

Ezekiel: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Prophet’s Commission: (1-3):
Section 1. Its Allegoric Character: Whirlwinds; Four Living Creatures; Wheels; Firmaments; Throne & Human Appearance Seated Thereon, (1).
Section 2. Address: Roll; Abounding Lamentation, (2).
Section 3. Rebellion of People; Motion of Living Creatures; Charge as Watchman; Hand of Jehovah by River Chebar, (3).
2. Prophet’s Utterances: (4-32):
A. Against Jews: (4-24): Utterances Against Jews are Divisible into those Against Jerusalem: Mountain & Land of Israel; King; False Prophets; Elders of People, & Various Repetitions, & Different Images.
Section 1. Emblem of Siege upon Tile, (4:1-3): Lying on Right & Left Side, (4:4-8); Taking Food by Measure, (4:9-12); Explanation, (4:13-17).
Section 2. Emblem of Razor, (4:1-4); Explanation, (5:5-17).
Section 3. Against Mountains of Israel, (6:1-15).
Section 4. Against Land of Israel, (7:1-27).
Section 5. Vision of Image of Jealousy, (8:1-11); Chamber of Imagery, (8:12-16); Explanation, (8:17,18).
Section 6. Vision of Man with Slaughter Weapon, (9:1-11).
Section 7. Vision of Cherubim: Description & Motions, (10:1-22).
Section 8. Emblems of Caldron & Flesh: Application to Jerusalem, (11:1-25).
Section 9. Emblem of Prophet’s Removing his Goods, & its Interpretation, (12:1-16).
Section 10. Flattering Proverb of Israel rebuked, (12:1 7-28).
Section 11. Utterance Against False Prophets, Male & Female, (13:1-23).
Section 12. Against Elders of People, (14:1-23).
Section 13. Emblem of Vine used for Fuel, (15:1-8).
Section 14. Emblem of Israel as Outcast Infant Nurtured by Almighty, (16:1-14); Married, yet Committing Adultery, (16:15-34). This Wickedness Denounced & Punished, (16:35-59). Almighty’s Merciful Relenting, (16:60-63).
Section 15. Emblem of Eagle & Cedar, (17:1-10); Explanation, Referring to Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, &
Pharaoh, (17:11-24).
Section 16. Vindication of Divine Justice, & Confutation of Israel’s Proverb, (18:1-32).
Section 17. Emblem of Lioness & her Whelps, (19:1-9).
Section 18. Emblem of Vine Plucked Up & Consumed, (19:10-14).
Section 19. Elders of Israel Rebuked for Their Sins, (20:1-32).
Section 20. Divine Promises of Restoration, (20:33-44).
Section 21. Word Dropped toward South, (20:45-49).
Section 22. Prophet’s Face Set toward Jerusalem, (21:1-7).
Section 23. Sharp Sword & Great Slaughter, (21:8-27).
Section 24. Sword Drawn Against Ammonites, (21:98-32).
Section 25. Sins of Jerusalem & God’s Vengeance, (22:1-22).
Section 26. Woes Uttered Against False Prophets, (22:23-31).
Section 27. Adulteries of People, (23:1-49).
Section 28. Parable of Boiling Pot, (24:1-14); Prophet’s Severe Affliction, (24:15-27).
B. Utterances Against Gentiles: (25-32):
Section 1. Against Ammonites, (25:1-7).
Section 2. Against Moabites, (25:8-11).
Section 3. Against the Edomites, (25:12-14).
Section 4. Against Philistines, (25:15-17).
Section 5. Against Tyre, through (26-28:19).
Section 6. Against Zidon, Ezekiel (28:20-26).
Section 7. Against Pharaoh, (29:1-7).
Section 8. Against Egypt, (29:8-21).
Section 9. Against Ethiopia, (30:1-5).
Section 10. Against Upholders of Egypt, (30:6-19).
Section 11. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel (30:20-26).
Section 12. Assyria as Cedar of Lebanon, (31:1-9).
Section 13. Its Fall & Destruction, (31:10-18).
Section 14. Bitter Lamentation over Egypt, (32:1-21).
Section 15. Bitter Lamentation over Assyria. (32:22,23).
Section 16. Bitter Lamentation over Elam, (32:24,25).
Section 17. Bitter Lamentation over Meshech & Tubal, (32:26-28).
Section 18. Bitter Lamentation over Edom, (32:29-32).
(These Utterances are all most vividly and graphically portrayed. Allegories, Metaphors, &
Parables are most appropriately interspersed with fiery Denunciations & awful Threatenings in
consequence of gross iniquities.)
3. Prophet’s Consolations: (33-48): Series of Exhortations & Promises of Deliverance under Cyrus, Description of Temple, & View of Future Divisions of Land under Prosperous Reign of Messiah.
Section 1. Prophet’s Duty as Watchman, (33:1-16).
Section 2. Vindication of God’s Equity, (33:17-33).
Section 3. Reproof to Shepherds of People, (34:1-10).
Section 4. Almighty Good Shepherd, (34:11-31).
Section 5. Desolation of Mount Seir, (35:1-15).
Section 6. Destruction of Heathen, (36:1-7).
Section 7. Blessings on Israel, (36:8-38).
Section 8. Vision of Dry Bones, (37:1-14).
Section 9. Rods of Judea & Ephraim, (37:15-20).
Section 10. Future Reign of David King, (37:21-28).
Section 11. Prophecies Against Gog & Magog, (38:1-23).
Section 12. Judgments upon Gog, (39:1-16).
Section 13. Great Sacrifice on Mountains, (39:17-20).
Section 14. Israel Restored from Captivity, (39:21-29).
Section 15. Vision of Measuring the Temple, (40:1-49).
Section 16. Measures & Ornaments, (41:1-26).
Section 17. Priests’ Chambers & Outer Court, (42:1-20).
Section 18. Returning Glory of Jehovah, (43:1-9).
Section 19. Whole Fashion of House, (43:10-12).
Section 20. Measurement of Altar, (43:13-17).
Section 21. The Sacrifices on Altar, (43:8-27).
Section 22. Various Ordinances for Priests, (44:1-31).
Section 23. Apportionment of Land, (45:1-8).
Section 24. Duties of Priests, (45:9-25).
Section 25. Duties of Prince & of People, (46:1-25).
Section 26. Vision of Rising Waters, (47:1-12).
Section 27. Divisions & Limits of Land, (47:13-23).
Section 28. Portions for Tribes & Priests, (48:1-29).
Section 29. Various Gates of City, (48:30-35).
(These closing Visions & Consolations are singularly striking, and afford scope for copious illustration; but as our Commentator did not live to expound them, it would not become his Translator to obtrude on the reader his own research into these deep things of the Spirit of God. A minute description of the Temple Scenery has been attempted by a learned Jew, Soloman Bennett, R.A. of Berlin, (Edit. London, 1834.) His work contains a most elaborate account of every interesting particular. Ezekiel 40, Ezekiel 41, and Ezekiel 42 are explained verse by verse; and a ground-plan and bird’s-eye view are subjoined. These chapters are also explained by Fry on the Second Advent, volume 1. Section 13.)” }}

(2) Exposition of Prophet Ezekiel & Useful Observations. Delivered in Several Lectures in London, (1650-1654-1662). William Greenhill, Rector of Stepney, & Chaplain to Dukes of York & Gloucester, & Lady Henrietta Maria. Revised & Corrected, James Sherman, Minister of Surrey Chapel. (1839). gs.pdf

{{ “Advertisement: The Rev. William Greenhill, the learned and pious author of the following Exposition, was born in the year 1581, of humble parents residing in Oxfordshire. As early as the age of thirteen he entered a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the condition of Servitor, and when he had completed his twenty-first year, took his degree of Master of Arts. In 1643 he acted as one of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, and about the same time was made afternoon lecturer at Stepney church. Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs preached there in the morning at seven o’clock, and Mr. Greenhill in the afternoon at three, and were hence styled “the Morning Star” and “the Evening Star” of Stepney. He was chosen to be chaplain to the dukes of York and Gloucester, and the Lady Henrietta Maria, and in the year 1656 had the living of Stepney presented to him. Calamy says, “He was a worthy man, and much valued for his great learning and unwearied labours.” Howe styles him “that eminent servant of God, Mr. Greenhill, whose praise is still in the churches.” His Exposition of the Prophecy of Ezekiel was delivered in Lectures in the city of London, which were attended by many of the chief personages of his day, and have been long and deservedly valued. They were originally printed a volume at a time, as the lectures on a few chapters were concluded, till five small quarto volumes completed the Exposition. Happy that biblical student thought himself who could obtain a perfect copy, although it has been sold at the enormous price of from seven to ten pounds. The last volume is rarely to be obtained; and is supposed to have been destroyed in the calamitous fire of London. No pains or expense have been spared to render this edition complete. It could hardly be expected that in a work of this magnitude no errors should inadvertently have been overlooked, but, from the most careful examination, it is confidently expected they will scarcely be found. Believing that the reader of Greenhill would not thank any editor who might attempt to beautify his style, the reviser has been anxious that he might appear again in his own garb of 1650, and not in the more polite dress of 1837. His style is abrupt, not always chaste, often imperfect, and full of singularities; yet searching, bold, striking, and effective. An attempt to improve it would most likely enfeeble it, and shear it of its point and power……As a practical expositor of Ezekiel, whose prophecy contains many things “hard to be understood,” Greenhill will ever rank deservedly high. He fully explains the meaning of the prophet, and then applies the truth to the consciences of his auditory by many most pertinent and heart-searching observations. It is impossible that a prayerful mind can read this exposition, without growing “in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.” J. Sherman. ‘Surrey Chapel’,
‘January’ 26’th’, 1837.”}}

{{“Epistles Dedicatory: [Prefixed, Original Edition, Part Containing Chap. 1-5.]

“To the Excellent Princess, & Most Hopeful Lady, the Princess Elizabeth, Her Highness. May it Please Your Highness,…..Doubtless God’s eye is upon your Highness, for that good which is found in you in these your tender years, and is well pleased that your sweetness of nature and choiceness of wit are joined with desire to know him, with love to his worship, affection to the godly, and delight in such sentences as these are, viz.: “Chairete en Kuriö pavtote, palin erö, Chairete.” “Deus meus et omnia”. “La mia Grandezza dal Eccelso”.
All which, with these precious speeches of yours, “I had rather be a beggar here than not go to heaven,” and, “How shall I be sure to go to heaven?” are acceptable to the Highest, and make strong impressions upon us inferiors. Your desire to know the original tongues, that you may understand the Scripture the better; your resolution to write them out with your own princely hand, and to come to the perfect knowledge of them, breed in us hopes that you will exceed all of your sex, and be without equal in Europe; as Drusius said of his son, who at five years learned Hebrew, and at twelve wrote it ‘extempore’, both in prose and verse. Encouraging instances your own sex will afford. Eustochium profited so much in the Latin, Hebrew, and Greek, that in her time she was called the wonder of the world. Istrina, queen of the Scythians, so excelled in Greek, that she taught her sons the Greek tongue. Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrenians, was skilled in the Latin, Egyptian, and Greek tongues; she read the Roman story in Greek, abridged the Alexandrian and all the oriental histories. Politian hath an epistle to Cassandra, a Venetian maid, whom he calls the glory of Italy. Her delight was not in wool, but books; not in the spindle or needle, but in the pen; not in paint, but in ink: she wrote epistles and orations to admiration; she excelled in logic and philosophy, and had such perfections, as caused the learned to admire, if not adore her. Queen Elizabeth was so learned, that she read every author in the original, and answered ambassadors of most nations in their own language: she went twice to Oxford, and once to Cambridge, purposely to hear the learned academical disputations, where herself made Latin orations: she translated Sallust, and wrote a century of sentences: she set apart some hours daily to read, or hear others read to her : she so excelled in learning and wisdom, that her teachers rather learned of her than brought learning to her. Your Highness seems to aim at all the excellences in the prementioned; for your writing out the Lord’s Prayer in Greek, some texts of Scripture in Hebrew, your endeavour after the exact knowledge of those holy tongues, with other languages and learned accomplishments, your diligent hearing of the word, careful noting of sermons, understanding answers at the catechising, and frequent questioning about holy things, do promise great matters from you. If the harvest be answerable to the spring, your Highness will be the wonder of the learned, and glory of the godly. It is my unhappiness that I cannot be sufficiently adjuvant to such princely beginnings; yet because this following treatise is an exposition of Scripture, I take the boldness to present it to your Highness, and shall continue to pray to him who is All, and able to give all, that he would preserve your royal person, bless your hopeful endeavours, fill you with all divine perfections, make you a chief praise in Israel, and fit you for an eternal weight of glory. Your Highness’s most humble servant, William Greenhill.”}}

{{“To All Well-Willers of Truth; Especially to the Authors Fautors of the Expository Lectures in this City: …..”Robert Stephen mentions one, and that a Sarbonist, who had lived above fifty years, and knew not what the New Testament meant: and have not sundry persons among us lived their fifty years, and not known what Ezekiel meant P hath he not been a book clasped and sealed unto them? If this hieroglyphical prophet have been a wonder to all for his visions, yet he hath been known to few, by reason of the abstruseness of his visions, which have kept off great rabbies from employing their talents to open them. If weakness and error be found in these poor labours of mine, I entreat you to remember, I have been among prophetical deeps and difficulties, which may plead for him who, knowing his own insufficiencies, came invita Minerva to this task. If any light appear for the better understanding of these enigmatical things, I must say with Daniel, there is a God in heaven which revealeth mysteries, to him be all the glory, Dan. ii. 28. My prayers shall be to him who enlighteneth every man which cometh into the world, that he would anoint your eyes with eye-salve, whereby you may daily see more into the great and glorious truths of God, and those things which may strongly make for your eternal peace and comfort. So prayeth Your friend and servant in the Lord, W. G.}}

1:5: “What these living creatures are, is the great dispute among expositors. Some make them to be the four covenants of God: 1. That with Adam. 2. That with Noah. 3. That with Moses. 4. That with the apostles. Some make them to be all the creatures. Some, the four cardinal virtues, justice, wisdom, fortitude, temperance. Some, the four faculties in the soul; the rational, irascible, concupiscible, and conscience. Some, the four chief passions; joy, grief, hope, and fear. Some, the four monarchies; Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman. Some, the twelve tribes of Israel, in their stations, east, west, north, south, when in the wilderness. Some, the four elements, of which man’s body doth consist. Some, the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; and this being the opinion of Jerome and Gregory the great, prevailed much, but now is deserted. Others understand by these four creatures, those who are complete and more perfect in the church. Others expound them to be Christ; but Christ is brought in, in the latter end of the chapter, sitting upon the throne: these creatures are some distinct ones from Him, and inferior to Him. By them then we are to understand the angels, which have a great part under God in the government of the world. The word (chaiyoth) living creatures, doth not only signify a creature that is corporeal, living, and sensible; but it denotes any living being or substance, whether corporeal or spiritual: and so Tully calls ‘intelligentias animales’, living intelligences, in Quest. Acad. l. 4. The best interpreters go this way, and understand by the living creatures, ‘exercitus invisibiles’, principalities and powers, and we need not fetch light from men, where the Scripture gives interpretation itself. Ezek. 10, there you have frequent mention of cherubims, which were these living creatures; for ver. 8, it is said, “There appeared the form of a man’s hand under their wings.” They had the same faces, one excepted, and as many, ver. 14, and Ezekiel saith, ver. 15, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar.” And more plain yet in ver. 20, “This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar, and I knew that they were the cherubims.” Although he called it before the living creature, in the singular number, yet here he changeth the number, and saith, they were the cherubims. We may trust Ezekiel’s judgment, he was guided by the Spirit, and his cherubims do hold forth the same parties to us, that Isaiah’s seraphims did to him. The word cherub notes generally any figure of man or beast, say the Hebrews, but especially the figure of a young man or a child, with wings stretched out, Exod. 25. Such were the two cherubims before the ark. The Chaldeans call a little child, ‘rabi’; or ‘rabia’; whence some derive the word cherubim, ‘quasi cherabia’, as a little child; others fetch it from ‘caph’, which notes likeness, and ‘rob’ or ‘rab’, which words signify, as, in general, quality and quantity, so multitude and magnitude; so that cherubims etymologized are ‘tanquam multi et magni’, as it were many and great. The word cherub notes not only angels, but angels as they appeared and were figured with any external form of man or beast, and such figures were hieroglyphical, as here in this vision. The prophet saw not these cherubims, or angels, or living creatures, but the likeness of them. For the nature of spirits is invisible; no soul, no angel, neither God himself, can be seen. How then is their likeness presented to the prophet? (They are (aölos [a-holoi (incomplete) = asömatos (bodiless)], incorporeal, without flesh and bones, Luke 24:39. They are pure as God is, ‘actus purissimus’.) It is no bodily likeness, but a likeness in life, quality, and motion. But the text saith, “They had the likeness of a man,” that is, not in his nature and essence, but in some qualities; they had the face, hands, thighs, and legs of a man, all which set out some choice qualities in the angels. They had also something of the beast and bird. And if they were in nature like the living creatures, angels were strange monsters, and not spirits in compound. By their likeness unto man is laid before us the rationality, knowledge, and understanding of angels. They are not ignorant creatures, but ‘ipsae intelligentiae’, the most understanding creatures in heaven or earth. 2nd Sam. 15:20, the widow of Tekoah told David, he was wise according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth; that is, he was very wise, as the angels are, to search out, understand, and discover things. Therefore Jerome thinks they are called cherubims from their much knowledge. (A multitudine scientiae; Cherubim quasi cherabbim.) Cherubims, as it were, rabbies, doctors, teachers of others; and this office some angels have had. Dan. 8:16, “Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision;” and chap. 10:14, “I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days.” They have prophetical knowledge in them, and a treasury of things that are past and done long since. Rev. 4:6, 8, there is mention of four beasts or living creatures, (the same with these in Ezekiel,) full of eyes before and behind, because they see and know what is past, and what is before them; their natural knowledge is great, being such excellent spirits.” ……}}
(3) Commentary upon Larger & Lesser Prophets: being a Continuation Bishop Patrick, by William Lowth, B.D. Prebendary of Winchester. 4th Edition. (1739).

Dedication to the Right Honourable & Right Reverend Father in God, Jonathan, Lord Bishop of Winchester, & Prelate of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
{{ “My Lord, The chief Design of the following Work, which I humbly offer to Your Lordship, is to assert the Ancient and Catholick Sense of several Texts of the Prophet, whom I undertake to explain, and vindicate them from some Novel Expositions, which tend to deprive the Christian Religion of the Benefit of so considerable a Testimony: And I humbly beg Leave to present to Your Lordship this small Acknowledgment of my Duty and Observance, as a Member of Your ‘Cathedral’, and Minister of a ‘Parish Church’ of Your ‘Diocese’ and ‘Patronage’, and to which Your Lordship hath been pleased to be a ‘Benefactor’, when it lately suffered under a great Calamity. How mean soever the Performance may be, I hope the Design of it may in some Measure recommend it to Your Lordship’s Patronage, which is to illustrate this Evangelical Prophet, who, by the general Consent of former Ages, hath been placed at the Head of that Noble Order: A Person, whose Supernatural Gift of Prophecy added a new Lustre to the Greatness of his Birth, and whose liberal Education furnished him with a Noble Eloquence, and suitable to the Dignity of his Argument. The same Holy Spirit, who sometimes spake to the World by Shepherds and Fishermen, that the Excellency of the Truths delivered by them might appear to be of God, and not of themselves, at other Times made Choice of the Pen of a David, a Solomon, and an Isaiah, to instruct us, that the outward Accomplishments of Birth and Fortune may be sanctified to higher Purposes, and made instrumental in advancing the Glory of God, and the Interests of Religion. That Your Lordship may continue to employ the Advantages of Your great Station and Quality to God’s Honour, and the Service of His Church, is the hearty Prayer of, My Lord, Your Lordship’s most Dutiful and Obedient Servant, William Lowth.” }}
Preface: (Prophetical Books):
{{ “There is no Part of the Holy Scriptures that more deserves the thoughts of inquisitive Men, than the Writings of the Prophets. ‘God’ in His Word hath offered suitable Matter for the several Capacities of Men. The ‘Historical’ Books instruct us in the Methods of Providence, and afford an agreeable Entertainment to inquisitive Minds, as they contain the most ancient Records that are in the World, and relate the most remarkable Occurrences that ever happened in it. Persons of ordinary Understandings may find all necessary Truths plainly delivered, and often repeated in the New Testament Writings, and in the ‘Practical’ Books of the Old: Those of higher Endowments may find sufficient Employment in unfolding the Types and Figures of the ‘Jewish OEconomy’, and in searching into the Depths of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions. We may indeed find some Prophecies plainly delivered with great Exactness of Time, and Particularity in Circumstances (those especially which relate to the Coming of the ‘Messias’) that when the Events came to pass, they might appear to be the Effects of ‘God’s’ determinate Counsel and Foreknowledge. But the far greater Part of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions are couched in ‘Symbols’ and Sacred ‘Hieroglyphicks’ (a way of conveying the abstruser Parts of Knowledge, much used in the Eastern Countries:) As it were on purpose to excite the Curiosity of the Ingenious, and reward the Diligence of the industrious Searchers after Divine Truth. To which we may add, that the ‘Metaphorical’ Stile of the Prophets, is very proper to inspire the Minds of attentive Readers with noble Ideas of ‘God’s’ Wisdom and Providence, and to affect will the most lively Image of the Glorious Kingdom of ‘God’ and ‘Christ’, the Happiness of those that shall have a Share in the Triumphs of it, and the Terribleness of those Punishments which are denounced against such as will not have him to reign over them. And to encourage Men in the Searches of this Kind, they will find face an Harmony and Correspondence between the Figures and Emblems, whereby the Prophets point out Things to come, that the careful comparing of them with each other, will afford the best Clue to guide the attentive Reader through the most difficult Parts of their Writings, and is likewise a surprizing Proof that they all wrote by the Direction of one and the selfsame ‘Spirit’.
This hath been in some Measure attempted in the ensuing Work, where the Author hath used his utmost Diligence, to compare the Text with such parallel Places both of the Old and New Testament, which might any way conduce to the clearing up its Sense: And he is willing to believe that if be hath given any new Light to the obscure and difficult Passages of this Prophet, it is chiefly by comparing the Phrase and Idiom of the Text with other parallel Places more exactly than hath been hitherto done by any Commentator upon this Prophet that he hath seen: And be desires the Reader, that when he finds a more than ordinary Difficulty, he would carefully consider the parallel Text there referred to, which to have set down at Length, would have enlarged this Work beyond its due Bounds. The Writings of the Prophets unfold the Methods of Providence in many remarkable Instances: Such as are, ‘God’s’ Disposal of Kingdoms and Governments, and making use of wicked Princes and Nations to be the Instruments of his Justice in punishing others as bad or worse: The gradual Discovery of the Coming of the Messias, and the several Steps and Advancements by which ‘God’ introduced His Kingdom into the World,, and will carry it on till the Consummation of all Things. These Speculations must needs afford great Entertainment to Men of curious and inquisitive Tempers, and be Matter of Delight as well as instruction.
These Reasons, as they should encourage those to the Study of the Prophetical Writings, who have any
Talents for such an Employment, especially those whose Profession engages them to ‘search the Scriptures’; So they should recommend any Attempt that is made toward the further explaining of so considerable a Part of the Holy Scriptures. For after all the Pains that bath been taken in clearing up the Sense of these Sacred Books, by Persons excellently qualified for such an Undertaking, still there is Room left for further Endeavours in that Kind. For there is a Treasure of Heavenly Wisdom contained in them, that can never be exhausted: And as it is highly reasonable to believe, that some Parts of the ‘Old Testament’ Prophecies reach to the End of the World, so it is as reasonable to expect that in every Age Providence should open some new Scene, which wilt give further lnsight into the Meaning of those Sacred Writings. I confess, I can by no means approve of the Opinion of some learned Men, who are for cramping the Sense of the Prophets, and confining it within a narrow a Compass as they can, and will needs maintain that the Prophets scarce foresaw any Thing but what was to come to pass in or near their own Time. I must own my self-puzzled to assign a Reason why ‘God’ should appoint a Succession of Prophets to foretel what should come to pass within the Compass of about three hundred Years (for within that Time most of those Prophets lived, whose Writings make up that Part of the Scripture Canon which is called by that Name) and take no notice of any other Occurrences which should happen in succeeding Times; whereas to extend the Prophetick Views to the End of the World, seems much more agreeable to that Description of ‘God’s’ Prescience which the Holy Writers give us, That He declares the End from the Beginning, and His Wisdom reaches from one ‘End’ [of the World] to the other mightily, and sweetly does it order all Things: So that even when the whole ‘Mystery of God’s Dispensations’ shall be finished, it will appear that nothing is contained in them, but what God bath formerly declared to His Servants the Prophets, as it is expressly affirmed, Revel. 10:7.
For a further Proof of this Assertion, I desire it may be considered, that the Prophecies which foretel the Visibility and Universality of ‘Christ’s Church’, accompanied with perfect Peace, Prosperity and Holiness, cannot with any Probability be said to have as yet received their Accomplishment, as neither have those Predictions which foretel the flourishing State of the ‘Jewish’ Church and Nation in the latter Times. And to suppose those Prophecies to have already received their utmost Completion, is, in my Judgment, to give too great an Advantage to the Jews, and in Effect to acknowledge that they never were, nor will be fulfilled in their natural and obvious Sense. Whereas on the other Side, to assert that many Prophecies relating to the Messias, are already fulfilled in our ‘Lord Jesus Christ’, a Truth that can be made out beyond all Contradiction; and withal to maintain that several others concerning the same Subject, relate to His ‘Second Coming’, and their Accomplishment shall usher in or accompany that His Glorious Appearance: I say, the observing this Distinction between the different Times, wherein the several Prophecies relating to the Coming of Christ shall be fulfilled, effectually answers all the Arguments which the ‘Jews’ make use of to support themselves in their incredulity; it discovers a perfect Harmony and Correspondence between the Prophecies of the Old and New Testament, and it gives us an agreeable View of a more flourishing State of the Church, than the World hath yet been blessed with; and thereby engages us to use our best Endeavours to restore the Church to its primitive Purity, where-ever we find it defective.
These Considerations at first engaged me to attempt a Commentary upon the Prophet ‘Isaiah’; who as he is the first and principal of the Prophets in order; so he hath had the Honour of being stiled the ‘Evangelical Prophet’ by the Christian Church, because he foretold the Coming and Kingdom of the Messias with greater Clearness than any of the rest. But he will have but little Pretence to that Title, if we follow some Men’s Notions, which have been lately renewed, and zealously maintained by Mr. ‘Samuel White’, in his ‘Commentary’ upon this Prophet; where he all along supposes, that the far greatest Part of this Prophecy relates only to the Times in which the Prophet lived, and those that succeeded till the Return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity. Indeed he is willing to allow the ‘(53rd) Chapter’ of ‘Isaiah’, to have been fulfilled only in our Saviour; but according to his ‘Hypothesis’, that Prophecy must come in very abruptly, without any Connexion upon what went before, or what follows. To do him all the Justice I can, I must own, that in his Preface be asserts a double Meaning of many Prophecies: One more immediately relating to the present Circumstances of Things in or near the Prophet’s own Time; the others having more distant Views upon the State of the Gospel-Times. But his general Design in his ‘Arguments’ to the Chapters, and in his ‘Notes’, whenever an Occasion is offered, is to run down and ridicule the ‘Spiritual’ and ‘Mystical’ Sense of particular Texts or Prophecies, and to accuse the Commentators who have asserted it, as ‘making a Note of Wax’ of the Scriptures, and forcing the Words to an unnatural and improper Signification. Now these Assertions are a direct Contradiction to the Manner of interpreting the Old Testament Prophecies, made use of by ‘Christ’ and His ‘Apostles’ in the New; where we find our ‘Saviour’ applies several of the Ancient Prophecies to Himself; and the Apostles frequently assert, that ‘all Things happened to the’ Jews ‘in Figures’, that their Ordinances were ‘Parables’ or Allegories with respect to the Times of the Gospel; that the Christian Church is the ‘True Israel of God’, and all the Privileges appropriated to the ‘Jewish’ Nation in the Old Testament as ‘God’s Segullah’, or ‘peculiar People’, do in a more eminent Manner appertain to the Church of ‘Christ’, which is that true Kingdom of ‘God’, the ‘Jerusalem coming down from Heaven’, of which the earthly ‘Jerusalem’, and the Temple there, was only a Type and Figure.
These Rules for interpreting the ancient Prophecies laid down by the Apostles, ought to be a Standard for all Christians to square their Interpretations by, as being delivered by those who had the (Gnösis), or that especial ‘Gift of the Spirit’, which enabled them to explain the ‘Prophecies’ of the Old Testament, and apply them to the Times of the New. This is that ‘Publick’, or Authentick ‘Interpretation’ of the Scripture Prophecies, which St. ‘Peter’ opposes to a ‘Private Interpretation’, 2nd Pet. 1:19, that is, to such an Interpretation as is wholly owing to human Wit or Invention, or relates to private Persons and Translations. Whereas this publick Interpretation is taken from the ‘common Analogy of Faith’, Rom. 12;6, and arises from ‘comparing spiritual Things with spiritual’, 1st Cor. 2:13, i.e. the spiritual Sense of the Old Testament Writings with that of the New, and with one another. In which Particular I cannot but look upon Mr. ‘White’s Exposition’ as very deficient, in that he scarce ever compares the Phraseology of ‘Isaiah’ with that of the other Prophets, or with parallel Texts of the New Testament; which one would think every Christian Commentator should have a particular Regard to, in explaining the Sense of the ancient Prophecies. The ancient ‘Jews’ never contested this Point with the ‘Christians’, but always acknowledged that the chief Design of the Prophets was to foretel the Times of the ‘Messias’. And when Christ and His Apostles explained the Prophecies in a ‘Spiritual’ or ‘Mystical’ Sense, they interpreted them according to the received Notions of the Synagogue, and are never taxed, that we can find, for misapplying the particular Texts they alledged, as if they did not belong to the Times of the ‘Messias’. The Words of St. ‘Peter’ do in some Measure inform us, from whence the ‘Jews’ might receive these Notions, 1st Pet. 1:11,12, where he tells us, ‘That the Prophets who searched diligently what, and what manner of Time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, did signify, when it testified beforehand the Sufferings of Christ, and the Glory which should follow, had it revealed unto them, that not unto themselves, but to us they did minister the Things’ which the Apostles preached. No doubt, but they studied their own Prophecies, and the Spirit of God so far assisted them, and enlightened their Minds, as to enable them to leave this Key for the interpreting their own Writings, and letting succeeding Ages into the true Meaning of them. And thus a traditionary Explication of the Old Testament Prophecies was carried down from the very Time of the Prophets to After-Ages.
Several Arguments may be alledged to prove, that these Notions were generally received among the ‘Jews’ long before ‘Christ’s’ Time: In the first Place, we may argue from their admitting the ‘Song’ of ‘Solomon’ into their Canon, which could have no Pretence for being placed among the Sacred Writings, but only as it was supposed figuratively to set forth the ‘Spiritual Marriage of Christ and His Church’. The same Point may further be proved from their ancient ‘Targums’ and ‘Paraphrases’ upon the Scripture, from the ‘Misna’, and those Mystical Expositions of several Texts, which we read in the ‘Epistle’ of ‘Barnabas’, and which it is probable were taken out of some ‘Midrash’, or Authentick Exposition of the Scripture Texts, as hath been observed by Bishop ‘Fell’, and other Learned ‘Commentators’ upon that Epistle. And tho’ it should be granted, that some of those Writings are not so old as the Time of Christ and His Apostles; yet this doth not invalidate the Force of the Argument, because those Writings consist of traditionary Explications of Scripture, which the Compilers took from the Writings of former Ages, just as in After-times the ‘Greek Catenæ’ upon the Scriptures were compiled out of the Writings of the ancient Fathers by Authors of a later Date.
It does not appear, that this mystical Way of applying the Scripture-Prophecies to the Times of the ‘Messias’, was ever called in question, till the ‘Jews’ came to engage in Disputes with the Christians; and then to avoid the Force of their Arguments, they found it necessary to reject the Opinions of their Ancestors. It was this Consideration made Aquila and Theodotion, Apostates from Christianity to Judaism, to undertake a New Translation of the Old Testament into Greek, because they thought the Interpretation of the Septuagint too favourable to the Christians, having been framed according to the traditionary Explication of the Sense of the Prophets, which bad been received among the ‘Jews’ Time out of Mind. This Christian Interpretation about the Prophecies is called the ‘Mystical Sense’, because it helps to unfold the Mysteries of the Gospel, not as if it were always opposed to a literal Sense. For in many Cases what we call the Mystical Sense, more exactly answers the natural and genuine Import of the Words, than any other Interpretation that can be given of them. To instance in that famous Prophecy, Isa. 7:14. Behold a ‘Virgin’ shall conceive, &c. Supposing, but not granting, that this Prophecy can be applied in a lower Sense to ‘Isaiah’s’ Son, or any other Person but ‘Christ’; yet it is plain at first Sight, that the Historical Sense, which is commonly given of the Words, to denote ‘One that is now a Virgin, but should afterward marry and bear a Son’, comes infinitely short of the true Force and Meaning of them, and contains nothing in it that can deserve to be called a ‘Sign’ or ‘Wonder’. This seems to have been a Maxim in interpreting Prophecies, received among the Jews before Christ’s Time, That where-ever they observed an imperfect Completion of a Prophecy in the Historical Event, which no way answered the lofty Expressions, and extensive Promises, which the natural Sense of the Text imported, there they supposed the Times of the ‘Messias’ to be ultimately intended, ‘in whom all the Promises of God are Yea, and Amen’. To prevent any Misunderstanding, it may be proper likewise to take Notice, that this ‘Mystical Sense’ of the Prophecies, is now and then, but not so fitly, called a ‘Secondary Sense’; not as if it were lest principally intended by the Prophets, but rather with respect to the Time, because it is the last or ultimate Completion of their Predictions.
That many of the Prophecies are not limited to one single Event, but may have different Views, and be capable of being fulfilled by several Steps and Degrees, is what I have all along supposed in the following Commentary, and therefore here it will be proper to assign the Reasons of such a Supposition. This Subject hath been handled by several Learned Men, and of late by Dr. ‘Nich. Clagett’. [My Lord ‘Bacon’ has made an Observation upon this Subject, which deserves to be taken Notice of; in his Advancement of Learning, Book II. Chap. 11, “In the Interpretation of Prophecies, that Latitude must be allowed, which is proper and familiar to Divine Prophecies, that their Accomplishments may be both perpetual and punctual. For they resemble the Nature of their Author, ‘To whom one Day is as a thousand Years, and a thousand Years as one Day’. And though the Fulness and Height of their Complement be many Times assigned to some certain Age or Point of Time, yet they have nevertheless certain Stairs or Scales of Accomplishment throughout divers Ages of the World.”] l shall not repeat what hath been said already upon this Argument, but only lay down some General Reasons of this Assertion. I have already observed that this Opinion is agreeable to the Sentiments of the ‘Jews’: The only Point in which they differ from us, is, whether the Messias, to whom the Prophecies relate, be already come, or be yet to come. Therefore I shall not any longer insist upon that Argument, but proceed to observe, that under the Old Testament, all the most considerable Persons and Translations there mentioned, were ‘Typical’, and prefigured the State of Things under the ‘Messias’. Thus the New Testament informs us, that by ‘Sarah’ and ‘Hagar’ were allegorically represented the ‘Two Covenants’: By the preferring of ‘Jacob’ before ‘Esau’, the Rejection of the ‘Jews’, and the Calling of the ‘Gentiles’: By the Deliverance from the ‘Egyptian’ Bondage, the Redemption of Mankind by ‘Christ’, the ‘True Passover’ sacrificed for us: That the ‘Israelites’ passing through the Red-Sea, did typify the Sacrament of ‘Baptism’; and their Sojourning in the ‘Wilderness’, in their Way to the Promised Land, was designed to signify that we are but ‘Strangers and Pilgrims’ in this World, and must look upon Heaven as the only true Place of ‘Rest which remains for the People of ‘God’.’
“In the Characters the Scriptures give us of ‘Adam’ and ‘Melchisedeck’, of ‘Isaac’ and ‘Joseph’, of ‘Moses’ and ‘Joshua’, of ‘David’ and ‘Solomon’, of ‘Eliakim’ and ‘Jonah’, of ‘Cyrus’ and ‘Zerubbabel’, they plainly describe them as Figures of Christ: That several Circumstances of their Lives did foreshew the most remarkable Passages of his, and the Deliverances some of them wrought for God’s People, were Earnests of a greater Redemption to be accomplished by the Messias. Several of the Psalms, particularly the 18th, and the 118th, were writ upon particular Occasions, relating to some remarkable Circumstances of David’s Life, as appears both by their ‘Titles’ (which to be sure are as ancient as the Compiling the Old Testament Canon) and by the General Subject handled in them: And yet several Passages out of these ‘Psalms’ are applied in the New Testament to ‘Christ’ and the ‘Gospel’, as more eminently fulfilled in them. From these Principles we may conclude, that there is a Resemblance, or ‘Correspondence’ between many of the Transactions mentioned in the Old Testament, and those which should come to pass under the New: And consequently, that the Prophets, when they spake of some Events near their own Times, probably had more distant Views, which might reach even to the latter Ages of the World.
This Assertion, as it shews that ‘Fulness of Sense’ contained in the Scriptures, which ‘Tertullian’ faith, he did so much reverence and adore, so it introduces Christ into the World, with a great deal of Pomp and Solemnity; whilst it makes the whole Contrivance of the Jewish Dispensation, and all the Eminent Persons of former Times, as so many Harbingers to prepare the Way for His Coming, and thereby raises in our Mind, a just Veneration for the Gospel-State, as the Master-Piece of Divine Providence, that Point wherein all the Lines of ‘God’s manifold Wisdom’ do meet as in their Center; from whence it is evidently demonstrated, that ‘Christ was ordained by God, before the Foundation of the World’, though in His wise Disposal He did not appear till the latter Times of it. These ‘Providential Congruities’ between the Times of the Old and New Testament, do very much confirm the Authority of both Testaments; for they plainly shew, that they were written by the Direction of one and the same Spirit, who hath therein discovered to us one entire Scene of Providence, which reaches from one End of the World to the other.
The Apostles justify this Way of interpreting Scripture-Prophecies, by the Interpretations they give us both of the antient Prophecies, and of our Saviour’s own Predictions; of each of these shall give a remarkable Instance. That Prophecy of ‘Isaiah’, chap. 53:4. ‘He hath borne our Griefs, and carried our Sorrows’, without question is principally to be understood of Christ’s undergoing the Punishment due to our Sins; but yet St. ‘Matthew’ applies it to the Pains which He took in healing Men of their bodily Infirmities, and his rendering His own Life uneasy by the Care and Trouble He underwent to give Ease to others, ‘Matth’. 8:18. In like manner, that Expression of our Saviour, ‘John’ 17:12. ‘Those whom Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost’, was chiefly meant of Christ’s Care to preserve His Disciples in a firm Belief of, and Adherence to, those Truths which He taught them; yet we find St. ‘John’ applies the Words to the Care that Christ took of their Safety, when he yielded Himself up to those that came to apprehend Him, chap. 18:9. From hence it appears, that the Holy Writers themselves suppose, that the Expressions of inspired Persons may have several Senses couched under the Words. The same may be affirmed of that Prophecy of Christ, concerning the ‘Destruction of Jerusalem, and the End of the World’, Matth. 24 in which it is hard to determine, where our Saviour makes a Transition from one Subject to the other; this makes it probable, that He had both these Events in His Eye together, and that several of His Expressions were partly verified at the Time of the Destruction of ‘Jerusalem’, but were more fully to be accomplished at the ‘General Judgment’, of which that particular judgment was an Earnest and Fore-runner.
The Prophet Isaiah is certainly one of the most difficult of all the Prophets, though perhaps few are sensible of it, but they that try to explain him: Besides the Want of antient Records to clear up some Historical Passages of his Prophecy, a Difficulty common to him with the rest of the Prophets; there are some Difficulties, which do in a particular Manner attend his Writings. The Profoundness of his Thoughts, the Loftiness of his Expressions, and the Extent of his Prophecy, have made the ‘Commentaries’ hitherto written upon him, fall short of a full Explication of his Book; and he that will undertake to fathom the Depths of this Prophecy, is in great Danger of going out of his own. This Prophet seems to have been favoured with an entire View of the Gospel-State, from the very ‘Birth’ of the ‘Messias’, to that glorious Period, when the ‘Kingdoms of the World shall become the Kingdoms of the LORD, and of His Christ’. Upon these Accounts, as he deservedly holds the first Rank in that Noble Order of Prophets; so it may be hoped, the Candid Reader will favourably receive any Attempt that is made, to give some farther Light to this Prophecy, how imperfect soever. And particularly, I would make one Request to him, with which I shall conclude this Preface, viz. That, in those Parts of this Exposition, where there is any Mention made of the ‘Jews’ being to be ‘restored to their own Land’ upon their Conversion, and some other Particulars relating to that glorious State of the Church, which we may from Prophetical Grounds of Scripture expect to come to pass in the ‘latter Times’ of the World, there he would not judge of what is said upon these obscure Subjects as so many positive Assertions, but only as probable Conjectures, and such as the Words of the Text may fairly be supposed to favour. For in these and such-like abstruse Matters, which at present lie hid in their Causes, and in the Abyss of Providence, a modest Man should not pretend to be ‘Wise’ above that which is plainly and expresly ‘written’.” }}

{{ Commentary on Ezekiel’s Prophecy: Chap. I: Argument: The first Chapter contains a Description of God’s Appearing in a glorious manner to ‘Ezekiel’, in order to the giving him a Commission to execute the Prophetical Office.
Ver. 1. ‘Now it came to pass’.] The ‘Hebrew’ Text reads, ‘And it came to pass’; but it is usual in that Language to begin a Discourse or Book with the Particle ‘Vau’, or ‘and’: See ‘Jonah’ 1:1 and the beginning of most of the Historical Books of the Old Testament; which Particle is very properly translated in those Places, Now it came to pass: So that there is no ground for the Fancy of ‘Spinoza’, who would conclude, from hence, that this Book of ‘Ezekiel’ is but a Fragment of a larger Book, and contained several Prophecies, now lost, which were in Order of Time before those set down in these and the following Chapters. Ibid. ‘In the ‘Thirtieth (30th) year’.] It is a great Question from whence this Computation of Time commences. The most probable Answers are; first, that of ‘Scaliger’, who supposes this Thirtieth (30th) Year to be meant of the Years of Nebupolassar’s Reign; who, as he tells us from ‘Berosus’ quoted by Josephus, (l. I. contr. App.) reigned twenty-nine (29) Years complete: So the Thirtieth (30th) Year, here mentioned, was the last Year of his Reign and Life: And is likewise the thirteenth (13th) Year current of his Son Nebuchadnezzar’s Reign, who reigned so many Years together with his Father: (See Scaliger’s Canon Isagog. p. 281, 294. his Prolegom. ad. Lib. de emend. Temporum; and his Notes on the Greek Fragments, at the end of those Books.) But there is one considerable Objection against this Opinion of Scaliger, that according to Berosus’s Account, as his Works are quoted in another Place of ‘Josephus’, (Antiq. l. x. c. ii.) Nebupolassar reigned only Twenty-one (21) Years, the Greek Text reading, by a little Variation, (‘eichosi hen’ for ‘eichosi ennea’ .) Which is the same Number of Years assigned to ‘Nebupolassar’ in the ‘Aera Nabonassari’, and agrees better with ‘Berosus’s’ own Story, ‘viz’. that when he had committed the Command of the Army to his Son, and sent him on an Expedition to Syria and Phaenicia, he died in a short Time after. ‘Villalpandus’ in like manner makes his Computation to commence from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign: See his Commentary upon Ezek. 40:1. He allows nineteen (19) Years for his Reign, distinct from that of his Son, and supposes ‘Nebuchadnezzar’ to reign two (2) Years with his Father; which indeed agrees with the Scripture Computation: See the Note on Jer. 25:1. But, according to that very Account, the fifth (5th) Year of ‘Jehoiachin’s’ Captivity will be coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For the nineteenth (19th) Year of the same Reign is assigned for the Destrućtion of ‘Jerusalem’, ‘Jer’. 52:12., which was about six (6) Years afterwards. So this Computation will make Jehoiachin’s Captivity to have happened not in the thirtieth (30th), but in the thirty-second (32nd) Year, reckoning from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign. A more probable Answer to this Difficulty is that which the Chaldee Paraphrast, Archbishop Usher, A. M. 3409. Dr. ‘Prideaux ad an. A. C.’ 594, and other learned Men follow, ‘viz’. that these thirty (30) Years are to be reckoned from the Time when ‘Josiah’ and all the People of ‘Judah’ entered into that solemn Covenant mentioned 2nd Kings 22:3. which was in the eighteenth (18th) Year of ‘Josiah, ibid’. from which Time the same Learned Writers compute the forty (40) Years of ‘Judah’s’ Transgression, mentioned chap. iv. 4:6. Ibid. ‘As I was among the Captives by the River Chebar’.] Those which were carried away with ‘Jehoiachin’, King of ‘Judah’: See the next Verse. These were placed in Towns or Villages that lay upon the River Chebar in Mesopotamia, called by ‘Ptolemy’ and ‘Strabo’, ‘Chaboras’ or ‘Aboras’, and by ‘Pliny’, Lib. 1. c. 26 ‘Cobaris’.
Ver. 2. ‘Which was in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity’.] This was coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For ‘Jehoiachin’ was carried Captive in the eighth (8th) Year of his Reign : See 2nd Kings 24:12. The ‘Hebrew’ Writers use several Computations of the Beginning of the ‘Babylonish’ Captivity : See the Note upon ‘Jer.’ 25:1. That under ‘Jehoiachin’, wherein ‘Ezekiel’ was made a Captive, is the Computation he always follows in the succeeding Parts of his Prophecy: See ‘chap’. 8:1; 20:1; 29:1, 17; 31:1; 33:1. 40:1. }}

(4) Ezekiel & Book of His Prophecy: Exposition. Patrick Fairbairn, DD. Principle of Free Church College, Glasgow; Author of “Typology of Scripture”. (1850,1855,1863)

Contents: Introduction: Chapters & Verses:
1: Time & Manner of Ezekiel’s Entering on the Prophetical Office.
2-3:1-11: CaIl to Prophetical Office.
3:12-27: Ezekiel’s Entrance on his Mission, & 1st Message imparted to Him.
4: Vision of Siege & Iniquity-Bearing.
5-6: Vision of Shorn Hair, & its Foreshadowing Desolations.
7: Lamentation over Guilt & Fall of Israel.
8: Vision of Image of Jealousy, & other Abomination at Jerusalem.
9: Vision of Sealing.
10: Vision of Coals of Fire.
11: Destruction of Corrupt Priesthood, & Promise of Grace & Blessing to Believing Remnant among Exiles.
12: Vision of Ezekiel’s Typical Removing as Exile, & accompanying Instructions.
13: False in Prophecy, its Character & Doom.
14: Hypocritical Inquirers after God —their wickedness Discovered and Rebuked.
15: Guilt & Condemnation of Israel Parabolically Represented.
16: Story of Israel’s Guilt and Punishment.
17: Parable of Two Great Eagles, & Cropping of Cedar of Lebanon.
18: Retributive Righteousness of God.
19: Lamentation Over Fall of Royal House.
20:1-44: Display of People‘s Long-continued Sinfulness, & Lord’s Long-Suffering-Mercy & Goodness.
20:45-49 & 21: Vision of Lord’s Fire & Sword.
22: Lord’s Judgment upon All-Pervading Sinfulness of Jerusalem.
23: Story of Israel’s Sin & Punishment Parabolically Exhibited under Names of Aholah & Aholibah.
24: Vision of Boiling Caldron, & of Death of Ezekiel’s Wife.
25: Judgment of Israel’s Immediate Neighbours & Rivals: Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines.
26: Judgment of Tyre.
27: Lamentation upon Tyre, & Account of Her Former Greatness & Prosperity.
28:1-19: Criminatory Address to King of Tyre, & Lamentation Over His Coming Downfall.
28:20-26. Judgment of Sidon, & Ultimate Peace of Israel.
29: Judgment of Egypt, its Desolation for 40 Years & Subsequent Degradation: 1st Instrument of Chastisement, Nebuchadnezzar.
30: Continuation of Egypt’s Judgment.
31: Certainty of Pharaoh’s Doom Confirmed: Parabolical Relation of Assyria’s Greatness & Destruction.
32: Songs of Lamentation Over Fall of Pharaoh & Kingdom, . . . . . . . .
33: Renewal of Ezekiel’s Commission, his Office as Watchman,
34: Promise of True Shepherd, after False Shepherds have been Punished & Removed.
35: Judgment of Edom.
36: Israel Revenged & Comforted: New Heart & Blissful Heritage.
37: Vision of Dry Bones Restored to Life again, as Symbolical of Israel’s Death & Resurrection.
38-39: Assault of Gog & His Destruction.
40-48: Preliminary Remarks on Vision in Chap. 40-48, with Respect to Principles on which it ought to be interpreted.
40:1-48. Position, Walls, Gates, & Courts of Temple,
40:48,49, -41: Temple Itself.
42: Chambers of Temple & its Boundary Walls.
43: Lord’s Return to Temple.
44: Ordinances for the Prince & Priesthood.
45: Sacred Allotments in Land & Gifts.
46: Additional Ordinances for Prince & People.
47:1-12. Vision of Temple-Waters .
47:13-23 -48: Boundaries & Re-Distribution of Land, Israel Parabolically Represented.

{{ Introduction: I: ….”Yet this must not be understood of his connection with the whole band of exiles, nor probably of the later period of his public ministry nearly so much as of the earlier. For, amid the prevailing iniquity, there are not wanting occasional indications of a better spirit among the captives (chap. 11:16, Jer. 24); and, at a period not very distant from the close of his ministrations, a very marked and general amendment had undoubtedly taken place among them. It could not greatly, if it did at all, exceed thirty (30) years from the cessation of his active labours, when the decree was issued for the return of the captives; and notwithstanding the corruptions which still lingered among them, and which soon began to appear in the infant colony, there was a general repudiation of idolatry, and an adherence to the law of Moses, very different from what had existed at the era of the captivity, or for a considerable time previous to it. Nor can there be any doubt, that among the agencies which contributed to effect this beneficial change, a prominent place must be ascribed to the ministry of Ezekiel. Thus by the results that appeared, decisive evidence was borne to the fact, that a prophet had been among them, who had not laboured in vain; and we can scarcely doubt, from the whole circumstances of the case, that the satisfaction was afforded our prophet —a satisfaction which was denied to his great contemporary Jeremiah— of witnessing the commencement of the spiritual renovation for which he so earnestly laboured.”…..IV. The order and classification of his prophecies next demands some notice. And here it ought, first of all, to be borne in mind, that whatever arrangement may be made respecting them as to their subjects, an order and progression belongs to them as a whole, as well as a homogeneousness of nature, which fits them for mutually throwing light on each other; and, in particular, one large portion of them (chap. 1-32), which is mainly conversant with sin and judgment, in a great degree supplies the key, by which the later announcements —more cheering in their tone, but more remote in their objects— are to be interpreted. There is in this respect a unity in the character of the book, which calls for an orderly and progressive perusal of its contents. And should anyone, heedless of this characteristic, overleap all the earlier portions of the prophecy, and proceed at once to grapple with some of the later and more peculiar visions, he would only take the course most likely to involve himself in perplexity or disappointment. A general classification of the contents of the book, as has just been noticed, may be made into those, which have respect predominantly to sin and judgment, and those which are more peculiarly appropriated to the revelation of grace and mercy. We can only, however, speak of prevailing, not by any means of exclusive, characteristics of this sort. For, in the one-part mercy is often found intermingling with the judgment, as in the other judgment occasionally alternates with the mercy. The more specific, and at the same time quite natural divisions, are commonly indicated by the prophet himself, in the several dates which he has, at certain intervals, placed as superscriptions to the messages he successively received. These are altogether eight.
1. The first is introductory, containing a description of the first vision, and in connection with it of the call of the prophet—(chap. 1-3:15). 2. The next portion, embracing the remaining verses in chap. 3, and reaching to the close of chap. 7, is occupied chiefly with a more explicit announcement of the prophet’s commission and charge, and his entrance on the work it devolved upon him, by setting forth the enormous guilt of the people, the certainty of the coming destruction of Jerusalem, with still subsequent calamities, and the prostrate condition of the whole affairs of the kingdom. 3. The next section embraces chap. 8-19, but falls into two parts. The first, including chap. 8-11, contains still farther revelations of the people’s sinfulness, especially as connected with the profanation of the temple, and the corruption of the priesthood —the determination of God, in consequence, to forsake His sanctuary, with severe executions of vengeance on the wicked, though not without gracious interpositions for the safety of the few who remained faithful— and then, the twofold work of destruction and preservation being (symbolically) done, His actual departure from the temple-mount, that He might go and reveal Himself in tenderness and power to an inquiring and afflicted people in exile. In the second part of this division, which includes chap. 12-19, the prophet prosecutes in detail his exposure of the sins, which were bringing down such inflictions of judgment, and shows how all classes, as well as the priests —prophets, princes, and the people generally, had corrupted their ways, and should severally share in the destruction that was impending. 4. In chap. 20-23, the same subject is continued, though, as the time of judgment had approached nearer, there is an increased keenness and severity in the prophet’s tone; he sits, as it were, in judgment upon the people, brings out in full form the Divine indictment against them, and with awful distinctness and frequent reiteration, announces both their consummate guilt and its appropriate judgment. 5. Then comes, in chap. 24, the actual announcement of the end, as regards Jerusalem and its guilty people, with a representation of the behaviour suitable for such as survived the calamity; the prophet himself being required to share in the confusion and silence, which were proper at such a time. 6. Chap. 25-32 form a group by themselves, containing the announcements respecting sin and judgment, which, during the interval of the prophet’s silence towards his own people, he was commanded to utter against the surrounding nations. The great object of them was to show, that if judgment had begun at the house of God, it would assuredly embrace, and visit with still more overwhelming calamities, the ungodly world. There are various headings in this section; and some of the revelations were given at periods considerably later than others; but they began to be uttered immediately after the doom of Jerusalem, and all manifestly relate to one great theme. 7. In chap. 32-39, we have a series of predictions given to the prophet in the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, after the appearance in Chaldea of the remnant that had escaped from Jerusalem (chap. 23:21); a series which points more particularly to the better times in prospect, and unfolds, with considerable fulness and variety, the revival of God’s cause among the covenant-people, the re-establishment of the Divine kingdom, and its sure and final victory over all the sources of evil, which had prevailed so much against it in the past. 8. Then, after an interval of thirteen (13) years, comes the closing vision, in chap. 40-48, disclosing, under the symbolical representation of a new temple, city, and commonwealth, the restored condition, with the perfect order and beauty, of the people and kingdom of God.
(In section 5 Fairbairn on Ezekiel Literature in his days: England has produced almost nothing exegetically of substantial value by 1850; the Puritan writers were anthologies of sayings & sermons. Archbishop Newcome of 1788 being exception, save filled with textual emendations as solutions & interpretations; but carried on still by textual critics as Ewald & Hitzig, seeking to correct the Hebrew text by the Septuagint. The elaborate work of 1596 by Rome’s Spanish Jesuits, Pradus & Villapandus is commended for patristic citations & Temple opinions. Rosenmuller’s & Maurer’s commentaries are useful, especially grammar; Ewald cautiously instructive; but Havernick of 1843 is by far the best; less so Hitzig of 1847. Rationalism is rash, superficial, & spiritually impoverished. Hengstenberg helpfull when he interprets the text.)

(5) Prophecies of the Prophet Ezekiel Elucidated; by E.W. Hengstenberg, D.D., Professor of Theology, Berlin. Translated by A.C. & J.G. Murphy. Edinburgh. 1869.gs

Contents: 1st Cycle (Chap, 1-7); 2nd Cycle (Chap, 8-19); 3rd Cycle (Chap. 20-23); 4th Cycle (Chap, 24)
Foreign Nations (Chap, 25-32): Ammonites, Moab, Edom, Philistines, Tyre & Sidon, Egypt.
Conclusion to Chap, 1-32, (Chap, 33:1-20); Words of Comfort (Chap, 33:21–39); Restoration (Chap, 40-48).

{{ “Retrospect: Ezekiel, carried into exile in the captivity of Jehoiachin, seven (7) years after the beginning of the Chaldean bondage, eleven (11) years before the destruction of the city, appeared there as prophet in the fifth (5th) year after his captivity, in the thirtieth (30th) year of his life (ch. 1:1). The latest date which we find in the superscriptions of his prophecies is the twenty-seventh (27th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (ch. 29:17), so that the historically ascertained period of the prophet’s activity embraced twenty-two (22) years. It was shown that the prophet had precisely in that period a definite occasion for the collection of his prophecies. The prophecies contained in the present collection, like those of the contemporary Daniel, are all provided with chronological superscriptions. These are in all twelve, of which six belong to native prophecies, and six to prophecies against foreign nations,—(26:1; 29:1; 29:17; 31:1; 32:1; 32:17). The collection falls into two main parts,—prophecies before and prophecies after the destruction of Jerusalem. That we may not, with some, make the prophecies against foreign nations in ch. 25-32 a special main part, that they are rather to be considered an appendix to the prophecies before the destruction, is manifest: 1. Because the beginning of these predictions in ch. 25 is connected with the last native prophecy before the destruction in one chronologically determined section; 2. Because the section ch. 33:1-20 forms the literary close to ch. 1-32; and with special reference to the main portion, ch. 1-24, gives some nota benes concerning the whole previous literary activity of Ezekiel. The essential character of the first part is threatening; that of the second, promise. The starting-point of the first main part is a great anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the danger connected with it of the people failing to discern the signs of the times. The first main part contains four groups of native prophecies —(ch. 1-7; 8-19; 20-23; & 24)— in regular chronological sequence. The first dates from the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin, a time when the formation of the coalition began to fill men’s minds with joyful hopes; the last from the tenth day of the tenth month in the ninth (9th) year of Jehoiachin, —the fatal day of the opening of the siege of Jerusalem, which put an end to the hopes founded on the coalition. The mission of the prophet in these four groups is to make clear to the people the import of the great Chaldean catastrophe, and to bring them to understand the day of their visitation, and escape the miserable fate of those who are severely afflicted, without gaining the peaceable fruit of righteousness. To the book of the works no less than to the book of the words of God we may apply the saying, “Understandest thou what thou readest?” It was the great privilege of the people of God, that such an interpretation always went along with the doings of God. The prophet leads the people to discover in the coming event a long reckoning of God, —the visitation of a guilt that goes back to the very origin of the people. He makes every effort to bring the people to acknowledge the depth of their corruption, which alone could account for their sufferings, and thus not send them far from their God, but connect them closely with Him. The destined event, thus recognised in its necessity, had to be represented as inevitable. The prophet is inexhaustible in the denunciation of the foolish hopes of the people, before whose eyes he portrays the future calamity as if it were already present, as indeed the roots of it in reality were; inexhaustible also in the destruction of the false views concerning the source of the approaching suffering, and the beating down of the craftiness of the natural man, who in the deep indwelling antipathy to repentance makes every effort to cast the blame on God. He deals annihilating blows to those who led the people away from the way of repentance, and flattered them with foolish hopes. The radiant point in these discourses is the grand survey of the whole past development of Israel in ch. 23, which places before our eyes the figure of a people such as they ought not to be, and the result of which is, that the judgment is inevitable. Few sections of Scripture call so powerfully as these for earnest self-examination.
At the close of ch. 24 the prophet announces that native predictions will now be silent, until with the execution of the judgment a new beginning for the prophetic activity be given. The servant is silent in the beginning of the practical discourse of the Master Himself, for the understanding of which sufficient provision has been made. But with the previous ending of native prophecy is connected the beginning of the prophet’s activity in regard to foreign nations. This connection is shown by this, that the beginning of this activity is included in the same section with the closing prophecy concerning Judah. The prophecies against foreign nations have the special aim to shed a fuller light on the judgment on Judah announced in the native prophecies, and already beginning its course. They give the answer to the natural question, Lord, but what of these? (John 21:21) They are all directed against the nations of the anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the executors of the judgments are in them all the Chaldean monarchy. Judah was first to drink the cup (ch. 21:18 f.). God sanctified Himself first on those who were near Him (Lev. 10:3) ; the judgment began at the house of God. It appeared as if the people of the covenant must alone suffer among all the members of the coalition. The scorn of these confederates themselves was poured out on the people of Jehovah (ch. 25:3, 6; 26:2); indeed, they made common cause in part with the Chaldeans, and sought to derive advantage from the misfortune of Judah (ch. 35:10). The prophet portrays before the eyes the judgment which in his time will fall upon them. He turns the heart of the people to their God when he points out that for the heathen the judgment has an annihilating character; whereas Israel rises from it to a more glorious state. Thus these predictions against foreign nations appear as the transition from the first part to the second —the comforting and promising part.
Of the foreign nations there are seven, divided into four and three —four neighbouring nations and three world-powers, the last Egypt, which had formed the centre of the coalition; so that there is thus a progress from the less to the greater. On this side and on that side of the prophecies against foreign nations the arrangement is strictly chronological. There occurs no prophecy which is not chronologically determined; and all prophecies so determined stand in regular order. In the external predictions also the chronological prevails. But a certain deviation must be allowed, otherwise things intimately connected must have been separated. The prophecies are here arranged according to the nations, so that, for ex., all those referring to Egypt come together. Among the prophecies referring to Egypt, that in ch. 29:17 goes before the one in ch. 31:1, which belongs to an earlier period, because it stands in a close relation with the foregoing (ch. 29:1), and resumes it at a time when its fulfilment was close at hand. Although the main body of the external prophecies belong to the time before the term, given in ch. 33:21, of the recommencement of the home prophecies, yet the date of some external prophecies precedes that in ch. 33:21 (ch. 32:1, 17), because the external prophecies forming a connected cycle should not be separated from one another, and because the following cycle of home prophecies also should meet with no interruption.
The first part contains in all a decade of prophecies —four native and six foreign. At the close of the first part in ch. 33:1-20 follows, in vers. 21, 22, the historical introduction to the discourses of the second period; in vers. 23-33, the warning and admonishing preparation for the new message, —the mediation, as it were, between it and the first part. With ch. 34 begins the communication of the comforting message. From this forward the prophet is as inexhaustible in comforting as he was before in threatening. The dangerous foe was now despair, as it was before false confidence. Common to the comforting and to the threatening discourses is the pictorial character; the viewing of that which is not as if it were, a result of dependence on God, in whose nature salvation as well as judgment is founded. The comfort is in this first group unfolded in seven paragraphs. In the first discourse (ch. 34) the prophet meets in a soothing manner the grief for the loss of civil government, and places before the eyes of his hearers and readers the bright form of the glorified David, in whom the civil government of the future will culminate. In the second (ch. 35) he portrays the desolation of Seir. The light of Israel is relieved by the shade of Edom, who here represents the nations, who, in their hatred of the kingdom of God, are not fit for it, but are ripe for destruction. The third discourse (ch. 36:1-15) relieves the pain occasioned by the desolation of the holy land. The fourth (ch. 36:16-38) lays down the name of God as the pledge of salvation. The fifth announces the restoration of Israel as a covenant people (ch. 37:1-14); the sixth, as a brotherly people (vers. 15-28). The seventh (ch. 38-39) represents the renovated people as victorious in every conflict.
The second principal part has only two dates (ch. 33:21 and ch. 40:1), and thus presents only two sections, which increase the ten of the first part to twelve. In the great closing picture in ch. 40-48 the prophet portrays in detail the recovery of all that was lost, in fulfilment of the words of the psalmist, “He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken;” and points in the midst of it, in ch. 47:1-12, to the great progress of the kingdom of God in the future.
In the picture of the future drawn by the prophet, the following are the principal traits. Vain is every attempt of the people to avert the threatening misfortune. They must drain to the bottom the cup of the divine wrath (ch. 21:26). Egypt, the power on which their hopes chiefly rest, proves a broken reed: the time of its political importance is for ever gone. But what earth denies, heaven will grant in its own time. After the people have attained to repentance, wrath is followed by grace; all that is lost —the temple, with its priests and worship, the city, the land— is restored. Yet not this alone: the future brings an enhancement of salvation. The people receive a rich treasure of forgiveness of sins (ch. 36:25; 37:23); the Lord takes away the heart of stone, and gives them a heart of flesh (41:19); He awakens them by His quickening breath from spiritual death (ch. 37). The centre of all graces is an exalted descendant of David, who will spring from His family when reduced and wholly deprived of the sovereignty, and connect the high-priestly with the kingly office (ch. 21:27; 34:11-31). The blessing is so potent that it extends also to the heathen, who will join themselves to Israel in the time of salvation. According to ch. 34:26, “the environs of his hill” will be partakers of it with Israel; according to ch. 17:22-24, the descendant of David, at first small and inconsiderable, is raised to the sovereignty of the world ; according to ch. 47:1-12, the waters of the Dead Sea of the world are healed by the stream from the sanctuary. This great revolution of things, however, will give the old covenant people no cause for self-exaltation; it will rather tend to their deep humiliation. They find salvation only through the redeeming mercy of God in common with the heathen world, sunk deep in sin, to whom they are become like, as in sin, so in punishment (ch. 16:53-63). And then in the future, along with grace, which is only for the willing, comes also judgment. The prophet announces in ch. 5:4 a second annihilating judgment, which after the Chaldean will come upon the people restored by the grace of God, —a fire which will devour the people as such, and leave only an election of them which participates in the blessings of salvation.
The name of the prophet denotes one in relation to whom God is strong (p. 5), who speaks not out of his own heart, but is moved and determined by a supernatural power. The verification of this name we have in the prophecies before us. That which the Lord said to Peter applies to him, “Flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but the Father in heaven.” None of His words have fallen to the ground. The whole course of history has verified His word in ch. 33:33 : “They shall know that a prophet was in the midst of them.”” }}

{{ “Appendix: Cherubim: What Christian should not feel a desire to know the nature of the cherubim? When we sing the Ambrosian anthem, we dwell with special emotion of heart on the words: “The cherubim and seraphim, and all angels, serve Him. “As long as the nature of the cherubim is concealed from us, a whole series of scriptural passages is inaccessible to us. The cherubim occur in the Old Testament no less than eighty-five times. They meet us in the very first pages of revelation: the cherubim and the flame of the blazing sword repel the parents of our race from the tree of life. In the tabernacle and in the temple of Solomon the cherubim receive an important place. The grand visions of Ezekiel in ch. 1 and 10, even on a superficial examination, awakening the anticipation of a glorious meaning, and presenting a fulness of earnest warning and comfort, are sealed to us, if we have not learned the nature of the cherubim. In the Psalms God appears enthroned on the cherubim, as the firm ground for the confidence of His people; and whosoever will be a partaker of this confidence, must before all know what the cherubim are to signify. Even in the New Testament the holy enigma of the cherubim meets us. John, in the Revelation, sees in the midst of the throne, and about the throne, four beasts full of eyes before and behind, that had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty. The right knowledge of the cherubim, however, has a special interest for our own times…. The merit of having first fully established this view belongs to Bahr in the ‘Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship’, and in the treatise on the temple of Solomon. “The beings of whom the cherub is composed,” says he, “belong to those creatures of the visible world that form the upmost and highest of its three kingdoms —the kingdom of organic life; and in this kingdom, again, they belong to the highest class, to that which has warm blood, and therefore the highest physical life; and in this class they are again the highest. The cherub is far from being a figure of God Himself; on the contrary, its essential character is to be a creature: it is a figure of the creature in its highest stage —an ideal creature. The living powers distributed in the visible creation to the highest creatures are combined and idealized in it.” “The whole creation is combined in it as in a point in one being; it represents in so far also the whole creation, and stands naturally of all the creatures nearest to God: only God is above it. The cherub, as creation individualized, is at the same time the being in which the glory of God manifests itself. Hence it appears as the throne of God itself, or in the closest connection with the throne: where Jehovah in His majesty and glory reveals Himself, there the cherub also appears.” This view in the main is alone correct; only it is to be remarked, that the cherubim represent first not the creature in general, but only the animated creation on the earth. Yet this is regarded as the apex of all created things on earth, so that the remainder is in some measure represented by it, and is appended to the animated creation as an accessory, and all the more because it has been created for its sake. But we must not include the heavenly creature: He that sits on the cherubim, and the God of hosts, are co-ordinate expressions; by the hosts are meant the heavenly creatures. The cherubim never occur alone —always in connection with God. The formation of the symbol has arisen not from the motive of the consideration of nature as such, but from the motive of piety. In the consideration of the multitude of visible creatures the mind may easily distract itself, and dwell on the individual —now on this, now on that. “Whilst they move and search among the works of God, they are caught by the sight, because that which is seen is beautiful,” says the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (ch. 13:7). The pious mind, therefore, protesting against such distraction and such service of the creature (Rom. 1:15), comprehends all visible multiplicity in an ideal unity, and places this unity absolutely under God, who by His creative Spirit is the foundation of this unity. This representation has for piety a profound significance. If we look to God, who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with adoring reverence for Him, who is so wonderful in His works, with the heartfelt desire to do the will of this God, whose is the earth and the fulness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein (Ps. 24:1), with the dread of calling down upon us the wrath of the God of the spirits of all flesh, with joyful courage in the face of the world, with an absolute refusal to make concessions to it, with a holy contempt for its foolish pursuits, with invincible strength under its persecutions, with the consciousness that it cannot move hand or foot without the influence of God; that in the last resort we have to do, not with it, but with God; that it concerns us to come to terms, not with it, but with God by true repentance; that He visits us through it ; and that an endless fulness of means are at His command to help us, when His visitation has attained its end.
If we consider attentively the God who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with deep contempt, holy wrath, and strong pity at the sight of the theory, now so wide-spread, of a degraded, half-brutalized generation. “No power without matter,” so runs the theory; “no matter without power. A power ruling over matter is a senseless thought. Power is the property of matter, and inseparable from it. The idea of an absolute creative power, which is distinct from matter, creates it, regulates it according to certain absolute laws, is a pure abstraction. “We know, on the contrary, that power is the original principle; that the Spirit, who proceeds from Him who sits above the cherubim, gives to everything its existence; that in Him it lives, and moves, and is Sabaoth and cherubim —that is our watchword in the face of such error. The original generation of men with its cherubim, however, not merely raises a protest against the false science of our day, but turns with friendly consent to that which is found in it of true science. There are here two important points of agreement. First, that the living creature, as it is represented by the cherubim, forms a distinct department of the terrestrial creation. And next, that exactly in this department the creative power of God displays itself most gloriously; that of it in a special manner the word of the apostle holds good, “The invisible things of God, His eternal power and Godhead, we see and know in His works.” Janet says in regard to this: “Let us hold by the chief facts, which hitherto have supported a distinction not to be effaced between dead or inorganic and living matter. The first and weightiest of these facts is the harmonious unity of the living and organic being; it is, to make use of an expression of Kant, the correlation of the parts to the whole.” “Organic bodies,” says the great physiologist Muller (Joh. Muller, ‘Physiol.’, v.1. p.17), “not only differ from inorganic in the mode in which their elements are combined; but the constant activity which works in the living organic matter, acts according to the laws of a rational plan in conformity with an end, because the parts are adapted to the end of the whole: and this it is exactly that marks the organism.” Kant says: “The reason of the kind of existence in each part of a living body is contained in the whole, whereas in the dead mass each part bears it in itself.” Joh. Muller, quoted by Janet, says further: “The harmony of the members necessary to the whole (in the organism) subsists not ‘without the influence of a power’ (‘the Spirit of the living’ in Ezek. 1:20, 21), ‘that works also through the whole, and depends not on the several members, and this power exists before His harmonious members of the whole are joined together’: they are first formed in the development of the embryo by the power of the germ [seed]. In a piece of mechanism constructed for a given end —for example, a clock— the whole thus adjusted may exhibit an action proceeding from the co-operation of the several parts, which are set in motion by a cause; but organic beings subsist not merely by an accidental combination of these elements, but produce the organs necessary for the whole by their own power out of the organic matter. This productive power, acting in conformity with reason, displays itself in each animal according to strict laws, as the nature of each animal requires: it is already present in the germ [seed], before the later parts of the whole are distinctly present; and it is that which actually produces the members that belong to the idea of the whole…..The remark of Theodoret, “The angels are living creatures no less than men —the latter mortal, the former immortal ;” and likewise that of Keil, “The cherubim, as living creatures, take the highest place in the realm of spirits,”— are contrary to the usage of speech, in which the living always denotes the animated earthly creation, in opposition to the lifeless. But we must not stop at this point. The fact that the designation of the cherubim as living creatures takes exactly the place of the proper name —as in Revelation the name cherubim does not occur, they are only designated as living creatures— shows that by this designation their nature must be fully expressed, that the genus does not exist beyond them, but is completely represented by them. All doubt, however, is removed by this, that the singular designation, “the living creature, alternates with that of the cherubim as living creatures” (Ezek. 1:20,21, “The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels”; 10:15, “And the cherubim were lifted up;” 10:20, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar”). This singular designation shows that in the cherubim the whole genus of the living on earth, man and beast, is represented…….Only when the cherub represents the animal world can we explain also the grouping of it with palms and flowers. According to 1st Kings 6:29, all the walls in the temple of Solomon bore “round about in carved work, cherubim, and palms, and open flowers.” It is clear as light that the cherubim must be placed under the same point of view with the palms and flowers…. There is only one way of explaining the connection of the cherubs with the palms and flowers. The cherubs are first a representation of the living; but at the same time, as the living forms the crown of the whole earthly creation, this also is represented by it……The addition of the palms and flowers serves to indicate this more comprehensive meaning, and to show that the living forms no counterpart to the rest of nature, but rather represents this also. Next to the animal creation, the vegetable kingdom is the most glorious revelation of the creative power of God. In modern science it is connected with the animal kingdom, under the head of the organic creation. But the vegetable kingdom cannot be better represented than by the palms and flowers……That the cherubs represent the living creatures on earth, and in general the terrestrial creation, is borne out by the relation in which they stand in Ezekiel to the “vault.” It is said, Ezek. 1:22, “And there was a likeness over the heads of the living creature as a vault, as the look of the crystal the terrible (the awe-inspiring, imposing, glorious), stretched out over their heads above.” This vault is the place of the throne of God……If it is certain on these grounds that the vault means the heavens, the cherubim under the vault can only represent the terrestrial creation; for heaven and earth are usually joined together in the Old Testament as the two spheres of the glorification of God…..We will conclude with the discussion of the grand vision of the cherubim in Ezekiel. But first, we will take a glance at the passing mention of the cherub in Ezek. 28:14. The prophet, in the prediction against the king of Tyre, here says to him, “Thou art an anointed cherub, that covereth.” As the cherub comprehends the multiplicity of the creatures in a unity, so the king the multiplicity of his people. The nature of the kingly office can scarcely be more aptly designated than by the name cherub…… We now turn to the sublime vision of the cherubim, which opens the prophecies of Ezekiel. The historical starting-point of this vision lies in the false hopes which had at that time seized the minds of those who remained in Jerusalem with Zedekiah at their head. A spirit of infatuation had fallen on the people. They cast the prophecies of Jeremiah to the wind, which announced the approaching completion of the judgment by the Chaldeans. Confiding in the confederacy with the Egyptian power, which must at that time have taken a lofty flight, they hoped soon to be able to free themselves altogether from the Chaldean supremacy. These hopes also were spread among the exiles, as the letter addressed to them by Jeremiah (ch. 29) shows. He therein warns them, “Let not the prophets that are among you deceive you, and hearken not to your dreams, for they prophesy falsely to you in My Name.” Soon, it was thought, will a return to their country be opened up; and to this thought was joined the other—namely, to work together for it. These illusions and excitements, which prevented the people from entering with sincerity on the path of repentance pointed out by God, Ezekiel was to oppose. This opposition was made first by the vision of the cherubim, the real import of which Grotius thus briefly and well defines : “After the long-suffering of God, all tended towards vengeance.” }}…..
(6) Biblical Commentary on Old Testament: Prophecies Ezekiel: Carl Friedrich Keil, D.D., Doctor & Professor of Theology; Translated from the German, by Rev. James Martin, B.A. volumes 1 & 2.(1885)as

Exposition: (Chapters & Verses)
First Half: Prophecies of Judgment: (1-32)
Consecration & Calling of Ezekiel to Office of Prophet: (1-3:21)
Destiny of Jerusalem & its Inhabitants: (3:22-5:17)
Judgment upon Idolatrous Places, & on Idol-worshippers: (6)
Overthrow of Israel: (7)
Vision of Destruction of Jerusalem: (8-11)
Departure of King & People; & Bread of Tears: (12)
Against False Prophets & Prophetesses: (13)
Attitude of God towards Worshippers of Idols, & Certainty of Judgments: (14)
Jerusalem, Useless Wood of Wild Vine: (15)
Ingratitude & Unfaithfulness of Jerusalem. Its Punishment & Shame: (16)
Humiliation & Exaltation of Davidic Family: (17)
Retributive Justice of God: (18)
Lamentation for Princes of Israel: (19)
Past, Present, & Future of Israel: (20)
Prophecy of Burning Forest & Sword of the Lord: (20:45 to 21:32 (Heb. Chap. 21)
Sins of Jerusalem & Israel: (22)
Oholah & Oholibah, Harlots Samaria & Jerusalem: (23)
Prediction of Destruction of Jerusalem both in Parable & by Sign: (24)
Prediction of Judgment upon Heathen Nations: (25-32)
Against Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines: (25)
Against Tyre & Sidon: (26-28)
Fall of Tyre: (26)
Lamentation over Fall of Tyre: (27)
Against Prince of Tyre: (28:1-19)
Prophecy against Sidon, & Promise for Israel: (28:20-26)
Against Egypt: (29-32)
Judgment upon Pharaoh & his People & Land: (29:1-16)
Conquest & Plundering of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar: (29:17-21)
Day of Judgment upon Egypt: (21:1-19)
Destruction of Might of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar: (30:20-26)
Glory & Fall of Asshur, Type of Egypt: (31)
Lamentations over Ruin of Pharaoh & his People: (32)
Second Half: Announcement of Salvation: (33-48)
Calling of Prophet, & his Future Attitude towards People: (33)
Calling of Prophet for Future: (33:1-20)
Preaching of Repentance after Fall of Jerusalem: (33:23-33)
Restoration of Israel, & Destruction of Gog & Magog: (34-39)
Deposition of Bad Shepherds; Collecting & Tending of Flock; & Appointment of One Good Shepherd: (34)
Devastation of Edom, & Restoration of Land of Israel: (35:1-36:15)
Salvation of Israel founded upon its Sanctification: (36:16-38)
Resurrection of Israel & Reunion as one Nation: (37)
Resurrection of Israel to new Life: (37:1-14)
Reunion of Israel as one Nation under future King David: (37:15-28)
Destruction of Gog with his great Army of Nations: (38-39)
New Kingdom of God: (40-48)
New Temple: (40-43:12)
Introduction: (40:1-4)
Outer Court, with Boundary Wall, Gate-Buildings, & Cells: (40:5-27)
Inner Court, with its Gates, Cells, and Slaughtering-Tables: (40:28-47)
Temple-house, with Porch, Side-storeys, & Backbuilding: (40:48-41:26)
Holy Cells in Court, & Extent of Holy Domain around Temple: (42)
Entrance of Glory of the Lord into New Temple: (43:1-12)
New Ordinances of Divine Worship: (43:13-46:24)
Description & Consecration of Altar of Burnt- Offering: (43:13-27)
Position of different Classes of People in relation to New Sanctuary: (44)
Holy Heave of Land & Heave-offerings of People: (45:1-17)
Instructions concerning Festal & Daily Sacrifices: (45:16-46:15)
Sacrifices for Sabbath & New Moon, Freewill-Offerings & Daily Sacrifices: (46:1-15-24)
Blessing of Land of Canaan, & Distribution of it among Tribes of Israel: (47 & 48)
River of Water of Life: (47:1-12)
Boundaries & Division of Holy Land. Description of City of God: (47:13-48:35)

{{ “Introduction: Person of Prophet: Ezekiel, (Yechzeq’el) (1:3; 24:24), ‘i.e.’. (yechazzeq ‘El), ‘God strengthens’, (Iezekiël, Yezekiël (LXX, and Book of Sirach, ch. 49:8), in the Vulgate ‘Ezechiel’, while Luther, after the example of the LXX, writes the name ‘Hesekiel’, was the son of Busi, of priestly descent, and was carried away captive into exile to Babylon in the year 599 B.C., —’i.e.’. in the eleventh (11th) year before the destruction of Jerusalem,— along with King Jehoiachin, the nobles of the kingdom, many priests, and the better class of the population of Jerusalem and of Judah (1:2; 40:1; cf. 2nd Kings 24:14 ff.; Jer. 29:1). He lived there in the northern part of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Chaboras, married, and in his own house, amidst a colony of banished Jews, in a place called Tel-Abib (1:1; 3:15, 24; 8:1; xxiv. 24:18). In the fifth (5th) year of his banishment, ‘i.e.’. 595 B.C., he was called to be a prophet of the Lord, and laboured in this official position, as may be shown, twenty-two (22) years; for the latest of his prophecies is dated in the twenty-seventh (27th) year of his exile, ‘i.e.’. 572 B.C. (29:17)……Times of the Prophet: Ezekiel, like Daniel, is a prophet of the exile, but in a different fashion from the latter, who had been already carried away prisoner before him to Babylon on the first capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of Jehoiakim, and who lived there upwards of seventy (70 ) years at the Babylonian and Medo-Persian court, and who held from time to time very important offices of State. Daniel was placed by God in this high position, which afforded him a view of the formation and evolution of the world-kingdom, in order that from this standpoint he might be enabled to see the development of the world kingdoms in the struggle against the kingdom of God, and to predict the indestructible power and glory of the latter kingdom, which overcomes all the powers of the world. Ezekiel, on the other hand, was appointed a watcher over the exiled nation of Israel, and was in this capacity to continue the work of the earlier prophets, especially that of Jeremiah, with whom he in several ways associates himself in his prophecies; to preach to his contemporaries the judgment and salvation of God, in order to convert them to the Lord their God. —Rightly to understand his work as a prophet, the ripe fruit of which lies before us in his prophetic writings, we must not only keep in view the importance of the exile for the development of the kingdom of God, but also form a clear conception of the relations amidst which Ezekiel carried on his labours. What the Lord had caused to be announced by Moses to the tribes of Israel while they were yet standing on the borders of the Promised Land, and preparing to take possession of it, viz. that if they should persistently transgress His commands, He would not only chastise them with heavy punishments, but would finally drive them out of the land which they were about to occupy, and disperse them among all nations (Lev. 26:14-45; Deut. 28:15-68), —this threatening, repeated by all the prophets after Moses, had been already executed by the Assyrians upon the ten tribes, who had revolted from the house of David, and was now in process of fulfilment by the Chaldeans upon the kingdom of Judah also. In the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, for the first time invaded Judah, captured Jerusalem, made Jehoiakim tributary, and carried away to Babylon a number of Israelitish youths of noble birth and of the blood-royal, amongst whom was Daniel, along with a portion of the vessels of the temple, in order that these youths might be trained up for the service of his court (Dan. 1:1-7). With this invasion of the Chaldeans begin the seventy (70) years of Chaldean servitude and exile in Babylon, predicted by Jeremiah. As Jehoiakim, so early as three (3) years afterwards, revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, the latter, after a lengthened siege, took Jerusalem a second time, in the third month of the reign of Jehoiachin, and carried away into captivity to Babylon, along with the captive monarch and the members of his court, the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem, a great number of priests, warriors, carpenters, and smiths, leaving behind in the land only the meaner portion of the people, over whom he appointed as his vassal King Mattaniah, the uncle of the banished monarch, whose name he changed to Zedekiah (2nd Kings 24:10-17; Jer. 29:2). By this removal of the heart and strength of the nation the power of the kingdom of Judah was broken; and although Nebuchadnezzar did not at that time ‘destroy’ it, but still allowed it to remain as a subject kingdom under his sway, yet its existence could not be of any long duration. Judah had fallen too deeply to recognise in the calamities which she had suffered the chastening hand of her God, and to bow herself repentantly under His mighty arm. Instead of listening to the voice of the prophet Jeremiah, and bearing the Chaldean yoke in patience (2nd Chron. 36:12), both monarch and people placed their trust in the assistance of Egypt, and Zedekiah broke the oath of fealty which he had sworn to the king of Babylon. To punish this perfidy, Nebuchadnezzar again marched against Jerusalem, and by the capture and burning of the city and temple in the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah’s reign put an end to the kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah, who had fled from the beleaguered city, was taken by the Chaldeans, and brought with his sons to Riblah into the presence of King Nebuchadnezzar, who first caused the sons of Zedekiah to be put to death before the eyes of their father; next, Zedekiah himself to be deprived of sight, and then commanded the blind monarch to be conducted in chains to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). Many military officers and priests of rank were also put to death at Riblah; while those who had been taken prisoners at Jerusalem, along with the deserters and a great portion of the rest of the people, were led away into exile to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). By this catastrophe the Old Testament theocracy lost its political existence; the covenant people were now driven out of their own land amongst the heathen, to bear the punishment of their obstinate apostasy from the Lord their God. Nevertheless this dispersion among the heathen was no entire rejection of Israel; it was merely a ‘suspension’, and not an ‘annihilation’, of the covenant of grace. Man’s unfaithfulness cannot destroy the faithfulness of God. “In spite of this terrible judgment, brought down upon them by the heaviest transgressions, Israel was, and remained,” —as Auberlen (The Prophet Daniel, p. 27, 2d ed.) well remarks,— “the chosen people, through whom God was still to carry out; His intentions towards humanity. His gifts and calling may not be repented of ” (Rom. 11:29). Even ‘after’ the Babylonian exile the theocracy was not again restored; the covenant people did not after their return again recover their independence, but remained, with the exception of the short period when under the Maccabees they won for themselves their freedom, in constant dependence upon the heathen world-rulers, until, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, they were completely dispersed among all the nations of the earth. The kingdom of God, however, was not ‘really’ to perish along with the external theocracy; it was only to pass into a new phase of development, which was intended to be the medium of transition towards its renewal and perfection in that kingdom of God which was to be founded by Christ. To pave the way to this end, and at the same time to serve as a witness to the exiles, that Israel, notwithstanding its dispersion among the heathen, still remained God’s people, the Lord raised up in Ezekiel, the son of a priest, a prophet of uncommon power and energy in the midst of the captives, “one who raised his voice aloud, like a trumpet, and showed to Israel its misdeeds, —whose whole manifestation furnished the most powerful testimony that the Lord was still amongst His people; who was himself a temple of the Lord, before whom the visible temple, which yet remained standing for a short time at Jerusalem, sank back into its nothingness; a spiritual Samson, who seized with mighty arm the pillars of the idol temple, and dashed it to the ground; a powerful, gigantic nature, which was fitted by that very qualification to effectually subdue the Babylonian spirit of the time, which delighted in powerful, gigantic, and grotesque forms; standing alone, but equal to a hundred of the sons of the prophets ” (Hengstenberg’s Christol. II. p. 531).”……
“Book of Ezekiel: The collection of the prophecies placed together in this book, as forming a complete unity, falls into two main divisions : —I. Announcements of judgment upon Israel and the heathen nations, ch. 1-32; II. Announcements of salvation for Israel, ch. 33-48. Each of these main divisions is subdivided into two sections. The first, namely, contains the prophecies of judgment (a) upon Jerusalem and Israel, ch. 3:22-24:3; (b) upon the heathen nations, ch. 25-32. The second main division contains (c) the predictions of the redemption and restoration of Israel, and the downfall of the heathen world-power, ch. 33-39; (d) the prophetic picture of the re-formation and exaltation of the kingdom of God, ch. 40-48; and the entire collection opens with the solemn dedication of Ezekiel to the prophetic office, ch. 1:1-3:21. The prophecies of the first, third, and fourth parts are throughout arranged in chronological order; those of the second part —the threatenings predicted against the heathen nations— are disposed according to their actual subject-matter. This is attested by the chronological data in the superscriptions, and confirmed by the contents of the whole of the groups of prophecies in the first three parts. The first part contains the following chronological notices: the fifth (5th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (1:2) as the time of Ezekiel’s call to the office of prophet, and of the first predictions regarding Jerusalem and Israel; then the sixth (6th) (8:1), seventh (7th) (20:1), and ninth (9th) years of the captivity of that monarch (24:1). The second part contains the predictions against seven foreign nations, of which those against Tyre fall in the eleventh (11th) (26:1), those against Egypt in the tenth (10th) (29:1), twenty-seventh (27th) (29:17), eleventh (11th) (30:20 and 31:1), and twelfth (12th) years of the exile. Of the two last parts, each contains only one chronological notice, namely, ch. 33:21, the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, ‘i.e.’. one (1)year after the destruction of Jerusalem; and ch. 40:1, the twenty-fifth (25th) year of the captivity, or the fourteenth (14th) after the destruction of Jerusalem. The remaining prophecies, which bear at their head no note of time, connect themselves closely as to their contents with those which are furnished with chronological data, so that they belong to the same period with those. From this it appears that the prophecies of the first part wholly, those of the second part to a great extent, date before the destruction of Jerusalem; those of the third and fourth parts proceed from the time after this catastrophe. This chronological relationship is in favour of the view that the prophecies against foreign nations, ch. 25-32, are not —as the majority of expositors suppose— to be assigned to the second, but rather to the first half of the book. This view is confirmed, on the one hand, by the contents of the prophecies, inasmuch as these, without an exception, announce only the downfall of the heathen nations and kingdoms, making no reference to the future forgiveness and conversion of the residue of these nations, and through this very peculiarity connect themselves closely with the prophecies of threatening against Israel in the first part; on the other hand, by the resemblance which exists between ch. 30:1-20 and ch. 3:16-21, compared with ch. 18:19-32, and which leaves no doubt upon the point that ch. 33:1-20 marks out to the prophet the task which was to occupy his attention after the destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently forms the introduction to the second half of his prophecies. —For further remarks upon the contents and subdivisions of the book, see the expositions in the introductory observations to the individual sections and chapters.” }}

 

 

 

Selections relevant to the Reflections on the Book of Ezekiel:
Ezekiel Selections (13): Calvin, Greenhill, Lowth, Fairbairn, Hengstenberg, Keil, Wordsworth, Lange, Redpath, Gaebelein, Bennett, Sulley, Smith, & Grant.
(1)
Commentary & Lectures on Book of Prophet Ezekiel, Chapters 1-20, Lectures 1-65. Volume 1 & 2. Jean (John) Calvin. 1st Translated from Original Latin, Collated with French Version, Thomas Myers, Vicar of Sheriff-Hutton, Yorkshire. (1560.1849.1850.2010). gs.as.ccel.org & bibletruthforum.com

{{“Translator’s Preface: “An Interest of no ordinary kind is excited in the mind of the Biblical Student by the mention of ”Calvin’s Lectures On Ezekiel.” The last Work which a great man leaves unfinished, because arrested by the hand of death, becomes at once an heirloom to posterity. After the lapse of nearly three hundred years, we read this affecting sentence with a tear and a sigh: (“After finishing this last Lecture (65th, Chapter 20), that most illustrious man, John Calvin, the Divine, who had previously been sick, then began to be so much weaker that he was compelled to recline on a couch, and could no longer proceed with the explanation of Ezekiel. This accounts for his stopping at the close of the Twentieth Chapter, and not finishing the work so auspiciously begun. Nothing remains, kind Reader, but that you receive most favorably and graciously what is now sent forth to the world.”) “….”As to the Genuineness Of Ezekiel’s Writings, it has never been seriously called in question by the learned, either Jew or Christian. Some self-sufficient Critics have impugned the last nine chapters: Their valueless arguments will be found, by those who wish to search for such unsatisfactory materials, in Rosenmuller, while their refutation is completed by Jahn, in his Introduction to the Sacred Books of the Old Testament, and is rendered accessible to the mere English reader by Hartwell Horne. So little weight, however, is attached to such opinions, that even Gesenius allows a “oneness of tone” to be so conspicuous throughout Ezekiel’s Prophecies, as to forbid the suspicion that any portions of them are not genuine. This Book formed part of the Canon in the Catalogues of Melito and Origen, of Jerome and of the Talmud. Josephus, indeed, refers to two Books of Ezekiel, probably dividing his ‘prophecies’ into two parts. His language has necessarily given rise to some discussion, which Eichhorn has set at rest as satisfactorily as the data will allow. The Arrangement Of The Various Predictions has been the subject of a variety of opinions. Some have supposed that Chronological Order has been interfered with, and that different collections of the separate Prophecies might be made with advantage. But Havernick, in his valuable Commentary, published as late as 1843, maintains that the present arrangement is correct. It proceeds, he asserts, in the order of time, and connects, as it ought to do, the Prophecies against foreign nations with those against Israel and Judah. Hence he divides the Book into the following nine Sections: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Call to Prophetic Office. (1-3:15).
2. Symbolical Representations Foretelling Destruction of Judah & Jerusalem. (4:16-7).
3. Series of Visions, Year & 2 Months Later than Former: Temple Polluted by Worship of Adonis, Consequent Vengeance on Priests & People, & Prospect of Happier Times & Purer Worship. (8-11).
4. Series of Reproofs & Warnings Against Prevailing Sins & Prejudices of his Day. (12-19).
5. Another Series of Warnings, One Year Later, still Announcing Coming Judgments. (20-23).
6. Predictions, 2 Years & 5 Months Later, Announcing Very Day of Siege of Jerusalem, & Assuring Captives of its Complete Overthrow. (24.)
7. Predictions Against Foreign Nations. (25-32.)
8. After Destruction of City, Future Triumph of Kingdom of God on Earth. (33-39).
9. Symbolic Representations of Times of Messiah, & Prosperity of Kingdom of God. (40-48).
There is a negative merit in Calvin’s Lectures, which has not been imitated by some later Commentators. He never makes those observations on Ezekiel’s Style & Diction which would reduce him to the level of a merely human writer. Grotius & Eichhorn, Lowth & Michaelis dwell on his erudition & genius, and assign him the same rank among the Hebrews which Aeschylus holds among the Greeks. They praise his knowledge of architecture, and his skill in oratory. They call him bold, vehement, tragical; “in his sentiments elevated, wars, bitter, indignant; in his images fertile, magnificent, harsh, and sometimes almost deformed; in his diction grand, weighty, austere, rough, and sometimes uncultivated; abounding in repetition, not for the sake of ornament & gracefulness, but through indignation & violence.” Such language as this clearly implies a very different view of the Prophet’s character & mission from that taken by Calvin. He looked upon him as a grand instrument in the hands of the Most High, and would have instinctively felt it to be profane thus to reduce him to the level of the Poets & Seers of heathenism. In this feeling we ought to concur. The modern method of criticizing the style & matter of the Hebrew Prophets deserves our warmest reprobation. They are too often treated as if their thoughts & their language were only of human origin. Their visions, their metaphors, & their parables, are submitted to the crucible of a worldly alchemy, in entire forgetfulness that these men were the special messengers of God.”…… “Comparing the Interpretations of Calvin with those of modern Continental Divines, we have no reason to conclude that the views of the great Reformer have been superseded. The progress of Biblical Criticism during the last 800 years has indeed been accompanied with some clearer views of the details, but the fundamental principles of these ‘Lectures on Ezekiel’ have never been successfully impugned. The Miracles of the Old Testament have been boldly assailed, both at home & abroad, and no slight outpouring of infidel wrath has fallen upon the Calvin interpretation of those of Ezekiel. Germany, the birthplace of the Reformation, has been also the seed-bed of spurious Rationalism. The novelty of any opinion on Biblical subjects has now become a sufficient atonement for its absurdity, and he receives the greatest applause from the many, who casts farthest from him whatsoever has commanded the veneration of ages. The direct interposition of Jehovah’s power in the affairs of men, as related in the writings of the Hebrews, has lately exercised the ingenuity of German skeptics to an almost incredible extent. The mysticism of the School of Schelling has rivaled the extravagancies of the theory of accommodation proposed by the celebrated Semler.”” ……}}

Lecture: Commentary:
{{Ezekiel 1:1-2: “We see that the Prophet was called to the office of a Teacher in the fifth (5th) year after Jehoiachin had voluntarily surrendered himself to the king of Babylon, (2nd Kings 24:15); and had been dragged into exile, together with his mother: for it was, says he, “in the thirtieth (30th) year.” The greater part of the Commentators follow the Chaldee Paraphrast, and understand him to date from the finding of the Book of the Law. It is quite clear, that this year was the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah; but in my computation, I do not subscribe to the opinion of those who adopt this date. For this phrase –“the thirtieth year (30th),” would then appear too obscure and forced. We nowhere read that succeeding writers adopted this date as a standard. Besides, there is no doubt that the usual method among the Jews was to begin to reckon from a Jubilee. For this was a point of starting for the future. I therefore do not doubt that this thirtieth (30th) year is reckoned from the Jubilee. Nor is my opinion a new one; for Jerome makes mention of it, although he altogether rejects it, through being deceived by an opposite opinion. But since it is certain that the Jews used this method of computation, and made a beginning from ‘Jobel’, that is, the Jubilee, this best explains the thirtieth (30th) year. If anyone should object, that we do not read that this eighteenth (18th) year of king Josiah was the usual year in which everyone returned to his own lands, (Leviticus 25) and liberty was given to the slaves, and the entire restoration of the whole people took place, yet the answer is easy, although we cannot ascertain in what year the ‘Jobel’ fell, it is sufficient for us to assign the Jubilee to this year, because the Jews followed the custom of numbering their years from this institution. As, then, the Greeks had their Olympiads, the Romans their Consuls, and thence their computation of annals; so also the Hebrews were accustomed to begin from the year ‘Jobel’, when they counted their years on to the next restoration, which I have just mentioned. It is therefore probable that this was a Jubilee year –it is probable, then, that this was the Jubilee. For it is said that Josiah celebrated the Passover with such magnificent pomp and splendor, that there had been nothing like it since the time of Samuel (2nd Chronicles 35:18). The conjecture which best explains this is, not that he celebrated the Passover even with such magnificence, but that he was induced to do so by the peculiar occasion, when the people were restored and returned to their possessions, and the slaves were set free. Since, then, this was the Jubilee, the pious king was induced to celebrate the Passover with far greater splendor than was usual –nay, even to surpass David and Solomon. Again, although he reigned thirteen (13) years afterwards, we do not read that he celebrated any Passover with remarkable splendor. We do not doubt as to his yearly celebration; for this was customary (2nd Kings 23:23). From this we conclude that the celebration before us was extraordinary, and that the year was ‘Jobel’. But though it is not expressed in Scripture, it is sufficient for us that the Prophet reckoned the years according to the accustomed manner of the people. For he says that this was “the fifth (5th) year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity:” who is called also Jehoiakim; for Jehoiakim succeeded Josiah, and reigned eleven years. The thirteen (13) years which remain of Josiah’s reign and these eleven (11), make twenty-four (24) (2nd Kings 23:36). Now, “his successor,” Jehoiachin, passed immediately into the hands of king Nebuchadnezzar, and was taken captive at the beginning of his reign, and reigned only three or four months (2nd Kings 24:8). After that, the last king, Zedekiah, was set up by the will of the king of Babylon. We see, therefore, that nine (9) years are made up: add the space of the reign of Jehoiachin: so it is no longer doubtful as to the reckoning of “the thirtieth (30th) year” from the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah. It is true that the Law of God was found during this year, (2nd Chronicles 34:14,) but the Prophet here accommodates himself to the received rule and custom.”……”Before I proceed any farther, I will briefly touch on the subjects which Ezekiel treats. He has all things in common with Jeremiah, as I have said, with this peculiarity, that he denounces the last slaughter against the people, because they ceased not to heap iniquity upon iniquity, and thereby inflamed still more and more the vengeance of God. He threatens them, therefore, and that not once only, because such was the hard-heartedness of the people, that it was not enough to utter the threatenings of God three or four times, unless he should continually impress them. But, at the same time, he shows the causes why God determined to treat his people so severely; namely, because they were contaminated with many superstitions, because they were perfidious, avaricious, cruel, and full of rapine, given up to luxury and depraved by lust: all these things are united by our Prophet, that he may show that the vengeance of God is not too severe, since the people had arrived at the very last pitch of impiety and all wickedness. At the same time, he gives them, here and there, some taste of the mercy of God. For all threats are vain, unless some promise of favor is held out. Nay, the vengeance of God, as soon as it is displayed, drives men to despair, and despair casts them headlong into madness: for as soon as anyone apprehends the anger of God, he is necessarily agitated, and then, like a raging beast, he wages war with God Himself. For this reason, I said, that all threats are vain without a taste of the mercy of God. The Prophets always argue with men with no other intention than that of stirring them up to penitence, which they could never effect unless God could be reconciled to those who had been alienated from Him. This then is the reason why our Prophet, as well as Jeremiah, when they reprove the people, temper their asperity by the interposition of promises. He also prophesies against heathen nations, like Jeremiah, especially against the children of Ammon, the Moabites, the Tyrians, the Egyptians, and the Assyrians (Jeremiah 26-29). But from the fortieth (40th) chapter he treats more fully and copiously concerning the restoration of the Temple and the city. He there professedly announces, that a new state of the people would arise, in which both the royal dignity would flourish again, and the priesthood would recover its ancient excellence, and, to the end of the book, he unfolds the singular benefits of God, which were to be hoped for after the close of the seventy (70) years. Here it is useful to remember what we observed in the case of Jeremiah: (Jeremiah 28) while the false Prophets were promising the people a return after three or five years, the true Prophets were predicting what would really happen, that the people might submit themselves patiently to God, and that length of time might not interrupt their calm submission to his just corrections. As we now understand what our Prophet is treating, and the tendency as well as the substance of his teaching, I will proceed with the context.” ……}}

Notes & Comments by Editor: Promised Contribution: Complete Apparatus Criticus Arranged (See Translator’s Preface, Volume 1): Sections:
1-3: Indexes: End of Vol. 4-7: Follow One Another. Vol. 8: Is Preceded By Its Own “List of Contents.”
Complete Synopsis of Contents of Whole of Ezekiel’s Prophecies: 1. Prophet’s Commission.
2. Prophet’s Utterances. 3. Prophet’s Consolations.

Ezekiel: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Prophet’s Commission: (1-3):
Section 1. Its Allegoric Character: Whirlwinds; Four Living Creatures; Wheels; Firmaments; Throne & Human Appearance Seated Thereon, (1).
Section 2. Address: Roll; Abounding Lamentation, (2).
Section 3. Rebellion of People; Motion of Living Creatures; Charge as Watchman; Hand of Jehovah by River Chebar, (3).
2. Prophet’s Utterances: (4-32):
A. Against Jews: (4-24): Utterances Against Jews are Divisible into those Against Jerusalem: Mountain & Land of Israel; King; False Prophets; Elders of People, & Various Repetitions, & Different Images.
Section 1. Emblem of Siege upon Tile, (4:1-3): Lying on Right & Left Side, (4:4-8); Taking Food by Measure, (4:9-12); Explanation, (4:13-17).
Section 2. Emblem of Razor, (4:1-4); Explanation, (5:5-17).
Section 3. Against Mountains of Israel, (6:1-15).
Section 4. Against Land of Israel, (7:1-27).
Section 5. Vision of Image of Jealousy, (8:1-11); Chamber of Imagery, (8:12-16); Explanation, (8:17,18).
Section 6. Vision of Man with Slaughter Weapon, (9:1-11).
Section 7. Vision of Cherubim: Description & Motions, (10:1-22).
Section 8. Emblems of Caldron & Flesh: Application to Jerusalem, (11:1-25).
Section 9. Emblem of Prophet’s Removing his Goods, & its Interpretation, (12:1-16).
Section 10. Flattering Proverb of Israel rebuked, (12:1 7-28).
Section 11. Utterance Against False Prophets, Male & Female, (13:1-23).
Section 12. Against Elders of People, (14:1-23).
Section 13. Emblem of Vine used for Fuel, (15:1-8).
Section 14. Emblem of Israel as Outcast Infant Nurtured by Almighty, (16:1-14); Married, yet Committing Adultery, (16:15-34). This Wickedness Denounced & Punished, (16:35-59). Almighty’s Merciful Relenting, (16:60-63).
Section 15. Emblem of Eagle & Cedar, (17:1-10); Explanation, Referring to Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, &
Pharaoh, (17:11-24).
Section 16. Vindication of Divine Justice, & Confutation of Israel’s Proverb, (18:1-32).
Section 17. Emblem of Lioness & her Whelps, (19:1-9).
Section 18. Emblem of Vine Plucked Up & Consumed, (19:10-14).
Section 19. Elders of Israel Rebuked for Their Sins, (20:1-32).
Section 20. Divine Promises of Restoration, (20:33-44).
Section 21. Word Dropped toward South, (20:45-49).
Section 22. Prophet’s Face Set toward Jerusalem, (21:1-7).
Section 23. Sharp Sword & Great Slaughter, (21:8-27).
Section 24. Sword Drawn Against Ammonites, (21:98-32).
Section 25. Sins of Jerusalem & God’s Vengeance, (22:1-22).
Section 26. Woes Uttered Against False Prophets, (22:23-31).
Section 27. Adulteries of People, (23:1-49).
Section 28. Parable of Boiling Pot, (24:1-14); Prophet’s Severe Affliction, (24:15-27).
B. Utterances Against Gentiles: (25-32):
Section 1. Against Ammonites, (25:1-7).
Section 2. Against Moabites, (25:8-11).
Section 3. Against the Edomites, (25:12-14).
Section 4. Against Philistines, (25:15-17).
Section 5. Against Tyre, through (26-28:19).
Section 6. Against Zidon, Ezekiel (28:20-26).
Section 7. Against Pharaoh, (29:1-7).
Section 8. Against Egypt, (29:8-21).
Section 9. Against Ethiopia, (30:1-5).
Section 10. Against Upholders of Egypt, (30:6-19).
Section 11. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel (30:20-26).
Section 12. Assyria as Cedar of Lebanon, (31:1-9).
Section 13. Its Fall & Destruction, (31:10-18).
Section 14. Bitter Lamentation over Egypt, (32:1-21).
Section 15. Bitter Lamentation over Assyria. (32:22,23).
Section 16. Bitter Lamentation over Elam, (32:24,25).
Section 17. Bitter Lamentation over Meshech & Tubal, (32:26-28).
Section 18. Bitter Lamentation over Edom, (32:29-32).
(These Utterances are all most vividly and graphically portrayed. Allegories, Metaphors, &
Parables are most appropriately interspersed with fiery Denunciations & awful Threatenings in
consequence of gross iniquities.)
3. Prophet’s Consolations: (33-48): Series of Exhortations & Promises of Deliverance under Cyrus, Description of Temple, & View of Future Divisions of Land under Prosperous Reign of Messiah.
Section 1. Prophet’s Duty as Watchman, (33:1-16).
Section 2. Vindication of God’s Equity, (33:17-33).
Section 3. Reproof to Shepherds of People, (34:1-10).
Section 4. Almighty Good Shepherd, (34:11-31).
Section 5. Desolation of Mount Seir, (35:1-15).
Section 6. Destruction of Heathen, (36:1-7).
Section 7. Blessings on Israel, (36:8-38).
Section 8. Vision of Dry Bones, (37:1-14).
Section 9. Rods of Judea & Ephraim, (37:15-20).
Section 10. Future Reign of David King, (37:21-28).
Section 11. Prophecies Against Gog & Magog, (38:1-23).
Section 12. Judgments upon Gog, (39:1-16).
Section 13. Great Sacrifice on Mountains, (39:17-20).
Section 14. Israel Restored from Captivity, (39:21-29).
Section 15. Vision of Measuring the Temple, (40:1-49).
Section 16. Measures & Ornaments, (41:1-26).
Section 17. Priests’ Chambers & Outer Court, (42:1-20).
Section 18. Returning Glory of Jehovah, (43:1-9).
Section 19. Whole Fashion of House, (43:10-12).
Section 20. Measurement of Altar, (43:13-17).
Section 21. The Sacrifices on Altar, (43:8-27).
Section 22. Various Ordinances for Priests, (44:1-31).
Section 23. Apportionment of Land, (45:1-8).
Section 24. Duties of Priests, (45:9-25).
Section 25. Duties of Prince & of People, (46:1-25).
Section 26. Vision of Rising Waters, (47:1-12).
Section 27. Divisions & Limits of Land, (47:13-23).
Section 28. Portions for Tribes & Priests, (48:1-29).
Section 29. Various Gates of City, (48:30-35).
(These closing Visions & Consolations are singularly striking, and afford scope for copious illustration; but as our Commentator did not live to expound them, it would not become his Translator to obtrude on the reader his own research into these deep things of the Spirit of God. A minute description of the Temple Scenery has been attempted by a learned Jew, Soloman Bennett, R.A. of Berlin, (Edit. London, 1834.) His work contains a most elaborate account of every interesting particular. Ezekiel 40, Ezekiel 41, and Ezekiel 42 are explained verse by verse; and a ground-plan and bird’s-eye view are subjoined. These chapters are also explained by Fry on the Second Advent, volume 1. Section 13.)” }}

(2) Exposition of Prophet Ezekiel & Useful Observations. Delivered in Several Lectures in London, (1650-1654-1662). William Greenhill, Rector of Stepney, & Chaplain to Dukes of York & Gloucester, & Lady Henrietta Maria. Revised & Corrected, James Sherman, Minister of Surrey Chapel. (1839). gs.pdf

{{ “Advertisement: The Rev. William Greenhill, the learned and pious author of the following Exposition, was born in the year 1581, of humble parents residing in Oxfordshire. As early as the age of thirteen he entered a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the condition of Servitor, and when he had completed his twenty-first year, took his degree of Master of Arts. In 1643 he acted as one of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, and about the same time was made afternoon lecturer at Stepney church. Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs preached there in the morning at seven o’clock, and Mr. Greenhill in the afternoon at three, and were hence styled “the Morning Star” and “the Evening Star” of Stepney. He was chosen to be chaplain to the dukes of York and Gloucester, and the Lady Henrietta Maria, and in the year 1656 had the living of Stepney presented to him. Calamy says, “He was a worthy man, and much valued for his great learning and unwearied labours.” Howe styles him “that eminent servant of God, Mr. Greenhill, whose praise is still in the churches.” His Exposition of the Prophecy of Ezekiel was delivered in Lectures in the city of London, which were attended by many of the chief personages of his day, and have been long and deservedly valued. They were originally printed a volume at a time, as the lectures on a few chapters were concluded, till five small quarto volumes completed the Exposition. Happy that biblical student thought himself who could obtain a perfect copy, although it has been sold at the enormous price of from seven to ten pounds. The last volume is rarely to be obtained; and is supposed to have been destroyed in the calamitous fire of London. No pains or expense have been spared to render this edition complete. It could hardly be expected that in a work of this magnitude no errors should inadvertently have been overlooked, but, from the most careful examination, it is confidently expected they will scarcely be found. Believing that the reader of Greenhill would not thank any editor who might attempt to beautify his style, the reviser has been anxious that he might appear again in his own garb of 1650, and not in the more polite dress of 1837. His style is abrupt, not always chaste, often imperfect, and full of singularities; yet searching, bold, striking, and effective. An attempt to improve it would most likely enfeeble it, and shear it of its point and power……As a practical expositor of Ezekiel, whose prophecy contains many things “hard to be understood,” Greenhill will ever rank deservedly high. He fully explains the meaning of the prophet, and then applies the truth to the consciences of his auditory by many most pertinent and heart-searching observations. It is impossible that a prayerful mind can read this exposition, without growing “in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.” J. Sherman. ‘Surrey Chapel’,
‘January’ 26’th’, 1837.”}}

{{“Epistles Dedicatory: [Prefixed, Original Edition, Part Containing Chap. 1-5.]

“To the Excellent Princess, & Most Hopeful Lady, the Princess Elizabeth, Her Highness. May it Please Your Highness,…..Doubtless God’s eye is upon your Highness, for that good which is found in you in these your tender years, and is well pleased that your sweetness of nature and choiceness of wit are joined with desire to know him, with love to his worship, affection to the godly, and delight in such sentences as these are, viz.: “Chairete en Kuriö pavtote, palin erö, Chairete.” “Deus meus et omnia”. “La mia Grandezza dal Eccelso”.
All which, with these precious speeches of yours, “I had rather be a beggar here than not go to heaven,” and, “How shall I be sure to go to heaven?” are acceptable to the Highest, and make strong impressions upon us inferiors. Your desire to know the original tongues, that you may understand the Scripture the better; your resolution to write them out with your own princely hand, and to come to the perfect knowledge of them, breed in us hopes that you will exceed all of your sex, and be without equal in Europe; as Drusius said of his son, who at five years learned Hebrew, and at twelve wrote it ‘extempore’, both in prose and verse. Encouraging instances your own sex will afford. Eustochium profited so much in the Latin, Hebrew, and Greek, that in her time she was called the wonder of the world. Istrina, queen of the Scythians, so excelled in Greek, that she taught her sons the Greek tongue. Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrenians, was skilled in the Latin, Egyptian, and Greek tongues; she read the Roman story in Greek, abridged the Alexandrian and all the oriental histories. Politian hath an epistle to Cassandra, a Venetian maid, whom he calls the glory of Italy. Her delight was not in wool, but books; not in the spindle or needle, but in the pen; not in paint, but in ink: she wrote epistles and orations to admiration; she excelled in logic and philosophy, and had such perfections, as caused the learned to admire, if not adore her. Queen Elizabeth was so learned, that she read every author in the original, and answered ambassadors of most nations in their own language: she went twice to Oxford, and once to Cambridge, purposely to hear the learned academical disputations, where herself made Latin orations: she translated Sallust, and wrote a century of sentences: she set apart some hours daily to read, or hear others read to her : she so excelled in learning and wisdom, that her teachers rather learned of her than brought learning to her. Your Highness seems to aim at all the excellences in the prementioned; for your writing out the Lord’s Prayer in Greek, some texts of Scripture in Hebrew, your endeavour after the exact knowledge of those holy tongues, with other languages and learned accomplishments, your diligent hearing of the word, careful noting of sermons, understanding answers at the catechising, and frequent questioning about holy things, do promise great matters from you. If the harvest be answerable to the spring, your Highness will be the wonder of the learned, and glory of the godly. It is my unhappiness that I cannot be sufficiently adjuvant to such princely beginnings; yet because this following treatise is an exposition of Scripture, I take the boldness to present it to your Highness, and shall continue to pray to him who is All, and able to give all, that he would preserve your royal person, bless your hopeful endeavours, fill you with all divine perfections, make you a chief praise in Israel, and fit you for an eternal weight of glory. Your Highness’s most humble servant, William Greenhill.”}}

{{“To All Well-Willers of Truth; Especially to the Authors Fautors of the Expository Lectures in this City: …..”Robert Stephen mentions one, and that a Sarbonist, who had lived above fifty years, and knew not what the New Testament meant: and have not sundry persons among us lived their fifty years, and not known what Ezekiel meant P hath he not been a book clasped and sealed unto them? If this hieroglyphical prophet have been a wonder to all for his visions, yet he hath been known to few, by reason of the abstruseness of his visions, which have kept off great rabbies from employing their talents to open them. If weakness and error be found in these poor labours of mine, I entreat you to remember, I have been among prophetical deeps and difficulties, which may plead for him who, knowing his own insufficiencies, came invita Minerva to this task. If any light appear for the better understanding of these enigmatical things, I must say with Daniel, there is a God in heaven which revealeth mysteries, to him be all the glory, Dan. ii. 28. My prayers shall be to him who enlighteneth every man which cometh into the world, that he would anoint your eyes with eye-salve, whereby you may daily see more into the great and glorious truths of God, and those things which may strongly make for your eternal peace and comfort. So prayeth Your friend and servant in the Lord, W. G.}}

1:5: “What these living creatures are, is the great dispute among expositors. Some make them to be the four covenants of God: 1. That with Adam. 2. That with Noah. 3. That with Moses. 4. That with the apostles. Some make them to be all the creatures. Some, the four cardinal virtues, justice, wisdom, fortitude, temperance. Some, the four faculties in the soul; the rational, irascible, concupiscible, and conscience. Some, the four chief passions; joy, grief, hope, and fear. Some, the four monarchies; Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman. Some, the twelve tribes of Israel, in their stations, east, west, north, south, when in the wilderness. Some, the four elements, of which man’s body doth consist. Some, the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; and this being the opinion of Jerome and Gregory the great, prevailed much, but now is deserted. Others understand by these four creatures, those who are complete and more perfect in the church. Others expound them to be Christ; but Christ is brought in, in the latter end of the chapter, sitting upon the throne: these creatures are some distinct ones from Him, and inferior to Him. By them then we are to understand the angels, which have a great part under God in the government of the world. The word (chaiyoth) living creatures, doth not only signify a creature that is corporeal, living, and sensible; but it denotes any living being or substance, whether corporeal or spiritual: and so Tully calls ‘intelligentias animales’, living intelligences, in Quest. Acad. l. 4. The best interpreters go this way, and understand by the living creatures, ‘exercitus invisibiles’, principalities and powers, and we need not fetch light from men, where the Scripture gives interpretation itself. Ezek. 10, there you have frequent mention of cherubims, which were these living creatures; for ver. 8, it is said, “There appeared the form of a man’s hand under their wings.” They had the same faces, one excepted, and as many, ver. 14, and Ezekiel saith, ver. 15, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar.” And more plain yet in ver. 20, “This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar, and I knew that they were the cherubims.” Although he called it before the living creature, in the singular number, yet here he changeth the number, and saith, they were the cherubims. We may trust Ezekiel’s judgment, he was guided by the Spirit, and his cherubims do hold forth the same parties to us, that Isaiah’s seraphims did to him. The word cherub notes generally any figure of man or beast, say the Hebrews, but especially the figure of a young man or a child, with wings stretched out, Exod. 25. Such were the two cherubims before the ark. The Chaldeans call a little child, ‘rabi’; or ‘rabia’; whence some derive the word cherubim, ‘quasi cherabia’, as a little child; others fetch it from ‘caph’, which notes likeness, and ‘rob’ or ‘rab’, which words signify, as, in general, quality and quantity, so multitude and magnitude; so that cherubims etymologized are ‘tanquam multi et magni’, as it were many and great. The word cherub notes not only angels, but angels as they appeared and were figured with any external form of man or beast, and such figures were hieroglyphical, as here in this vision. The prophet saw not these cherubims, or angels, or living creatures, but the likeness of them. For the nature of spirits is invisible; no soul, no angel, neither God himself, can be seen. How then is their likeness presented to the prophet? (They are (aölos [a-holoi (incomplete) = asömatos (bodiless)], incorporeal, without flesh and bones, Luke 24:39. They are pure as God is, ‘actus purissimus’.) It is no bodily likeness, but a likeness in life, quality, and motion. But the text saith, “They had the likeness of a man,” that is, not in his nature and essence, but in some qualities; they had the face, hands, thighs, and legs of a man, all which set out some choice qualities in the angels. They had also something of the beast and bird. And if they were in nature like the living creatures, angels were strange monsters, and not spirits in compound. By their likeness unto man is laid before us the rationality, knowledge, and understanding of angels. They are not ignorant creatures, but ‘ipsae intelligentiae’, the most understanding creatures in heaven or earth. 2nd Sam. 15:20, the widow of Tekoah told David, he was wise according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth; that is, he was very wise, as the angels are, to search out, understand, and discover things. Therefore Jerome thinks they are called cherubims from their much knowledge. (A multitudine scientiae; Cherubim quasi cherabbim.) Cherubims, as it were, rabbies, doctors, teachers of others; and this office some angels have had. Dan. 8:16, “Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision;” and chap. 10:14, “I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days.” They have prophetical knowledge in them, and a treasury of things that are past and done long since. Rev. 4:6, 8, there is mention of four beasts or living creatures, (the same with these in Ezekiel,) full of eyes before and behind, because they see and know what is past, and what is before them; their natural knowledge is great, being such excellent spirits.” ……}}
(3) Commentary upon Larger & Lesser Prophets: being a Continuation Bishop Patrick, by William Lowth, B.D. Prebendary of Winchester. 4th Edition. (1739).

Dedication to the Right Honourable & Right Reverend Father in God, Jonathan, Lord Bishop of Winchester, & Prelate of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
{{ “My Lord, The chief Design of the following Work, which I humbly offer to Your Lordship, is to assert the Ancient and Catholick Sense of several Texts of the Prophet, whom I undertake to explain, and vindicate them from some Novel Expositions, which tend to deprive the Christian Religion of the Benefit of so considerable a Testimony: And I humbly beg Leave to present to Your Lordship this small Acknowledgment of my Duty and Observance, as a Member of Your ‘Cathedral’, and Minister of a ‘Parish Church’ of Your ‘Diocese’ and ‘Patronage’, and to which Your Lordship hath been pleased to be a ‘Benefactor’, when it lately suffered under a great Calamity. How mean soever the Performance may be, I hope the Design of it may in some Measure recommend it to Your Lordship’s Patronage, which is to illustrate this Evangelical Prophet, who, by the general Consent of former Ages, hath been placed at the Head of that Noble Order: A Person, whose Supernatural Gift of Prophecy added a new Lustre to the Greatness of his Birth, and whose liberal Education furnished him with a Noble Eloquence, and suitable to the Dignity of his Argument. The same Holy Spirit, who sometimes spake to the World by Shepherds and Fishermen, that the Excellency of the Truths delivered by them might appear to be of God, and not of themselves, at other Times made Choice of the Pen of a David, a Solomon, and an Isaiah, to instruct us, that the outward Accomplishments of Birth and Fortune may be sanctified to higher Purposes, and made instrumental in advancing the Glory of God, and the Interests of Religion. That Your Lordship may continue to employ the Advantages of Your great Station and Quality to God’s Honour, and the Service of His Church, is the hearty Prayer of, My Lord, Your Lordship’s most Dutiful and Obedient Servant, William Lowth.” }}
Preface: (Prophetical Books):
{{ “There is no Part of the Holy Scriptures that more deserves the thoughts of inquisitive Men, than the Writings of the Prophets. ‘God’ in His Word hath offered suitable Matter for the several Capacities of Men. The ‘Historical’ Books instruct us in the Methods of Providence, and afford an agreeable Entertainment to inquisitive Minds, as they contain the most ancient Records that are in the World, and relate the most remarkable Occurrences that ever happened in it. Persons of ordinary Understandings may find all necessary Truths plainly delivered, and often repeated in the New Testament Writings, and in the ‘Practical’ Books of the Old: Those of higher Endowments may find sufficient Employment in unfolding the Types and Figures of the ‘Jewish OEconomy’, and in searching into the Depths of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions. We may indeed find some Prophecies plainly delivered with great Exactness of Time, and Particularity in Circumstances (those especially which relate to the Coming of the ‘Messias’) that when the Events came to pass, they might appear to be the Effects of ‘God’s’ determinate Counsel and Foreknowledge. But the far greater Part of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions are couched in ‘Symbols’ and Sacred ‘Hieroglyphicks’ (a way of conveying the abstruser Parts of Knowledge, much used in the Eastern Countries:) As it were on purpose to excite the Curiosity of the Ingenious, and reward the Diligence of the industrious Searchers after Divine Truth. To which we may add, that the ‘Metaphorical’ Stile of the Prophets, is very proper to inspire the Minds of attentive Readers with noble Ideas of ‘God’s’ Wisdom and Providence, and to affect will the most lively Image of the Glorious Kingdom of ‘God’ and ‘Christ’, the Happiness of those that shall have a Share in the Triumphs of it, and the Terribleness of those Punishments which are denounced against such as will not have him to reign over them. And to encourage Men in the Searches of this Kind, they will find face an Harmony and Correspondence between the Figures and Emblems, whereby the Prophets point out Things to come, that the careful comparing of them with each other, will afford the best Clue to guide the attentive Reader through the most difficult Parts of their Writings, and is likewise a surprizing Proof that they all wrote by the Direction of one and the selfsame ‘Spirit’.
This hath been in some Measure attempted in the ensuing Work, where the Author hath used his utmost Diligence, to compare the Text with such parallel Places both of the Old and New Testament, which might any way conduce to the clearing up its Sense: And he is willing to believe that if be hath given any new Light to the obscure and difficult Passages of this Prophet, it is chiefly by comparing the Phrase and Idiom of the Text with other parallel Places more exactly than hath been hitherto done by any Commentator upon this Prophet that he hath seen: And be desires the Reader, that when he finds a more than ordinary Difficulty, he would carefully consider the parallel Text there referred to, which to have set down at Length, would have enlarged this Work beyond its due Bounds. The Writings of the Prophets unfold the Methods of Providence in many remarkable Instances: Such as are, ‘God’s’ Disposal of Kingdoms and Governments, and making use of wicked Princes and Nations to be the Instruments of his Justice in punishing others as bad or worse: The gradual Discovery of the Coming of the Messias, and the several Steps and Advancements by which ‘God’ introduced His Kingdom into the World,, and will carry it on till the Consummation of all Things. These Speculations must needs afford great Entertainment to Men of curious and inquisitive Tempers, and be Matter of Delight as well as instruction.
These Reasons, as they should encourage those to the Study of the Prophetical Writings, who have any
Talents for such an Employment, especially those whose Profession engages them to ‘search the Scriptures’; So they should recommend any Attempt that is made toward the further explaining of so considerable a Part of the Holy Scriptures. For after all the Pains that bath been taken in clearing up the Sense of these Sacred Books, by Persons excellently qualified for such an Undertaking, still there is Room left for further Endeavours in that Kind. For there is a Treasure of Heavenly Wisdom contained in them, that can never be exhausted: And as it is highly reasonable to believe, that some Parts of the ‘Old Testament’ Prophecies reach to the End of the World, so it is as reasonable to expect that in every Age Providence should open some new Scene, which wilt give further lnsight into the Meaning of those Sacred Writings. I confess, I can by no means approve of the Opinion of some learned Men, who are for cramping the Sense of the Prophets, and confining it within a narrow a Compass as they can, and will needs maintain that the Prophets scarce foresaw any Thing but what was to come to pass in or near their own Time. I must own my self-puzzled to assign a Reason why ‘God’ should appoint a Succession of Prophets to foretel what should come to pass within the Compass of about three hundred Years (for within that Time most of those Prophets lived, whose Writings make up that Part of the Scripture Canon which is called by that Name) and take no notice of any other Occurrences which should happen in succeeding Times; whereas to extend the Prophetick Views to the End of the World, seems much more agreeable to that Description of ‘God’s’ Prescience which the Holy Writers give us, That He declares the End from the Beginning, and His Wisdom reaches from one ‘End’ [of the World] to the other mightily, and sweetly does it order all Things: So that even when the whole ‘Mystery of God’s Dispensations’ shall be finished, it will appear that nothing is contained in them, but what God bath formerly declared to His Servants the Prophets, as it is expressly affirmed, Revel. 10:7.
For a further Proof of this Assertion, I desire it may be considered, that the Prophecies which foretel the Visibility and Universality of ‘Christ’s Church’, accompanied with perfect Peace, Prosperity and Holiness, cannot with any Probability be said to have as yet received their Accomplishment, as neither have those Predictions which foretel the flourishing State of the ‘Jewish’ Church and Nation in the latter Times. And to suppose those Prophecies to have already received their utmost Completion, is, in my Judgment, to give too great an Advantage to the Jews, and in Effect to acknowledge that they never were, nor will be fulfilled in their natural and obvious Sense. Whereas on the other Side, to assert that many Prophecies relating to the Messias, are already fulfilled in our ‘Lord Jesus Christ’, a Truth that can be made out beyond all Contradiction; and withal to maintain that several others concerning the same Subject, relate to His ‘Second Coming’, and their Accomplishment shall usher in or accompany that His Glorious Appearance: I say, the observing this Distinction between the different Times, wherein the several Prophecies relating to the Coming of Christ shall be fulfilled, effectually answers all the Arguments which the ‘Jews’ make use of to support themselves in their incredulity; it discovers a perfect Harmony and Correspondence between the Prophecies of the Old and New Testament, and it gives us an agreeable View of a more flourishing State of the Church, than the World hath yet been blessed with; and thereby engages us to use our best Endeavours to restore the Church to its primitive Purity, where-ever we find it defective.
These Considerations at first engaged me to attempt a Commentary upon the Prophet ‘Isaiah’; who as he is the first and principal of the Prophets in order; so he hath had the Honour of being stiled the ‘Evangelical Prophet’ by the Christian Church, because he foretold the Coming and Kingdom of the Messias with greater Clearness than any of the rest. But he will have but little Pretence to that Title, if we follow some Men’s Notions, which have been lately renewed, and zealously maintained by Mr. ‘Samuel White’, in his ‘Commentary’ upon this Prophet; where he all along supposes, that the far greatest Part of this Prophecy relates only to the Times in which the Prophet lived, and those that succeeded till the Return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity. Indeed he is willing to allow the ‘(53rd) Chapter’ of ‘Isaiah’, to have been fulfilled only in our Saviour; but according to his ‘Hypothesis’, that Prophecy must come in very abruptly, without any Connexion upon what went before, or what follows. To do him all the Justice I can, I must own, that in his Preface be asserts a double Meaning of many Prophecies: One more immediately relating to the present Circumstances of Things in or near the Prophet’s own Time; the others having more distant Views upon the State of the Gospel-Times. But his general Design in his ‘Arguments’ to the Chapters, and in his ‘Notes’, whenever an Occasion is offered, is to run down and ridicule the ‘Spiritual’ and ‘Mystical’ Sense of particular Texts or Prophecies, and to accuse the Commentators who have asserted it, as ‘making a Note of Wax’ of the Scriptures, and forcing the Words to an unnatural and improper Signification. Now these Assertions are a direct Contradiction to the Manner of interpreting the Old Testament Prophecies, made use of by ‘Christ’ and His ‘Apostles’ in the New; where we find our ‘Saviour’ applies several of the Ancient Prophecies to Himself; and the Apostles frequently assert, that ‘all Things happened to the’ Jews ‘in Figures’, that their Ordinances were ‘Parables’ or Allegories with respect to the Times of the Gospel; that the Christian Church is the ‘True Israel of God’, and all the Privileges appropriated to the ‘Jewish’ Nation in the Old Testament as ‘God’s Segullah’, or ‘peculiar People’, do in a more eminent Manner appertain to the Church of ‘Christ’, which is that true Kingdom of ‘God’, the ‘Jerusalem coming down from Heaven’, of which the earthly ‘Jerusalem’, and the Temple there, was only a Type and Figure.
These Rules for interpreting the ancient Prophecies laid down by the Apostles, ought to be a Standard for all Christians to square their Interpretations by, as being delivered by those who had the (Gnösis), or that especial ‘Gift of the Spirit’, which enabled them to explain the ‘Prophecies’ of the Old Testament, and apply them to the Times of the New. This is that ‘Publick’, or Authentick ‘Interpretation’ of the Scripture Prophecies, which St. ‘Peter’ opposes to a ‘Private Interpretation’, 2nd Pet. 1:19, that is, to such an Interpretation as is wholly owing to human Wit or Invention, or relates to private Persons and Translations. Whereas this publick Interpretation is taken from the ‘common Analogy of Faith’, Rom. 12;6, and arises from ‘comparing spiritual Things with spiritual’, 1st Cor. 2:13, i.e. the spiritual Sense of the Old Testament Writings with that of the New, and with one another. In which Particular I cannot but look upon Mr. ‘White’s Exposition’ as very deficient, in that he scarce ever compares the Phraseology of ‘Isaiah’ with that of the other Prophets, or with parallel Texts of the New Testament; which one would think every Christian Commentator should have a particular Regard to, in explaining the Sense of the ancient Prophecies. The ancient ‘Jews’ never contested this Point with the ‘Christians’, but always acknowledged that the chief Design of the Prophets was to foretel the Times of the ‘Messias’. And when Christ and His Apostles explained the Prophecies in a ‘Spiritual’ or ‘Mystical’ Sense, they interpreted them according to the received Notions of the Synagogue, and are never taxed, that we can find, for misapplying the particular Texts they alledged, as if they did not belong to the Times of the ‘Messias’. The Words of St. ‘Peter’ do in some Measure inform us, from whence the ‘Jews’ might receive these Notions, 1st Pet. 1:11,12, where he tells us, ‘That the Prophets who searched diligently what, and what manner of Time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, did signify, when it testified beforehand the Sufferings of Christ, and the Glory which should follow, had it revealed unto them, that not unto themselves, but to us they did minister the Things’ which the Apostles preached. No doubt, but they studied their own Prophecies, and the Spirit of God so far assisted them, and enlightened their Minds, as to enable them to leave this Key for the interpreting their own Writings, and letting succeeding Ages into the true Meaning of them. And thus a traditionary Explication of the Old Testament Prophecies was carried down from the very Time of the Prophets to After-Ages.
Several Arguments may be alledged to prove, that these Notions were generally received among the ‘Jews’ long before ‘Christ’s’ Time: In the first Place, we may argue from their admitting the ‘Song’ of ‘Solomon’ into their Canon, which could have no Pretence for being placed among the Sacred Writings, but only as it was supposed figuratively to set forth the ‘Spiritual Marriage of Christ and His Church’. The same Point may further be proved from their ancient ‘Targums’ and ‘Paraphrases’ upon the Scripture, from the ‘Misna’, and those Mystical Expositions of several Texts, which we read in the ‘Epistle’ of ‘Barnabas’, and which it is probable were taken out of some ‘Midrash’, or Authentick Exposition of the Scripture Texts, as hath been observed by Bishop ‘Fell’, and other Learned ‘Commentators’ upon that Epistle. And tho’ it should be granted, that some of those Writings are not so old as the Time of Christ and His Apostles; yet this doth not invalidate the Force of the Argument, because those Writings consist of traditionary Explications of Scripture, which the Compilers took from the Writings of former Ages, just as in After-times the ‘Greek Catenæ’ upon the Scriptures were compiled out of the Writings of the ancient Fathers by Authors of a later Date.
It does not appear, that this mystical Way of applying the Scripture-Prophecies to the Times of the ‘Messias’, was ever called in question, till the ‘Jews’ came to engage in Disputes with the Christians; and then to avoid the Force of their Arguments, they found it necessary to reject the Opinions of their Ancestors. It was this Consideration made Aquila and Theodotion, Apostates from Christianity to Judaism, to undertake a New Translation of the Old Testament into Greek, because they thought the Interpretation of the Septuagint too favourable to the Christians, having been framed according to the traditionary Explication of the Sense of the Prophets, which bad been received among the ‘Jews’ Time out of Mind. This Christian Interpretation about the Prophecies is called the ‘Mystical Sense’, because it helps to unfold the Mysteries of the Gospel, not as if it were always opposed to a literal Sense. For in many Cases what we call the Mystical Sense, more exactly answers the natural and genuine Import of the Words, than any other Interpretation that can be given of them. To instance in that famous Prophecy, Isa. 7:14. Behold a ‘Virgin’ shall conceive, &c. Supposing, but not granting, that this Prophecy can be applied in a lower Sense to ‘Isaiah’s’ Son, or any other Person but ‘Christ’; yet it is plain at first Sight, that the Historical Sense, which is commonly given of the Words, to denote ‘One that is now a Virgin, but should afterward marry and bear a Son’, comes infinitely short of the true Force and Meaning of them, and contains nothing in it that can deserve to be called a ‘Sign’ or ‘Wonder’. This seems to have been a Maxim in interpreting Prophecies, received among the Jews before Christ’s Time, That where-ever they observed an imperfect Completion of a Prophecy in the Historical Event, which no way answered the lofty Expressions, and extensive Promises, which the natural Sense of the Text imported, there they supposed the Times of the ‘Messias’ to be ultimately intended, ‘in whom all the Promises of God are Yea, and Amen’. To prevent any Misunderstanding, it may be proper likewise to take Notice, that this ‘Mystical Sense’ of the Prophecies, is now and then, but not so fitly, called a ‘Secondary Sense’; not as if it were lest principally intended by the Prophets, but rather with respect to the Time, because it is the last or ultimate Completion of their Predictions.
That many of the Prophecies are not limited to one single Event, but may have different Views, and be capable of being fulfilled by several Steps and Degrees, is what I have all along supposed in the following Commentary, and therefore here it will be proper to assign the Reasons of such a Supposition. This Subject hath been handled by several Learned Men, and of late by Dr. ‘Nich. Clagett’. [My Lord ‘Bacon’ has made an Observation upon this Subject, which deserves to be taken Notice of; in his Advancement of Learning, Book II. Chap. 11, “In the Interpretation of Prophecies, that Latitude must be allowed, which is proper and familiar to Divine Prophecies, that their Accomplishments may be both perpetual and punctual. For they resemble the Nature of their Author, ‘To whom one Day is as a thousand Years, and a thousand Years as one Day’. And though the Fulness and Height of their Complement be many Times assigned to some certain Age or Point of Time, yet they have nevertheless certain Stairs or Scales of Accomplishment throughout divers Ages of the World.”] l shall not repeat what hath been said already upon this Argument, but only lay down some General Reasons of this Assertion. I have already observed that this Opinion is agreeable to the Sentiments of the ‘Jews’: The only Point in which they differ from us, is, whether the Messias, to whom the Prophecies relate, be already come, or be yet to come. Therefore I shall not any longer insist upon that Argument, but proceed to observe, that under the Old Testament, all the most considerable Persons and Translations there mentioned, were ‘Typical’, and prefigured the State of Things under the ‘Messias’. Thus the New Testament informs us, that by ‘Sarah’ and ‘Hagar’ were allegorically represented the ‘Two Covenants’: By the preferring of ‘Jacob’ before ‘Esau’, the Rejection of the ‘Jews’, and the Calling of the ‘Gentiles’: By the Deliverance from the ‘Egyptian’ Bondage, the Redemption of Mankind by ‘Christ’, the ‘True Passover’ sacrificed for us: That the ‘Israelites’ passing through the Red-Sea, did typify the Sacrament of ‘Baptism’; and their Sojourning in the ‘Wilderness’, in their Way to the Promised Land, was designed to signify that we are but ‘Strangers and Pilgrims’ in this World, and must look upon Heaven as the only true Place of ‘Rest which remains for the People of ‘God’.’
“In the Characters the Scriptures give us of ‘Adam’ and ‘Melchisedeck’, of ‘Isaac’ and ‘Joseph’, of ‘Moses’ and ‘Joshua’, of ‘David’ and ‘Solomon’, of ‘Eliakim’ and ‘Jonah’, of ‘Cyrus’ and ‘Zerubbabel’, they plainly describe them as Figures of Christ: That several Circumstances of their Lives did foreshew the most remarkable Passages of his, and the Deliverances some of them wrought for God’s People, were Earnests of a greater Redemption to be accomplished by the Messias. Several of the Psalms, particularly the 18th, and the 118th, were writ upon particular Occasions, relating to some remarkable Circumstances of David’s Life, as appears both by their ‘Titles’ (which to be sure are as ancient as the Compiling the Old Testament Canon) and by the General Subject handled in them: And yet several Passages out of these ‘Psalms’ are applied in the New Testament to ‘Christ’ and the ‘Gospel’, as more eminently fulfilled in them. From these Principles we may conclude, that there is a Resemblance, or ‘Correspondence’ between many of the Transactions mentioned in the Old Testament, and those which should come to pass under the New: And consequently, that the Prophets, when they spake of some Events near their own Times, probably had more distant Views, which might reach even to the latter Ages of the World.
This Assertion, as it shews that ‘Fulness of Sense’ contained in the Scriptures, which ‘Tertullian’ faith, he did so much reverence and adore, so it introduces Christ into the World, with a great deal of Pomp and Solemnity; whilst it makes the whole Contrivance of the Jewish Dispensation, and all the Eminent Persons of former Times, as so many Harbingers to prepare the Way for His Coming, and thereby raises in our Mind, a just Veneration for the Gospel-State, as the Master-Piece of Divine Providence, that Point wherein all the Lines of ‘God’s manifold Wisdom’ do meet as in their Center; from whence it is evidently demonstrated, that ‘Christ was ordained by God, before the Foundation of the World’, though in His wise Disposal He did not appear till the latter Times of it. These ‘Providential Congruities’ between the Times of the Old and New Testament, do very much confirm the Authority of both Testaments; for they plainly shew, that they were written by the Direction of one and the same Spirit, who hath therein discovered to us one entire Scene of Providence, which reaches from one End of the World to the other.
The Apostles justify this Way of interpreting Scripture-Prophecies, by the Interpretations they give us both of the antient Prophecies, and of our Saviour’s own Predictions; of each of these shall give a remarkable Instance. That Prophecy of ‘Isaiah’, chap. 53:4. ‘He hath borne our Griefs, and carried our Sorrows’, without question is principally to be understood of Christ’s undergoing the Punishment due to our Sins; but yet St. ‘Matthew’ applies it to the Pains which He took in healing Men of their bodily Infirmities, and his rendering His own Life uneasy by the Care and Trouble He underwent to give Ease to others, ‘Matth’. 8:18. In like manner, that Expression of our Saviour, ‘John’ 17:12. ‘Those whom Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost’, was chiefly meant of Christ’s Care to preserve His Disciples in a firm Belief of, and Adherence to, those Truths which He taught them; yet we find St. ‘John’ applies the Words to the Care that Christ took of their Safety, when he yielded Himself up to those that came to apprehend Him, chap. 18:9. From hence it appears, that the Holy Writers themselves suppose, that the Expressions of inspired Persons may have several Senses couched under the Words. The same may be affirmed of that Prophecy of Christ, concerning the ‘Destruction of Jerusalem, and the End of the World’, Matth. 24 in which it is hard to determine, where our Saviour makes a Transition from one Subject to the other; this makes it probable, that He had both these Events in His Eye together, and that several of His Expressions were partly verified at the Time of the Destruction of ‘Jerusalem’, but were more fully to be accomplished at the ‘General Judgment’, of which that particular judgment was an Earnest and Fore-runner.
The Prophet Isaiah is certainly one of the most difficult of all the Prophets, though perhaps few are sensible of it, but they that try to explain him: Besides the Want of antient Records to clear up some Historical Passages of his Prophecy, a Difficulty common to him with the rest of the Prophets; there are some Difficulties, which do in a particular Manner attend his Writings. The Profoundness of his Thoughts, the Loftiness of his Expressions, and the Extent of his Prophecy, have made the ‘Commentaries’ hitherto written upon him, fall short of a full Explication of his Book; and he that will undertake to fathom the Depths of this Prophecy, is in great Danger of going out of his own. This Prophet seems to have been favoured with an entire View of the Gospel-State, from the very ‘Birth’ of the ‘Messias’, to that glorious Period, when the ‘Kingdoms of the World shall become the Kingdoms of the LORD, and of His Christ’. Upon these Accounts, as he deservedly holds the first Rank in that Noble Order of Prophets; so it may be hoped, the Candid Reader will favourably receive any Attempt that is made, to give some farther Light to this Prophecy, how imperfect soever. And particularly, I would make one Request to him, with which I shall conclude this Preface, viz. That, in those Parts of this Exposition, where there is any Mention made of the ‘Jews’ being to be ‘restored to their own Land’ upon their Conversion, and some other Particulars relating to that glorious State of the Church, which we may from Prophetical Grounds of Scripture expect to come to pass in the ‘latter Times’ of the World, there he would not judge of what is said upon these obscure Subjects as so many positive Assertions, but only as probable Conjectures, and such as the Words of the Text may fairly be supposed to favour. For in these and such-like abstruse Matters, which at present lie hid in their Causes, and in the Abyss of Providence, a modest Man should not pretend to be ‘Wise’ above that which is plainly and expresly ‘written’.” }}

{{ Commentary on Ezekiel’s Prophecy: Chap. I: Argument: The first Chapter contains a Description of God’s Appearing in a glorious manner to ‘Ezekiel’, in order to the giving him a Commission to execute the Prophetical Office.
Ver. 1. ‘Now it came to pass’.] The ‘Hebrew’ Text reads, ‘And it came to pass’; but it is usual in that Language to begin a Discourse or Book with the Particle ‘Vau’, or ‘and’: See ‘Jonah’ 1:1 and the beginning of most of the Historical Books of the Old Testament; which Particle is very properly translated in those Places, Now it came to pass: So that there is no ground for the Fancy of ‘Spinoza’, who would conclude, from hence, that this Book of ‘Ezekiel’ is but a Fragment of a larger Book, and contained several Prophecies, now lost, which were in Order of Time before those set down in these and the following Chapters. Ibid. ‘In the ‘Thirtieth (30th) year’.] It is a great Question from whence this Computation of Time commences. The most probable Answers are; first, that of ‘Scaliger’, who supposes this Thirtieth (30th) Year to be meant of the Years of Nebupolassar’s Reign; who, as he tells us from ‘Berosus’ quoted by Josephus, (l. I. contr. App.) reigned twenty-nine (29) Years complete: So the Thirtieth (30th) Year, here mentioned, was the last Year of his Reign and Life: And is likewise the thirteenth (13th) Year current of his Son Nebuchadnezzar’s Reign, who reigned so many Years together with his Father: (See Scaliger’s Canon Isagog. p. 281, 294. his Prolegom. ad. Lib. de emend. Temporum; and his Notes on the Greek Fragments, at the end of those Books.) But there is one considerable Objection against this Opinion of Scaliger, that according to Berosus’s Account, as his Works are quoted in another Place of ‘Josephus’, (Antiq. l. x. c. ii.) Nebupolassar reigned only Twenty-one (21) Years, the Greek Text reading, by a little Variation, (‘eichosi hen’ for ‘eichosi ennea’ .) Which is the same Number of Years assigned to ‘Nebupolassar’ in the ‘Aera Nabonassari’, and agrees better with ‘Berosus’s’ own Story, ‘viz’. that when he had committed the Command of the Army to his Son, and sent him on an Expedition to Syria and Phaenicia, he died in a short Time after. ‘Villalpandus’ in like manner makes his Computation to commence from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign: See his Commentary upon Ezek. 40:1. He allows nineteen (19) Years for his Reign, distinct from that of his Son, and supposes ‘Nebuchadnezzar’ to reign two (2) Years with his Father; which indeed agrees with the Scripture Computation: See the Note on Jer. 25:1. But, according to that very Account, the fifth (5th) Year of ‘Jehoiachin’s’ Captivity will be coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For the nineteenth (19th) Year of the same Reign is assigned for the Destrućtion of ‘Jerusalem’, ‘Jer’. 52:12., which was about six (6) Years afterwards. So this Computation will make Jehoiachin’s Captivity to have happened not in the thirtieth (30th), but in the thirty-second (32nd) Year, reckoning from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign. A more probable Answer to this Difficulty is that which the Chaldee Paraphrast, Archbishop Usher, A. M. 3409. Dr. ‘Prideaux ad an. A. C.’ 594, and other learned Men follow, ‘viz’. that these thirty (30) Years are to be reckoned from the Time when ‘Josiah’ and all the People of ‘Judah’ entered into that solemn Covenant mentioned 2nd Kings 22:3. which was in the eighteenth (18th) Year of ‘Josiah, ibid’. from which Time the same Learned Writers compute the forty (40) Years of ‘Judah’s’ Transgression, mentioned chap. iv. 4:6. Ibid. ‘As I was among the Captives by the River Chebar’.] Those which were carried away with ‘Jehoiachin’, King of ‘Judah’: See the next Verse. These were placed in Towns or Villages that lay upon the River Chebar in Mesopotamia, called by ‘Ptolemy’ and ‘Strabo’, ‘Chaboras’ or ‘Aboras’, and by ‘Pliny’, Lib. 1. c. 26 ‘Cobaris’.
Ver. 2. ‘Which was in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity’.] This was coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For ‘Jehoiachin’ was carried Captive in the eighth (8th) Year of his Reign : See 2nd Kings 24:12. The ‘Hebrew’ Writers use several Computations of the Beginning of the ‘Babylonish’ Captivity : See the Note upon ‘Jer.’ 25:1. That under ‘Jehoiachin’, wherein ‘Ezekiel’ was made a Captive, is the Computation he always follows in the succeeding Parts of his Prophecy: See ‘chap’. 8:1; 20:1; 29:1, 17; 31:1; 33:1. 40:1. }}

(4) Ezekiel & Book of His Prophecy: Exposition. Patrick Fairbairn, DD. Principle of Free Church College, Glasgow; Author of “Typology of Scripture”. (1850,1855,1863)

Contents: Introduction: Chapters & Verses:
1: Time & Manner of Ezekiel’s Entering on the Prophetical Office.
2-3:1-11: CaIl to Prophetical Office.
3:12-27: Ezekiel’s Entrance on his Mission, & 1st Message imparted to Him.
4: Vision of Siege & Iniquity-Bearing.
5-6: Vision of Shorn Hair, & its Foreshadowing Desolations.
7: Lamentation over Guilt & Fall of Israel.
8: Vision of Image of Jealousy, & other Abomination at Jerusalem.
9: Vision of Sealing.
10: Vision of Coals of Fire.
11: Destruction of Corrupt Priesthood, & Promise of Grace & Blessing to Believing Remnant among Exiles.
12: Vision of Ezekiel’s Typical Removing as Exile, & accompanying Instructions.
13: False in Prophecy, its Character & Doom.
14: Hypocritical Inquirers after God —their wickedness Discovered and Rebuked.
15: Guilt & Condemnation of Israel Parabolically Represented.
16: Story of Israel’s Guilt and Punishment.
17: Parable of Two Great Eagles, & Cropping of Cedar of Lebanon.
18: Retributive Righteousness of God.
19: Lamentation Over Fall of Royal House.
20:1-44: Display of People‘s Long-continued Sinfulness, & Lord’s Long-Suffering-Mercy & Goodness.
20:45-49 & 21: Vision of Lord’s Fire & Sword.
22: Lord’s Judgment upon All-Pervading Sinfulness of Jerusalem.
23: Story of Israel’s Sin & Punishment Parabolically Exhibited under Names of Aholah & Aholibah.
24: Vision of Boiling Caldron, & of Death of Ezekiel’s Wife.
25: Judgment of Israel’s Immediate Neighbours & Rivals: Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines.
26: Judgment of Tyre.
27: Lamentation upon Tyre, & Account of Her Former Greatness & Prosperity.
28:1-19: Criminatory Address to King of Tyre, & Lamentation Over His Coming Downfall.
28:20-26. Judgment of Sidon, & Ultimate Peace of Israel.
29: Judgment of Egypt, its Desolation for 40 Years & Subsequent Degradation: 1st Instrument of Chastisement, Nebuchadnezzar.
30: Continuation of Egypt’s Judgment.
31: Certainty of Pharaoh’s Doom Confirmed: Parabolical Relation of Assyria’s Greatness & Destruction.
32: Songs of Lamentation Over Fall of Pharaoh & Kingdom, . . . . . . . .
33: Renewal of Ezekiel’s Commission, his Office as Watchman,
34: Promise of True Shepherd, after False Shepherds have been Punished & Removed.
35: Judgment of Edom.
36: Israel Revenged & Comforted: New Heart & Blissful Heritage.
37: Vision of Dry Bones Restored to Life again, as Symbolical of Israel’s Death & Resurrection.
38-39: Assault of Gog & His Destruction.
40-48: Preliminary Remarks on Vision in Chap. 40-48, with Respect to Principles on which it ought to be interpreted.
40:1-48. Position, Walls, Gates, & Courts of Temple,
40:48,49, -41: Temple Itself.
42: Chambers of Temple & its Boundary Walls.
43: Lord’s Return to Temple.
44: Ordinances for the Prince & Priesthood.
45: Sacred Allotments in Land & Gifts.
46: Additional Ordinances for Prince & People.
47:1-12. Vision of Temple-Waters .
47:13-23 -48: Boundaries & Re-Distribution of Land, Israel Parabolically Represented.

{{ Introduction: I: ….”Yet this must not be understood of his connection with the whole band of exiles, nor probably of the later period of his public ministry nearly so much as of the earlier. For, amid the prevailing iniquity, there are not wanting occasional indications of a better spirit among the captives (chap. 11:16, Jer. 24); and, at a period not very distant from the close of his ministrations, a very marked and general amendment had undoubtedly taken place among them. It could not greatly, if it did at all, exceed thirty (30) years from the cessation of his active labours, when the decree was issued for the return of the captives; and notwithstanding the corruptions which still lingered among them, and which soon began to appear in the infant colony, there was a general repudiation of idolatry, and an adherence to the law of Moses, very different from what had existed at the era of the captivity, or for a considerable time previous to it. Nor can there be any doubt, that among the agencies which contributed to effect this beneficial change, a prominent place must be ascribed to the ministry of Ezekiel. Thus by the results that appeared, decisive evidence was borne to the fact, that a prophet had been among them, who had not laboured in vain; and we can scarcely doubt, from the whole circumstances of the case, that the satisfaction was afforded our prophet —a satisfaction which was denied to his great contemporary Jeremiah— of witnessing the commencement of the spiritual renovation for which he so earnestly laboured.”…..IV. The order and classification of his prophecies next demands some notice. And here it ought, first of all, to be borne in mind, that whatever arrangement may be made respecting them as to their subjects, an order and progression belongs to them as a whole, as well as a homogeneousness of nature, which fits them for mutually throwing light on each other; and, in particular, one large portion of them (chap. 1-32), which is mainly conversant with sin and judgment, in a great degree supplies the key, by which the later announcements —more cheering in their tone, but more remote in their objects— are to be interpreted. There is in this respect a unity in the character of the book, which calls for an orderly and progressive perusal of its contents. And should anyone, heedless of this characteristic, overleap all the earlier portions of the prophecy, and proceed at once to grapple with some of the later and more peculiar visions, he would only take the course most likely to involve himself in perplexity or disappointment. A general classification of the contents of the book, as has just been noticed, may be made into those, which have respect predominantly to sin and judgment, and those which are more peculiarly appropriated to the revelation of grace and mercy. We can only, however, speak of prevailing, not by any means of exclusive, characteristics of this sort. For, in the one-part mercy is often found intermingling with the judgment, as in the other judgment occasionally alternates with the mercy. The more specific, and at the same time quite natural divisions, are commonly indicated by the prophet himself, in the several dates which he has, at certain intervals, placed as superscriptions to the messages he successively received. These are altogether eight.
1. The first is introductory, containing a description of the first vision, and in connection with it of the call of the prophet—(chap. 1-3:15). 2. The next portion, embracing the remaining verses in chap. 3, and reaching to the close of chap. 7, is occupied chiefly with a more explicit announcement of the prophet’s commission and charge, and his entrance on the work it devolved upon him, by setting forth the enormous guilt of the people, the certainty of the coming destruction of Jerusalem, with still subsequent calamities, and the prostrate condition of the whole affairs of the kingdom. 3. The next section embraces chap. 8-19, but falls into two parts. The first, including chap. 8-11, contains still farther revelations of the people’s sinfulness, especially as connected with the profanation of the temple, and the corruption of the priesthood —the determination of God, in consequence, to forsake His sanctuary, with severe executions of vengeance on the wicked, though not without gracious interpositions for the safety of the few who remained faithful— and then, the twofold work of destruction and preservation being (symbolically) done, His actual departure from the temple-mount, that He might go and reveal Himself in tenderness and power to an inquiring and afflicted people in exile. In the second part of this division, which includes chap. 12-19, the prophet prosecutes in detail his exposure of the sins, which were bringing down such inflictions of judgment, and shows how all classes, as well as the priests —prophets, princes, and the people generally, had corrupted their ways, and should severally share in the destruction that was impending. 4. In chap. 20-23, the same subject is continued, though, as the time of judgment had approached nearer, there is an increased keenness and severity in the prophet’s tone; he sits, as it were, in judgment upon the people, brings out in full form the Divine indictment against them, and with awful distinctness and frequent reiteration, announces both their consummate guilt and its appropriate judgment. 5. Then comes, in chap. 24, the actual announcement of the end, as regards Jerusalem and its guilty people, with a representation of the behaviour suitable for such as survived the calamity; the prophet himself being required to share in the confusion and silence, which were proper at such a time. 6. Chap. 25-32 form a group by themselves, containing the announcements respecting sin and judgment, which, during the interval of the prophet’s silence towards his own people, he was commanded to utter against the surrounding nations. The great object of them was to show, that if judgment had begun at the house of God, it would assuredly embrace, and visit with still more overwhelming calamities, the ungodly world. There are various headings in this section; and some of the revelations were given at periods considerably later than others; but they began to be uttered immediately after the doom of Jerusalem, and all manifestly relate to one great theme. 7. In chap. 32-39, we have a series of predictions given to the prophet in the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, after the appearance in Chaldea of the remnant that had escaped from Jerusalem (chap. 23:21); a series which points more particularly to the better times in prospect, and unfolds, with considerable fulness and variety, the revival of God’s cause among the covenant-people, the re-establishment of the Divine kingdom, and its sure and final victory over all the sources of evil, which had prevailed so much against it in the past. 8. Then, after an interval of thirteen (13) years, comes the closing vision, in chap. 40-48, disclosing, under the symbolical representation of a new temple, city, and commonwealth, the restored condition, with the perfect order and beauty, of the people and kingdom of God.
(In section 5 Fairbairn on Ezekiel Literature in his days: England has produced almost nothing exegetically of substantial value by 1850; the Puritan writers were anthologies of sayings & sermons. Archbishop Newcome of 1788 being exception, save filled with textual emendations as solutions & interpretations; but carried on still by textual critics as Ewald & Hitzig, seeking to correct the Hebrew text by the Septuagint. The elaborate work of 1596 by Rome’s Spanish Jesuits, Pradus & Villapandus is commended for patristic citations & Temple opinions. Rosenmuller’s & Maurer’s commentaries are useful, especially grammar; Ewald cautiously instructive; but Havernick of 1843 is by far the best; less so Hitzig of 1847. Rationalism is rash, superficial, & spiritually impoverished. Hengstenberg helpfull when he interprets the text.)

(5) Prophecies of the Prophet Ezekiel Elucidated; by E.W. Hengstenberg, D.D., Professor of Theology, Berlin. Translated by A.C. & J.G. Murphy. Edinburgh. 1869.gs

Contents: 1st Cycle (Chap, 1-7); 2nd Cycle (Chap, 8-19); 3rd Cycle (Chap. 20-23); 4th Cycle (Chap, 24)
Foreign Nations (Chap, 25-32): Ammonites, Moab, Edom, Philistines, Tyre & Sidon, Egypt.
Conclusion to Chap, 1-32, (Chap, 33:1-20); Words of Comfort (Chap, 33:21–39); Restoration (Chap, 40-48).

{{ “Retrospect: Ezekiel, carried into exile in the captivity of Jehoiachin, seven (7) years after the beginning of the Chaldean bondage, eleven (11) years before the destruction of the city, appeared there as prophet in the fifth (5th) year after his captivity, in the thirtieth (30th) year of his life (ch. 1:1). The latest date which we find in the superscriptions of his prophecies is the twenty-seventh (27th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (ch. 29:17), so that the historically ascertained period of the prophet’s activity embraced twenty-two (22) years. It was shown that the prophet had precisely in that period a definite occasion for the collection of his prophecies. The prophecies contained in the present collection, like those of the contemporary Daniel, are all provided with chronological superscriptions. These are in all twelve, of which six belong to native prophecies, and six to prophecies against foreign nations,—(26:1; 29:1; 29:17; 31:1; 32:1; 32:17). The collection falls into two main parts,—prophecies before and prophecies after the destruction of Jerusalem. That we may not, with some, make the prophecies against foreign nations in ch. 25-32 a special main part, that they are rather to be considered an appendix to the prophecies before the destruction, is manifest: 1. Because the beginning of these predictions in ch. 25 is connected with the last native prophecy before the destruction in one chronologically determined section; 2. Because the section ch. 33:1-20 forms the literary close to ch. 1-32; and with special reference to the main portion, ch. 1-24, gives some nota benes concerning the whole previous literary activity of Ezekiel. The essential character of the first part is threatening; that of the second, promise. The starting-point of the first main part is a great anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the danger connected with it of the people failing to discern the signs of the times. The first main part contains four groups of native prophecies —(ch. 1-7; 8-19; 20-23; & 24)— in regular chronological sequence. The first dates from the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin, a time when the formation of the coalition began to fill men’s minds with joyful hopes; the last from the tenth day of the tenth month in the ninth (9th) year of Jehoiachin, —the fatal day of the opening of the siege of Jerusalem, which put an end to the hopes founded on the coalition. The mission of the prophet in these four groups is to make clear to the people the import of the great Chaldean catastrophe, and to bring them to understand the day of their visitation, and escape the miserable fate of those who are severely afflicted, without gaining the peaceable fruit of righteousness. To the book of the works no less than to the book of the words of God we may apply the saying, “Understandest thou what thou readest?” It was the great privilege of the people of God, that such an interpretation always went along with the doings of God. The prophet leads the people to discover in the coming event a long reckoning of God, —the visitation of a guilt that goes back to the very origin of the people. He makes every effort to bring the people to acknowledge the depth of their corruption, which alone could account for their sufferings, and thus not send them far from their God, but connect them closely with Him. The destined event, thus recognised in its necessity, had to be represented as inevitable. The prophet is inexhaustible in the denunciation of the foolish hopes of the people, before whose eyes he portrays the future calamity as if it were already present, as indeed the roots of it in reality were; inexhaustible also in the destruction of the false views concerning the source of the approaching suffering, and the beating down of the craftiness of the natural man, who in the deep indwelling antipathy to repentance makes every effort to cast the blame on God. He deals annihilating blows to those who led the people away from the way of repentance, and flattered them with foolish hopes. The radiant point in these discourses is the grand survey of the whole past development of Israel in ch. 23, which places before our eyes the figure of a people such as they ought not to be, and the result of which is, that the judgment is inevitable. Few sections of Scripture call so powerfully as these for earnest self-examination.
At the close of ch. 24 the prophet announces that native predictions will now be silent, until with the execution of the judgment a new beginning for the prophetic activity be given. The servant is silent in the beginning of the practical discourse of the Master Himself, for the understanding of which sufficient provision has been made. But with the previous ending of native prophecy is connected the beginning of the prophet’s activity in regard to foreign nations. This connection is shown by this, that the beginning of this activity is included in the same section with the closing prophecy concerning Judah. The prophecies against foreign nations have the special aim to shed a fuller light on the judgment on Judah announced in the native prophecies, and already beginning its course. They give the answer to the natural question, Lord, but what of these? (John 21:21) They are all directed against the nations of the anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the executors of the judgments are in them all the Chaldean monarchy. Judah was first to drink the cup (ch. 21:18 f.). God sanctified Himself first on those who were near Him (Lev. 10:3) ; the judgment began at the house of God. It appeared as if the people of the covenant must alone suffer among all the members of the coalition. The scorn of these confederates themselves was poured out on the people of Jehovah (ch. 25:3, 6; 26:2); indeed, they made common cause in part with the Chaldeans, and sought to derive advantage from the misfortune of Judah (ch. 35:10). The prophet portrays before the eyes the judgment which in his time will fall upon them. He turns the heart of the people to their God when he points out that for the heathen the judgment has an annihilating character; whereas Israel rises from it to a more glorious state. Thus these predictions against foreign nations appear as the transition from the first part to the second —the comforting and promising part.
Of the foreign nations there are seven, divided into four and three —four neighbouring nations and three world-powers, the last Egypt, which had formed the centre of the coalition; so that there is thus a progress from the less to the greater. On this side and on that side of the prophecies against foreign nations the arrangement is strictly chronological. There occurs no prophecy which is not chronologically determined; and all prophecies so determined stand in regular order. In the external predictions also the chronological prevails. But a certain deviation must be allowed, otherwise things intimately connected must have been separated. The prophecies are here arranged according to the nations, so that, for ex., all those referring to Egypt come together. Among the prophecies referring to Egypt, that in ch. 29:17 goes before the one in ch. 31:1, which belongs to an earlier period, because it stands in a close relation with the foregoing (ch. 29:1), and resumes it at a time when its fulfilment was close at hand. Although the main body of the external prophecies belong to the time before the term, given in ch. 33:21, of the recommencement of the home prophecies, yet the date of some external prophecies precedes that in ch. 33:21 (ch. 32:1, 17), because the external prophecies forming a connected cycle should not be separated from one another, and because the following cycle of home prophecies also should meet with no interruption.
The first part contains in all a decade of prophecies —four native and six foreign. At the close of the first part in ch. 33:1-20 follows, in vers. 21, 22, the historical introduction to the discourses of the second period; in vers. 23-33, the warning and admonishing preparation for the new message, —the mediation, as it were, between it and the first part. With ch. 34 begins the communication of the comforting message. From this forward the prophet is as inexhaustible in comforting as he was before in threatening. The dangerous foe was now despair, as it was before false confidence. Common to the comforting and to the threatening discourses is the pictorial character; the viewing of that which is not as if it were, a result of dependence on God, in whose nature salvation as well as judgment is founded. The comfort is in this first group unfolded in seven paragraphs. In the first discourse (ch. 34) the prophet meets in a soothing manner the grief for the loss of civil government, and places before the eyes of his hearers and readers the bright form of the glorified David, in whom the civil government of the future will culminate. In the second (ch. 35) he portrays the desolation of Seir. The light of Israel is relieved by the shade of Edom, who here represents the nations, who, in their hatred of the kingdom of God, are not fit for it, but are ripe for destruction. The third discourse (ch. 36:1-15) relieves the pain occasioned by the desolation of the holy land. The fourth (ch. 36:16-38) lays down the name of God as the pledge of salvation. The fifth announces the restoration of Israel as a covenant people (ch. 37:1-14); the sixth, as a brotherly people (vers. 15-28). The seventh (ch. 38-39) represents the renovated people as victorious in every conflict.
The second principal part has only two dates (ch. 33:21 and ch. 40:1), and thus presents only two sections, which increase the ten of the first part to twelve. In the great closing picture in ch. 40-48 the prophet portrays in detail the recovery of all that was lost, in fulfilment of the words of the psalmist, “He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken;” and points in the midst of it, in ch. 47:1-12, to the great progress of the kingdom of God in the future.
In the picture of the future drawn by the prophet, the following are the principal traits. Vain is every attempt of the people to avert the threatening misfortune. They must drain to the bottom the cup of the divine wrath (ch. 21:26). Egypt, the power on which their hopes chiefly rest, proves a broken reed: the time of its political importance is for ever gone. But what earth denies, heaven will grant in its own time. After the people have attained to repentance, wrath is followed by grace; all that is lost —the temple, with its priests and worship, the city, the land— is restored. Yet not this alone: the future brings an enhancement of salvation. The people receive a rich treasure of forgiveness of sins (ch. 36:25; 37:23); the Lord takes away the heart of stone, and gives them a heart of flesh (41:19); He awakens them by His quickening breath from spiritual death (ch. 37). The centre of all graces is an exalted descendant of David, who will spring from His family when reduced and wholly deprived of the sovereignty, and connect the high-priestly with the kingly office (ch. 21:27; 34:11-31). The blessing is so potent that it extends also to the heathen, who will join themselves to Israel in the time of salvation. According to ch. 34:26, “the environs of his hill” will be partakers of it with Israel; according to ch. 17:22-24, the descendant of David, at first small and inconsiderable, is raised to the sovereignty of the world ; according to ch. 47:1-12, the waters of the Dead Sea of the world are healed by the stream from the sanctuary. This great revolution of things, however, will give the old covenant people no cause for self-exaltation; it will rather tend to their deep humiliation. They find salvation only through the redeeming mercy of God in common with the heathen world, sunk deep in sin, to whom they are become like, as in sin, so in punishment (ch. 16:53-63). And then in the future, along with grace, which is only for the willing, comes also judgment. The prophet announces in ch. 5:4 a second annihilating judgment, which after the Chaldean will come upon the people restored by the grace of God, —a fire which will devour the people as such, and leave only an election of them which participates in the blessings of salvation.
The name of the prophet denotes one in relation to whom God is strong (p. 5), who speaks not out of his own heart, but is moved and determined by a supernatural power. The verification of this name we have in the prophecies before us. That which the Lord said to Peter applies to him, “Flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but the Father in heaven.” None of His words have fallen to the ground. The whole course of history has verified His word in ch. 33:33 : “They shall know that a prophet was in the midst of them.”” }}

{{ “Appendix: Cherubim: What Christian should not feel a desire to know the nature of the cherubim? When we sing the Ambrosian anthem, we dwell with special emotion of heart on the words: “The cherubim and seraphim, and all angels, serve Him. “As long as the nature of the cherubim is concealed from us, a whole series of scriptural passages is inaccessible to us. The cherubim occur in the Old Testament no less than eighty-five times. They meet us in the very first pages of revelation: the cherubim and the flame of the blazing sword repel the parents of our race from the tree of life. In the tabernacle and in the temple of Solomon the cherubim receive an important place. The grand visions of Ezekiel in ch. 1 and 10, even on a superficial examination, awakening the anticipation of a glorious meaning, and presenting a fulness of earnest warning and comfort, are sealed to us, if we have not learned the nature of the cherubim. In the Psalms God appears enthroned on the cherubim, as the firm ground for the confidence of His people; and whosoever will be a partaker of this confidence, must before all know what the cherubim are to signify. Even in the New Testament the holy enigma of the cherubim meets us. John, in the Revelation, sees in the midst of the throne, and about the throne, four beasts full of eyes before and behind, that had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty. The right knowledge of the cherubim, however, has a special interest for our own times…. The merit of having first fully established this view belongs to Bahr in the ‘Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship’, and in the treatise on the temple of Solomon. “The beings of whom the cherub is composed,” says he, “belong to those creatures of the visible world that form the upmost and highest of its three kingdoms —the kingdom of organic life; and in this kingdom, again, they belong to the highest class, to that which has warm blood, and therefore the highest physical life; and in this class they are again the highest. The cherub is far from being a figure of God Himself; on the contrary, its essential character is to be a creature: it is a figure of the creature in its highest stage —an ideal creature. The living powers distributed in the visible creation to the highest creatures are combined and idealized in it.” “The whole creation is combined in it as in a point in one being; it represents in so far also the whole creation, and stands naturally of all the creatures nearest to God: only God is above it. The cherub, as creation individualized, is at the same time the being in which the glory of God manifests itself. Hence it appears as the throne of God itself, or in the closest connection with the throne: where Jehovah in His majesty and glory reveals Himself, there the cherub also appears.” This view in the main is alone correct; only it is to be remarked, that the cherubim represent first not the creature in general, but only the animated creation on the earth. Yet this is regarded as the apex of all created things on earth, so that the remainder is in some measure represented by it, and is appended to the animated creation as an accessory, and all the more because it has been created for its sake. But we must not include the heavenly creature: He that sits on the cherubim, and the God of hosts, are co-ordinate expressions; by the hosts are meant the heavenly creatures. The cherubim never occur alone —always in connection with God. The formation of the symbol has arisen not from the motive of the consideration of nature as such, but from the motive of piety. In the consideration of the multitude of visible creatures the mind may easily distract itself, and dwell on the individual —now on this, now on that. “Whilst they move and search among the works of God, they are caught by the sight, because that which is seen is beautiful,” says the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (ch. 13:7). The pious mind, therefore, protesting against such distraction and such service of the creature (Rom. 1:15), comprehends all visible multiplicity in an ideal unity, and places this unity absolutely under God, who by His creative Spirit is the foundation of this unity. This representation has for piety a profound significance. If we look to God, who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with adoring reverence for Him, who is so wonderful in His works, with the heartfelt desire to do the will of this God, whose is the earth and the fulness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein (Ps. 24:1), with the dread of calling down upon us the wrath of the God of the spirits of all flesh, with joyful courage in the face of the world, with an absolute refusal to make concessions to it, with a holy contempt for its foolish pursuits, with invincible strength under its persecutions, with the consciousness that it cannot move hand or foot without the influence of God; that in the last resort we have to do, not with it, but with God; that it concerns us to come to terms, not with it, but with God by true repentance; that He visits us through it ; and that an endless fulness of means are at His command to help us, when His visitation has attained its end.
If we consider attentively the God who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with deep contempt, holy wrath, and strong pity at the sight of the theory, now so wide-spread, of a degraded, half-brutalized generation. “No power without matter,” so runs the theory; “no matter without power. A power ruling over matter is a senseless thought. Power is the property of matter, and inseparable from it. The idea of an absolute creative power, which is distinct from matter, creates it, regulates it according to certain absolute laws, is a pure abstraction. “We know, on the contrary, that power is the original principle; that the Spirit, who proceeds from Him who sits above the cherubim, gives to everything its existence; that in Him it lives, and moves, and is Sabaoth and cherubim —that is our watchword in the face of such error. The original generation of men with its cherubim, however, not merely raises a protest against the false science of our day, but turns with friendly consent to that which is found in it of true science. There are here two important points of agreement. First, that the living creature, as it is represented by the cherubim, forms a distinct department of the terrestrial creation. And next, that exactly in this department the creative power of God displays itself most gloriously; that of it in a special manner the word of the apostle holds good, “The invisible things of God, His eternal power and Godhead, we see and know in His works.” Janet says in regard to this: “Let us hold by the chief facts, which hitherto have supported a distinction not to be effaced between dead or inorganic and living matter. The first and weightiest of these facts is the harmonious unity of the living and organic being; it is, to make use of an expression of Kant, the correlation of the parts to the whole.” “Organic bodies,” says the great physiologist Muller (Joh. Muller, ‘Physiol.’, v.1. p.17), “not only differ from inorganic in the mode in which their elements are combined; but the constant activity which works in the living organic matter, acts according to the laws of a rational plan in conformity with an end, because the parts are adapted to the end of the whole: and this it is exactly that marks the organism.” Kant says: “The reason of the kind of existence in each part of a living body is contained in the whole, whereas in the dead mass each part bears it in itself.” Joh. Muller, quoted by Janet, says further: “The harmony of the members necessary to the whole (in the organism) subsists not ‘without the influence of a power’ (‘the Spirit of the living’ in Ezek. 1:20, 21), ‘that works also through the whole, and depends not on the several members, and this power exists before His harmonious members of the whole are joined together’: they are first formed in the development of the embryo by the power of the germ [seed]. In a piece of mechanism constructed for a given end —for example, a clock— the whole thus adjusted may exhibit an action proceeding from the co-operation of the several parts, which are set in motion by a cause; but organic beings subsist not merely by an accidental combination of these elements, but produce the organs necessary for the whole by their own power out of the organic matter. This productive power, acting in conformity with reason, displays itself in each animal according to strict laws, as the nature of each animal requires: it is already present in the germ [seed], before the later parts of the whole are distinctly present; and it is that which actually produces the members that belong to the idea of the whole…..The remark of Theodoret, “The angels are living creatures no less than men —the latter mortal, the former immortal ;” and likewise that of Keil, “The cherubim, as living creatures, take the highest place in the realm of spirits,”— are contrary to the usage of speech, in which the living always denotes the animated earthly creation, in opposition to the lifeless. But we must not stop at this point. The fact that the designation of the cherubim as living creatures takes exactly the place of the proper name —as in Revelation the name cherubim does not occur, they are only designated as living creatures— shows that by this designation their nature must be fully expressed, that the genus does not exist beyond them, but is completely represented by them. All doubt, however, is removed by this, that the singular designation, “the living creature, alternates with that of the cherubim as living creatures” (Ezek. 1:20,21, “The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels”; 10:15, “And the cherubim were lifted up;” 10:20, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar”). This singular designation shows that in the cherubim the whole genus of the living on earth, man and beast, is represented…….Only when the cherub represents the animal world can we explain also the grouping of it with palms and flowers. According to 1st Kings 6:29, all the walls in the temple of Solomon bore “round about in carved work, cherubim, and palms, and open flowers.” It is clear as light that the cherubim must be placed under the same point of view with the palms and flowers…. There is only one way of explaining the connection of the cherubs with the palms and flowers. The cherubs are first a representation of the living; but at the same time, as the living forms the crown of the whole earthly creation, this also is represented by it……The addition of the palms and flowers serves to indicate this more comprehensive meaning, and to show that the living forms no counterpart to the rest of nature, but rather represents this also. Next to the animal creation, the vegetable kingdom is the most glorious revelation of the creative power of God. In modern science it is connected with the animal kingdom, under the head of the organic creation. But the vegetable kingdom cannot be better represented than by the palms and flowers……That the cherubs represent the living creatures on earth, and in general the terrestrial creation, is borne out by the relation in which they stand in Ezekiel to the “vault.” It is said, Ezek. 1:22, “And there was a likeness over the heads of the living creature as a vault, as the look of the crystal the terrible (the awe-inspiring, imposing, glorious), stretched out over their heads above.” This vault is the place of the throne of God……If it is certain on these grounds that the vault means the heavens, the cherubim under the vault can only represent the terrestrial creation; for heaven and earth are usually joined together in the Old Testament as the two spheres of the glorification of God…..We will conclude with the discussion of the grand vision of the cherubim in Ezekiel. But first, we will take a glance at the passing mention of the cherub in Ezek. 28:14. The prophet, in the prediction against the king of Tyre, here says to him, “Thou art an anointed cherub, that covereth.” As the cherub comprehends the multiplicity of the creatures in a unity, so the king the multiplicity of his people. The nature of the kingly office can scarcely be more aptly designated than by the name cherub…… We now turn to the sublime vision of the cherubim, which opens the prophecies of Ezekiel. The historical starting-point of this vision lies in the false hopes which had at that time seized the minds of those who remained in Jerusalem with Zedekiah at their head. A spirit of infatuation had fallen on the people. They cast the prophecies of Jeremiah to the wind, which announced the approaching completion of the judgment by the Chaldeans. Confiding in the confederacy with the Egyptian power, which must at that time have taken a lofty flight, they hoped soon to be able to free themselves altogether from the Chaldean supremacy. These hopes also were spread among the exiles, as the letter addressed to them by Jeremiah (ch. 29) shows. He therein warns them, “Let not the prophets that are among you deceive you, and hearken not to your dreams, for they prophesy falsely to you in My Name.” Soon, it was thought, will a return to their country be opened up; and to this thought was joined the other—namely, to work together for it. These illusions and excitements, which prevented the people from entering with sincerity on the path of repentance pointed out by God, Ezekiel was to oppose. This opposition was made first by the vision of the cherubim, the real import of which Grotius thus briefly and well defines : “After the long-suffering of God, all tended towards vengeance.” }}…..
(6) Biblical Commentary on Old Testament: Prophecies Ezekiel: Carl Friedrich Keil, D.D., Doctor & Professor of Theology; Translated from the German, by Rev. James Martin, B.A. volumes 1 & 2.(1885)as

Exposition: (Chapters & Verses)
First Half: Prophecies of Judgment: (1-32)
Consecration & Calling of Ezekiel to Office of Prophet: (1-3:21)
Destiny of Jerusalem & its Inhabitants: (3:22-5:17)
Judgment upon Idolatrous Places, & on Idol-worshippers: (6)
Overthrow of Israel: (7)
Vision of Destruction of Jerusalem: (8-11)
Departure of King & People; & Bread of Tears: (12)
Against False Prophets & Prophetesses: (13)
Attitude of God towards Worshippers of Idols, & Certainty of Judgments: (14)
Jerusalem, Useless Wood of Wild Vine: (15)
Ingratitude & Unfaithfulness of Jerusalem. Its Punishment & Shame: (16)
Humiliation & Exaltation of Davidic Family: (17)
Retributive Justice of God: (18)
Lamentation for Princes of Israel: (19)
Past, Present, & Future of Israel: (20)
Prophecy of Burning Forest & Sword of the Lord: (20:45 to 21:32 (Heb. Chap. 21)
Sins of Jerusalem & Israel: (22)
Oholah & Oholibah, Harlots Samaria & Jerusalem: (23)
Prediction of Destruction of Jerusalem both in Parable & by Sign: (24)
Prediction of Judgment upon Heathen Nations: (25-32)
Against Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines: (25)
Against Tyre & Sidon: (26-28)
Fall of Tyre: (26)
Lamentation over Fall of Tyre: (27)
Against Prince of Tyre: (28:1-19)
Prophecy against Sidon, & Promise for Israel: (28:20-26)
Against Egypt: (29-32)
Judgment upon Pharaoh & his People & Land: (29:1-16)
Conquest & Plundering of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar: (29:17-21)
Day of Judgment upon Egypt: (21:1-19)
Destruction of Might of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar: (30:20-26)
Glory & Fall of Asshur, Type of Egypt: (31)
Lamentations over Ruin of Pharaoh & his People: (32)
Second Half: Announcement of Salvation: (33-48)
Calling of Prophet, & his Future Attitude towards People: (33)
Calling of Prophet for Future: (33:1-20)
Preaching of Repentance after Fall of Jerusalem: (33:23-33)
Restoration of Israel, & Destruction of Gog & Magog: (34-39)
Deposition of Bad Shepherds; Collecting & Tending of Flock; & Appointment of One Good Shepherd: (34)
Devastation of Edom, & Restoration of Land of Israel: (35:1-36:15)
Salvation of Israel founded upon its Sanctification: (36:16-38)
Resurrection of Israel & Reunion as one Nation: (37)
Resurrection of Israel to new Life: (37:1-14)
Reunion of Israel as one Nation under future King David: (37:15-28)
Destruction of Gog with his great Army of Nations: (38-39)
New Kingdom of God: (40-48)
New Temple: (40-43:12)
Introduction: (40:1-4)
Outer Court, with Boundary Wall, Gate-Buildings, & Cells: (40:5-27)
Inner Court, with its Gates, Cells, and Slaughtering-Tables: (40:28-47)
Temple-house, with Porch, Side-storeys, & Backbuilding: (40:48-41:26)
Holy Cells in Court, & Extent of Holy Domain around Temple: (42)
Entrance of Glory of the Lord into New Temple: (43:1-12)
New Ordinances of Divine Worship: (43:13-46:24)
Description & Consecration of Altar of Burnt- Offering: (43:13-27)
Position of different Classes of People in relation to New Sanctuary: (44)
Holy Heave of Land & Heave-offerings of People: (45:1-17)
Instructions concerning Festal & Daily Sacrifices: (45:16-46:15)
Sacrifices for Sabbath & New Moon, Freewill-Offerings & Daily Sacrifices: (46:1-15-24)
Blessing of Land of Canaan, & Distribution of it among Tribes of Israel: (47 & 48)
River of Water of Life: (47:1-12)
Boundaries & Division of Holy Land. Description of City of God: (47:13-48:35)

{{ “Introduction: Person of Prophet: Ezekiel, (Yechzeq’el) (1:3; 24:24), ‘i.e.’. (yechazzeq ‘El), ‘God strengthens’, (Iezekiël, Yezekiël (LXX, and Book of Sirach, ch. 49:8), in the Vulgate ‘Ezechiel’, while Luther, after the example of the LXX, writes the name ‘Hesekiel’, was the son of Busi, of priestly descent, and was carried away captive into exile to Babylon in the year 599 B.C., —’i.e.’. in the eleventh (11th) year before the destruction of Jerusalem,— along with King Jehoiachin, the nobles of the kingdom, many priests, and the better class of the population of Jerusalem and of Judah (1:2; 40:1; cf. 2nd Kings 24:14 ff.; Jer. 29:1). He lived there in the northern part of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Chaboras, married, and in his own house, amidst a colony of banished Jews, in a place called Tel-Abib (1:1; 3:15, 24; 8:1; xxiv. 24:18). In the fifth (5th) year of his banishment, ‘i.e.’. 595 B.C., he was called to be a prophet of the Lord, and laboured in this official position, as may be shown, twenty-two (22) years; for the latest of his prophecies is dated in the twenty-seventh (27th) year of his exile, ‘i.e.’. 572 B.C. (29:17)……Times of the Prophet: Ezekiel, like Daniel, is a prophet of the exile, but in a different fashion from the latter, who had been already carried away prisoner before him to Babylon on the first capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of Jehoiakim, and who lived there upwards of seventy (70 ) years at the Babylonian and Medo-Persian court, and who held from time to time very important offices of State. Daniel was placed by God in this high position, which afforded him a view of the formation and evolution of the world-kingdom, in order that from this standpoint he might be enabled to see the development of the world kingdoms in the struggle against the kingdom of God, and to predict the indestructible power and glory of the latter kingdom, which overcomes all the powers of the world. Ezekiel, on the other hand, was appointed a watcher over the exiled nation of Israel, and was in this capacity to continue the work of the earlier prophets, especially that of Jeremiah, with whom he in several ways associates himself in his prophecies; to preach to his contemporaries the judgment and salvation of God, in order to convert them to the Lord their God. —Rightly to understand his work as a prophet, the ripe fruit of which lies before us in his prophetic writings, we must not only keep in view the importance of the exile for the development of the kingdom of God, but also form a clear conception of the relations amidst which Ezekiel carried on his labours. What the Lord had caused to be announced by Moses to the tribes of Israel while they were yet standing on the borders of the Promised Land, and preparing to take possession of it, viz. that if they should persistently transgress His commands, He would not only chastise them with heavy punishments, but would finally drive them out of the land which they were about to occupy, and disperse them among all nations (Lev. 26:14-45; Deut. 28:15-68), —this threatening, repeated by all the prophets after Moses, had been already executed by the Assyrians upon the ten tribes, who had revolted from the house of David, and was now in process of fulfilment by the Chaldeans upon the kingdom of Judah also. In the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, for the first time invaded Judah, captured Jerusalem, made Jehoiakim tributary, and carried away to Babylon a number of Israelitish youths of noble birth and of the blood-royal, amongst whom was Daniel, along with a portion of the vessels of the temple, in order that these youths might be trained up for the service of his court (Dan. 1:1-7). With this invasion of the Chaldeans begin the seventy (70) years of Chaldean servitude and exile in Babylon, predicted by Jeremiah. As Jehoiakim, so early as three (3) years afterwards, revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, the latter, after a lengthened siege, took Jerusalem a second time, in the third month of the reign of Jehoiachin, and carried away into captivity to Babylon, along with the captive monarch and the members of his court, the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem, a great number of priests, warriors, carpenters, and smiths, leaving behind in the land only the meaner portion of the people, over whom he appointed as his vassal King Mattaniah, the uncle of the banished monarch, whose name he changed to Zedekiah (2nd Kings 24:10-17; Jer. 29:2). By this removal of the heart and strength of the nation the power of the kingdom of Judah was broken; and although Nebuchadnezzar did not at that time ‘destroy’ it, but still allowed it to remain as a subject kingdom under his sway, yet its existence could not be of any long duration. Judah had fallen too deeply to recognise in the calamities which she had suffered the chastening hand of her God, and to bow herself repentantly under His mighty arm. Instead of listening to the voice of the prophet Jeremiah, and bearing the Chaldean yoke in patience (2nd Chron. 36:12), both monarch and people placed their trust in the assistance of Egypt, and Zedekiah broke the oath of fealty which he had sworn to the king of Babylon. To punish this perfidy, Nebuchadnezzar again marched against Jerusalem, and by the capture and burning of the city and temple in the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah’s reign put an end to the kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah, who had fled from the beleaguered city, was taken by the Chaldeans, and brought with his sons to Riblah into the presence of King Nebuchadnezzar, who first caused the sons of Zedekiah to be put to death before the eyes of their father; next, Zedekiah himself to be deprived of sight, and then commanded the blind monarch to be conducted in chains to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). Many military officers and priests of rank were also put to death at Riblah; while those who had been taken prisoners at Jerusalem, along with the deserters and a great portion of the rest of the people, were led away into exile to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). By this catastrophe the Old Testament theocracy lost its political existence; the covenant people were now driven out of their own land amongst the heathen, to bear the punishment of their obstinate apostasy from the Lord their God. Nevertheless this dispersion among the heathen was no entire rejection of Israel; it was merely a ‘suspension’, and not an ‘annihilation’, of the covenant of grace. Man’s unfaithfulness cannot destroy the faithfulness of God. “In spite of this terrible judgment, brought down upon them by the heaviest transgressions, Israel was, and remained,” —as Auberlen (The Prophet Daniel, p. 27, 2d ed.) well remarks,— “the chosen people, through whom God was still to carry out; His intentions towards humanity. His gifts and calling may not be repented of ” (Rom. 11:29). Even ‘after’ the Babylonian exile the theocracy was not again restored; the covenant people did not after their return again recover their independence, but remained, with the exception of the short period when under the Maccabees they won for themselves their freedom, in constant dependence upon the heathen world-rulers, until, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, they were completely dispersed among all the nations of the earth. The kingdom of God, however, was not ‘really’ to perish along with the external theocracy; it was only to pass into a new phase of development, which was intended to be the medium of transition towards its renewal and perfection in that kingdom of God which was to be founded by Christ. To pave the way to this end, and at the same time to serve as a witness to the exiles, that Israel, notwithstanding its dispersion among the heathen, still remained God’s people, the Lord raised up in Ezekiel, the son of a priest, a prophet of uncommon power and energy in the midst of the captives, “one who raised his voice aloud, like a trumpet, and showed to Israel its misdeeds, —whose whole manifestation furnished the most powerful testimony that the Lord was still amongst His people; who was himself a temple of the Lord, before whom the visible temple, which yet remained standing for a short time at Jerusalem, sank back into its nothingness; a spiritual Samson, who seized with mighty arm the pillars of the idol temple, and dashed it to the ground; a powerful, gigantic nature, which was fitted by that very qualification to effectually subdue the Babylonian spirit of the time, which delighted in powerful, gigantic, and grotesque forms; standing alone, but equal to a hundred of the sons of the prophets ” (Hengstenberg’s Christol. II. p. 531).”……
“Book of Ezekiel: The collection of the prophecies placed together in this book, as forming a complete unity, falls into two main divisions : —I. Announcements of judgment upon Israel and the heathen nations, ch. 1-32; II. Announcements of salvation for Israel, ch. 33-48. Each of these main divisions is subdivided into two sections. The first, namely, contains the prophecies of judgment (a) upon Jerusalem and Israel, ch. 3:22-24:3; (b) upon the heathen nations, ch. 25-32. The second main division contains (c) the predictions of the redemption and restoration of Israel, and the downfall of the heathen world-power, ch. 33-39; (d) the prophetic picture of the re-formation and exaltation of the kingdom of God, ch. 40-48; and the entire collection opens with the solemn dedication of Ezekiel to the prophetic office, ch. 1:1-3:21. The prophecies of the first, third, and fourth parts are throughout arranged in chronological order; those of the second part —the threatenings predicted against the heathen nations— are disposed according to their actual subject-matter. This is attested by the chronological data in the superscriptions, and confirmed by the contents of the whole of the groups of prophecies in the first three parts. The first part contains the following chronological notices: the fifth (5th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (1:2) as the time of Ezekiel’s call to the office of prophet, and of the first predictions regarding Jerusalem and Israel; then the sixth (6th) (8:1), seventh (7th) (20:1), and ninth (9th) years of the captivity of that monarch (24:1). The second part contains the predictions against seven foreign nations, of which those against Tyre fall in the eleventh (11th) (26:1), those against Egypt in the tenth (10th) (29:1), twenty-seventh (27th) (29:17), eleventh (11th) (30:20 and 31:1), and twelfth (12th) years of the exile. Of the two last parts, each contains only one chronological notice, namely, ch. 33:21, the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, ‘i.e.’. one (1)year after the destruction of Jerusalem; and ch. 40:1, the twenty-fifth (25th) year of the captivity, or the fourteenth (14th) after the destruction of Jerusalem. The remaining prophecies, which bear at their head no note of time, connect themselves closely as to their contents with those which are furnished with chronological data, so that they belong to the same period with those. From this it appears that the prophecies of the first part wholly, those of the second part to a great extent, date before the destruction of Jerusalem; those of the third and fourth parts proceed from the time after this catastrophe. This chronological relationship is in favour of the view that the prophecies against foreign nations, ch. 25-32, are not —as the majority of expositors suppose— to be assigned to the second, but rather to the first half of the book. This view is confirmed, on the one hand, by the contents of the prophecies, inasmuch as these, without an exception, announce only the downfall of the heathen nations and kingdoms, making no reference to the future forgiveness and conversion of the residue of these nations, and through this very peculiarity connect themselves closely with the prophecies of threatening against Israel in the first part; on the other hand, by the resemblance which exists between ch. 30:1-20 and ch. 3:16-21, compared with ch. 18:19-32, and which leaves no doubt upon the point that ch. 33:1-20 marks out to the prophet the task which was to occupy his attention after the destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently forms the introduction to the second half of his prophecies. —For further remarks upon the contents and subdivisions of the book, see the expositions in the introductory observations to the individual sections and chapters.” }}

About mjmselim

Male, 68 in Oct., born in Jamaica, USA since 1961, citizen in 2002; cobbler for 40 plus years, retired, Christian since 1969; married to same wife since 1979; 6 daughters and 2 sons, with 8 grandkids. Slowly adapting to the digital world of computers and internet; hobby in digital editing.
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